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Role of Institutional Structures at District and


Sub - District Levels in Promoting School Quality
in the Context of Universalisation of Elementary
Education in Karnataka
Thesis Submitted to the
Bal1ga[ore Bal1ga[Ore
Through the Department of Education, Bangalore University
For the Award of Degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN EDUCATION
By
B.
Doctoral Fellow
Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore - 560 072 .
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Dr. M.D. Ushadevi y '<., ...
Associate Professor, Education Unit (Ii (' Ace No) 1::1 1.3
Institute for Social and Economic D"Le..J..q.-..
Nagarabhavi, Bangalore - 560 072 - _. _. _ ;<(. -' ..
BANGAdll'l ....
__
JANUARY 2004

DCLARA TlON
I hereby declare that the present Thesis entitled "Role of Institutional
Structures at District and Sub-District Levels in promoting
school Quality in the Context of universalisation of
El ementary Educati on in Karnataka" is the outcome of the original work
'lndertaken by me unde,r the guidance of Dr. M. D. Ushadevi, Associate Professor,
Education Umt, Institute for Social and Economic Change, Nagarabhavi, Bangalore-
560072. I also declare that the materials of this thesis has not formed, in anyway the
hasis for the award of any Degree, Diploma or Associate Fellowship previously of the
Bangalore University or any other Universities. Due acknowledgements have been made
wherever anything has been borrowed from other sources.
Bangalore -560072
Date: I.:I! c!btJ-'t


tu '?
;o;JriOt:J.I:J, - 560 072.
INSTITUTE FOR SOCIAL
AND ECONOMIC CHANGE
Nagarabhavi, . 560 072.
3215468.3215519.3215592. GRAMS ECOSOCI BANGALORE 560040. FAX:91-080 3217008 INDIA. E-mail: admn@isec.karnle.ln
AN ALL INDIA INSTITUTE FOR INTER-DISCIPLINARY RESEARCH & TRAINING IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
Dr. M.D. llshade\'i PhD .. ODE .. D.H.E.
Associate Protessor in Education
institute for Social and Econorrllc Change
'>:agarbhavi. Bangalore - 560072
CERTIFICA TE
I hereby certify tliat I have guided and supervised the preparation and writing of
the Thesis entitled "Role of Institutional Structures at District and Sub-District
Levels in Promoting School Quality in the Context of Universalisation of
Elementary Education in Karnataka" submitted by B Krishnegowda, who worked on
the subject at the Institute for Social and Economic Change. Nagarabhavi. Bangalore-
560072.
I also certify that the Thesis has not previously formed the basis for the award of
any Degree, DIploma or Associate Feilowship previously of the Bangalore University or
any other Uni\'ersities.
r:0i 1{'{y/--.!h v\.
(M. D. Ushadevi)
Associate Professor ..
Education Unit,
Bangalore - 560072. '
'If I,
'072 .
II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
It gives me a great pleasure to record my sincere and profound gratitude and
indebtedness to several persons and friends, who provided much needed support in
completing the thesis.
I am indeed deeply indebted and grateful to my supervisor Dr. M D Ushadevi,
Associate Professor, Education Unit, Institute for Social and Economic Change,
Bangalore. Without her guidance ap.d co-operation, my thesis would not
h,ne been possible. Her benevolent encouragement, valuable insights and endunng
.
ha\c all made this endeavor possible.
I thank the ISEC, 111 partIcular to the previous Directors Dr. P V Shenoi and Dr.
'I Go\inda Rao and the present Director Prof. Gopal K Kadekodi for providing me an
opportUnIty and facillues to carryout thIS study.
My sincere thanks are due to Prof. A S Sectharamu, Professor and Head,
Educanon Unit for hiS academIC and professional guidance. I have also benefited from
the academic interactions v.ith the laculty of ISEC Mention must be made of Dr.
Ramcsh Kanabargi. Prof. M R Narayana, Prof. R S Deshapande, Dr. K V Raju and
Dr. \, l'sha Ramkumar, whc were willing to share their wisdom and gave
,'l1couragement needed 111 this regard. Discussions with Dr. C S Nagaraju, Professor
and Head, OERPP, NCERT proved extremely useful in my research study. I am thankful
to him.
SInce the days of my Post Graduation, a person, who influenced me a lot to do
research IS Late Dr. D Shivappa. His inspiring words and academic works made me to
<,lay in research field. So it is my proud privilege to exprt'ss my deep sense of gratitude
t(l hIm.
III
I like to rccl'rd my thanks (0 Dr. M S Talwar, Chairman, Department of
Education, Bangalore University and other Staff Members for extending the support and
c?ncouragement in completing the study. I am also grateful to the Officials and Teachers
of various Institutions in Kolar and Tumkur districts for furnishing the required
I n formation.
I must thank Mr. K S Narayana for editing the thesis. I am also thankful to Mr.
'l;agaraju, Mr. Kalyanappa, Mr. Vcnkatesbappa, Mr. Rajanna, Mr. Karigowda and
other Library Staff members. I also thank Mr. Krishna Chandran and Mr. Satish
Kamat for their help in computer related problems and other Staff members of ISEC for
their timely help at each and every stage of my work.
I also thank my friends Dr. S Puttaswamaiah, !\Ir. Sitakanta Sethi, Mr.
Amitayusb Vyas, Mrs. Mini, Ms. Deepti, Ms. Geetanjali and others for their
encouragement and suppo!"! in ways in the completion of this work.
Last, but not the least. lowe a special place for my beloved parents,
parents-in-law, my wife 'Irs. Santla M S, my son Chi. Scvanth and other family
members for stimulating my inclination to study.

IV
CONTENTS
Contents
DECLARA TION
CERTIFICATE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
CHAPTER-I INTRODlJCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Need and Importance of the Study
1.3 Issues Raiseu in the Study
1.4 o,bjectives of the Study
J.5 Statement of the Problem
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1. 7 Presentation of the Study
Page No.
1
..
n
III - IV
1-20
1
17
18
18
19
20
20
CHAPTER-II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 21-48
2.1 Studies relating to VEE 21
2.2 Studies Relating to School Quality 27
2 3 Studies Relating to SchoollEducational
Perfomlance IEfficiency 31
2.4 Studies Relating to Educational Management /
Administration 35
2.5 An Overview of the Literature 47
CHAPTER-III METHODOLOGY 49-69
3. I Research Design 49
3.2 Sampling Design 49
3.3 Tools Used f()r Data Collection 53
3.4 Sources and Collection of Data 57
3.5 Procedure for Collection of Data 58
3.6 Operational Definitions 59
3.7 Theoretical Framework 63
3.8 Mode of Analysis
69
Contents
CHAPTER-IV
4.1
4.2
CHAPTER-Y
5. I
- !

5.3
)A
5.5
5.6
CIl'\pTER-VI
UNIVERSALISA TION OF ELEMENTARY
EDUCA TION IN KARNA TAKA, KOLAR
AND TUMKUR DISTRICTS: PROGRESS
AND PROBLEMS
Educational Progress in Kamataka-An Overview
Educational Progress in Kolar and Tumkur
Districts-An Overview
AND
OF PRIMARY DATA
'Il1e Role of District Institute of Education and
Training (DIET) at the District Level
Role of Block Resource Centers at the Block
Level
Role of Cluster Resource Centers at the Cluster
Level
Role of School Complexes at the Cluster Level
Role of Village Education Committees at the
V illaoe Level
to
Promoting School Quality
FINDINGS AND CONCLUSION
Bibliography
Appendices
Page No.
70-104
70
93
105-242
106
142
169
210
220
233
243-273
Table
No
1.1
2.1.1
3.2.1
3.2.2
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1 A
4.1.5
4.16
41.7
4.1.8
421
4.2.3
LIST OF TABLES
Tilk
Development of Elementary Education in India over the Years
Number of Researches conducted in the atea of Elementary Education
over the Decades
Female Literacy Attainments across the Distncts and the Phase-wise
launching of DPEP in Kamataka
Total Number of Institutional Structures and Primary Schools in the
Sample Blocks.
Literacv Rates (%) Total, Rural and Urban areas in Kamataka, 1951-
2001
District \\;se Literacy Rates by Place of Residence and Sex, 2001
Elementary Schools in Kamataka, 1956-99
Teachers In Elementary Schools of Kamataka, 1956-99
Enrolment of Children by Sex and Level of Education in Kamataka (In
Ten Thousands)
GER of Boys and Girls 111 !he State from 1970 to 2000
TPR and STR in Elementary Schools of Kamatak, 1956-99
Dropout Rates of Children in Elementary Schools in Kamataka, 1980-81
to 1999-no
Literacy Percentages in Kolar and TlIlllkur districts
I:lclllentan Sclwols fro 111 1 ')ll() 1 ')lIl) In Kdl:irand rUlllkur
Districts
Teachers at Liementary Levels from 19(,11 tll 1')<)<) ill Kolar and TUllIkur
Districts
Page
No.
4
22
50
51
77
80
82
83
85
86
88
91
94
96
96
Table Title Page
No. No.
4.2.4 Enrolment in Lower Primary Classes (1-4) from 1960 to 2000 in Kolar 98
and Tumkur Districts
4.2.5 TPR and STR in Elementary Schools, in Kolar and Tumkur from 1970
2000 99
4.2.6 GER of Children by Sex at LPS in Kolar and Tumkur Districts [rom 1970
to 2001 101
4.2.7 Wastage Rates (%) by Sex from 1970-1998 in Kolar and Tumkur
Districts 102
4.2.8 Wastage Rates (%) ofSC Children by Scx from 1970-1996 in Kolar and
Tumkur Districts 103
4.2.9 Wastage Rates (%) of ST Children by Sex from 1970-1998 in Kolar and
Tumkur Districts 103
5.1.1 Showing the Staffing Pattern in DIETs of Kolar and Tumkur Districts 107
5 1.2 Demographic, Academic and Professional of the DIET
faculty 110
5.1.3 Showing the Categories of Experience ofthe DIET Faculty III
5 1.4 Showing the Orientation / Induction Training received by the DIET
Faculty III
5.1.5 Availability of Physical Infrastructure facility in Kolar and Tumkur DIET 112
5.1.6 AvailabiIity ancl Worki:1g Ctmdition of the Academic Equipment in the
Sample DIETs i 13
51 7 Overall Capacitv (If III tenm of Human Resource and Academic
1.qlllplllclll 115
51 8 Number of'lraining I\ctlvitics conducted ill h:.olar and Tumkur
DIETs 116
Table
No.
Title
5.1.9 Number or Rranch wise Training Activities or DIETs tn Kolar and
Tumkur districts
5.1. 10 Proposed and Achieved Training Program at DIETs in Kolar and
Tumkur districts during 1998-99
5.1.11 Showing the Extent of Coverage of Teachers under In-service Training
activities in the Sample DIETs from 1996-97 to 1998-99
5.1.12 Activities conducted under different Themes in the Sample DIETs
5. I. 13 Activities conducted for different Clientele groups in the Sample DIETs
5.1.14 Duration of Activities .:onducted in the Sample DIETs
5.1.15 Standard wise and subject wise number of lessons delivered by Pre-
Service Trainees in Kolar DIET
5.1.16 Standard wise and subject wise number of lessons delivered by Pre-
Service Tratnees in Tumkur DIET
5.1.17 Showing the Priority of Goals and Objectives as Perceived by the DIET
Faculty
5.I.1S Showing the Perceptions of the Faculty regarding the Level of
achievement of Goals and Objectives by the DIET
5.1.19 Co-operation with in the DIET as Rated by RPs
5.1.20 Opportunities for ProfessIOnal Development of DIET Faculty
5 1.21 Categories or Problems as Cited by the DIET faculty
5.2.1 Shov.;ng the Staffing Pattern in RRCs of Kolar and Gowribidanur
:; 2.2 hJucational ()ualifications orRPs
.5 :: :; Distribution or RPs by Age
I
Page
No.
liS
1 J 9
120
121
121
122
126
126
136
137
138
140
140
143
144
4 ~
Table
Title
Page
No.
No.
5.2.4 Distribution ofRPs by Scx
145
5.2.5 Place of Residence of RPs from BRCs
145
5.2.6
Showing the Length of Service of RPs
145
5.2.7 Experience of BRC RPs in Primary Schools
146
5.2.8 Showing the Details of Training Undergone by the RPs at BRCs
147
5.2.9 Physical Infrastructure facility in BRCs
149
5.2.10 Availability of Academic Equipments at BRCs
150
5.2.11 Number of Training Activities conducted in Kolar and Gowribidanur
BRCs 153
5.2.12 Details of Training Programs / Activities undertaken by the BRCs at
Kolar and Go"vribidanur from 1995-96 to 1998-99. 154
5.2.13 Number of Batches and Duration of Training Programs conducted in the
Sample BRCs 156
52.14 Number of Teachers covered under various Training programs of BRCs 157
5.2.15 Perceptions of Beneficiaries about the training programs at BRCs 158
5.2.16 RPs' Ratings of the Training Methods 159
5.2.17 Numher of School Visits by BRC Personnel for the year 1999-2000
161
5 2 18 Workload as Rated bv RPs
167
:; 2 It) Natun: of II ()rk re!.:\ant to the (,oals of nRC ~ Reportcd by RPs
1M,
53.1 Numbcr ofl'RCs, Schools [lnti TC[lchers in Kolar District
169
532 Numkr oi Schools and Teachers Per CO in the Sample CRCs
171
Table Title Page
No. No.
53.3 Educational Qualifications of COs. 172
534 Showi ng the Total Years Experience 1)1' COs. 172
53.5 Distribution of Coordinators by Age 173
53.6 Distribution of COs by Sex 173
53.7 Distribution ofCRCs by Physical facilities and Equipments 174
53.8
Classification of the Duties and Functions of COs
176
5.39
Perfonnance of Different Functions in Sample CRCs
177
53.10
Number of Meetings held at Sample CRCs
192
5.3.11
Frequencies of Activities Undertaken in the Meetings at CRCs
194
5.3.12
Perceptions of Beneficiaries about the Monthly Meetings at CRCs
198
53.13 Number of Days Proposed for Different Activities by the COs 201
53.14
A Comparative Analysis of the Average Number of days Proposed and 202
Spent for Different Activities by the COs
203
53.15
Different kmds of Tasks of COs
53.16
Number of School Visits by different Funclionaries for the year 99-00 205
54.1
Performance of Different Functions ia Sample SCxes 212
542
Number of Monthly Meetings held at Sam pie SCxes 214
543
Fr..:qu..:ncles of Activiti..:s Undertaken in the Meetings at SCxes 216
544
I\;lllnher of Schools and Teachers per lIead ( '999) in the Sample SCxes
219
Table Title Page
No. No.
5.5. I Number of Monthly Meetings held at SamplL; VECs 221
5.5.2 Average Percentages of Attendance of VEC members during Monthly
Meetings held at Sample VECs 222
5.5.3 Issues discussed in the Meetings at Sample VECs 225
5.5.4 Gender and Caste composition of VEC members in the Sample VECs 226
5.5.5 Training Status of VEC Members 227
5S6 Structure and composition of VECs and SDMCs 228
5.5.7 Roles and Functions of VECs and SDMCs 230
5.5.8 Powers of VECs and SDMCs 231
5.6.1 Academic Atmosphere in the Sample Schools 236
5.6.2 Percentage of Dropout Children in Sample Primary Schools 238
5.6.3 Classroom Curricular Process in DPEP and Non-DPEP Districts
239
5.6.4 Mean Percentage Scores of Children in Achievement Tests in Different
Subjects at the Sample Schools in Kolar and Tumkur Districts
241
LIST OF CHARTS/DIAGRAMS AND GRAPHS
Figure Title Page
No. No.
3.2.1 Distibution of Number of Sample Units selected for the Study 53
4.1 Administrative Setup (Primary and Secondary Education) in Kamataka
State 75
4.1.1 Showing the Literacy Percentages of the State 78
4.1.2 Rural Urban Literacy Percentages in Kamataka 78
4.1.3 Rural Urban Literacy Percentages by Sex 79
4.1.4 Grovv'th of Elementary Schools 82
4.1.5 Percentage Increase of Teachers in Elementary Schools 84
4.1.6 Enrolment of Children by Sex and Level of Education 86
4.1.7 Teacher - Pupil Ratio in Elementary Schools of Kamataka 88
4.1. 8 Standard -Teacher Ratio in Elementary Schools of Kamataka 89
4.2.1 Male-Female Literacy Gap in Kolar and Tumkur Districts 95
4.2.2 Percentage increase of Teachers in Elementary Schools of Kolar and
Tumkur Districts 97
4.2.3 Enrolment Gap Between Boys and Grils in Kolar and Tumkur Districts 98
42.4 TPR in Elementary Schools of Kolar and lumkur Districts 99
4.2.5 STR in Elementarv Schools cf Kolar and Tumkur Districts 100
5.2. I Structural Linkages of I:3RCs with District and Sub-cbstrict level 166
Organizations
8EO
BIC
BRC
CO
CPI
CRC
DDPI:
DIC
DIET
DPH
DPO
HM
HPS
lOS
ISEC
LPS
i>1LL
NFE
NPE
OBS:
RP
SC
sex:
SDMC
SSA
ST
STR:
TPR
UEE:
VEC
ZP:
ABBREVIATIONS
Block Educational Ofliccr
Block Implementation Committee
Resource
Coordinator
Cor.lInissioner of Public Instructiun
Cluster Resource Center
Deputy of Public Instruction
District Irr.plcmentation Committee
Institute of Education and Training
District Primary Education Programme
District Project Office
Head Master / Mistress
Higher Primary School
Inspector of Schools
Institute for Social and Economic Change
Lower Primary School
Minimum Levels of Learning
Non-Formal Education
National Policy on Education
Operation Black Board
Resource Person
Scheduled Caste
School Complex
School Development and Monitoring Committee
Sarva Shikshana Abhiyana
Scheduled Tribe
Standard Teacher Ratio
Teacher Pupil Ratio
Universalisation of Elementary Education
Village Education Committee
Zilla ParishadIPanchayat
CHAPTER -I
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
The importance of primary education in a developing country like India needs no
special mention. While the benefits of primary education are assumed to have
facilitated easy take ofT for rapid economic h'Towth in East Asian countries, the low
IlleraC\ and low average educational attainments in the Indian sub-continent have
matters of great concern for hastenmg and sustaining economic growth. At the
time when India is making attempts to move rapidly towards market economy through
Its liberalised economic policies, realising the goal of universal primary education
assumes crucial sigmficance for both economic progress and social equity.
Research c\IJences over the \'cars have demonstrated the significant posillve
dlcd 01 prnnar) ducatlon on the economic gro .... th rates (Peaslee, 1965, 1969,
Benavot, 1985; World Rank, 1987b, 1993; Lau, Jamison and Louat, 1991; Harro, 1991;
1993, Nehru and Dhareshwar, 1994; Oath and Ravallion, 1995); earlllngs (Me
r-..lahon, 1984; Psacharopoulos. 1985, Rayoo, 1988); productivity m general, fann
prllductl\lty in particular (Chaudn, 1979, Lockheed, Jamison and Lau, 1980;
1990; Foster and Rosenzweig, 1995, 1996); Social development in which
reduced fertility (Holslllger and Kasardu., 1975; Cochrane, 1979, 1986; Haverman and
Wolfe, 1984; Basu, 1992; India, MHRD, 1993a) and improved child health and
nutntlOn (Sen and Sengupta, 1983; Cochrane, 1986; Dasgupta, 1990; Walker, 1991);
atlitudinal modernity (Armer and Youtz, 1971; Inkeles and Smith, 1974; Holsinger and
Theisen, 1977) Further, it 15 also found to improve income distributIOn, increase
savlllgs and more rational consumption, enhance the status of women and
promote adaptability to technological change (World Bank, 1990). The contributions
of primary education are also seen in terms of certain benefits accrued to individuals
and society In terms of forging national unity and social cohesion by teaching common
mores, Ideologies and languages.
In India, provision of free and compulsory education to all children until they
c.omplete the age offourteen is a directive principle ofthe constitution. While adopting
the Constitution in 1950, the goal was to provide free and compulsory education to all
children up to the age of fourteen, within the next 10 years. However, the target time
to achieve the goal of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) had to be
revised keepmg in view the educational facilities available at that time, since the goal
was too ambitious to be achieved within that short period of time. During the period
1960-65, no official pronouncements were made regarding the UEE for the children in
age group 6-14. However in 1965-66, the target time was revised to 1975-76. The
working group set up by the policy commission then revised the target to be achieved
b\ the end of Sixth Plan (1984) The Kathan Commission (1966) had suggested that
the same should be achieved latest by 1986.
The World Conference on Education for All (EPA, 1990) held at Jomtein
adopted a declaration calling upon all member countries and agencies to strive for
achle,mg EF A by the year AD 200 I. The meeting of the Consultative Committee
(1992) emphasised that the targets of UEE should no longer be given in terms of
additional enrolment alone and no longer be set for the country as a whole, but all
children irrespective of caste, creed, religion and sex etc. up to the age of 14 years
should be given free education. At the World Education Forum in Dakar in 2000, all
countries resolved to translate the six 'Education For All' goals into a reality by 2015.
These Goals are. (I) ProVision of early child care and education, especially for the
most vulnerable and the disadvantaged: (2) Ensuring all children, particularly girls and
those in difficult circumstances, access to free and compulsory primary education; (3)
Ensuring learning needs met of all young people and adults through equitable access to
learning and life skills; (4) Achieving a 50% improvement in levels of adult literacy,
eSpi:clally for women and equitable access to basic and continuing education for adults;
I ~ f'1Jmlnating gender disparities In education and (6) Improving quality of education
to ensure excellence and achieve measurable learning outcomes in literacy, numeracy
and life skills The two Millenium Goals adopted at the UN General Assembly (6-9-
200 I) also emphasised the need and importance of universalisation of primary
education and promotion of gender parity. Even the 93,d Constitutional amendment
2
makes it mandatory to enroll all the out-of school-aged children for elementary
education; imtlate steps to retain them in school till the completion of elementary
education and ensure mInllTIUm levels of learning. In line with the recommendations
emanating from these reports, India has been making several efforts to achieve the goal
ofEFA.
The National Policy on Education (NPE 1986, 1992) envisaged that all children
who would attain the age of about II years by 1990 would have had five years of
schoollng or I equivalent through the non-formal stream, and that by 1995 all children
will be provided free and compulsory education up to the age of 14 years. Then the
focus shifted from mere quantitative expansion of educational facilities to universal
enrolment and universal retention up to the prescribed age group (6-14 years), with a
substantial iml'rovement In the quality of primary education.
Detennmed efforts towards realising the goal of Universalisation of Elementary
Educatlon (UI E), have received fresh Impetus after the formulation of the National
Polley on Education (NPE, 1986, 1992) Most of the interventions are centrally
sponsored and are aimed at bnngmg about qualitative improvement III primary
educatIOn Correspondingly a Pr06Tfamme of Action (1987, 1992) has also been
noh'ed whlel, Jescnbc, the IInrlementation strate6'} for several of the innovations and
major polley fc'commendatlOns
The urxJated NPE (1992) has given an overriding priority for bringing about
quaiJtatJve iml'rovement In primary education while realising the quantitative targets in
the face of low levels of learning and high dropout rates prevailing In many rural
It caf'le notfced from the table 1.1, that over the years, there has been a steady
progress III thc development of elementary education in India since 1950-51. There
has been a phenomenal increase in the number and spread of institutions as well as
Gross Enrolment Ratios (GER) and number of teachers. The number of Lower
Pnmary Scho( ,;<; (LPSs) has Increased from 2.1 lakh in 1950-51 to 6.3 lakh in 1999-00.
The number 01 Higher Pnmary Schools (HPS) has Illcreased from 0.14 lakh In 1950-51
to I. 9 lakh in 1999-00. The GER of 6-11 age group has gone up to 92. I percent in
J
i
i
I
1999-00 as cllmpared to 43.1 percent in 1950-51. Conversely, the dropout rate has
been reduced fTom 66.34 percent in 1960-61 to 42.65 percent in 1999-2000 at LPS
stage. Although, the dropout rate at HPS reveals a decreasing trend from 1980-81, still
it is as high as 57 percent during the year 1999-00. Similarly, the Teacher - Pupil
Ratio (TPR) over the years has increased at both the levels, although in 99-2000, it was
well within the prescribed norm.
Table 1.1: De\elopment of Elementary Education in India over the Years
Particulars 1950-51 1960-61 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 1999-00
Primary
I
LPS
,
2.09 3.30 4.08 4.95 5.58 6.3
Schools
I
HPS 0.14 0.5 0.91 '
1.19 1.47 1.9 I
(In Lakhs)
,
i
Total 2.23 3.8 4.99 6.14 7.05 8.2
Teachers
I
LPS 0.54 0.74 1.06 1.36 1.64 1.90
r
(In Millions)
f
HPS 0.09 0.35 0.64 0.85 1.06 1.28
Total 0.63 109 17 2.21 2.7 3.18
,
G 6-11 Boys 60.6 82.6 92.6 95.8 113.9 100.9
.
E Girls 24.8 41.4 59.1 64.1 85.5 82.8
R
Total 43.1 62.4 76.4 80.5 100.1 92.1
11-14 BoYS 20.6 33.2
,
46.5 54.3 76.6 65.3
Girls 4.60 11.3 20.8 28.6 47.0 49.1
Total 12.9 22.5 34.2 41.9 62.1 57.6
Teacher Pupil [ -IV I 24 36 39 38 43 42
RaM (TPR) VI-Vlll 20 31 32 33 37 37
D I I-IV Boys INA 61.74
i
64.48 56.2 40.10 40.63
I
R
I
(LPS) Gtrls INA 70.9l 70.92 62.5 45.97 44.66
0
Total INA 66.34 67.7 59.35 43.04 42.65
P
VI-VIII Boys INA 18.77 22.78 68.00 59.12 54.00
0
(HPS) Girls INA 25.57 27.31 79.40 65.13 60.09
U
f
Total INA 22.17 25.05 73.7 62.13 57.05
T
Source: MHRD, Department of Education, GO!, New Delhi
Central Statistical Organisation, Ministry of Statistics WId Programme
Implementation, GO\, New Delhi, 1999
Note Total ,jropout during a course stage has been taken as percent of intake in the first
year 01 the course stage, I N A - Information Not Available
Thus, the above trends indicate that UEE in terms of provision of schooling
facilities, teachc:rs, emolment of children and reduction in dropout rate at I-V stage has
made positive progress. However, the persisting dropout at the higher primary stage,
particularly of ~ i r l s is a cause for concern. This evidently suggests that the quality of
schooling nee..j, to be enhanced for improving the retention capacity of the schools. It
4
is mime mth this thlnkmg, several centrally sponsored mterventlOns have tx--en
launched Some of the saltent interventions m this direction are described hereunder.
1.1.1 Operation Black Board (OBB, 1987)
Considering the poor infrastructure facilities that prevail In primary schools, the
NPE has given due recognition for improving basic facilities in primary schools as a
first step towards school quality improvement A phased drive symbolically called
Operation Black Board (OBB) was started in 1987-88 by the Union with a view to
reduce impediments and for increasing quality of primary education. The Scheme
had the follOWing objectives:
(i) To provide for at least two classrooms suitable for all weathers and facility
of lavatory for boys and girls.
(il) To pwvide for at least two teachers in every school out of them one should
be a lady so far possible.
(iii) To provide for necessary teaching material with blackboard, maps, charts,
toys and instruments of working experiences.
In ordc:r to make the Revised Policy and Programme Of Action (POA, 1992)
aC!I\e under the OperatIOn Black Board dunng the 8
th
plan, the following three sub
schemes were Included.
(i) The Operation Black Board included under the 7
th
plan to be kept continued
for including the rest of the schools in the above plan.
(il) To make available three tcachers and classrooms in the pnmary schools
where the enrolment is above 100.
(iii) To extend the area of the OBB in the upper primary schools.
1.1.2 District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs)
Building capacities of schools and teachers assumes larger significance In the
context of efkcttve changes In the qualitative aspects of the elementary education
system. Teachers are the key resource persons in bringing desirable innovations into
the classrooms and making education effective and useful, they have to be trained
5
and oriented In the modem concepts of school organisation, new methods of
teaching, preparation and use of audiovisual aids, trying out action research studies,
carrying out experiments and maintaining better school community relations. The
education and training received before entering into a profession is only a beginning
which may bt' regarded as a foundatIOn course and hence there arises a necessity of
enriching, adding, revIsing and modifying continuously in the light of existing
knowledge Keeping thiS In view, the NatIOnal Policy on Education perceives
teacher education as a continuous process and its pre-service and in-service
components being inseparable have been incorporated in the new restructured
programme of teacher education initiated in 1987. In this direction, the emergence
of District Institute of Education and Training (DIET) is an important milestone.
These DIETs are expected to provide academic and resource support to elementary
education and also to engage in actIOn research and innovation. Thus, DIETs have
come to pia) a key role in the comprehensive educational development of the
district keeping in the background the district specific educational needs and social,
economic and geographical characteristics. It is important to note that prior to
DIETs the in-service and pedagogic training for teachers were undertaken by the
"pex State academic body namely the SCERT. The DIETs have been set up in all
the earlier 20 districts of Kamataka under the second phase m 1993.
1.1.3 School Complexes (SCxes)
The idea of Improvmg the school educatIOn by using school complexes was first
mooted by the EducatIOn CommiSSIOn ( 1964-66). The basic purpose of the complex
\vas to Improve the quality In primary education by integrating the neighbouring
primary schools to a nuclear secondary school, so that the schools of a geographical
area may function as a whole. It was lUlder the assumption that this would further
help in drawing on each other's resources and diffusion of new ideas and practices
ror the development of primary schools with minimum external control and support.
In fact, the idea of SCxes originated as early as 1967 as an experimental
project In Rajasthan following the recommendations of the Education Commission
( 1964-66). Although attempts were made to implement this concept in Punjab and
6
Maharashtra during 1970s, the scheme did not take off in the right spirit for various
Later in 1990, the Review Committee under the chairmanship of Acharya
Ramamurthy also recommended the concept of educational complex for increasing
the professional skills among teachers. However, with the NPE (1986)
reemphasizing the key role played by the SCx, the SCx has come to occupy an
important position in the qualitative improvement of school education.
Following the recommendations of the NPE (1986) and Programme Of Action
(1992) to provide academic support to primary schools and teachers, school complexes
have been established by the Government of Kamataka (GOK) as in the other States at
the cluster level. The school complexes are generally located in High Schools and are
called the lead schools which use the material and human support available in them and
surrounding schools to provide academic guidance and direction to the primary school
teachers under them. At the cluster level, School Complexes (Sexes) have been set
up for short training programmes like seminar and experience sharing workshops.
Fo\lO\ving are the roles and functions of School Complexes.
I. To organise monthly meetings of all teachers working within the SCx and
arrange model lessons by expert teachers,
2. To identify difficult topics in different subjects and find out the solution for the
same.
3. To develop and exhibitions of low cost - no cost teaching aids,
4. To organise competitions for teachers, working within the SCx,
5 To undertake follow up work
1.1.4 Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL)
In order to enforce minimum learning level for bringing about improvement in the
reccptability of students in schools as well as enhancing accountability of teachers, a
curricular guideline has been prepared under the nomenclatue Minimum Levels of
Learning (MLL). The main strategy is to improve learning acquisition in school,
7
l
focuses on what is happening in the classroom and seeks to bnng the pnnclples of
equity, quality and relevance to bear upon it. The stmtegy aims at laying down
learning outcomes expected from basic education at a realistic relevant and
,
functional level, prescribes the adoption of measures that would ensure all children,
who complete a stage of schooling, achieve these outcomes. These outcomes define
the Minimum Levels of Learning common to both schools and equivalent Non
Formal Education (NFE) programme Following are the major Steps involved in thl.:
Introduction of Minimum Levels of Learning
I. Assessing the existing level of learning achievement
2. A definition of the MLL for the area and the time frame within which it will be
achieved.
3. of the training practices to competency based teaching.
4. Introducing the continuous comprehensive evaluation of student learning.
5. Reviewing the textbooks and revision (if required) and
6. Provision of inputs as necessary including provision of physical facilities,
teaching-training, supervision and evaluation etc., to improve the learning
acquisition to the MLL.
For improving this programme, the union government provides cent percent
aid. In order to enrich the learning atmosphere in the class, the teachers have been
provided with handbooks on the three subjects namely language, mathematics and
environmental science. Work books and evaluation materials have been prepared
for the students. State Council for Education, Research and Training (SeERT) and
District Institutes of Education and Training (DIETs) have been included in the
programme by imparting essential training to the members of educational
institutions in the ,elected districts of Kamataka.
Almost all the Commissions and Policies havc given due impor:ance to the
role of teachers ip bringing desirable innovations in the classrooms. Unless they
themselves are not equipped adequately they cannot transact successfully in the
classrooms and hence the in-service teacher training has been the overriding priority
by the DPEP in the form of establishing new institutional structures at sub-district
8
levels in addition to already existing DIETs at the district level for the purpose of
making in-service training rigorous and adequate. The details with regard to these
institutional structures are presented in the forthcoming paragraphs.
1.1.5 Block Resource Centres (BRCs)
At the block level, BRCs have been set up for the purpose of making the in-service
training more rigorous and adequate in terms of coverage of teachers and
frequencies of training. These BRCs have their own building. The BRCs have also
been prO\ided \\ith the equipment like TV, VCR, OHP, furniture, telephone,
jamkhanllS, mattresses, science and mathematics kits, almirahs, water drums,
duplicating machines, Xerox machines etc., in required quantities
These ARCs han: been functioning in the OPEP district from 1995-96. The roles
and functions e.\:pected of these resource centres are as follows
I. To conduct In-service training and other related programmes.
2. To undertake school visits in order to help the teachers to upgrade their teaching
competencies by being a friend, philosopher and guide to increase their
contidence and supervision of CRCs,
3. To provide information on the availability and use of teacher guides in schools
to the relevant authorities and
4. To assist in designing pupil evaluation programmes.
1.1.6 Cluster Resource Centres (CRCs)
A group of 20-25 schools with a definite geographical area were made a cluster for
the purpose of better organisation and management and to enable better utilisation of
the resources of both the State and the community. Each cluster is a full-fledged
unit haVing a co-ordinator (CO) of its own with some delegated powers to
administer the unit Provision fur sharing of experiences for these COs has also
been made. These CRCs have their own buildir.g and have been functioning from
J 997-98 and are encouraged more towards greater self-reliance so that they might
shoulder heavier responsibilities I n addition, they have also been vested with
h'T'eater authurity ;n the management of activities at the cluster level. The major
roles and functions of these eRes can be summarised in the following points.
9
I. To identity the villages with schools and without schools in a CRC limit
,
") To prepare a list of schools, Anganwadi Centres and teachers etc,
3. To prepare the map ofCRC,
4. To collect statistics on schools, children and teachers,
5. To conduct monthly meetings to provide educational information,
6. To help teach..!rs for the development of teaching aids and in solving educational
problems,
7. To supervise NFE centers,
8. To help the children for medical check-up,
9. To undertake the works assigned whenever by the Department of Education,
10. To visit each school in a CRC limit at least once in a month and to give the
required guidance for the teachers about the educational progress and use of
teaching aids in the regular classroom teaching-learning process,
11. To assist in VEC meetings,
12. To organise and maintain programmes like (a)VEC mela, (b) Maa-Beti
conventions, (c) Chinnara mela and (d) micro planning etc,
13. To cooperate with BRCs in organising training programmes by providing the
required information,
14. To assist in the (a) educational tours, (b) sports and (c) cultural activities
conducted in the schools under CRC limit,
15 To distribute (a) text books, (b) furniture, (c) teaching aids and such other
materials provided by the department to schools,
16. To maintain all the records and registers relating to CRC,
17. To maintain the finance ofCRC as per the order of the Department and
18. To prepare the annual works plans and adhere to the same.
1.1.7 Village Education Committees (VECs)
It ,viII defimtely be a dream to achieve success in the universalisation of elementary
education unless and until the parents and guardians of children are made aware of
the necessary social consciousness and enlightenment and to realise the importance
of education, particularly the primary education for all irrespective of sex, caste,
]0
creed. economic status and religion etc. Hence in order to create adequate
awareness and interest in the de'ielopment of primary education Village Education
Committees (VECs) have been created to look after the primary education as a
whole.
Concept of VEC
T"e National Policy on Education (NPE, 1986) and Programme of Action (POA,
1986) further reiterated in 1992 approved by an executive committee popularly
known as CABE (Central Advisory Board on Education) attaches considerable
importance to Village Education Committees (VECs), which would be responsible
for faCIlitating the task of universalisation of elementary education. The maior
.I
responsiblhty or the committee is the operationalisation of micro planmng and
school mapping III the village through systematic house to house survey and periodic
discussion with the parents. It is the endeavour of the committee that every chi Id in
e\ery family participates l!l primary education. The 73
rd
and 74
th
amendments to the
ConstitutIOn of India accorded a further boost to these committees.
In the State of Kamataka, VECs have been constituted OUTing 1995
following the orders of the State government vide its order No. ED 162 NCO 94
date, 1-8-95. It is to be noted that very recently the VECs and SBCs have been
replaced by the School Development and Monitoring Committee5 (SDMCs) in the
State of Karnataka following the recommendations of the Task Force Committee on
educatIOn under the Chairmanship of Dr, Rajaramanna in 2001 vide its order No. ED
I, PBS 200 I. Bangalore, date 28-4-200 I.
Roles and Functions of E ~
The roles and functions of VECs are generally the following.
Supervision o\er Adult Education (AE), Early ChildCare and Education (ECCE),
Non Formal Education (NFE) and Primary Education
Supervision over composite Upper Primary schools under delegation of authority
from Panchayit Samiti.
1 I
Generation and sustenance of awareness among village community by ensuring
participation of all segments of population.
Promote enrolment drives in IJrimary schools and persuade parents of non-attending
chIldren to sepd their wards to schools.
Reduce dropouts in primary schools by initiating measures and services for
retention.
Assist in smooth functioning of primary schools.
Seek support of teachers, youth, women and others for educational and other linked
health and wei fair programmes.
Mobilise resources and help schools to have water supply, urinals, playgrounds and
other facIl ities.
Prepare plans and proposals within their resources for development of education in
the village and to attaintotal adult literacy and universal primary education.
Present reports and proposals to Panchayat Samities and make periodic self-
assessment of progress of committees' efforts.
Co-ordinatIon with other social service departments and committees ft1r mutual
support.
Powers
To \1511 educational institutions.
To check attendance and other registers to enquire and report to concerned
authorities on educatIOnal deficiencies and requirements in the village.
To recommend annual budget of school to concerned authority.
To undertake construction and repair works entrusted to them.
To report on regularity of students, teachers' attendance and school functioning.
To frame the school calendar under the guidance of Zilla Parishad.
12
1.1.8 District Primary Education Programme (DPEP)
Follo\\ing the recommendations of the NPE (1986) and Programme of Action (1992),
a new called District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) a need
based primary education programme was started with an objective of making
primary education universaL It is a centrally sponsored programme with the
assistance of the World Bank. In this programme the development of primary
education has been considered as wholeness and its objective is to implement policy
of VEE through planning and fixation of separate targets according to particular
district. Following are some of the unique features of this programme.
Goals of OPEP
To reduce the ditTerences in emolment, dropout and the learning achievement
among the gcnder a:Jd social groups to than 5'>;(,.
To reduce the overall primary dropout rates for all students to less than 10%
To raise the a\erage achievement levels by at least 25% over measJred baseline
levels and ensure achievement of basic literacy and numeracy competencies and
a minimum of 40%. achievement levels in other areas.
To provide according to national norms access for all children to primary (1 to 4)
classes or Its equl\alent throut;h non-fonnal stream.
Special Features of DPEP
.:. Permeating cthos of cost-cffectivcness and accountability into every part of the
education system,
.:. Stressing partiCipative process \vhcreby the local community plays an active role
in VEE,
.:. Dc\clopment of an effective NFE system which can meet the diverse
educatIOnal needs of the children to whom the school would not reach,
.:. Strengthenmg State capacities m the area of educational planning and
managcment,
.:. Facilitating access for disadvantaged groups such as girls, socially backward
eommumtles and the handicapped,
.:. Recurrent and regular upgrading of teachers' skills,
13
.:. Involvement of communities in programme planning,
.:. Strategies for convergence with related services such as health care, Early
Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) and other government welfare schemes,
.:. Improvement of Infrastructure facilities,
.:. Effective Decentralised school management and
.:. Achievement of MLL.
Strategies and approaches under DPEP:
To open new schools in the villages which do not have schooling facility,
construction of school buildings. and appointment of teachers,
To provide an additional room and renovation of buildings in larger scale,
Provision for drinking water facility, toilet etc., wherever possible preferentially
To provide the teaching-learning materials to all schools,
To supply textbooks cum work books and teachers' support materials,
Establishment of VECs and mother-teacher associations and training,
Strengthening of DIETs, and SCERT,
To establish BRCs and CRCs and continuous training of teachers,
Computerisation of educational information at district and State level and
Training of educational administrators and supervising officers.
In the beginnIng, this programme was launched in the four of
Karnataka, namely Belgaum, Kolar, Mandya and Raichur. In the second phase it
was Implemented in 7 distncts namely Bangalore Rural, Bijapur, Bellary, Bidar,
Mysore, Gulbarga and Dharwar. The DPEP has been drawn in each district with
wide ranging discussIOns with the community, peoples' representatives,
non-go\ernmental organisations and research institutions including apex bodies in
education The basis for the selection of the district was educational backwardness
of distncts with female literacy below the national average and districts where Total
Literacy Campaigns have already been successful leading to enhance demand for
elementary education.
14
An attempt has been made here to p r ~ n t some of the important ongoing
prob'Tammes under the OPEP for the purpose of improving the quality of primary
education. These programmes are broadly classified under different components of
UEE namely access, retention and quality improvement.
Access
[n order to enhance access to children, new schools have been opened in the
unreached areas of the district in order to cater to the needs of the deprived sections
of the socIety such as girls, SCs/STs. Some primary schools also have been
exclusively opened for catering to the needs of girls. The other facilities provided in
this direction are appointment of teachers, construction of school buildings,
provision of equipment, furniture, science and mathematics kit, teaching-learning
and play materials to new schools. The teaching learning materials provided include
maps, charts, models of human body, materials to develop skills in the subjects of
language, mathematics and environmental science and the play materials include
puzzles, balls, skipping ropes and rings etc. Some lower primary schools to class
fifth have also been upgraded and provided an additional teacher for the same. An
attempt also has been made to start some NFE centres as an alternative schooling
facility in places where there are a large number of children, who are un-enrolled or
dropped out of schools and appointment of Village Teacher Motivators to promote
girls education in the places where the school is in the danger of becoming
dysfunctional because of difficulties in posting adequate teachers to the schoel and
where the teacher student ratio is extremely adverse.
Retention
The actIvities like KalaJatha, Chinnara mela and Maa-beti conventions, have been
taken up mainly for the purpose of creating awareness in the minds of the parents by
disseminating the message of the importance of girls' education, equality of women
and abolition of chIld labour etc. Cassettes containing the songs of children have
been produced and distributed to all the primary schools in the district especially for
sustaining interest among children in the classroom. In order to attract the children
15
to schools and create interest in their minds, provision has been made to conduct
sports. cultural competitions and study tours.
Health Cards
The health cards for the children of first standard to fourth have been provided in
order to facilitate the health check up programme for these children to be carried out
by the health department of the State government.
Strengthening of Anganwadi Centres
Some of the existing Anganwadl Centres have been strengthened for the purpose of
improVIng the attendance of girl chIldren in the afternoon sessions in primary
schools and to prepare the children to attend the schools.
Teachers Grant
D\l1amic methods of teaching. use of inexpensive and appropriate audio-visual
materials would generally make primary education effective and appealing to
children KeepIng thiS POInt in view, a teacher grant of 500 rupees has been provided
to each teacher per year to purchase some materials like card boards, colour papers,
paints. skdch pens, thermocol sheets, gum and thread etc, for the preparation of
teaching-learning materIals and to use them in the class room teaching-learning
prvcesses
Scboollmpro\ement Fund
A school IInprO\ ement fund of :WOO rupees per year has been released to each VEC
in the d i s t ~ l t for the purpose of making the schools attractive. The fund can be used
as per the decisions of the VEC for different items like minor repair if allY and white
wash to the building, repair of the furniture, purchase of teaching-learning/play
materials and cupboards etc. In addition, provision for water, sanitation and other
repair works have also been made in order to make the schools attractive.
16
1.2 and Importance ofthe Study
Despite several interventions to improve elementary education across the States in
India. poor attendance in schools, large number of dropouts and poor learning
attainments continue to pose challenges to the education system. The recent baseline
surveys in different parts of the country have reiterated these aspects. Even in the State
of Kama taka, similar trends are observed.
Considering the literacy levels in the State of Kamataka, where the present
study is located. it is observed that the State has experienced increase in literacy levels
from 1991 to 2001(67 % in 1991 to 760,'0 in 2001 for male and 44 % in 1991 to 58 %
in 2001 for female) However, the phenomenon of out of school children, poor
attendance and 10\\ Ieaming Ieveb continue to pose serious problems, especially in
backward regions as well as with to female population
The Oistflct Prob'Tamme of Primary Education Project has been launched
during 1995 to hasten the process of realising the goal of universal primary education
in the State of Kamataka. Initially four districts portraying low female iiteracy levels
have been covered under OPEP phase-I and subsequently seven more districts in phase
II To support the OPEP project, the resource centres namely, the BRCs at the block
bel. the CRCs at the cluster level and VECs at the village level have been formally
established during 1996-1997. The DIETs, which came into being in 1993, are
expt..'Cted to provide academic leadership to the newly started sub-district level
institutions.
NOl\\ithstanding the above developments, poor quality of primary education,
10\\ le\ el of attendance and leaming attainments and persisting phenomenon of out of
school children in the backward regIOns have been serious causes of concern Under
these circumstances, the following research questions asswne vital significance in the
context of the study.
17
1.3 Issues Raised in the Study
To what extent UEE in Kamataka has been successful in terms of enhancing
participation and retention of children in primary schools over the years?
What has been the impact of a major intervention like DPEP in hastening the
goal ofUEE in Kamataka?
To what ex1ent the newly created institutions have been able to contribute to
quality improvement in primary education in terms of enhancing capacities of
schools and teachers?
\\c11ether the newly created institutional structures like the DIET BRC CRC
, , ,
SCxes and VECs at district and sub-district levels have adequate facilities and
CJpacltles to perfonn their expected roles of providing technical and academic
support to primary education'?
\,'hat are the major bottlenecks, which come in the way of effective functioning
and perfomlance of these institutions?
1.... Objecthes of the Study
The present research work" Role of Institutional Structures at District and Sub-district
levels in Promoting School Quahty in the Context of Universalisation of Elementary
Education III Kamataka" aims a! investigating and studying the organisational and
functional dynamics ot DIETs, BRCs, CRCs, School Complexes and VECs. The study
in essence. intends to examme whether the institutional structures have provided the
expected academiC support in promoting school quality for realising the objectives of
UEc The study mter alia attempts to coin pare the status of UEE in OPEP and Non-
OPEP distncls. More specifically, the objectives of the study are,
I. To examme the status of UEE In Kamataka, Kolar (OPEP) and Tumkur (non-
OPEP) dIstricts.
2, To study the orgamsational structure and composition of DIETs, BRCs, CRCs,
SCxes and VL:Cs.
18
3. To examine the tasks, roles and responsibilities of DIETs, BRCs, CRCs, SCxes
and VECs per the prescribed norms.
4. To study the processes and practices of training and other actIvities of DIETs,
BRCs. CRCs. SCxes and VECs.
5. To study the perceptions and views of trainers, trainees, beneficiaries and other
educational functionaries with special reference to the role-played by DIETs,
BRCs. CRCs, SCxes and VECs in promoting school quality.
6 To identit\ bottlenecks. if any in the operationalisation of DIETs, BRCs, CRCs,
SCxes and VECs
7. To compare the roles played by these institutional in promoting school
quality III the DPEP and Non-DPEP contexts.
1.5 Statement of the Problem
Failure to realise the goal of UEE in Kamataka and the persisting problems of poor
partiCIpatIon. attendance and learning attainment levels across different sections of
society clearly suggest that appropriate strategies are required to address these
problems DPEP is seen as one such strategic intervention to address these issues and
to provide complementarity III the task of achieving UEE. Against this backdrop, the
major focus of the present study is to identify the issues pertaining to the functions and
performance of newly created institutional support structures in improvement of school
quality. The problem selected for the present study is stated as "Role of Institutional
::itructures at DIstnct and Sub-district Levels in Promoting School Quality in the
context of Universalisation of Elementary Education in Kamataka".
19
1.6 Scope and Limitations ofthe Study
Since there has been paucity of studies at the maero level, the sclection of a few
institutional structures of two different developmental and contextual districts in
Kamataka was imperative for an analytical study like this. The present study is limited
only to one DPE? district under phase I and another non-DPEP district under the same
educational division (Bangalore) in Kamataka State. It is expected that the findings
emerging from a study of this type would throw light on the functioning of these
institutions, their problems, their potentials and promises in improving the ~ h o o l
quality in primmy education. It is expected that the present study would not only
provide insights into the organisational dynamics of these institutional structures, hut
also the study outcomes ..... ill have wider implications for effective implementation of
the w1iversal primary education policy in the State of Kamataka.
1. 7 Presentation of the Study
The study has been presented in six chapters. In the first chapter, introduction, the
need and importance, objectives, scope and limitations of the study have been
presented. Chapter two is devoted for the reviews of the related literature. The third
chapter presents the operational definitions of the terms and concepts, the theoretical
frame, sampling procedures, materials and methods, data used in the present study.
The fourth chapter presents analysis of macro data relating to the progress of VEE in
the Karnataka State and in the two districts selected for the present study. Chapter five
is devoted to presentation of analysis, interpretation and discussio.1 of micro data
gathered from the field. Findings of the study, conclusions, implications and
recommendations for future research find place in chapter six.
20
CHAPTER- II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In the first chapter, back!:,'Tound of the study, need and importance of the study,
objectives of the study, scope of the study, limitations of the present study and chapter
schemt were discussed.
While conducting any study, a review of the existing literature in the field is
necessary. The review of related literature besides helping the investigator to acquire
theoretical insights into the field of study also enables (i) to evolve suitable theoretical
and conceptual framework for the study, (ii) to identify research tools and (iii) to
choose proper research and analytical design tor the study. In addition, the review also
helps in identifying research gaps in the area of study.
Literature is replete with studies dealing with issues of school education, in
particular at primary stage in developing countries. By and large these studies have
attempted t;) focus on a variety of factors, both school related and non-school related
which have a bearing on efficacy and effectiveness of school education. However,
researches directly delineating the role of institutional and organisational support
structures for quality improvement in primary education is far and few. In this context,
an attempt has been made in this chapter to present a detailed review of related
studies. The literature reviewed is presented in relation to four broad headings
namelv, (I) studIes relating to UEE, (2) Studies relating to school quality, (3)
StudIes relatmg to school/educational performance/efficiency and (4) Studies
relating to educational management/ administration.
2.1 Studies relating to VEE
In the Indian context, research related to elementary education is a phenomenon of the
post-independence period and UEE is the single most crucial problem in education.
W a ~ t a g e stagnation, non-attendance and non-enrolment, etc. are the major problem
21
,
,
areas and the causes of these problems are both area specific and policy specific and
measures are urgently required to tackle the problem or situation (M B Buch, Fourth
Survey. 1983-88) Even though the number of researches conducted in education over
the years re\eals tremendous progress in terms of numbers, the area-wise analysis of
the same indica:es the extent of neglect or lack of concern for elementary education as
far as its qualitative improvement is concerned. Even a recent trend report (V Survey
of Educational Research, 1988-93) reveals that 6503 research studies have been
conducted in the field of education (up to 1992-93) Of these, only 285 studies (44
percent) are in the field of elementary education.
An analysis of the studies in the field of elementary education (see table 2.1.1 )
re\eals that 9 studies belong to the 50s; 25 to the 60s; 68 to the 70s; 106 to the 80s and
77 to the 90s (up to 1992-93) It may also be seen that increasing attention has been
given to elementary education from 1970s onwards. A further analysis of re:>earches
in elementary education has revealed that only 27 per cent of the researches have
focused on universalisation of elementary education, of which a mere 2 per cent of
studies is doctoral research works.
Table 2.1.1. Number of Researches conducted in the area of Elementary Education
o\er 1he Decades
Theme Decade
f-------
.
. ~ .
L--
50s 60s 70s 80s 9 0 s ~ . _ Total
I
i
I
I
I
,
I
I
History 1 1 2 7 8 19(6.7)
Development -- 3 15 IO 12 40 (14)
Universalization 6 8 20 29 \3 76 (26.7)
Pupil Achievement & Development
--
7 10 17 14 48(16.8)
Curriculum development 1 2 8 32 9 52 (18.2)
F\aluation -- -- 2 1 3 6 (2.1)
School Systems 1 1 6 4 4 16 (5.6)
Teacher and Teacher Traming --
3 4 4 10 21 (74)
Economics -- --
I 1 4 6 (2.1)
Research Needs -- -- -
1 --
I (0.4)
Total
9 25 68 106 77 285
Source:
Grewal and Gupta - Research to Elementary EducatIOn. A Trend Report, IV
Survey of Research in Education, Vol. 11,1983-88, NCERT
Note: * Up to 1993-94
Figures in parentheses indicate percentages.
22
Kamat's (196R) study in Maharastra finds that the progress of primary
education among the land owning peasants was higher when compared to that of the
landless The study highlights the decline in the educational participation of the
labour strata in the rural communities
A study hy Das ( 1969) on the "wastage and stagnation at the elementary level
of education in the State of Assam" indicates that in spite of rapid increase in
educational expenditure, efforts and facilities the rate of wastage a:1d stagnation
remains constant The rate of stagnation and wastage was high among the lower classes
and more with respect to girls
Bihari (1969) in his study on "wastage and stagnation at primary education
among tribal" finds that the reasons for the phenomenon are the inefficiency of the
.
teachers and the lack of consciousness among parents.
Bara (1971) compares the wastage and stagnation at primary stage in Sibsagar
and Golaghat. Major finding of the study reveals that the level of educational wastage
is affected by three sets of factors namely. (a) family related factors ie the poor
physicai, health, attitude towards education and (b) school related factors ie the
sympathetic beha\'iour of teachers, multiple class teaching and (e) single teacher
schools.
Agaf\val's (1972) study on "the wastage and stagnation In Mahendragarh"
reveals that the wastage rate was above 90 percent in the primary stage (up to V
standard) in government tribal schools. The rate of wastage was highest in class I
(60.71 %) and lowest in class V (17.91%). The indices of stagnation also slowly reduce
when one moves up to higher classes. Poor socio-economic status, high teacher-pupil
ratio and the non-availability of textbooks are the reasons cited.
Sharma (1973) in hid study on "Increase in enrolment in primary schools" in
Udaipur and Kota of Rajasthan reveals that the enrolment drives with incentives prove
23
to be more useful In boostmg enrolment Among inCentives, free meals. books.
ofte:xtbooks are proved most ef1ective
Acharya S C (1974) tlnds that problems of phYSical plants. lack of pror-.;riy
qualified and trained teachers, absence of adequate school commulllty are
responsible for dropouts and stagnation
Masavi's (1976) study on "wastage and stagnation in primary education m
Tribal areas in Gujarat" reveals that the rate of wastage during the first four was
to the tlme of 65%. Only 91 % of the total numbers enrolled could complete standard
IV. Wastage was greater for boys than girls. The reasons cited were poverty. ,()CIO-
economic change ignorance of parents, i ii-equipped teachers. .
Patel (1978) exammes the educational opportunities of the children of urban
slums in Delhi in terms of available and the utilisatIOn aspe\.ts The study
reveals that (I) The slum children had inferior physical and material resources and
teachers had l(1w capacity of teaching and low interest, (2) The quality (11'
educational faciiities for the slum children was very much inferior to that of the non-
slum children and (3) In the matter of school resources, the slum children were not
at par with schools in non-slum areas. The discrepancy was seen in school building,
equipment, curriculum, teachers and pupils.
Raj (1979) in a study on " Socio-economic Factors and their mterrelationshlps
among the Out of School Children in Madras" finds that the out of school students
consisted of a greater percentage of girls than boys. Amongst the out of school
children the percentage of SC and Sl students was higher than that of the other b'TOUPS
The number of and left outs were high among chi:dren whose parents were
manual labourers. The incidence of dropouts and nOl1-enrolled were higher an10ng
children who came from large families.
Sharma (1982) carried out a study on the " Effect of stay of tt:acher on
enrolment and retention of boys and girls in Rajasthan". He out that the retention.
attendance and regularity of students were better in schools where stayed at
their headquarters. It also reveals that the teachers' stay was useful only when the
relationship between teachers and parents were courteous.
Acharya (1982) conducted a study of four villages in West Bengal on
"Education and Agrarian Relations". He finds that literacy and enrolment declined
steeply with the hierarchical order of the rural society. Of the 55.83 percent of non-
enrolled children in the age group of 6-16, 25.17 percent belonged to agricultural
poor peasants and lo\\er middle peasant families. The participation of the
lo\\er classes of the agrarian society in the process of organisation of education for
the area was negligible Most respondents from the higher strata opposed the
introductIOn of lJEE even though their children registered a higher percent of
enrolment The:: reasons for their oPPOsition stemmed from fear of losing child
lahour and threa! to traditional authority pattern. On the other hand, the lower strata
not Inclined to UEE since it would result in a net loss to the family income as
the children also contnhute. It was also true that the teachers and leaders of the
villages were no: II1strumental ill creating awareness for education among the lower
strata.
De\I's 11983) study on "Probiem of dropouts in primary schools of Manipur"
indicates that there was a hIgher dropout scale among girls than boys. The four
important causes for were poverty, frequent transfer of residence, repeated
faIlure and neglIgence of parents.
Bhattacharya's (198-l) a study on "Social Stratification and System of
Education" in West Bengal observes that the inequality of educational opportunity
eXIsted in West for a Ion!.! time. The observations of social mobility over three
-
generatIons revealed that a majority of people in the lower social strata remained
SOCIally immobile. whde in the middle class. it was evident to the extent that it operated
\\lthll1 a SOCial boundary. The study also reveals that the inequality of educational
Opportlllllty emerged out of the Introduction of 10!,>1stic support and cultltTlli inequalities
25
at home \\ith the organisational climate and effective!less of the system of social
stratitlcation and the equity.
SIE (UP. 1986) reveals that unattractive environment of school indifference of
,
teachers. irrelevant curriculum, lack of physical facilities like water and ~ n i t l t i o n in
schools wen;: the main causes of drop out of children.
Sachidananda (1989) in a study of Bihar on "causes of the backwardness of
education" cites poverty of rural families, lack of teachers commitment to their duties,
lack of effective supervision and rampant corruption in the supervisory cadre, paucity
vf women teachers, highly politicised teaching community and less representative SC
anc ST teachers as the causes for the backwardness.
Ushade\1 and NagaraJu (1989) examine Census data to assess literacy gams in
Kamat[J.;a. The analysis indicates marked difference in the literacy gains between rural
and urban populatIOn with rural females n:gistering least gains. The differences were
explained by poverty 10 case of urban males and poverty coupled with lack of facilities
in the case of urban and rural females.
Yadav I 199 I) studies the dropout among socially and economically deprived
elementary students 10 Ilarvana and lists out the following causes. While teacht:rs
reported non-detention policy of the State government in classes first to third,
engagement of children in the fields during the sowing and harvesting seasons, heavy
syllabi causmg disinterest 10 pupils, illitera.:y of parents, large family size and poor
teacher-children relationship. The pupils on the other hand reported punishment by
teachers, usc of gUides mstead of textbooks in teaching, parental ignorance of the value
of education and prionty of household works for girls as reasons for dropout
Shanna ( 1992) in his study on the prohlems of non enrolment in the district of
Sibsagar In Assam identifies the causes such as involvement of children in domestic
and non domestic work, parental unawareness of the importance of education, non
congema! home atmosphere, parents' inability to provide school matenals to their
26
wards. difference In the language spoken at home and spoken by the teachers in the
schooL poor parent-teachers' relationship, differential expectations from the parents
and povr physical facilities in school for the non-enrolment.
Vyas et al. (1992) in their study in Rajasthan cites following causes
(personal and school related) for the dropout of children. The personal causes were
poor financial conditions of the family (the most important of all) adverse family
Circumstances, parental un\\<; II ingness, illiteracy of parents, illness/ demise of parents,
lack of inraest or weakness in studies, illness, inferiority complex and difficulty in
findIng a for a literate girl. The school related factors wer':: non-
a\aIlability of lady teachers, co-cducational system and lack of interest on the part of
teachers.
2.2 Studies Relating to School Quality
SchiefelbeIn Farrel and Sepulveda-Stuardo ( 1983) in Chile, one of the more advanced
Latin American countries reveal school factors to be of great importance, with effects
larger than those of family characteristics. Evidence also suggests that children who
are economicall\ and socially disadvantaged are more likely than other children to
bene.lt frum an Incn:ase In the a\aIlability and quality ofschool5.
Heyneman and Laxley ( 1983) examIne the impact of school factors and family
charactenstlcs on student achievement in 29 countries. The study reveals that for the
mne LatIn Amen-:an countrIes In their study school factors explained a significant part
of the \arIance in what students learnt. For e.g. they attributed more than 80% of the
variance In achievement 111 BrazIl and Colombia to the quality of the schooL
Munoz Izquierdo and Schmelkes (1983) and Avalos (1986) in their studies
follO\\1ng SOCIological and anthropological approaches find that teachers' beliefs and
attlludes will have a positive significant dfect on self-perception and success or failure
of puptls. They conlirm that teachers develop negative ideas about the abilities of
27
pupils \vho are lagging behind, which deter them from gIVing these pupils the
assistance that might improve their academic situation. The teaching model does not
distinguish between abilities of pupils with similar, lower or higher learning levels than
the mean for each group. Teachers assigned to poor schools believe that the
responsibility for school failure lies with the families of the pupils. The main problem
is that the teachers do not perceive the mechanisms through which they themselves
contnbute to the determination of the school failures.
Fuller ( 1985) reports that at in non-industrialised countries, the quality of
the school which the child attends influences his or her length of stay in school and
academic achievement. ThiS IS clearer in the poorer countries and among lower
income school children In developing' countries. There are also indications that quality
of what IS learned is more important to later life than are the number of years of
schooling. Am,mg the variables that recur in various studies as an influence on
learning are the ti.)l\owing: active school library, teacher training, time on task and
SOCial ongln of the teacher.
Blf(isall ( 1985) reports that in Brazil rural children as well as urban children
from low income and poor education households benefited substantially from
improvements m educ<:tlOnal inputs. Using household data from 1970 census she
estimated high of demand with respect to the availability and quality of
schools In both uman and rural areas. The percentage change in years of schooling
asSOCIated mth a gl\en change in the availabilIty and qualIty of schools was virtually
the same for rural and urban 8 to II years old (1.09 & 1.08, respectively).
Weindlmg ( 1989) found that the etTectlve or high atmining schools tends to be
charactenscd bv the following.
AcademiC emrha'iis which refers to such aspects as high expectations by teachers,
a hclIcf th<lt )11 students that teachers can teach; regular setting and marking of
home work and Visible rewards for academic excellence and l,'Towth.
,
28
Class-room management in tenns of high proportions of lesson time spent on the
subJe\.'t matter of the lesson (as distinct from setting up equipment with disciplinary
matters et\.' . t high proportion of teacher time spent interacting with the class as a
\\hl)k as opposed to individuals; lesson beginning and ending in time; clear and
unambiguous 1eedback to students on their perfonnance and what is expected of
them: and minimum disciplinary interventIOns.
3. Keeping good order and maintaining appropriate rule enforcement in the school.
4. School management in tenns of the attention that Head plays to classroom
instruction and kaming and the amount of classroom observation by the Head.
5. Clear goals and continual monitoring of students' progress.
6. Staff development programme, which is wider rather than specific to individual
teachers and closely, related to school cllrriculum.
7. Support trom the district authorIties and
8. Parental involvement and support.
Factors like school admmistration and role of the head teacher have recently
pro\cn to be central in the definition of the quality of a school (World Bank, 1990).
The study further reports that a good school will have a head teacher, who exercises
authont\ 0\ er the teaching m hi ,.her institution, able to mobilise local resources and to
stimulate COIllIllUllIt\ participate in the school and capable of generating a m,wement
Impro\ "ment m it
Johnson and Holda\\av (1990) in their review of researches on effective
pnmaf\ schools conclude " ... the more efi(;ctive primary schools tend to have the
folloWIIll! charallenstlcs a positive, supportive climate; a high staff ar.d student
morale. sound leadership: shared decision making and administration; competent
teachers whose kssons arc focused, structured, purposeful, challenging and varied
approach: an on student achievement, including record keeping; and parental
and community Interaction and support"
GO\Jnda and Varghese (1991) in their study find that (1) the perfonnance of
schools \\;th 0111.: teacher per grade was better than that of schools having multigrade
29
teaching. (2) the perfonnance of learners taught by generalist teachers teaching all
subjects was lower than and infelior to that of learners taught by specialist teachers, (3)
high correlation existed between achievement and the time spent on teaching-learning,
(4) the teaching practice like explanation of concepts with the frequent use of
blackboard, motivating students by asking questions, regularity in the
regulaiity in giving and correctiilg home work and revisions of previous lessons by
teachers were positively related to pupil achievement and (5) possession of textbooks
by children was an important correlate of achievement.
Govinda and Vargheese (1993) in a study relating to "Quality of Primary
Schooling in India- A case study of Madya Pradesh" found that the time spent by the
learner and teacher on teaching- learning activities, the nature of leadership provided
b\ the head master and the supervisory control and monitoring carried out from within
the school, an dTectlve mechan:sm of internal monitoring o( teaching-learning aids,
continuous e\aluatiOn through periodic tests and suitable remedial measures had
sigl1lficant mfluence on the quality of primary schools.
Dreze and Saran (1993) looked into in their study on "Primary Education and
Economic Development in China and India. They report that important cause of
persistent low literacy rates is failure of school ing system to provide credible
educational serYlces.
ruller & Clarke (1994) in their empirical evidences point out the effectiveness
of te"t-hooks. school libraries, teachers' education, instruction time and frequency of
homework on the quality ofleaming.
The findings of Harriss (1995) study indicates that classroom climate does
impact achievement The multiple regression analysis indicated a relationship between
elementary classroom climate and academic achievement in reading, mathematics and
language.
30
Nidhi Mehrotra (1995) in her field-based infornlation from Kerala Uttar
,
pradesh and Himachal Pradesh reports that school quality promotes school attendance
even at existing levels of poverty. She further reports that teachers' accountability is a
to school quality.
The World Bank (1996) study shows that difficulty in school
and the role of supervisor or school inspector is found to be a key factor in improving
and monitoring the educational quality.
Gabriel Caron and Ta Nagoc Chau 0996) in their study of "The Quality of
Primary Schools in Different Development Contexts" find that the teaching-learning
conditions in temlS of equipment, quality and motivations of teachers, school
management and support structures have a positive significant effect on the learners'
achievement scores.
2.3 Studies Relating to SchoollEducational Performance/Efficiency
Das's ( 1974) study reveals that there is a significant relationship between efficiency in
educati-::m and phySical facilities in schools. The school conditions definitely seem to
have a faH)lJrable impact on school educati .. m. Better school facilities increased the
attractlvc and retentive power of the school besides providing situations conducive for
efit:ctl\e educatIOn and hence contribute towards better education of the children of
that schoo!.
Bhatia and Vijay Seth (1975) study on the "hierarchy in the system of School"
reveals that there is every possibility of at least three types of school:>, which cater to
the needs of these prominent strata. The items on which the schoob were compared
were facilities offered to students and teachers, Physical facilities, sports, library
facilities, cultural activities, drinking water facilities, inter school activities,
participation and prizes won.
31
Such and Buch (\983) review more than 200 studies carried out at various
Indian Universities and other research institutions focussing on the detelminants of
school learning outcomes at the first level of education. Among the various school
characteristics examined, facilities and equipments in the school, institutional climate
and leadership beha\;our of the principal, teachers' qualification and training coupled
\\ith a high morale and positive perception of the academic ability of the learners
constitute a powerful set of tactors determining the levels of children.
Dave and others (1988) conducted a mass scale education involving nearly
30000 primary school children drawn from 2480 schools all over the country. The
purpose wa.' to ascertain the extent to which the prcscribed learning competencies
could be developed in the pupil as a result of a spe.;ial curriculum renewal programme
mitlated on a national basis. The data indicate that there was a sudden slump in the
achle\ernent levels of children in all subjects as they entered class III, which continued
through class IV to V However, the comparison between project and non-project
schools indicates the possibility of raising the attainment levels of children through
better classroom trar.saction and improved curriculum inputs as revealed by the
perflmnance oflhe project schools. It concludes that with the help of better transaction
prol:,rrammes like primary education curriculum renewal, achievement of students could
be increased
Ethnohrraphic studIes carried out ill Mexico reveals the discrepancy in the
amount of time spent on teaching curriculum content matter and the actual time a
student gets for learning in the classroom (Rockwell, 1989)
Fuller ( 1990 I observes that for industrialised countries, variations in school
factors explaIned small portIOns of variance in achievement, after controlling the
parents' social class. However, in developing countries the block school factors
explained significant portions of variance in achievement. Reviewing around 60
school effect studIes that have been completed in the Third World Countries, Fuller
finds that (I) A majority of these multivariate s ~ u i e s have found sih'1liticant
achievement cftects from school factors, the influence of social back ground.
32
" ... material inputs are related to achievement in the Third World. A very few studies
from the USA or the UK find efiects from the level of matcrial inputs. Effects from
schools' social organisation and teaching practices appear stronger. In developing
countries, simple inputs- especially those directly related to the instructional process
are consistently associated with higher achievement. (2) Qualities of Third World
teachers related to achievement, particularly years of tertiary and teacher training. The
teachers' o ~ n social background and proficiency are also related with student
performance. (3) The positive impact of instructional materials - especially those
directly related to reading and writing is consistent across studies ..... The influence of
te;"'1books appears to be strong with the rural schools among students.
Carragher et a1. (1991) in Brazil tind that children in out of school fail to solve
some arithmetic prvblems in writing. These results reveal a weakness of schools, in
that they seem to inhibit oral calculation and to discredit thIS type of popular
knowledge They question the commonly held idea that these children lack the stimuli
necessary to be able to develop cognitively and in their ability lo learn.
Shanna et a1. (1991) in a study in lorhat district find that a significant
correlation eXIsted between the achievement of cohorts of classes !II and IV, regular
attendance and academic achievement correlated. However, no correlation seemed to
exist bet'scen physical facil ities and academic achievement.
Padhan (1991) conducted an input-output analysis of primary education in
Sambalpur district of Orissa during 1975-88. He finds that school cost, teachers'
qualificatlon, experience and socio-economic status of students had no impact on
scholastic attainment when the efiect of remaining variables was kept constant
A study conducted in 23 States by the NCERT (\991) reveals that for a sample
of 65,000 urban and rural grade 4 students, the average achievement on grade 4
cumculum based, basic skills tests of arithmetic, reading comprehension and spelling
was 46.4 percent. Students correctly answered fewer than half the arithmetic questions
in 19 States and fewer than half the reading comprehension questions in 16 States and
J3
they correctly spelled fewer than half the words on a spelling test in 15 States (Shukla
and others, 1994)
Torres (1992) review on the recent Latin American Literature on teaching and
learning reveals that every thing or almost every thing goes on in the class room points
in the opposite direction to e f f e t i v ~ learning: emphasis is placed on form and abstract
structure, before content; on the importance of the teacher as mediator and
representative of content, with systematic exclusion of the knowledge and expenence
of pupils and the absence of opportunities for the personal acquisition of knowledge;
on the relative.veight of certain techniques (guessing, repeating, copying, answering
close ended questions, following a pre-determined sequence, following hints given by
teachers etc,) in stimulating learning; and on thinking and reasoning reduced to
mechanical formulae, exercises and abstract structures without concern for
understandmg.
Research in Bangladesh, Colombia and Ethiopia suggests that relevant, regular
and practical in-sen.;ce training that is well implemented is a pre-requisite for school
excellence (Dalm, 1992).
Govinda and Varghese (1993) in their study lind that children who reach the
final year of lower primary school (grade 4 in some States and 5 in others) often have
mastered less than half the curriculum taught the year before. A rigorous study of
student achievement reveals that about 70 percent of grade 4 students and 60 percent of
grade 5 students from schools in a "privileged urban zone" in Madhya Pradesh had not
maqered competencies in Hindi and Mathematics that would be expected of !,'fade 2
students And III "highly underdeveloped n.:ral zone' no grade 4 or grade 5 students
had mastered the b'Tade 2 competencies.
Shukla and others (1994) in their study of achievement in 22 States identify that
the presence of Operation Black Board scheme and the existence of parent-teacher
asSOCiations wen: positively associated with higher levels of learning in at least a third
of the States,
34
Saxena. Singh and Gupta (1995) in a study of learning achievement in the
random samples of24,000 students in the last class of the primary school cycle (grade
4 in some States and 5 in others) tested on arithmetic and reading comprehension skills
expected at the end of the previous year The study reveals the low average
achievement le\e1s for all h'Tades. Similar result was also found in 1.700 randomly
sampled schools in 43 low-literacy districts in eight States participating in OPEP
spons0fed by the GOI. Random samples of 18,000 students in grade 2 were tested on
simple literacy and numeracy skills (Prakash and Panda, 1996)
Roy, Mitra and Ray (1995) in their recent study of Bengali and mathematics
achie\ement at the end of grade 4 in 15 distncts of West Bengal find that only about 20
percent of the students obtained the minimum expected score in both subjects.
T umer' s (1995) studv reveals that achievement test result3 indicated that
merely changing the traditional graded structure with retraining teachers will not
necessarily ha\ e a effect on student achievement, social development or
beha\;our
Saxena. Singh and Gupta (1995) find that Schools' Physical facilities were
important correlates of achievement in K.amataka, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. And
school participating in Operation Blackboard scheme showed higher mathematiCs
achle\ement III Kerala and Madhya Pradesh and higher language achievement in
Assam and :-"1adh\a Pradesh than in non-participating schools. They also find a strong
posIti\t: association between teaching practices and students' achievement.
2.4 Studies Relating to Educational Management/Administration
Sindhe (1975) undertook a study with an objective of studying the role of Panchayat
leadership in expansion and improvement of primary education. The sample consisted
of 100 Panchayats of the II Taluks of Panchamahals district in the State ot Gujarat.
The tools used for data collection were basic data sheet for Gram Panchayats,
questionnaire and rating scale. The major findings are (I) Panchayat Raj bodies did
35
,5 E C LIBRARY
.... cc. NoTiL!J--.-.. -----
('S
not achieve e:\pected amount of improvement in primary education, (2) Gram
Panchayati Education Committees were relatively more effective than Taluk Panchayat
Education Committees and (3) The Panchayati Raj leadership had failed in creating a
positi ve image of unbiased personality.
Raj (1975) conducted a survey w1th a view to study the management and
administration of education in Tamil Nadu. The study was a survey design. The
records of the Stale education department and other educational institutions were used
for data collection. This was further supported with the observation of the working of
administrative machInery. The study reveals the following findings:
( I) The department of education w ~ broadly divided into directorates, one for school
educatIOn and another for college education. While both directors of the
dIrectorates were paid the same salary. the workload and responsibilities of the
dIrector of school cducatlOn were very heavy,
(2'1 The l"I:mer of deCISIOn makmg were highly centralised in the e:ducation department,
the real deciSIOn makers being the two directors of education and secondary to the
go\emment.
(31 The head officer was tIed dO'>'TI with very heavy paper work. Consequently, the
management functIOns. nan1ely planning, orgamsIng, co-ordinating and control
were ignored.
(4) HIerarchICal prolllolions were based on the Ienl:,'th of service and seniority with the
result that senior poSItIOns were manned by persons, who had neither capability nor
imagination.
(:;) The structure of orgamsation had not changed to meet environmental needs,
(6) E:\ecutI\e poSItions were often given to academics without any special training
being Impalted to them and
(71 There were no committees to lay dO\\TI/guidelines in the management of education,
\lUt ndne of the committees ever met.
Namhlar ( I <J76) conducted a study on administration of school education in the
State of Kerala attempts a critical appraisal of the enactment and implementation of the
36
Education Act and Rules and the administration of school education during the
fIrst 20 years in the career of the new State of Kerala. The study was based almost
e'\clusi\ dy on official documents.
As a supplement to document analysis,
surveys and case studies were also used. The study concludes that the
standards of instmction were low at assessment by the results at the external
eW.mination and the enormous expenditure ofthe State and national resources.
s (1981) study focussed on inspection and supervIsIon practices III
to changing educational system. The objectives of the study were to find
out the dlects of change on participative supervision, perceptions and workload of
and supemsors, planning of supervision, methods of teaching, materials and
III schools and helpfulness of inspection and supervision. The study
eab folio xi ng.
\ II There wa<; no change 10 the participative practice of supervision with the
introductIOn of new syllabus,
In general. no change was nidcnt in the of supervisors and teachers
stress being laid on daily lesson notes and unit plans,
(3) The workload of Inspectors had but that of the heads was not affected
ad\ersdy due to change,
(41 There was no major change In outlook of supervIsors and the planning of
inspectIOn of programmes,
change In syllabus had not affected partcipative supervision, the
the outlook of supervisors, planning of inspection and the concept of
IIlspcctlOn and
(61 Se\eral teachers followed new methods In teaching and inspection of schools
seT\ cd hd pf ul and useful purposes
Kulkarni (19S2) attempts to study the position as it prevailed in 1973-74 in
n:gard to practice, of IIlspcctlOn and supervision III primary schools in Maharashtra
with speCial reference to the Marathawada region. The major objective of the study
was to understand the practices of inspection and supervision of primary s;;hools and to
suggest improvements. The study was a normative survey design involving a study of
37
field situation. The study mainly consisted of the analysis of inspection profOimas by
the inspecting officers, head masters and teachers to questionnaires. The findings of
the study reveal the following:
(1) There was no clear distinction between administrative and academic inspection and
the same officer did the both,
(2) There were no systematic procedures for selection of inspecting officers,
(3) Both inspecting officers and head masters acted like bureaucrats,
(4) There was a dearth of properly trained inspecting officers,
(5) There was no objective tool to evaluate a teacher's work,
(6) Inspecting oincers were found to be least interested in demonstration teaching,
individual discussion and guidance in promoting professional growth of teachers,
(7) There was no arrangement for in-service training of head masters and
(8) Important problems faced by the teachers were inadequate attendance of students,
their continuous absence, lack of learning materials, the in-diITerent attitude of
parents, lack of guidance from the head masters.
Misra's (1984) study fcc uses on educational administration in Orissa. The
study was the result of multi phase work, including record survey, a questionnaire
survey, interviews, case studies and participant observation. Data were collected
through official records, ordinance rules, regulations, responses from 150 educational
administrators, interviews with ten selected administrators, case studIes of decisions of
courts and tribunals on educational matters, field study of 20 institutions and personal
observation of events. Data were analysed qualitatively. The study reveals the
following:
( I) New ar.d unconnected structures were created without the role orientation and
institutional basis being properly perceived,
(2) Most of the administrators did not have the minimum requisite qualificatio;) for the
posts, they held and they were also untrained for the job,
(3) The selection was based on the subjective consideration,
(4) Educational administration was dealt within the same manner as the general
administration,
38
(5) The mediocre administrators in ,he academic bureaucracy did not the
necessary powers and Thus, their effectiveness was never felt and
(6) A subjective promotion process adversely affected the morale of educatIOnal
administrators.
Deane's (1985) study focuses on techniques of school eva:uation and follo\\-up
procedures with a view to improving the policy programme personnel and plan'. The
objective of the study was to provide the suggestion for school administrators to get
fresh insights into traditional school practices and procedures, thus, helping them to
modify outmoded practices or replace them by more rclevant programmes. Systematic
random samphng was used for the selection of the sample. The sample was selected
fTom 1426 high school students fTom four States of India through schedules. The study
reveals that ( I ) the effective school management was only possible in an atmosphere of
fTeedom, where the school personnel themselves carried the responsibility of creatmg a
good school, (2) the evaluation carried out by external agencies did little to Inlprove
school and (3) the follow-up and improvement of a school system and its sub-system
depended solely on the nature of leadership in the schooL
Sampurnasingh ( 1985) undertook a study with an objective of determining the
patterns of organisational climate, leadership behaviour and moral development in
elementary and secondary schools and their inter relationship. The sample for the
study included stalT and heads of 100 institulions comprising 50 primary schools and
50 secondary schools. Data were collected from 421 teachers and 100 heads through
questionnaires. ;collowing are the findings of tile study.
( 1) Elementarv teachers were higher in spirit and intimacy than secondary
school teachers,
(2) On almost all dimensions of school climate, elementary schools Wf!re found to be
more variable than secondary schools,
(3) The leadership behaviour of the two types of schools did not differ and
(4) Initiating structure as a dimension of school climate like spirit, intimacy,
production emphasis, thrust and consideration.
39
Shanna (1985) conducts a study of inspection by the District Education
Officers (DEOs) in Rajasthan, with an objective of assessing the stay of DEOs at their
posts and the number of inspections done by them. The study covered 20 DEOs
(Boys) and DEOs (girls) The data about the examination results of the schools
,
reactions of the education officers on them and the information collected through
Inspection pro-fonna were analysed The study reveals that (I) the stay of a DEO
(boys) at his otTice was IIA months in 1981-82 and II. 7 months in 82-83, Whereas, fir
DEO (girls), it \vas 12 months in both sessions and (2) only 45 percent of the schools
were Inspected by DEO (girls)
J..:.alpande's (1990) study focuses on the problems of educational administration
In Maharashtra State with special reference to the role of Extension Officers
(education) in the administration of elementary education. The study reveals that
organisational structure, work motivation a:1d organisational climate should be
penodically used and appropriate authorities should take corrective action.
World Bank's (1990) study reports that the role of the supervisor or school
inspector IS a ke:: one In the process of improvement and monitoring of the educational
qualm of schools
WamlCk et al (1992) studv the scheme of newly introdtlced (in 1979)
posItions of Learnmg Co-ordinators, who have to visit 10 to 20 schools per month.
ThiS scheme at early stage of its implementation proved to have quite a number of
benefits "a Slh'l1lficant reduction in teacher absenteeism; improvement in quality of
teaching: Increased enrolment and better attendance by students; an opportunity for
teachers to discuss their with persons not primarily concerned with
administratIOn. 2 greater sense of professionalism among teachers; the use of Co-
ordinators as substitutes for mlssmg teachers; better communication from district
management to the schools".
Nanda ( 1992) in his study on the leadership behaviour of primary school Head
Masters of Cuttack City reveals that ineffective leaders show more consideration
40
behaviour, and less initiating behaviour were inefficient in consideration behaviour and
initiating. Some were manifesting higher type of leadership in "initiating structures"
and
Sil\a ecaL. (1993) identify several problems that arose in educational
administration \\lth the establishment of the provincial councils in Sri Lanka. Since the
pro\incial dIrectors were made accountable to the provincial secretary, his authority
and his responsibilities were greatly reduced with the emergence of the provinCIal
minIsters. The divisional office was subjected to dual control, which resulted in
confusion There were instances where both the provincial ministry and the
department affected teacher trans!'ers.
A study by Sri Lanka Association for the Advancement of Education
(SLAAED. I'll,,) notcs that" A complete change has taken place after the abolition
of the cirCUIt s\ stem and its replacement by the cluster school system. It appeared
t;lat departmental of/icers make no VISItS to schools except very infrequently and
that only to secure the participation of schools in the organisation of various
functions whIch Imanably have a political flavour. The study further reveals that it
could be safely 1l1ferred that the lack of supervision has led to a fall in teaching
standards
lil'\'mda anu Varghese 1993) conducted a study on quality of primary
schoolmg m IndIa In their case study of Madya Pradesh, it was found that 80 percent
of the \ 1511 of Inspectors were routine inspections of an administrative nature, just to
solve the practlca: problems related to the day to day school functioning. 55 percent of
the teachers thought that the Inspectors were of no or little benefit and 8 percent
conSidered them to be of very much help. I lead Masters and colleagues were seemed
to be of very much help 10 the extent of 22 and 24 percent respectively. It was further
noted that "Otlic..:rs who are in direct cor.tact v,ith the field have no authority for
InItIating necessary action and those, who have the authority have no time for capturing
field level authority"
41
Khaniya"s (1997) study on BPEP programme in Nepal reveals the following:
L A new professionalism among schoolteachers has been developed as a result of
BPEP programme. They showed an interest in discussing educationally pertinent
issues at the \',eekly meetings. This system of regular meetings has developed in
teachers a sense of confidence, that there is a place, where they can discuss their
educational problems, if they have any and find the possible solution on the spot.
2. TI1e teachers and local community opined that the intrl)duction of RC (Resource
Centre) system has led to an improvement in the internal efficiency of the school
system there are more children in the classroom and more children completing the
course cycle than even before. Furthermore, pupil absenteeism has decreased.
3. SuperYlsion of more number of schools by Resource Persons (RPs) obviously
makes more diHicult to visit all schools regularly and to spend some time in each
school When RPs can not Visit schools periodically" the teachers do not get
feedback to Improve their classroom instructions.
4. The ()\crloaded tasks of RPs crop up and lead to the fact that they ean not provide
systematic Instructional supervision and support.
Ushade\'i"s (1998) study was on "Role of Field Level Inspectorate in DPEP
dtstnct In maintaining and monitoring qualIty in primary education'. Secondary data
were collected from the official files/reports of the school Inspectors available in the
focr Educational Otlices of Kolar district in the State of Kamataka. The data were
supplemented b\ pri mary data collected from the interviews of the school Inspectors.
The stud\ re\ eais the following
The School Inspectors were more preoccupied with administrative and
miscellaneous duties rather than academic duties. Hence they were constrained to
perform their academic role very effectively,
2. The hean workload in terms of schools and teachers to be monitored acted as one
more constra'nt to discharge their academiC duties more etfectively,
42
3. The School Inspectors' visiting functions were limited to controlling flmctions
rather than contrihuting to academic improvement of the school in general or
teacher in particular.
t The \'isit reports of them were mainly on mere reporting of the facts and figures in
the schools and
5. The DPEP intervention in the district is found to have marginalised the role of
mspectorate at the block level Creation of parallel institutional structures like the
BRCs and CRCs seem to have resulted in conflicts between the traditional
administrative structures and the new ones. Lack of active involvement of the
school inspectorate in the academic training programmes has demoralised the
school inspectors leading to identity crisis among them.
Sectharamu and Ushadevi (2000) undertook a study of District Institutes of
Education and Training (DIETs) in Kamataka State. Secondary data were gathered
from all the DIETs in the State through mailed questionnaire. The data so collected
were further supplemented by primary data collected through personal visits. The
study reveals the !ollo\\;ng:
I. A I:uge number of DIETs have trained only teachers and none else. More nwnber
of \\omen teachers than men teachers were covered under training m
DPEP dlstncts,
I Content and Pedago/:,')' were the commonly addressed themes ofin-5ervice training,
3. Planmng seemed to be the weakest aspect in the DIET as there were no perspective
plans attempted by the DIETs. None of the DIETs seemed to plan training
programrr:es based on their district needs. The activities of DIETs seemed to be
more outward directed rather than self-driven.
4. The DIETs lack the required leadership 10 projecting themselves as high profile
centers of academiC excellence at the leveL
5. Lack of adequate professional qualification and orientation among the faculty and
absence of research committees in the DIETs have affected the research and
development activities.
43
6. Follow up training activities were never earned on systematically by the DIETs
eIther due to want of adequate administrative power or due to pressure of work
within the DIETs
7. DIETs lack of adequate capacity and skill to maintain MIS despite univcrsalisation
of computer facility in them.
8. Plenty of heart burning conflicts and dilemmas galore between and among the
traditional educational structures, DIET and the new DPEP structures. The
creation of sub-district level institutional structures by the DPEP seemed to have
undermined the role of an academic institute like DIET.
Ushade\j's (200 1) study focused on Village Education Committees in Karnataka State.
The Sample consisted of 52 Head Masters as member secretaries of VEC, 497 VEe
memht:rs. 491 community members, 13 VEe trainers and 11 VEe trainees from 52
VECs m 6 dIstricts of Karnataka Qualitative data fTom both primary and secondary
source ha\e been used in the study. In addition, quantitative data have also been used
m the study. In addItIOn, quantitative data have also been used to supplement the
analYSIS. \\here\er necessary. The analysis has been largely descriptive and
mterpretatl\ e. The study reveals the following:
1. The training literature by and large seemed to be adequate and relevant in tcnns of
creating awareness among the VEe members towards the need for improving
primary education as well as towards their roles in VEe for strengthening primary
education.
2 ConSIdering the training coverage, it was seen that there is a shortfall in every
dIstrict and there is huge variation in terms of coverage of VECs, VEe members,
male and female members and number l,fbatches of training conducted.
3. So far as the composition of the VECs, it was noticed that there seemed to be
vlolation of guidelines.
4. A large majority of VECs across the State had conducted either one or two
meetmgs. during the entire year, which was apparently far below the nonn of
meetmgs a year.
44
5. Considering the percentage of attendance of members in the VEC meetings, it was
far from satisfactory in most of the cases.
6. With regard to the regularity in attendance for the VEC meetings, it was noticed
that a large majority of the people who could not attend the meetings were the
wage earners.
7. So far as nature of participation of members in the VEC meetings, it was found that
considerable number of members across districts were just observers.
8. With regard to the exercising of powers by the VEC members, the VECs draw a
flak either due to lack of knowledge regarding the same or due to the fact that they
did not enJoy any statutory powers of controlling schools, teachers and students.
9. So far as discharging of responsibilities, they had discharged duties such as timely
supply of learning materials, ensuring of participation of girl child and identifying
donors for meetmg educational expenses in schools etc.
The audit review of DPEP (2002) portrays the inadequacies of OPEP
programme on the followmg difTerent fronts
1. Access to primary schools was adversely affected due to non-provisioning of
basIC mfras:ructure faCilities m the schools: 84 per cent of the schools did not
have separate toilets for girls, while 33 per cent schools did not have drinking
water facJlity In Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, the Pupil Teacher Ratio was
qUite high at 72 and 96, respectively. The average student classroom ratio was
more than the nornlative levels in seven States. It was the highest in West
Bengal (84) followed by Assam (66) and Uttar Pradesh (64).
2. There was little evidence of the impact of the programme in terms of enhancing
the enrolment of children. A comparatively higher growth in enrolment was
WItnessed during the mitial period of OPEP implementation, but it could not be
sustained In the subsequent years, across all the DPEP States. In 23 districts of
eight States, the enrolment percentage actually declined. Class I enrolment
showed a declining trend in nine OPEP States during the period 1997-99.
Enrolment of girls as a percentage share declined as they moved up from one
45
class to another. The inequities in enrolment levels between boys and girls and
SCST and others also persisted despite DPEP interventions.
3. DPEP aimed at convergence of primary education through Early Childhood
Care and Education Centres and Non-Formal Education Centres (alternative
schools) While no target was fixed for opening of ECCE centres, target fixed
for opening of alternative schools was not achieved. In Madhya Pradesh, ECCE
centres were opened in areas covered by ICDS in contravention of the nonns.
Onlv C) per cent households were aware of the availability of Non-Formal
Education Centres. As a result, the enrolment in these centres was as low as 0.6
per cent.
4. The dropout rate continued to be well over 10 per cent in all OPEP States
except Kerala, the position being more alanning in Assam and Bihar where
dropout rate ranged high between 38 and 39 per cent. In six States of Assam,
Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Orissa, the dropout rate of
SCs and STs either increased or remained stagnant. Class wise, the drop-out
rate was the hIghest in Class I. Test-check revealed that in 17 districts of seven
States the ditTerence in drop out rates among gender and socially disadvantaged
groups remamed more than five per cent.
5 The objective of raising competence attainment level by 25 per cent in
language and mathematics could not be achieved in a majority of districts.
Differences in competence attainment levels between boys and girls and
between and others could not be narrowed to desired level of five per
cent.
6. Large shortfalls m the appomtrnent of programme functionaries especially
7.
teachers instructors were noticed. Despite the plogramme emphasis on
appolntmen: of high proportion of female teachers, 34 per cent of the schools
did not have even a single female teacher. Unstructured deployment of teachers
notIced m six States. Training schedules were also nct adhered to by the
States and large number of teachers and other programme functionaries could
not be tralntd
The Prol!ra:nme laid stress on decentralisation and participatory planning,
v
involVing the local community with the help of community based structures
46
such as Village Education Committee, Village Construction Committee, Parent
Teacher Association and Mother Teacher Association. However significant
gaps in the existence and functional status of these structures were observed.
The Block Resource Centres and the Cluster Resource Centres responsible for
providing onsite academic support and training to teachers, could provide
training/academic support to only 58 per cent of the teachers.
8. Many instances of diversion of funds were noticed, besides instances of
avoidable, idle and wasteful expenditure in the utilisation of resources.
9. Distribution of free text books and supplementary material to target groups was
not proper: 81 per cent of the schools confirmed receiving the text books and
44 per cent of the schools confirmed receiving other material for free
distribution to students. Against this only 64 and 24 per cent of the parents
confirmed (m a survey) havmg received textbooks and supplementary material,
respectively.
2.6 An Overview of the Literature Review
Thus, the review of related studies has enabled the researcher to conceptualise the
present problem as well as in identifying the factors, which are crucial determinants for
prvmoting school quality in the context of UEE. In particular, the review has points
out the following, which appear to be relevant in the present study context.
(I) The poor qualitv of primary education is root only a feature of the Indian primary
education but als0 in many other developing countries,
(2) AI,hough, the factors related to classroom and school processes are found to
influence quality of learning in primary schools more than the non-school factors, yet
the results of some studies are open to doubt.
(3) The tcacher factor is the most crucial factor, which determines the quality of
schooling,
(4) Qualitative research studies which have gone deeper into understanding the process
and practices of primary education is far and few especially in the Indian context.
47
(5) Studies pertaining to the role of support system in particular of the newly created
institutional structures are rarely attempted.
(6) DPEP intervention had failed to realise its intended objectives In tenns of
enhancing participation and achievement of children in primary schools. In
addition, the newly created structures under DPEP intervention were inadequately
functional.
Thus, in the light of the above, there is an imperative need for an in-depth study
to examine the role of institutional support systems for qualitative improvement in
primary education. Besides, the creation of academic support institutions at the district
and sub-district levels for bringing about qualitative improvement in universal primary
education is a recent phenomenon under DPEP programme. Hence it is of utmost
importance to examine the functions and activities performed by these iTJstitutions for
imprming school quality In the context ofUEE.
Further, in Kamataka State, there are no qualitative studies conducted in this
direction, which can throw light on the functional perfonnance of the support structure
to primary education.
effort m thIS direction.
Hence the present attempt can be considered as pioneering
48
CHAPTER- III
METHODOLOGY
In the previous chapter, the literature relating; to the present study was reviewed.
The review helped not only to evolve a conceptual and analytical framework for the
present study, but also to identify appropriate methodological design and suitable
research instruments. In the present chapter, the methods, materials and procedures
followed in conducting the study have been discussed.
3.1 Resea rch Design
In the light of the objectives outlined in the study, the present study has employed a
Case-Study approach to understand the role played by the institutional structures at
district and sub-district levels. A structural-functional approach has been adopted
for analysing the role and functional behaviour of various institutional structures.
Considering the objectives of the study, the issues raised therein and the nature of
data by and large being qualitative in nature, an in-depth case study approach seems
quite appropriate for the present study. The justification for such an approach is
necessitated in the context of examining the role played by various institutional
structures in the decentralised educational set up in promoting the school quality in
primary education. The unit of case is the district.
3.2 Sampling Design
A multi-stage stratified random sampling design has been followed to study the sample
units namely DIETs, BRCs, CRCs, School Complexes, VECs and Primary Schools.
The sample has been selected at four stages. In the first stage, the education division in
the State has been selected. The Stale of Karnataka has been divided into four
educational diviSIOns based on revenue administration. They are Bangalore, Mysore,
Gulbarga and Belgaum divisions. During the period of the study, Bangalore and
Mysore divisions had six districts each, Whereas, Gulbarga and Belgaum divisions had
49
I
four districts each. The details relating to female literacy attainments across the
disoicts in the State of Kamataka and the phase-wise launching of OPEP intervention
is presented in table 3.2.1 For purpose of the present study, the Bangalore education
di,,;sion \ .... as deliberately selected keeping in mind the familiarity of its geographical
location to the researcher.
Table 3.2.1: Female Literacy Attainments across the Districts and the Phase-wise
launching of OPEP in Kamataka
Di\;sions
Districts
Female
OPEP Sample Districts
Literacy
Phase
(%) 1991
DPEP Non-DPE?
_ ~ ~ ~ ~ S
.-
Bang.aiore
Bangaiore Urban
-- -- --
Bangaiore Rural
38.15 II
-- -
Kolar 37.75 [
Kolar --
Twnkur 41.93
-- --
Twnkur
Shimoga 51.42
-- -- --
Chitradurga 43.36
-- -- --
Mysore !\lysore 37.95
II - --
Mandya 36.70
[
-- --
Hassan 44.90
-- - --
I
Chikmagalur 51.31 -- -- --
Kodagu 61.22
-- -
--
Dakshina Kannada 67.96
-- -- -
Gulbarga Gulbarga 24.49 II -- --
I
Bellary 31.97
"
-- --
Raichur 22.15 I
--
--
Bidar 30.53 II -- -
Belgaum Belgawn 38.69 I -- --
Bijapur 40.06 II
-
-
Dharwar 45.20 II
- --
LJnar Kannada 56.77
--
-- --
In the second stage, the dIstricts under the Bangalore division were selected
based on the criteria of female literacy and OPEP intervention. Considering the
criteria of female literacy, according to 1991 census, the Kolar district revealed the
lowest female literacy rate of 37.75 per cent in the Bangalore division. Because of
such poor female literacy attainment Kolar district had the benefit of OPEP
intervention in the first phase itself. Therefore, Kolar district was selected as the
sample district under Bangalore division for the present study under OPEP
intervention. From among the four non-DPEP districts in Bangalore division,
50
Tumkur distnct revealed a lowcst kmalc literacy level of 41.93 according to 1991
census. Therefore, for purpose of comparison, Tumkur district was selected as the
non-DPEP district in the Bangalore dIvision. Thus, the District Institute of
Education and Training (DIET) was selected from Kolar and Tumkur districts as
sample units of institutional structures at the district level.
In the third stage, the blocks in the sample districts have been selected on the
basis of their proximity and remoteness from the district headquarters. Kolar district
had 12 educational blocks and Tumkur had 10 educational blocks. From Kolar
district, two blocks namely, Kolar and Gowribidanur were selected based on the
criteria of proximity and remoteness to the district headquarters. Similarly, from
Tumkur district, two educational blocks, namely, Tumkur and Kunigal blocks were
chosen on the basis of same criteria as followed in case of Kolar district. The
distribution of institutional structures and primary schools in these two districts is
presentcd in the table 3.2.2.
Table 3.2.2 Total Number of Institutional Structures and Primary Schools in the
Sample Blocks.
Institutional Kolar Tumkur
Structure Kolar
- (Gowribidanur
Tumkur Kunigal
DIET 01 01
-
BRC 01 01 -- --
I
------
CRC 14 10 -- --
--
i
SCx 21 20 28 30
VEC 432 311 427 429
------
Primary Schools 432 311 427 429
F or purpose of selecting institutional structures at the block level, it is only in
Kolar district that Block Resource centers exist because of DPEP intervention.
Therefore, the BRes from the sample blocks Thus, selected from Kolar district have
f0rmed the sample units at the block level. Such institutional structures were absent
in Tumkur district because of absence of DPEP intervention. Hence no BRCs
could be selected for purpose of comparison with that of Kolar.
51
In the fourth stage, institutional structures at cluster level namely, CRCs and
School Complexes from the sample blocks have been selected. In Kolar and
GO\\Tibidanur blocks there were 14 and 10 CRCs and 21 and 20 SCxes respectively.
From out of these CRCs and SCxes, 4 CRCs and 5 SCxes each falling under Kolar
and GO\\Tibidanur BRCs respectively, have been chosen on a random basis.
Comparatively, in Tumkur and Kunigal blocks there were no CRCs, but instead
there were 28 and 30 SCxes respectively. From out of these SCxes, 8 e c ~ falling
under Tumkur and Kunigal taluks have been selected randomly.
In the fifth stage, institutional structures at the village level from the sample
clustels have been selected from both DPEP (Kolar) and non-DPEP (Tumkur)
districts. It is to be noted that every village wlil have a VEC for a primary school.
Then: \\ere -U2 and 311 VECs in the sample blocks of Kolar district namely, Kolar
and GowTibidanur. respectively. Similarly there were 427 and 429 VECs in the
sample blocks ofTumkur district namely, Tumkur and Kunigal, respectivcly. Thus,
5 VECs each falling under the sample Clusters have been chosen on a random basis.
In all, 20 VECs have been selected as sample.
FlIlally. Pnmary Schools attached to the sample VECs have been selected for
purpose of studYing school quality In order to select primary schools, five schools
each falling under the sample VECs belonging to the sample four blocks have been
selected randomly. Thus, in all, 20 primary schools, 10 each from DPEP and non-
DPE' havc fomlCd the samp1\: school units.
The main reason for the Inclusion of non-DPEP district was for the purpose
of companson and understanding of the roles played by the newly created
institutional structures at district and sub-district levels in improving quality of
schooling
Thus, the tinal sample size selected for purpose of the present study includes
two DIETs, two BRCs, 8 CRCs. 20 SCxes, 20 VECs and 20 Primary schools. The
sample was drawn in sur.h a way that it forms a single chain of hierarchy in the
S2
t:ducational structure of the district originating from the basic school unit up to the
district level. The following flow chart delineates the distribution and number of the
sample units selected for tht: study.
Figure 3.2.1. Dlstnbution and Number of Sample Units selected for the Study
8angalore
,
DistrIct (DIETl
Block (BRC:
Cluster (CRCI
Clustt:r (SC,,)
cr
Village (VEC)
cr
Pnmar. Schools
D
3.3 Tools lsed for Data Collection
Kunigal
rp
rp
0
Sample
Size
2
4
8
20
20
20
Tht: prt:sent 1m t:stigation was undt:rtaken with a purpose of studying the role of
InstitutIOnal structures at dlstnct and sub-distnct levels in promoting school quality
In tht: contt:xt of UEE in Karnataka. As the present study is an in-depth case study,
\\hlch dt:mandt:d qualitatlvt: and descriptive data, a combination of checklists,
<ind IntcnIC\\ scht:dules havc bt:cn used This is further supplemented
by tcchniquc to collect data relating to classroom process and
documt:ntar:v analYSIS to collect data tiom various rt:cords, reports and other written
matenals available in tht: seleclt:d sample Institutions.
In all, fifteen research
53
instruments have been developed to gather data for the study. Each of these
instruments has been described here under.
3.3.1 Institutional Profile Checklist
A common format has been used to develop the checklist to gather data relating to
structure, composition and functional aspects of DIETs, BRCs,CRCs and SCxes.
Basically, the checklist has been used to capture the profile of these institutions in
tenns of physical infrastructure, academic infrastructure and equipment, personnel,
programme planning, internal management, training and capacity building related
activities etc. An adapted version of tools constructed and standardised by the
NIEPA for a national evaluation st'Jdy of DIETs in India has been used. These tools
attempt to elicit the infonnation on the structure, composition and functional
activities of each of the wings in the DIETs. In addition, these tools were also
meant to elicit vie\\s, attitudes, opinions etc., of the functionaries concerned with
DIET. A more or less similar fonnat has been used to develop the checklist for
collectlllg detailed infonnation relating to BRCs, CRCs and SCxes.
3.3.2 School Quality Indicator Checklist
ThIS checklist consists of IwO parts. A and B. Part A enquired into the infonnation
relallng to and material inputs in schools, its availability, adequacy and
working conditions. Part B attempts to gather infonnation relating to teachers in
tenns of their academic capacities, training and experience, external supervision and
monitonng support and such other related aspects. The data on school quality in
tenns of classroom teaching-learning process was obtained through the structured
obsef\atlOn of 11l11lted number of classes in action in the sample primary schools.
3.3.3 Inteniew Schedules
I ntcf\iew schedules have been developed to capture perceptions of the functionaries
of DIETs, BRCs, CRCs, SCxes, VECs and primary school teachers with regard to
their personal, academic and professional background information, goals and
objectives of UEE, nature of work and work load, interpersonal relationship,
methods of teaching, performance appraisal and job satisfaction, problems and
54
,
"
"
suggestions for improving their functional productivity and for improving the
efficiency of their respective institutions. While single interview schedule has been
canvassed at CRCs, SCxes and VECs, two interview schedules each have been
canvassed at the DIET and the BRC to gather information separately from the head
of the institution and the other faculty.
3.3.4 Questionnaire
In order to capture the perceptions of Pre-service trainees III the DIET, a
questIOnnaire has been developed and used. The questionnaire covers such relevant
areas as personal background information of the teacher trainees, perceptions about
infrastructure and academic facilities in the DIET, methods of teaching used by their
teachers, relationship with others in the DIET, supervision and feedback during
practice teaching lessons, motivation for joining the teacher training programme,
and suggestions relating to their training etc.
3.3.5 Validation of Researcb Instruments and Pilot Survey
The checklist, interview schedules and questionnaires developed by the researcher
for purpose of collecting data for the study were initially validated by giving it to the
experts and obtaining their view. This helped the researcher in refining the
indl\'idual Items in the checklist, interview schedules and questionnaires. In
addition, this also helped in identifying a few more aspects which were necessary
from the point of view of collecting comprehensive data for the study.
Subsequently, these research instruments were tried out on a small sample of
institutions in a pilot survey. This pilot survey was useful in further modifying the
question items. Besides, the pilot survey also helped the researcher in understanding
the nature of the available data and collecting baseline data for the main field study.
3.3.6 MLL Tests
The prescribed minimum learning competencies attained by the students in primary
schools is considered as an indEX of school quality in the present study. Hence for
purpose of assessment of Minimum Learning Competencies attained by the students
55
in the sample primary schools, an adapted version of MLL tests constructed and
standardised by the MLL study of the Institute for Social and Economic Change
(1998) have been used. These tests aim at measuring the competencies achieved in
Language, Mathematics and Environmental Science at the primary level.
In Mathematics, the major areas in the learning competencies were
I. Understanding the Whole numbers and numerals
! Ability to add, subtract, multiply and divide the Whole numbers
3. Ability to uSe and solve simple problems of daily life relating to units of money,
It'nk,>1h, mass (weight), capacity, area and time
4 Ability to uSe fraction, decimals and percentages
5 To understand the geometrical shapes and spatial relationship etc.
In [T1\lwnmental Science, the major areas in the learning competencies were
I. A \\areneSS about one's well being in the context of social and natural
dc\dopment
! Exploring thc important aspects of one's social and CIVIC environment and
comprehend their working knowledge about various people at work and
appreCiatIOn of the importance world of work
3. Understand;ng and interpretation of spatial and interactive relationship between
man and hiS em'ironment
4. To see the relationship between past and present and to hold the past in the
present perspectl\ e
5. Sensing common but simple and easily observable soclo-economlc situations
and problems, analyses them and seeks possible solutions at his/her level of
experience
6. To understand the factors contributing to the preservation of good health
7. To develop skIlls ill gathering and classifying infOimation about living things
fro:n one's environment and drawing simple references
8. Observation and exam1l1ation of some common characteristics of non-living
things
9. To observe Simple phenomenon on the carth and in the sky and draw inferences
etc.
56
In language, the major dimensions of learning competencies included are
Ability to read, write and understand the words
Understanding the sequence of words ill forming meaningful sentences
Ability to understand the fundamental concepts like Noun, Pronoun, Adjective,
Verb, Tense, Gender, Number (Singular/Plural) etc.
Knowledge about the synonyms and antonyms of single words for
Phrases/Sentences.
Ability to arrange the words alphabetically, etc
In addition, documentary analysis technique has been used to gather relevant
data from reports, guidelines, Job charts, office records and circulars etc.
3A Sources and Collection of Data
The data for the present study have been drawn from both primary and secondary
sources. Quantitative as well as qualitative data have been collected from these
sources.
The quantitative data gathered for the present study include parameters such
as enrolmcnt. institutions and other infrastructure facilities etc relating to State,
district and blocks. These data have been essentially collected from thc Annual
Reports of thc Kamataka and India.
The qualitative data have been collected through primary sources from the
DIETs. BRCs. CRCs, SCxes, VECs and primary schools through interviews and
discussions. In addItion, the stake-holders such as teachers, community members
and educational functionaries in primary education have also been interviewed to
seek their perceptions and views about the performance of various institutional
structures in the improvement of quality in primary education in the district.
Additionally, participant and non-participant observation techniques have also been
used to collect qualitative data relating to the process of teacher training and
classroom curricular transaction. These data were separately recorded and
57
maintained as field diary notes, which have also been used wherever necessary.
Besides, the existing documents in the institutions and educational offices also
served as secondary source for gathering data relating to the activitits and functions
of the institutional structures. The data relating to learning attainments of children
\\ere collected by administering the achievement tests to all the students studying in
standard three of the selected sample schools.
3.5 Procedure for Collection of Data
As the present study involved collection of primary and secondary data from the
field, the major part of the fidd visit was spread over a penod of ten months
beginning from the academic year 1999 to 2000. During this period the researcher
regularly visited the DIETs, BRCs, CRCs, SCxes, VECs and primary schools
located In Kolar and Twnkur districts to collect main data for the present study.
However, after the collection of main data from the field, a few additional visits had
to t-e undertaken by the investigator to fill in certain data gaps, which emerged
during the analysis stage. For collection of the data for the present study, the
concerned personnel in the sdected institutions were initially contacted by the
investigator to build rapport and to apprise them about the importance of the study.
Dunng the prelimInary visits, the officials were informed that their responses would
be treated \vlth strict confidence and would be usc:d for research purpose only Thus,
these prelimInary visits helped the investigator to understand the nature of database
as well as obtaining insights into field reality.
For purpose of collecting qualitative data relating to training programmes,
VEC meetings and classroom interaction, a programme of visit schedule to the
selected institutions was prepared by obtaining prior infonnation from the concerned
authorities. Accordingly, personal visits were made to these institutions to make
on the spot observation of some random cases of training programme, VEC meeting
deliberations and classroom interactions.
58
In order to assess the learning attainments of children the available
standardised Minimum Levels of Learning (MLL) tests were administered to all the
children in class III in the selected schools.
3,6 Opel'ational Definitions
For purpose of clarity and defining the framework of the present study, certain key
temJs and concepts used in the study are discussed and operationally defined.
Role:
The Random House Dictionary or English language (p.1241) detines rok in
terms :)f proper or customary function. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of
Sociology (199-+. pp -+52-..\53) says that the term 'role' is a key concept In
soclO10gical theory and it highlights the social expectations attached to particular
statuses or social positions and analyses the working of such expectations. The
International Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences (1968, P.564) defines 'role' as to
represent the behaviour expected of the occupant ot a given position or status.
Expectation (i e, beliefs, cognitions) held by certain persons in regard to what
behaviours are appropriate for the occupant of a given position and enactment (i .e.
conduct) if a person who is assi/:,'T1ed to or elects to enter a given position. In line
with the above. 'role' in the present study is defined in terms of functions and
activities performed by various institutional structures as per the preocribed norms.
Institutional Structure:
The Random House Dictionr.ry of English language (1967, p.737) defines
'institution' as an organisation, estal)lishment, foundation, society or the like,
de\oted to the promotion of a particular object especially one of a public educational
or charitable character. The Encyclopaedia of Sociology (1974, p. 141) defines
institution as a relatively prevalent way of thought or action that centers around such
basic SOCial functions as marriage, government or education.
59
A Dictionary of Modem Politics and Political Sociology by B P Singh ( 1987,
pp.140-141) reveals that "Analytically speaking 'institutions' are patterns of values
and norms structured to condition behaviour of their members both withIn the
institutions and in its relationship with other units of the social systems in terms of
ethos or actions".
The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Sociology by Gordon Marshall (1994, p.
517) reveals that the structure or social structure is a term loosely applied to any
recurring pattern of social behaviour; or more specifically to the ordered inter-
relationships between the d.i fferent elements of a social system or society.
Agamst the above backdrop, "institutional structures" in the present study,
essentially refer to the formal institutions established by the State government for a
specific purpose of providing academic and technical support to the mainstream
educational organisations and institutions These institutional structures are created
following the recommendations of the NPE (1986, 1992) for realising the goal of
Universalisation of Elementary Education in the decentralised set up. The major
purpose of these institutional structures is to enhance capacities of schools, teachers
and other educational functionaries towards improving the quality of pnmary
educatIOn. Thus, the institutional structures in the present study are the DIETs at the
district l e \ ~ l BRes at the block level, CRes and School Corr:plexes at the cluster
bel and VECs at the village level.
School Quality:
In general the term, quality is a relative tenn or property that all programmes have
and it may mean different things to different people. It indicates something good,
better and superior etc although it depends on the place, time, perception and the
context in which it IS used. But whether the quality is good or bad can be
determined onlv through Judgment which is conditioned by considerations of cost
and availability. Cost and resources influence the degree of improvement in quality
as far as provider's angle is considered. From the beneficiary point of view ability
and willinl,'Tless to pay will be influenced by the pursued quality. In this connection,
60
one can very easily say that quality is what the clients perceive and not what the
providers assume, It is difficul
l
to speed')' the standard uf desired quality from both
the providers and clients' perspectives, Yet, programmes can and should be expliCit
about their quality goals, Acceptance and continuatIOn are dependent upon the
feeling of satisfaction of an individual Better quality and client Orientation \\ Ii I
shift the scale in favour of the programmes
Literature relating to school education across the world IS replete \\ Jlh
various aspects vf school quality, The review of such literature reveals that different
researchers have used different indicators for measuring school quality. Some of the
important among them are the components of school expenditure, specific material
inputs. teachers' and school managel11ent and structun.:,
The quality of education is a nebulous notion about which little beyond
rather truistic generalisations are knov.'l1 (Burton), However, considering the various
available parameters used to define quality in general, it is noted that the quality of
education is defined in terms of what students achieve i.e. outputs of the educational
sYstem rather than the nature of inputs used in their education (Blaug, 1970), The
qualitv of educatIOn is also viewed as qualitative change which can be defined as "a
Simple linear expansion or diminution of current practice more or less, of "hat
alrc1dy exists: more buildings, more students and teachers, fewer examination of the
present types and standards" (Beeby. 1979) It is also noticed that the definition of
goals, the content of the school curriculum, the organisation oflhe teaching-learning
process and teaching styles in the schools have also received prominence in the
recent past (Hopkins, 1987)
Thus, the above definitions suggest that school quality is a m'Jltifaceted and
complex phenomenon involving so many factors, It is of course true that many
researchers tend to equate school quality with that of school effectiveness, In order
to assess school quality, some researchers give priority to the availability of physical
and human inputs or the quality of actors (teachers) and actions (teaching-learning
61
process) involved in the school functioning. Some others give an overriding PriorIty
!"or the learning achievement in the classrooms.
With regard to the school quality there is no consensus among the
researchers and educationsists as to what constitutes quality in primary education?
Although, the understanding of the quality parameters in a developing country like
India is very poor, it is a general agreement that the school quality in primary
education can be more objectively and concretely seen in terms of the quality of
pnmary schools in areas such as the level of availability of infrastructure facilities,
phvsical and human resource capacities, classroom processes and learning
achievement in ditTerent subjects.
In the Indian context, although quality of school education had received
attentIOn m the earlier period, the real impetus to achieve quality in school education
\\as strongly elT'phasized by the NPE (1986) and POA (1987) in realising the goal of
UEE Accordingly, the policy emphasized in addition to universal access to
schooli ng, universal retention and universal learning attainments. Therefore, the
efTort was towards achieving minimum levels oflearnmg competencies of individual
chIld m pnmary educatIOn.
Thus, it is clearly evident that the comprehensive coceptualisation of school
quality brings together various physical and human inputs along with classroom
processes and learning attainment. Therefore in the present study, the school quality
IS undcrstood in terms of the availability of the physical, material and human
resource inputs, academic atmosphere in the schools, curricular transactions,
teacher-pupil ratio, participatio!1 of children in the classroom activities and their
learnmg attainments.
rnivcrsalization of Elementary Education (UEE):
For purpose of present study, the parameters considered for UEE are the enrolment,
retentIOn and learning achievement levels.
62
3.7 Theoretical Framework
To provide an appropriate theoretical approach to the present study, a brief review of
perspectives of ditferent approaches on organisational change is considered
necessary.
A review of management literature reveals that the rediscovery of the role and
nature of the administrative system required to support developmental planning in
de\eloping nations is one of the most striking features of recent literature on the
administration of social service organisations. It is now recognised that the new
administration is both qualitatively and quantitatively different and hence requires
diner.:nt approach.:s and techniques to those available in traditional theory and in
the de\elopmelltal context. Although there is no unique opinion among the thinkers
In different fi.:lds as far as the distinct categories of approaches are concerned,
researches on the whole can be analysed on four basic conceptual approaches.
Generally the lour Important approaches are normative, structural, behavioural and
human relations approach and notably these are interdependent, though differ from
each other in certain cases.
The normative approach focuses 0'1 the beliefs, values, norms and traditional
Inertia, which together give rise to a particular ideological orientation and influence
the c h o i c e ~ which ought to b.;: made. This approach also focuses on the values,
which define equity and legitimacy principles, the norms that establish rights and
obligations, the customs, which are the backbone of a civilization. These approaches
not only treat the ",hole society as a unit of analysis but also having closely
associated with a modern neo-Marxists and the holistic school of structural
functIOnalism diagnose the meaning :lJ1d functional significance of social action in
terms of' what val ues they scrw' or 'what social needs they seek to b'Tatify'.
The three important assumptions of these approaches were observed by
Apter and Andrainl. The first assumption denotes that the conflict between the
I Apter, David E and Andrain Charles: Comparilll'e Guvernment; /)eve/oping Nations, Berkeley,
Calif. Insttitute of International Studies, 1976, p.p.89-97.
63
opposing values and groups of contradictory ideas are the chief source, of major
source of change in a society. The second is that the key to social events is the
subjective experiences of cultural being that is the man. The third assumption is that
a sense of shared values is that both of democracy and modernisation and Thus,
value conflicts are seen as barriers to development and the achievement of
democratic institutions.
The structural or systems approach to the analysis of organisations has its
theore:iral foundations in the structural-functional tradition of Sociology. This
approach focuses mainly on the structure of organisation, that is the role and center
of responsibilitles and their inter relationships. This approach further includes
chan,l!es in the chain of command by creatir.g newer roles through redefining them
and by restating the managerial and administrative styles at different levels. Thus,
this approach tends to increase effectiveness through changing structures and these
changes can be broadly classified into four sub-categories.
The first structural change follows the classical organisational principles
de\cloped by Henry fayol, Mooney, Reiley and Urwick
c
etc. Out of the deductive,
ratIOnal and milItary based thinking, the pnnciple of maximisation of organisational
perfonnance by optimising organisational structure is derived through division of
labour, system of authority etc. One of the interesting points is that in structural
approach early developments used people as the mediators to improve task
perfonnance For example, a change may attempt to improve perfonnance or tasks
by defining and classifying the jcbs according to the potentiality of an individual
member. This aspect of structural change is legalistic and fom1al as far as the
classical principles of organisation is concerned. The values of these approaches are
associated with discipline and authority.
: L emick. "lile Mal/aKa's ,\fUIII of('olllrol",Harvard Bussiness Review, XXXIV, 1956, p.pJ9-
47
64
The second way of structural approach to change organisation is based on the
mechanism of decentralisation. This has been widely accepted by both structuralists
::.nd humanists. The process of decentralisation has a greater impact on task
attamments and hence sub-centers of power, decision making and information are
created through this. As a result of this tht.: system becomes more flexible which
increases autonomy, making the system more responsive to the changes involving as
111a'1\ pc-ople as It can.
The third way of structural appro<:ch to change organisations is that what
Gouldner' calls an engineering approach. By seeking modifications in the structures,
behaviour of peoplt.: is modified to improve the task performance. According to the
propc,nents of this approach the planning of workflow influences the moralt.:,
beha\iour and out put of its employees. The determination of designs of work
almost by the task and technological variables and ignoring the human and social
\ anables was O:1e of the mai n reasons for the failure of the earlier structural model.
Lastly, variations In communication may considerably affect the
perfonnance of the task as has been emphasized by Glazer and Glaser
4
Hence, the
communication structure needs to be developed in consonance with the 'task'; an
orgal1lsatlOn IS expected to be performed. Thus, there can be centralised
communication system or else an open communication system, Introduction of
computer knowledge has further affected the mechanism in most of the
organisations
The humanistic approach focuses mainly on affecting changes ill the
beha\ lour of organisation members. The proponents of this approach have argued
that by changmg the human behaviour one can device techniques that may help him
to reach the higher level of task perfection. Thus, the humanistic approach is
, A Gouldner 'I.Xp/()rctIJOIJ III (JrX(//lI.\(/(JolJa/ Soc,," ,',(,wileI.' P, Social Problem, !Ii, 1956, P p 173-
81
~ 1 Glanzer and R. Glaser "TechlllqJlesfi)r (he S(JI(./y{)f<JruJlp StructJlre and BehaViour-f/",
Psychological Bulletin, LVIII, 1961, p P 1-27.
65
directed towards the human elements focusing on human growth and fulfilment of
the human expectations and desires. A direct relationship is likdy to exist between
the level of satisfaction attained and affectivity of the task performance. The
proponents of these approaches view organisational change primarily as a people
oriented process. This is made clear by a survey of recent literature on humanistic
approach
Lippitt, Jenne Watson and Westl/, Lawrence", Guest
7
and Ginzberg and
are the important scholars who basically concentrated on the human aspect
of organisational change in their conceptualisation incorporated the principles of
human dynamics with stress on how by changing the interaction processes, can a
desired change in the organisation be brought about. These approaches have been
broadly classified into two sub-approaches, depending on the focus of the analysis.
(3) Manipulative people approach Dale was the first person, who dealt
primarily with the Issue of how to make people do what we want them to do') In this
conneclion he a modd, which focuses on the change assuming that change
in the attitudes and feelings are pre-requisites for bringing about changes in
behaviour. He also proposed that person change other persons first by devell)ping a
relationship valuable to other persons and thereby using that relationship as a lever
for bringing about the changes.
Kurt Lemn Ii' and French and Coch II adopted the methodology which was to
provide opportunities for need satisfaction and to corner the !,'TOUp forces and
I R Jenne \\"3tson & B Westb The D\namics oCPlarned Change. Harcourt, Brace, New York. 1'I<g
t. P Lawrence The Changmg of Organisational Behaviour Palteras, Harward Uni.ersity Division oCResearch.
Boston. 1<;58
, R H Guest (Jrgam.latltmal ("hallg": Tnt" I:flcClofS"'"C<'u/id I.cadershlp. Dorsey Press, Ill, In\ln, 1962
E (jm/berg & E. Red" l:ifeellllg Change III Ltrgc OrganisatIOns, Columbia UniverSIty Press, New York,
1957
9 Dale Camegle to Will Frlt'nds and }nfil"'nce People. Somon and Schuster, New York, 1936
I (J K Lewin .. ( irrJllp Decision and Socwl ('haIlYc" ill G.E. Swanson, .T.M.
FLHarlley, d., Re(uiing 'n Social PsycholoKY. Holt, New York, 1952. p.p.4S9-73.
Newcomb alld
66
thcm toward th.:: desircd changes. An analysis of early studies reveals that
th.::se have dealt effectively with the questions of 'effect' and 'involvement', but
negl.::ct.::d the concept of power as constant variable. Other contemporary
human approachcs have also generally avoided a discussion on power and those
approaches, which Included in their analysis the power variable, have placed the
emphasis on equal isatlOn of power rather than on the di fferentiation of power.
b) The power Equalisation Approach: This approach is developed as a result of the
research done on IIldividuals and slllall groups which were then extrapolated tll the
level of organisation Initiative in thiS direction has come from the Roger's:! work
on cllcnt centered therapy and Mile'sl1 probe into applied group dynamics. In both
the cases, and tcchlllque were distinctly aimed at examining the possibility of
dlstnbuting equal p()wer at least to changcs. Both these cone-eplual constructs
shared a common basic pnnclple that by changing people, major changes could
easl" be brought out in the organisation
EmphaSIS on some other aspects of human phenomenon like morale,
senSitivity and psychuloglcal secunty and also on human growth and fulfilment of
human deSires along with the effectiv..: task accomplishment by these approaches.
These approach..:s provide thought which make effort for internally generated
changes in indl\iduab, groups and organisation as against extemally planned and
implemented changcs. rhese approaches also highlight operationally that power
should he more ..:qual" distnhuted In an organisation hy encouraging independent
d":clslOn makillg. dcccntralisation morc open communication and participation.
ChrIS Argyris
l4
also made an attempt in this direction. In his wo.k of improving
, I L C'och & J RP French "(h'eI"Col/liIlX He.,islallce 10 Chal/X,,", Human Relations, I, 1948, p.p.) 12-
33
" C' R Roger ('hl'lll ( 'el/lered 111<'1""1')'. Iloughton Mimi n, New York, 1962.
I' \1 B /lulII(1If Udal/ol/.l 11"(11111111', !'wcn.,e., alld Outcollles p. Journal ofCc'ullselling
P,)cholog), \'11,1960, P P 301-no
" Chris .\rgyris !IIIerl'erso/J(/! ('om/"'Ioln' ilIid (}lgmllsilllO/lal !,tfecliwl/ess, Dorsery Press Ill,
I min, 1962
67
administrative sompetence, to reduce the degree of defensiveness in an organisatIOn,
he stressed not only on the need to bring about in decisions and in the performance
of tasks but also emphasises the need for the deve:opment of an atmosphere of
authentic relatIOnships in which an individual enhances his own and others
awareness and gets acceptance in such a way that others can do the same.
In recent times, the planners of Power Equalisation (PE) approach have not
only stressed the need for reformulating the problem of an early PE study such as
that of eoch and French implied a causal relationship between psychological well
being and productivity and referred to the notions of "Integrated Management" al1d
.. team management" (Robert, Blake and Mouton, 1964) which explain the maximum
concern for persons as well as for task requirements and the integral relationships.
The technological approaches were one of the approaches to organisational
change classified by Dalton and Barnes. These approaches focus mainly on the
technology, which plays a dominant role in bringing organisational change.
According to these approac}les, an organisation generally remolds itself in response
to the development of new technologies and techniques, which stimulate the process
of effective implementation of policies, desib'Tled to achieve its specific goals.
The history of technological improvements could be traced to the evolution
ofTaylor'sl5 SCIentific management in the early 20th century. His theory was based
on the basic principles of work management. Not only the new set of skills
pertaining to industrial engineering were emerged out of this theory, but also the
entire organisational thinking in the industrial world was changed radically.
As a result of the recent advancement m computer revolutions, highly
mathematical infonnation theories have been developed. These theories have
significant relevance to the explanation of the prediction about organisational
change in their specific facets. This can be made clear with an example that
15 F. W Taylor: Scimtific Management, Harper, New York,1911.
68
personnel management has become more effective after tbe technique of "testing
attitude surveying", and "jobs evaluating Operation research
techniques, which are the fonns of the recent counterparts of technological change,
have been developed considerably for adopting problem solving mechanism in
organisation.
Thus, the closer examination of the different approaches on organisational
change reveals that these approaches remain an-unified subject and different
approaches of organisational change are subjected to analysis by diflerent
disciplines. Each gives its own particular description from a specific perspective.
Tht:re is not, as yet a general theory of organisational change.
The present study seeks to analyse the effective role performance of the
newly created institutional structures m (enns of their functions within th-:: larger
organisational framework to improve the quality in primary education. The study by
concentrating on the functional perfonnance of the district and sub-district level
institutional structures has attempted to examine the feasibility of such innovations,
capacity building strategies and subsequent professionalisation of the functionaries
within the structural-functional model.
3.8 of Analysis
The present study being qualitative in nature, the mode of analysis has been
descriptIve and mterpretative. This is further supplemented by narrative analysis of
a few cases. The qualitative data from records, registers and other similar
documents have been analysed in tenOlS of typologies, by collapsing them into
discrete categories. For purpose of analysing quantitative data, simple measures like
frequencies, percentages anCI averages have been worked out, where-.er necessary.
Graphic presentations have also been used to indicate trends and patterns.
69
CHAPTER- IV
UNIVERSALISATION OF ELEMENTARY
EDUCATION IN KARNATAKA - PROGRESS AND
PROBLEMS
In the prevIOus chapter, the methods, materials and procedures followed in
conducting the study were discussed in detail. The present Chapter deals with the
analysis of macro data relating to progress of UEE in Karnataka and In the two sample
districts (Kolar and Tumkur) selected for the present study. UEE is assessed In tenns
of certain para;neters such as literacy, enrolment, dropouts, schools, teachers and
Teacher-Pupil Ratio (TPR) Secondary data from Census documents and Statistical
Reports of the government have been used for this analysis. Before thiS, a hrief
description about the general background, demographic profile of the State of
Kamataka and structure and organisation of education in the State is presented.
4.1 Educational Progress in Karnataka: An Overview
In this section, an attempt has been made to assess the growth of elementary
education in the State of Kamataka. This has been done with a view to obtain a clear
picture about UEE in the State. For this purpose the avaIlable secondary data have
been used. Before attempting at this exerCise, an attempt has been made to present
the general background of the State.
Karnataka State: a General Background
The Present State of Karnataka was fonned on I st November 1956. It comprises
primarily Kannada speaking areas, which originally formed the whole of old Mysorc
State and the Coorg State and parts of the former States of Madras, Bombay and
Hyderabad. The resource rich State is situated in the western part of the Deccan
peninsula of the Indian union and is stretched in between II 31' and 18 45' north
latitudes and 74 12' longitudes. Maharashtra borders the State in :he north, Andhra
Pradesh in the east, Tamilnadu In the southeast and K.:rala in the south.
70
Kamataka with an area of 1.92 lakh square kms accounts for 5.83 percent of the
total area of the country (3288 lakh Sq. Kms). It ranks seventh among the major
States of the country in tenns of :iize. As per the 2001 census (Provisional Population
Totals, Series 30, C ~ n s u s of India, Kamataka), the State's popula:ion is around 527
lakhs. Between 1991-2001 the population of the State increased by 17.25 % as against
an all India increase of 2 I .34%. With regard to population among major States
Kamataka occupies eighth place. Of the total population, about 26& lakhs were males
and 259 were females and sex ratio being 964 females per thousand males. With the
increase in population, the human density has risen from 235 in ; 991 to 275 in 2001
indicating a rapid increase.
Kamataka is especially rich in mineral wealth. It has deposits of gold, iron,
manganese, bauxite, copper and chromate etc. It was one of the earliest States to
electrify all its villages. Today the capital city of the State (Bangalore) is the hub of
the infonnation technology and electwnics in the Country.
According to 2001 census, Karnataka has a lIteracy rate of67 percent, which
is more than the national average that stands at 65.38 percent. Further, the literacy
rate among women in the State has increased rapidly (from 44 % in 1991 to 58
percent in 20011 as compared to men (from 67 percent in 1991 to 76 percent in
200 II The details in this regard are presented in the succeeding paragraphs.
As a result of Sir Charles Woods Despatch in 1854, systematic activity in the
modern education began in Karnataka as elsewhere in India. The structure of
education was mainly based on the plans fonnulated by the Directors of the East
India Company. During the period of more than a century, the structure underwent
se\eral changes. A prescribed and unifonn structure is followed in the State only
after the reorganisation of State in 1956.
71
Structure of Education
Karnataka is one of the earliest States to adopt the 10+2-,-3 pattern of education. The
lower primary and the higher primary stages extend to four and three years
respectively. A three-year high schoo! or secondary stage follows this. However, in
order to bring in uniformity into the national pattern, from the year 2002-03, the
lower primary stage (I - IV) has been upgraded to I - V in the State. Further, during
the year 2003-04, the higher primary stage also has been upgraded from V - VII to
VI - VII. The +2 stage is available in some high schools, Composite Junior
Colleges, Independent Colleges and in Degree Colleges. The State has provision for
Vocational Education, Training Institutions, Industrial Training Institutes,
Pol
y
1echnics, Agriculture and Vett:rinary Collegt:s, Medical and Engineering
Colleges and Postgraduate Research facilities. Tht: State follows its syllabus at
\arious stagt:s of school education. Apart fonn this, the State also has schools,
which follow CBSE, ICSE, ISC syllabus etc.
Management Setup
1r. the State, there are three Ministers of Cabinet rank to lookafter education. They
are Minister for Higher Education, Ministt:r for Primary and Secondary Education
and Minister for Medical Education. The Ministers for Higher Education, Primary,
Seco'ldary and Adult Education are saved by the two Secretariats, who are in the
rank of senior lAS officers at the State level. The four Deputy Secretaries, who are
in the lAS cadre, further assist these two Secretaries. The Education Secretariat is
responsible for policy making, planning, budgeting and sllch other support services
for educatIOn sector. The Secretariat not only co-ordinates with planning, finance
and other concrned Ministers, but also assists them in the Cabinet meetings and
legislative functioning with regard to educatIOn. They also assist in the release of
grants to the supporting departments, liaison with the Ministry of Human Resource
Development at the Union level, foreign and other donor agencies etc. They further
assist in fixing nonns and broad guidelines for further growth, expansion and
development of qualitative improvement of education, monitor and evaluate the
work of various departments and programmes with regard to educatio!1.
72
To shoulder the administrative responsibility of school education, there is an
o1Tice of the Commissioner of Public Instruction, headed by a Commissioner, who is
in the rank of an lAS officer. The Commissioner co-ordinates, supervises and
guides all the activities of all the departments of education that have executive
responsibilities. He is assisted by eight State level Officers, namely the Director for
Primary Education, Director for Secondary Education, Director for Examinations
(also the Chairman of Secondary Education Board), Director for Pre-University
Education, Director for Research and Training, Director for Urban and Minority
Language Schools, Director for Mass Education and Director for Vocational
Education. Further, these Directors are assisted by a number of Joint, Deputy and
Assistant Directors.
The State comprises of four educatIOnal divisions and each division has a
Secretary and Ex-officio Joint Director of Public Instruction (.lDPI), who has a
limited direct control over the activities and programmes at the district leveL The
four diVIsions consIst of 32 educational districts as against 27 revenue districts and
each distnct has a Deputy Director of Public Instruction (DDPI) who looks after
educational activities at the district level In the case of districts, which are too big,
more than one DDPI is placed. fhere are 202 Educational Blocks/Ranges, which
are classified under the abo\e mentioned districts. The Block Educational Officer
(BEO), who has to assist the DDPls at the district level, heads each educational
Block or Range. The BEO is in-charge of both Primary and Secondary Education in
the Block or educational range Thus, in an hierarchical set-up, the JDPIs at the
dl\lsional level, the DDPIs at the district level and BEOs at the block level are under
the control of CommIssioner of Public Instruction at the State level.
It is signIficant to note that powers and responsibilities for school education
are vested with district level Local Self Government Institutions known as Zilla
Parishads (ZPs), headed by a CEO (Chief Executive Officer) of an lAS cadre. In a
three-tier system of Panchayat of Kamataka, the ZP is supported by Taluk
Panchayat at the Block and Village Panchayat at the Village levels. At the districts
the developmental heads including DDPI are under the control ot CEO at the
73
district. With the launching of DPEP in the State during 1994, a s e p r t t ~ parallel
administrative structure has been created. The structure and the various
functionaries under the OPEP project are discussed in the following paragraphs. A
schematic representation of the administrative setup of school education (primary
and secondary) including that of DPEP in Karnataka State is presented in the figure
4.1.
74
Flgun.: 4.1' Administrative Setup (Primary and Secondary Education) in Karnat<lka Stall:
Mlfllstry of Education
(Pnmary iHld Secondary'
T
Education Sccrctalic,
(i'nmary anu Second.,, Education)
T
Commissioner of Public Instruction
T




+
...
Director i nrcdor Din:clt
Director I )!n ..'\,;h,r
(SI:, (LMS)
Inrector
(1'1,,) (SSLC ( }ther
II )S)',R
i\ JNJS)
Exam)

I,
i
IlI)PI J)) J1)
JD .II)
WE)
( Scholll (LMS, (SSLC
(/lSFRT)
Ednl Exam)
I
,.
...
I
T
& JD
'I" "I"
(Ex ...Officlo)
DIET ClE
DJ)J'J DDI'I LlDrJ
KSU:Il-
Plnnnlll!! (SE) (Phy_EJnl
RefUurwl
..
DDPI
l'
CE() lltlla Pan"haJ)
j
Hl
sT


DI)PI
l..oL
I
Source:
Note:
,
BH)
l'
Educational Coordinator
Brochure on Educational Statistics (199'1-2000), Office of the CPI, Bangalore
PE - Primary EducatiC>n, SE - Secondar, EducatIon. LMS -- Language Minority Schools
UNJS - United Nations Joint SYstem, I'.d . ,\d'l1'nJ<tra(lOn. JD - Joint Director
Phy Edn - Ph) slcal Educaholl. SI -- Subjcci Inspector, EO Educallonal Omcer,
CTE - College of Teacher :education, Oir DifeGlor_ DD -- Dq)ut\ Directol
SAD - SClllor ASSistant DIrector, AI) -- OrfL'Cll)f
OPO --Ol>\lIcl ProJect OI'flccL [)\ PCO - DeplI\\ Pr"lc',\ (oordlll.tor, CO - (',,,-,,<l1I13tor
VEC - Village Education CommIttee
* - Stllte Planning, .*. Programmes. 11 - No\\' rcplll(l'd SDMCs
...
!)irc
etm
(Ad)
t
I )IJ"
Dire
IM:P
Clor
(MM
..
<\

r
75
DlT'"
..
))1)
..
SAD
..
All
DPO
l'
DyPCO
I
CO
(ORC)



Organisation and Management under DPEP
lJndl:r the Societies Rl:gistration Act, an autonomous socidy namely, Karnataka
I'rathamlka Shikshana Vikasa YOJan<l Samitl (KPSVYS) has been established by the
(Jovernlllent of Karnataka I(lr the purpose of implementing thc project It has a
governing council headed by the Iionourabic ChicI' Mlnlstcr and an Executive
Committee headed by the PrIncipal Secretary of Education Department. The State
Project Director is the Member Secretary of both the Committees. The Council is
the apex authority for the prolect and provides overall policy guidelines and
direction for implementation of the project, reviews annual accounts, pro!:,'Tess
reports and amends the bye-laws as and when required. The Executive Committee
has all administrative and financial powers to achieve the objectives of the project
including powers to cstablish positions/create posts in the project office and make
appointments.
Working System of DPEP
The State Project Office headed by a full time Project Director who is responsible
for the day to day administration and the affairs of Karnataka Prathamika Shikshana
Vikasa Yojana Samiti (KPSVYS) At the district level, a District Project
Implementation Committee (DPIC) has been established under the Chairmanship of
the Deputy Commissioner and District Magistrate. The Chief Executive Officer of
Zilla Parishad is the Vice-Chairman of this committee. The Deputy Director of
Public Instructions of the district, who functions as eX-!lfficio District Project Co-
ordinator, is the Member Secretary of the DPIC. The DPIC is responsible under the
overall guidance of the executive committee for all matters relating to the project at
the district level. At the block level, Block Implementation Committee (8IC) has
been form cd under the Chainnanship of the Block Fducational Officer The Co-
ordInator of the Block l{eSOl!fL'e Ccntrc (nRC') IS tile fvklllbcl' SecretarY of me. At
lhe cluster level, CRCs havc bccn formcd. r\t till: villagc Ie\cl Village Education
Committees (Vr::cs) have been fOrIm:d I(.)r \\ Ilirii the I lead Maste;/IIe,ld Mistress of
lhe local primary school is thc Ml:ll1ber Secretary to look arter the primal)' education
as a whole.
76
Growth of Literacy in Karnataka
In this section, an attempt has been made \0 assess the grmvth of literacy In the
State. Literacy is not only a major indicator of educational development hut also a
key clement, which can indicate the status of UEE in a partICular region The
literacy attainments in the State have been reviewed using Census figures. The
details of literacy percentages of the State since 1951 are as sho\'.TI in the table 4. I. I.
Table 4.1.1: Literacy Rates (%) Total, Rural and Urban areas in Kamataka, 1951-
2001
--
Year Total
Rural Urban
Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female
o ~ ~
1951 29.1 9.2 19.2 24.0 5.0 14.5 47.0 23.0 35.0
1961 36.1 14.2 25.2 3 j.4
8.6 20.0 55.9 32.3 44.1
1971 48.5 24.6 36.6 40.7 17. I 28.9 69.3 483 58.8
1981 58.7 33.2 46.0 51.1 23.8 37.5 76.5 56.4 66.5
1991 67.3 44.3 55.8 60.3 34.8 47.6 82.0 65.7 73.9
2001* 76.3 57.5 66.9 70.6 45.8 58.2 86.9 74.9 80.9
Source Census Documents, 1951 to 1991
Literacy rates for 1951 and 1961 relate to the entire population
Literacy rates from 1971 to 200 I relate to tht: effective literacy rates
* Provisional Population Totals, Series 30, Census of India, Kamataka,
2001
It can be seen from the above table 4.1.1 that the total literacy rate has
moved up from 19.2 percent in 1951 to 66.9 percent in 200 I. Similarly, the literacy
rates among men and women have also increased during the period, with women
registering slightly higher gains (48.3 percent as against 47.2 percent for males).
This has resulted in narrowing the gender differenti;lis in literacy over the period.
However, the gender gap persists to the extent of 18.8 percent in 2001 (see graph
4.1.1).
77
IGraph 4 1.1: Showing the Literacy Percentages of the State

Ol
"

Qj

'"
(\.
90
80
70
60
50
40

30
20
10
0
1951 1961 19i 1
Year
----.
i
1981 1991 2001
- ._---,

____ Female
--1/1.- Total
--M--M ale-Female
Ga.
It is also evident from the table 4.1.1 that the literacy rates in rural and urban
areas reveal an increasing trend. However, the gains seem to be more in favour of
urban regions as compared to rural between 1951 and 2001. Additionally, the rural
- urban differences have persisted right through 1951 to 200 I at the State level.
Graph 4.1.2 depicts the variation in the rural-urban differences in literacy levels.
--_ .... __ .- ------------,
I
Graph 4.1.2: Rural- Urban Literacy Percentages in
KarnatakCi
Ql
OJ
'U
C
Ql
E
Q)
D..
I
4 0
20 1-------
o
1951 1961 1971 1981
1991 2001*
Year
L __ _
-- -------
--+:-Rural
--_a_ Urban
78
Considering the literacy gallls among males and females in urban-rural
regions, it is seen from the table 4.1.1 that, the females in urban legions have
registered higher literacy gains to the extent of 51.9 percent between 1951 and 200 I.
This is followed by rural males, rural females and urbail males. Thus, the chances of
attaining higher literacy gain increases for women located in urban areas. The
literacy gains among these four cohorts is shO\VD ill the graph 4. I .3.

Graph 4.1.3: Rll'aI 0 Urban Uteracy Percentages by Sex
. .... --i
. 'E Ft- _ .. _ .. -._. ________ ._'._".'" 0-.
g> 60


a.. 30 t--=;;?' ..... :
20 -I--.J!!>.. ----. ...
10 .... .. -.. --..-!
, i

1991 2001
I 195_1 __ 1_00_1 ___ 19_71
L-..-- Year
1981
-<il- Rual Female
I .--A- Urban Male !
l
!I
-)(-Urban Female I
____ ___ ___ J I
\
Despite Impressive achievements in teons of the literacy outcomes in
Kamataka in the last few decades, inter district variations continue to persist in 200 I
as seen in the table 4.1.2. Higher literacy gains have been recorded in districts like
Bangalore (83.7 percent), Dakshina Kannada (83.6 percent) and Udupi (80.0
percent). Similarly, lowest literacy gains have been recorded by Raichur (49.4
percent), Gulbarga (50.5 percent) and Chamarajanagar (51.2 percent). In addition,
other districts viz, Kodagu, Uttara Kannada, Shimoga, Chikmagalur, Dharwar,
Haveri, Davangere and Tumkur have literacy rates much above the State
average, while Gadag registers a literacy rate close to the State average. The
remaining 11 districts fall below tht' State average
79
Table 4. I .2: Districtwisc I ,itcracy Rates by Place of Residence and Sex, 2001
-"--' _._------,---
- , - -- ---
State / District Total
R"" I !
i .- - --- -.-
M F
'-_ T
M F T M F T
Karnataka 76.3
-----::- c_ ----- _ ---f-----'--
57.5 66.9 70.6 48.5 59.6 86.9 74.9 80.9
BelgauID 75.9
---
64.2 71.7 46.0 58.9 88.6 72.8 80.7
-----
_52L
--
71.3 44.1 Bagalkot
57.7 66.7 37. I 51.9 82.2 60.8 71.5
f- Bijapur
68.1 46.2 57.2 63.5 40.5 52.0 84.3 65.9 75.1
GulbarElI ___

38.4 50.5 55.6 29.7 42.7 80.2 61.7 71.0
Bidar 73.3 50.0 61.7 70.0 44.9 84.2 67.4 75.8
--
_ -.1
75
-----
_._- - .
Raichur 62.0 36.8 49.4 56.9 29.4 43.2

58
c
L
1--
67
c'!....
KopJ.>..al
--
69.2 40.8 55.0 66.9 37.0 52.0 80.1 59.2 69.7
Gadag 79.6 52.6 66.1 76.6 46.4 61.5 84.2 63.9 74.1
Dharwar 81.0 62.2 71.6 73.3 47.9 60.6 87.3 73.6 80.5
Uttara Kannada 84.5 68.5 76_5
81.6 63.6 72.6 91.6 80.5 86.1
Haveri 77.9 57.6 67_8
76.9 54.7 65.8 81.8 68.4 75.1
Bellary 69.6 46.2 57.9 64.0 37.5 50.8 79.5 62.1 70.8
Chitradurga 74.7 54.6 64.7 71.8 50.0 60.9 87.6 75.4 81.5
I--
Davanagere 76.4 58_5 67.5 73.3 52.5 62.9 83.6 72.1 77.9
Shim<>ga 82.3 67.2 74.8 78.9 61.1 70.0 88.6 78.8 83.7
Udupi 86.6 74.0 80.3 84.9 71.6 78.3 93.4 85.0 89.2
Chikmagalur 80.7 64.5 72.6 78.9 61.2 70.1 88.0 78.2 83.1
Twnkur 76.9 57.2 67.1 74.3 52.6 63.5 87.0 76.1 81.6
Kolar 73.1 52.8 63.0 69.2 46.0 57.6 85.0 73.6 79.3
Bangalore 88.4 79.1)
83.7 79.8 60.8 70.3 89.S 81.4 85.5
Bangalore Rural 74.4 55.1 64.8 72.4 51.1 61.8 81.9 70.1 76.0
Mandya 70.7 51.6 61.2 68.1 47.7 57.9 84.3 72.9 78.6
Hassan 73.3 59.3 68.8 75.8 55.0 65.4 89.6 79.7 84.7
Dakshina Kannada 89.7 77.4 83.6 87.2 73.0 80.1 93.6 84.5 89.1
---
Kodagu 83.8 72.5 78.2 82.2 70.4 76.3 93.2 86.3 89.8

Mysore 71.3 55.8 63.6 61.7 43.0 52.4 87.5 77.3 82.4
Cham araj anagar 59.3 43 51.2 55.8 39.0 47.4 78.0 64.6 71.3
..
Source: ProVIsIOnal Population Totals, Series 30, Census of India, Karnataka, 2001
Literacy rate is the percentage ofliterate to population aged 7 years and above.
It is also evident from the table 4.1.2, that the literacy among males is higher
than that among females in all the districts of the State. The difference between
male and female literacy at State level is over 19 percent. But across districts, it
ranges from 28 percent in Koppal to 9 percent in Bangalore. It is appropriate to
point out that more or less the districts which have registered the highest and lowest
male literacy rates also registered the highest and lowest female literacy rates. TIll'S,
it is seen that though more than half the population in the 7 years and abo\'\! age
group is litemc In the Sta:e, there are wide district level variations ranging from 50
to 34 percent. The districts, which are, located in the northeastern part generalh
80
Jom the list of low literacy levels. The literacy rate among rural ar-.:as is still
alarming. It is highest with 80 percent in Dhakshina Kannada district, Whereas, It IS
as low as 42.7 percent in Gulbarga district. The situation in urban areas is quite
different It is highest with 89.8 percent in Kodagu district as compared to 67.4
percent in Raichur district It is interesting te note that 93.6 percent of the male
populmion in the age b'TOUP 7+ years and 86.3 percent of the female population in the
age group 7+ years in u r ~ n areas of Dhakshina Kannada and Kodagu district,
respectively, are literate being the highest in their lespective categories among the
districts in the State.
4.1.1 Access to Primary Education - Provision of Facilities in terms
of Schools
There has been a spectacular increase in terms of provision of schooling facilities in
Kamataka during post-independence period. This has been achieved due to various
planned efforts in enhancing access to school education in the State. An attempt has
been made to examine the b'TOwth of primary schools in the State after
reorganisation of the State. Even the NPE, 1986 reiterates the need for provision of
schoolmg tacilitles in the context of failure to achieve VEE. Considering the
provision of schooling facilities in terms of growth of primary schools in the State, it
is noticed from the table 4.1.3 that the total number of primary schools has grown
from 22520 in 1956 to 48135 in 1999. On further examination of the growth, it is
seen that Higher Primary Schools (HPSs) have grown at a much faster pace than the
LPSs obviously due to the increased demand of primary education, which would
have resulted in upgradation or the existing LPSs.
81
Table 4. 1.3: Elementary Schools, 1956-99
Year
Primary Schools
LPS HPS Total
1956 20962 1558 22520
1961 21036 5948 26984
1971 21615 10979 32594
1981 22439 12704 35143
1991 23280 16700 39980
1994 22768 18916 41684
1999 22342 26374 48135
Source: StatIstIcal Brochures, Office of the CPI, Kamataka
According to Sixth All India Educational Survey of 1993, ninety one percent
of the population in the State was served by primary schools within the habitation
itself and over ninety six percent had schools within ('ne kilometer. Over sixty
percent of the populatIOn was served by upper primary schools within the habitation
and eighty percent had upper primary schools within the distance of three
kilometers. There has been a substantial expansion of primary schools since 1994
(se..:: graph 414) Foilowing the recommendations of the NPE, 1986 the
G(wemment of Kamataka revised its nonns to provide a primary school for every
habitation with J population of 200 against the national nonn of 300.
Graph 4 14 Growth of Elementary Schools. 1956-99

50000
l'
40000
.8
E
"
30000
z
OJ
" U
20000

10000
0
. .. ._._._--_ ... _-_ ..... _-
:;;::::::-: !
. ...... -.....
.----
----
---
1956 1961 1971 1961 1991 1994 1999
Yea r
_LPS i
1>1I'-'HPS i

82
At the time of Sixth All India I:ducational Survey of 1993, eighty percent of
th-: schools were government LPSs and the remaining were aided and unaided
private schools. While the government primary schools in rural areas reveal 90
percent enrolment, the same in urban arcas reveal 50 percent enrolment. The
remaining was in non-government schools. It is also noticed that the public sector
revealed a substantial growth of primary schools as compared to that of private
sector.
4.1.2 Growth of Teachers in Schools
Provision of teachers in primary schools is a pre-requisite for achieving UEE. In
this context the data relating to teacher in primary schools are examined. It is
noticed from the table 4.14 that although the progress in the number of teachers
since 1956 has not been of uniform pace there has been a steady increase in the total
number of teachers during different time periods. It is evident from the table that the
number of teachers has increased over the years (see also graph 4.1.5). The
perceiltlige increase in the number of teachers between 1961 and 1971 perhaps could
be attributed to the enactment of the Compulsory Primary Education Act in 1961.
The rapid improvement in the numbcf of teachers recorded between 1991 and 1999
could be anributed to the Operational Blackboard (OB) intervention (1987) under
the national effort.
Table 4.14 Teachers in Elementary Schools, 1956-99
Year Teachers Increase over the Percentage
period of time Increase
1956
60g)l2 -- --
1961 78615 11627 19
1971 97162 25103 35
1981 117686 20074 21
1991 135742 17923 15
1994 162795 27186 20
1999 210000 47205 24
,
Source: Statistical Brochures, Office ot the CPI, Karnataka
83
- ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
: Graph 4.1.5
I
I
Percentage Increase of Teachers in Elementary
Schools
40
35 t - - - ~
30----.-.-.. --. -.-.... - ".-
c:
25 t------/--
~ 20 t-----.j'--------"""-':------c:Afc...--...
Il. 15 t--
10 - F - - ~ ~ - ~ - - - - - - - -
. -------l
__ Percentage
Increase of
Teachers
5 -----.. ~ - . - .. --- .-.
o -'-__ -----------__
1956 1961 1971 1981 1991 1994 1999
Year
4.1.3 Enrolment in Schools
Enrolment means the number of students who are on roll in a particular class. It has
two components namely the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER) and Net Enrolment Ratio
(NER). According to ePE, all children in the schooling age of 6-11 years should be
In schools. Accordingly in a lower primary stage, which consists of I to IV
standards, children from 6 to 10 years may be found. But in reality children below
and above the age group are also seen in primary schools. The GER is the ratio of
children found on roll in schools irrespective of their age group (6-14 years).
Whereas, the NER is the number of children on roll in the compulsory age group.
The progress in the enrolment of children at different time periods is presented in the
table 4.1.5.
84
I
I
Table 4.1.5 l:nrolment of Children by Sex and Level olTducation (In Ten
Thousands)
.. _.- ---------. --- - --- -
---- -- -- --_._-
- ----
Year
. Low.er _. ___ . ____ Primary School
----
-- .-:-
Boys % * Girls % * Total %*
Boys % Girls % * Total
f-:-----
96 54.6 1956 -- -- 150.6 -- 28.5
1961 i-tz2.9 28 74.8 37 197.7 31 39.4

41 131.3 76

54 54.8
1----- 1---- .,'-.
22 166.9 27 378.3 24 86.2
1---- -----
.-
1991 267.5 27 238.9 43 506.4 34 119.9
1994 283.2 6 259.6 9 542.8 7 133.8
1999 279.8 -I 264.8 2 544.6 0 157.5
**
Source: StalIslIcal Brochures, Office oflhe CPI, Kamataka
Note: * Percentage increase and are rounded off
* *figures on March 1999
--
9.5
-- 38
38 16 68 55.4
39 27 69 81.8
57 49 81 135.2
39 92.8 89 212.7
12 117.7 27 251.5
18 135.5 15 293
It can be clearly seen from the table 4.1.5, that there has been a phenomenal
increase in the enrolment of both boys and girls at lower and higher primary levels
in terms of absolute numbers. At the lower primary level, the ratio of boys to girls
rose from 5:3 in 1956 to almost equal in 1999. Whereas, in the case of higher
primary kvel the ratio of boys to girls rose from 3: I in 1956 to almost equal in 1999.
Although there is fluctuation, the percentage increase in enrolment of girls at both
the levels has certainly been rapid as compared with those of boys between 1956 aild
1999 (see graph 4.1.6). Thus, it can be clearly seen from the table that there has
been an improvement not only in the number of girls getting enrolled but also in
continuation of their studies beyond class IV. The rapid increase in the enrolment of
girls perhaps indicates the concerted efforts of the State in promoting girls'
education.
85
%*
--
-
46
48
65
57
18
17
Graph 4 1,6: Enrolment of Children by Sex and Level of EducatIOn
'"
'"
'"
.,

u
E

0
100
90
80
70
----', '.'
.. ---........ .
60
50
4u
30
20
10
o
-10 . . 197J
- . t91U ... _ .. l994.-.. .... 1999 ..
Year
4.1.4 Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)
--+-LPS Boys
___ LPS Girls
-b-LPS Total
Boys

--+-HPS Total
Since Independence. there has been a substantial increase in the enrolment at all levels
of education in Kamataka like other States in the colmtry. Enrolment at primary stage
has increased rapidly at the lower primary stage. The GER of children in the age group
of 6-1 0 years increased from 90 0/(, i:1 1970 to 95 % in 1999 and suddenly from 1995 to
2000 it been decreased from 95 percent to 91 percent (see tabk 4.1.6).
Table 4.1.6 : GER of Boys and Girls in the State from 1970 to 2000
Year Enrolment Ratio (Percentage*L_
Boys Girls Total Gap between
Bo)'s and Girls
1970 100 81 90 21
1975 100 81 90 21
_.-
1980 97 82 S9 15
I 1985 I 98
. ----. __._--- ...
83 90 15
-----: --=----- ----._---- ... --.- ..
- ----- ---- -- -------_.
-.-----
tj!f0 99
92 95 07
1995 . 96 96 __ 95 --

20QL., 92.3 92 91 0.7
.
Source: Statistical Brochures. Office of the ('PI. Kamataka
Note: ... Rounded off.
86
4.1.5 Teacher-Pupil Ratio (TPR) and Standard-Teacher Ratio
(STR)
Teacher-Pupil Ratio (TPR) and Standard-Teacher Ratio (STR) are the two important
indicators, which measure the context of teaching learning. The TPR at primary
level has been calculated as the ratio of the total enrolment at primary schools to the
number of teachers at primary schools. Here the primary level refers to both LPS
and HPS. The STR is useful especially for understanding the utilisation of time of
children spent in an active instruction and the de!,'fee of multi grade teaching
prevalent in the region under consideration. However, it is calculated as follows.
Number of Lower Primary Schools x 4 + No. of HPS x 7
STR at Primary Schools = --------------------------------------------------------------------
Number of Teachers in primary schools (LPS +HPS)
The criticism with regard to unfavourable TPR and STR in primary education
has been not new in India. Therefore, the NPE (1986, 1992) recommended for at least
one teacher per class at primary level to improve the quality in primary education. The
d ~ behind the recommendation of the policy is that teachers can impart quality
education only if interaction with students is effective and this is possible only when
there is at least one teacher per class and the number of children in the class is lesser.
Against these arguments, the TPR and STR in primary education in Karnataka are
calculated using the data relating to teachers and schools. Tablc 4.1.7 presents the data
on the TPR and STR in primary schools for different time periods from 1956 to i 999.
The recruitment of teachers has more or less kept pace with expanding !,'fowth in
enrolment
!!7
Table 4.1.7: TPR and STR in Elementary Schools, 1956-99
- ---- -
---
_,!ear TPR
STR
---
--
1956 1 :31
I: 1.56
1961 1:32
I: 1.60
1971 1:40
1: 1.68
1981 1:44
I: 1.52
-
1991 1:53
I: 1.55
1994 1:49
1: 1.37
1999 1:42
1: 1.29
Source: Statistical Brochures, Office of the CPI, Kamataka
It can be seen from the table that the TPR in primary schools went up in the late
eighties and the early nineties, but since then there is healthy declining trend due to the
massive programme of recruitment of teachers taken up from 1993-94 (see graph
4.17) The TPR has come down from I: 53 in 1991 to 1: 42 in 1999. This is mainly
due to the fact that a record number of about thirty thousand teachers were recruited in
1997-93 alone and the TPR in primary schools has come down almost to 42.
[GraPh 4.1.7: Teacher-Pupil Ratio in Elementary Schools ofKamataka
I
o : r --------- ~
20
10 f-------
o L_
1956 1961 1971 1981 1991 1994 1999
Year
I
~
--+--- Teacher-
I Pupil
~ t i
._----------------------
88
As can be secn from the graph 4.1.8, there has been a continuous reductIOn
in the STR especially since 1971 onwards. But from 1991 there has been a greater
reduction in the STR. This is mainly due to the massive appointment of teachers by
the State government especially during 90s.
r
I
. ~ .... - - - - - - - - - - ~
'Graph 4.1.8 Standard-Teacher Ratio in Elementary
Schools of Karnataka
1 .8
1 .6
1 .4
12
0
1
:;::
III
0.8 0::
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
---'------,------ l
I -+-Standard-
--------:1 Teacher Ratio - - ~ ~ . - - - - - - - ~ .
. ~ - - - - . ~ - - ~ ~ ... --.--.. ~ - - - - - ~ - - - ..
.
1956 1961 1971 1981 1991 1994 1999
Year
______ .--.J I
4.1.6 Dropouts
Though the achievements In terms of the number of teachers, schools, and
enrolment etc, in Karnataka appear to be so impressive, yet there are disparities and
regional imbalances. One of the major problems in achieving UEE is wastage.
Wastage is the reduction in the number of children while moving from one standard
to the other in a particular stage. This wastage mainly occurs because of the
following two reasons. They are (i) premature withdrawal of the child before
completion of the pnmary stage, which is termed as "dropout' and (ii) Pupils, who
fail in a class, as they do not attain the required standard for promotion to the next
higher class, '.vhich is termed as stagnation/repetition. The dropout rate is the
percentage of children to total enrolment dropping out ef school in a particular year
at a particl!lar level. However, it has been calculated as follows.
89
Enrolrpent in Std. I in a year Y - Enrolment in Std. IV in year Y+3
[)rOpKJllt Ftate 0= ------------________________________________________________________ _
X 100
Enrolment in Std. I in a year Y
The data pertaining to the dropouts of children (both boys and girls) at lower
as well as higher primary levels from 1980-81 to 1999-2000 are given in the table
4.1.8. Tbe data in the table bring out that there has been a phenomenal decrease in
the dropKJuts of children from the above said period. It is noteworthy the
percentage droPOllts' decrease from 51.9lpercent in 1980-81 to 13.55 in 1999-00
excepting a year 1993-94. At the lower primary level, the ratio of dropouts of boys
to girls decreased rapidly from 4:5 in 1980-81 to almost eqllal in 1999-00. The
drop out rate of girls decreased very drastically than those of boys decreasing by
around 77 percent between 1980-81 and 1999-00 as compared to only 70 percent
for boys. The steady decline in the dropout rate of children is perhaps due to the
influence of incentive schemes like OBB, incentives like free text books, uniforms
etc and some of the other important probrramme like enrolment drives etc sponsored
by the central as well as the State gOvernments. Thus, by looking at the overall
trends In the dropout rates of children since 1980-81 one can say that despite
perceptible declille in the dropout of children at both the levels, the problem gets
complicated due to its further continuation. Still a considerable percentage of
chIldren are uut of schooL The decline in drOpOllt rate of children is further
confirmed by the recent Audit Fteport of [)PEP (2002), which reveals that the
drupout rate had declined marginally (by 4 percent) during the recent years in
Kamataka.
90
Table 4. 1.8: Dropout Rates of Children in 1':lcmentary Schools, 1980-8 I to 1<,)9<,)-00
--- - .. ---------- ,-._-------- "-- -_ .. -- - _ ... - --- --- ... -
Year
...
f------- .. - . _._----
Classes I to IV Classes I to VII
--' ----
_.
Boys Girls Total
...
Boys Girls Total
c..J.2.80-8_L
46.93
._ 5688 __ 51.91 71.46 77.46 74.46
1--------
... _-_.
-- ---- -'"--
1985-86 32.65 4369 38.17 62.66 72.76 67.71
1990-91
. e--1
6
.
13
--
f--" ___
30.97 51.33 58.25 54.79
1991-92 24.92 29.31 27.12 48.69 55.24 51.97
1992-93 24.89

27.17 43.84 54.22 _ . 49.03 __
28.27 33.99 31.13 50.38 55.36 52.87
--- - --- .
1994-95 23.39 30.31 26.85 47.14 51.13 49.14
1995-96 27.37 22.10 49.41 53.18 51.30
19%-97 16.54 23.16 19.85 45.65 48.09 46.87
1997-98 16.88 16.1 16.49 41.34 46.28 43.81
1998-99 14.24 12.32 13.28 38.68 43.27 40.98
1999-00 14.2 12.9 13.55 -- -- --
Source: Stallsllcal Brochures, Office of the CPI, Kamataka
Thu5, from the above analysis, one can say that Primary education in
Karanataka has made a remarkable progress quantitatively in terms of increase in
enrolment of children, recruitment of teachers and educational institutions etc, from
1956 to1999. However, the persisting dropout rates particularly at higher primary
level and among girls and the unfavourable STR rather reflect the poor quality in
primary education in the State.
Having examined the status of UEE in the State, an attempt has been made in
the succeeding sectIon to review the progress of elementary education in the two
sample districts of Tumkur and Kolar, selected for the present study.
Tumkur District: a General Background
Tumkur dIstrict is located In the castern beit in ihe southern half of the State
spamling an area of 10598 square Kms The district lies betweeil the latitudinal
parallels of I degree 15 minutes North, 14 degree n minutes North and the
longitudinal parallels of 76 degn:e 24 minutes East and 77 degree 30 minutes east.
The distnct is bound on the north by Ananthpur district of Andhra Pradesh; on the
hy the districts of Kolnr and Banealore; on the south by Mandya district and on
the west and north west by the dIstricts of Hassan and Chitradurga. In the mid-east,
'l\
Chikmagalur district too touches this district and shares a common border though
on I y for 'l very short distance.
The district of Tumkur lies in the educational division of l3angalore. The
distrIct has three sub-divisions and ten taluks. More recently, the district has been
further subdivided into two educational districts - Tumkur and Madhugiri. There
are 2537 inhabited villages in the district and the density of population in the district
as per the Census 200 II is 243 persons per square kms, which is lower than that of
the State's average of 275 persons per square kms.
According to 200 I Census, the total population in the district consists of
2579516 \\1th 1311941 males and 1267575 females. The district has a sex ratio of
966, which is slightly higher than that of the State (964 females per 1000 males).
Out of the 257951 G persons enumerated in the district, 291371 are children in the
age group of 0-6 years. The overall literacy rate for the district works out to be
67.19 percent with 76.88 % males and 57.18 % females literate. The corresponding
rates for the State as a whole are 67.4 % for the total population 76.3 % for males
and 57.5 for females. The literacy rates for total male and female population
segments of the district IS higher than the State to a significant extent.
Kolar District: General Background
Kolar dlstnct is located in the Southern maidan (Plains) in the reb>ion of the State and
happens to be the east':!rn-most district of the State. It is situated between 12 degree 46
minutes and 13 degree 58 minutes North Latitude and 77 de!"'l"t:e 21 minutes and 78
degree 35 minutes East Lonb>itude The district with an area of 8223 squarekms has its
greatcst Icnb'lh of about 135 kms from north 10 south With almost the same distance
from casl to \\c,' The distnct IS bound by the districts of Bangalorc and Tumkur on
the West and on all other sides bv the districts of the adjoining States of Andhra
Pradesh (AP) and Tamil Nadu (TN) On the north it is bound by Anathpur district, on
I Proviso"al Population Totals. SCI ies 30. Census elf India. Krnataka. 2001
92
the east by Chiltoor district or AI' and on thc south by the districts of North Arcot and
Dhannapuri of TN.
Kolar district :s locatcd in the educational division of Bangalore. The district
comprises of eleven taluks, which arc grouped into two sub-divisions. These sub-
divisions have thcir headquarters at Kolar and Chikkaballapur consisting oftive and six
taluks, respectively. More recently, the district has been further subdivided into Kolar
and Chickkaballapur educati0nal districts.
According to 2001 Census, Kolar district has a population density of 307 per
square kms, which is higher than the overall density for the State (275 persons per
square kms). The sex ratio for the district is 970, which is slightly higher than that of
the State (964). The literacy rate for males and females in the district are 73.14 % and
52.81 %, respectively, which is below the State average.
4.2 Educational Progress in Kolar and Tumkur Districts - An
Overview
[n order to assess the educational prohrress in the two districts, some important
parameters such as literacy, schools, teachers, enrolment, Teacher-Pupil Ratio and
Standard Teacher Ratio, wastage etc, have been considered. The time series data
relating to these parameters are analysed to capture the trends and patterns.
The percentage variations of literacy rates from 195 [ to 200 I for the two
sample districts are presented in the table 4.2.1. It is evident from the table that the
literacy position in both the ddricts has steadily increased from 1951 to 1991.
Although. the litcracv rates in the total population seem to have increased between
thc decades, yet the literacy gains made by ditTcrent population segments do not
present a happy picture in both the districts. Even though, the literacy has increased
mpidly among both males and females in hoth the districts, males have continued to
maintain their dominant POSition and the ~ m a l e s continCle to trail behind dunng all
the years. Considering the male-female gap, it has increased from 17.04 percent in
93
, .-
1951 to 20.33 percent in 200 I in Kolar. Whereas, In the case of Tumkur, there is a
decline in gender gap from 1951 to 200 I. But hetween 1991 and 200 I, Kolar
district reveals a higher decline in gender differentials (5 percent) as compared to
Tumkur (25 percent). This positive gain could possihly be attributed to certain key
interventions launched by the Centre like the Total Literacy Campaigns (TLCs) and
the DPEP programme. The gender-gap in terms of percentage points is graphically
represented for the two districts (graph 4.2. I).
Table 4.2.1: Literacy Percentages in Kolar and Tumkur districts
Year Literacy Percentage
--
Kolar Tumkur
Male Female Total DifTeren Male Female Total
. --
Differen
ce ce
1951 24.88 7.84 16.48 17.04 27.56 6.96 17.48 20.60
1961 30.93 11.33 21.29 19.60 33.98 10.77 22.64 2 3 1 _ ~
1971 36.57 17.15 27.06 19.07 39.93 18.31 29.36 21.62
1981 53.04 26.93 36.45 26.11 57.99 29.94 57.95 28.05
1991 62.70 37.70 50.40 25.00 66.50 41.90 54.50 22.20
i 200 I * 73.14 52.81 63.14 20.33 76.88 57.18 67.19 19.70
Source: Census Documents 1951 to 1991
Literacy rates for 1951 and 1961 refer to population aged 5 years and above
Literacy rates from 1981 to 200 I refer to the population aged 7 years and above
Provisional Population Totals, Series 30. Census of India, Karnataka, 200 I
94
Graph 4.2. I: Male-Felmle Lltera';y (in 'Yo Points) in
Kolar anu Tumkur Districts
- 30
c

on
<+-
- 25
0
c
0
-
Cl.
20
-l

<!)
:;0
15 <J
ro
..-
C
E
<!)
10
'"'
u
w-
...
<!)

Cl.
5
<!)
+-----------_. -----


0

1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001*
Year
4.2.1 Elementary Schools
.. --l
I
,
I
,
-+-Kolar
__ Tumkur
1 .. ____ .. __ .
Table 4.2.2 presents the data on the !,'T0'A-1h of schools in Kolar and Tumkur districts.
It IS evident from the table that has been a rapid increase in the number of
schools in both the districts from 1960 to 1999 in both the districts. Although the
number of schools at lower primary levd have declined from 1994 to 1999 in both
the distncts, the percentage of decline is greater in Kolar than in Tumkur. This is
due to the upgradatlon or lower primary schools into higher primary schools, as a
re,ult of ))1'1..1' In Kolar Belween and 1999. the percenlage increase in the
number of schools at higher primary level in Kolar (55%) is double than that of
TUlIlkur (28%,
95
Table 4.2.2: Elcmentary Schools from 1960-1999 in Kolar and Tumkur districts
- - - --------- . -
- ----- --- - ...
---
Year
___ ..
---- -" - .. --_.-
Kolar
--- _.
--- -,
LPS %.
HPS %* Total %*
CPS -%.
f-----
1960 1406 0 72 0 1692 0 1595 0
1970 1682 20 490 58 2583 53 2014 26
I
-- -
---
1975 1703 I 540 10 2621 I 1979 -2
1979 1806 6 608
---1-----
13 2685 2 1994 I
1985 2016 12 774 27 2919
9 2026 2
--
1990 2076 3 830 7 3018 3 2009 -1
1994 2116 2 1018 23 3426 14 2152 7
1999 2092 -I 1582
55 1.3674 7 2145 0
Source StatistIcal Brochures, Office of the CPI, Karnataka
Note: *Percentage increase and are rounded off
.. - -- ---_.,---- -
Tumkur
HPS %* Total
97 0 1478
569 487 2172
642 13

t-
2243
691 8 2414
893 29 2790
1009 13 2906
1274 26 3134
1627 28 3653
4.2.2 Growth of Teachers in Elementary Schools
..
%*
0
47
3
8
16
4
8
17
The data showing the growth of tcachers in the sample districts for different time
periods are presented in the table 4.2.3.
Table 4.2.3: Teachers at Elementary Levels from 1966 to 1999 in Kolar and Tumkur
districts
-
Year Number of Teachers
Kolar % Increase Tumkur % Increase
1960 3599 0 4295 0
1966 4703 31 5667 32
1970 5460 16 5835 3
1975 5209 -5 6294 8
1980 6438 24 6910 10
1985 7730 20 8280 20
1990 7493 -3 8441 2
-._--
21 1995 9762 30 10232

f-- -
----
1999 12545 29 12505 22
--
.-
Source: StatIstical Brochures. Otllce ot the CPI, Karnataka
It IS eVident from the table 4.23, that both the districts reveal an increasing
trend from 1960 10 1999. Ilowever, III cas<: of Kolar. The of tcachers has
dropp\!d between 1985 and 1990 and has pickcd up again in the subsequent years
96
-
(graph 422). It is to be noted that Kolar (29/,,) reveals a higher increase in the
number of teachers as compared to Tumkur (22 %) during the penod 1995 and
1999.
Graph 4.22. Percentage Increase of Teachers in Elementary Schools of
Kolar and Tumkur Districts
,1
.. '--'
-...- .. -.- --- -, -- -j- _. "-''-'-----1
.5 L. 1990.. 1966 1970
.10 L.:..._ ..
I
I
Year I
'--------______ J
4.2.3 Enrolment in Elementary Schools
Table 4.2.4 presents the data on enrolment of boys and girls in lower primary classes
at the elementary stage from 1960 to 2000. Considering the absolute enrolment
fif,'ures (table 4 2.4), It is noticed that there delinite!y has been a significant
improvement in the enrolment of boys and girls in both Kolar and Tumkur districts.
However, the growth rate in both the districts reveals certain fluctuations with rise
and fall in the enrolment after 1980. Another trend that could be observed is the
ralio of male-female enrolments. The gap in the sex enrolment ratio seems to be
clOSing in during the I <)l)0 decade. The ditferentials, which was around 30.0
percent III hoth Kolar and Tumkur districts seem to be narrowing down almost equal
in the! 990 .. nd afterwards (Ciraph 423) I'ositi\-cly in case of Kolar district, hoys
and gIrls' enrolment has reached equal proportions due to girls registering a higher
-growth rale b!.:twe!.:n 1994 and 2000. Perhaps the focllssed intelventions of
the DPI: and the Total Literacy Campaigns have had combined effect in enhancing
girls' participation
Table Enrolment in Lower Primary Classes \ 1-4) from 1960 to 2000 in Kolar
and Tumkur Districts
- F
(65) (J 5) ( 100'L- (16::.:6L- )--+----,(.::..3 )--+----,I.:..::lOc::,O)'----1
1970 93472 70459 156)(97 ')6128 79537 175550
(57) (43) (100) (55) (45) (100)
1975 102078 75801 177879 105216 86392 191608
_ _ 71e-- I 100) (55) ( 4 5) .,,--+---,1,-,-1 :,;00:1.-:-)-1
1980 140443 113142 253585 127994 102298 230292
(55) (45) (100) (56) (44) (100)
1985 119537- 99681 219218 117930 104565 222495
r-___ +---:'-'(sc.::.5L-.)-+_l(,421 (100) (53) (47) (100\
1990 136GII 120520 257132 135335 123478 258813
(53) (47) (100) (52) (48) (100)
1994 152353 134705 263871 115133 110291 249571
(52) (48) (l00) (52) (48) (\00)
2000 123970 12493 245463 108901 99093 207994
(SO) (SO) (100) (52) (48) (100)
Source Statistical Brochures, Office of the CPI, Kamataka
Note Figures in Parentheses denote Percentages and are rounded off
10
60
Graph 4 2.3 Enrolment Gap Betvveen Boys and Girts in Kolar and Tumkur
Dlstnds
I
20 ------
10
o --.--.---.---"-----
1960 1970 1975 1960 1965 1990 1994
Year
___ Girls-Kolar I
1 I
I
-----6- Boys-Tumkur:, I
I:-*- GiriS-TUmkur!1
98
4.2A Teacher -Pupil Ratio (TPR) and Standard Teacher Ratio
(STR)
The data on the TPR and STR in primary schools for different time periods from
1970 to :WOO are presented in the table 4.2.5. The recruitment of teachers has more
or less kept pace with expansIOn of !;iowth in enrolment. It can be seen from the
table that although, the TPR reveals;; declining trend from 1970 to 1999 in both the
districts. yet there has bee1l fluctuations in between these periods (see also b'Taph
U.4) Both, teacher recruitment drives under the OB scheme and enrolment
mobilisations under TLCs have resulted in the improvement ofTPR.
Table 4.2.5TPR and STR in Elementary Schools, in Kolar and Tumkur (1970-2000)
I Year
i Teacher-Pupil Ratio and Standard Teacher Ratio
r Kolar Tumkur
I
,
IfpR
STR TPR STR
I 1970
,
136 1.86 138 2.06
1975 IA4 203 lAO 1.97
1980 1:50 1.78 1:43 1.85
i 1985 IA2 1.74 lAO 1.73
r 1990 1:50 1.88 1A5 1.79
I 1995
142 1.60 1:45 1.71
I 1999 132 1.37 I :3 I 1.44
Source Statistical Brochures, Office of the CPI, Kamataka
Graph 4.2.4 TPR In Elementary Schools of
a
.;:0
C1l
n::
Tumkur
209
Districts
155
140
126
112
057
043
028
014
0:00
_ ... ------,--_.,------ -
T .. .....

1- - - '-----. -_.--------,------ _.- --- -.-.. ------.------.-- .. ---
i
t-
! - .'-- -._--._-- -----
,
I
I
J_ ----. ____ __________ .,_ ..
,
;
r-----
I
:. .. _----------------_._---_.
1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 1999
Year
-+-Kolar I
i
I
'--------- -- --

99
4.2.5 Standard Teacher Ratio (STR)
Following the recommendations of the NPE (1986, 1992), the norm suggests that
there should be at least one teacher per class at primary level to improve the quality
in primary education. The STR in Kolar and Tumkur districts during different
periods of time are given in the table 4.2.5. It is noticed from the table 4.2.5, that
there is a healthy declining trend in the STR in both the disticts. However, the STR
in Kolar reveals more fluctuaticns with rise and fall in STR as compared to that of
Tumkur (see also graph 4.2.5). Between 1995 and 1999, the STR decline in Kolar
(from 11.60 to 1:1.37) is more as compared to that of Tumkur (from 1:1.71 to
I: 1.44), suggesting a more favourable STR in Kolar than in Tumkur. Additionally,
the teachers recruitment drive under the DPEP in Kolar seems to have positively
impacted the STR.
Graph 4.2.5. STR in Elementary Schools of Kolar and Tumkur Districts
2.5
. ':. >.
2
>=--
0
U
0

... - .. ]
_ .. _. __ .. __
05

1970 1975 1980 Ins 1990 1995 1')')9
Year
L _____ _
4.2.6 Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER)
I

already mentioned ill the previous section (4.1.3), the concept of enrolment has
two components namely the GEl< and NER. In the present context, NER has not
beer. calculated due to ItlnitattOns in the data availability. The progress in the GER
of children in Kolar and TUIllKur at different time periods is presented in the table
100
42.6. It can be clearly seen from the table that there has been a phenomenal
increase in the GER of both boys and girls at lower primary level. The GER of
Chlldren rose from 93 percent in 1970 to I I ~ in Kolar and from 97 percent to 104
pereellt In Tumkur under the rderence period On the positive side, girls' enrolment
has registered impressive gain especially between 1995 and 2001 in Kolar as
compared to Tumkur. This could possibly be attributed to ge!lder focussed
inter.entions under DPEP.
Table 4.2.6: GER of Children by Sex at LPS in Kolar and TumkurDistricts from 1970
to 20,) I
Year
I Gross Enrolment Rates (percentafe*l
Kolar Tumkur
Male Female Total Male
1970 \04 82 93 103
1975 105 82 94 102
1980 128 \08 I 118 112
I 1985
\02 89 95 96
i 1990 107 99 \03 \01
1995 \02 98 \00 92
: 2001 113 116 115 \06
Source Statistical Brochures, Office of the CPI, Kamataka
Note * Rounded otT.
~ 2 7 Wastage
~
i Female Total
I 91 97
89 96
95 \03
9C 93
98 100
91 91
\03 104
Despite improvements in the enrolment of children in schools, one of the si!,'llificant
problems is the phenomenon of wastage. The data relating to wastage of boys and
girls in the seiect.:d districts of the present study is examined in this context (Tables
4.2 7. 4 2 X and 4 2 9)
]01
Table 4.2.7: Wastage Rates (%) by Sex from 1970-1998 in Kolar and Tumkur
Districts
I
Year . __ Wastal'e (General)
I
~
Kolar Tumkl!r
Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total
1970 46.9 57.3 52.1 56 68.5 62.25
1975 44.5 54.7 49.6 53.7 67.7 60.7
1980 48.6 51.8 50.2 47.9 59.4 53.65
1985 36.7 45.6 41.15 26.1 40.1 33.1
1990 35.2 42.8 39.0 25.3 27.6 26.45
1993 23.6 23.6 23.6 18.2 20.4 19.3
1996 13.5 16.4 1.4.95 17.4 19.5 18.45
r
1998 3.90 7.24 5.57 10.8 19.0 14.9
Source. Statistical Bmchures, Office of the CPI, Kamataka
It IS noticed from table 42.7 that there has been a steady decline in the
wastage among both boys and girls since 1970 in both the districts. The rate of
wastage to total enrolment decreased from 52 percent in 19"10 to 39 percent by 1990
and to 15 p<Crctnt J!1 1996 J!1 Kolar. Whereas, in Tumkur it decreased from 63
rercent In 1970 to 27 percent by 1990 and to 19 percent in 1996. This indicates that
the reductIOn J!1 the wastage is more in Tumkur as compared to Kolar.
Considering the wastage percentage among boys and girls separately, it may
be noted that while more or less same percentage decrease in the wastage rates is
obsef\ed for girls m both the districts, in case of boys, Tumkur district reveals a
slig'llly higher reduction in wastage. However, interestingly, the wastage decrease
has been IInpress)\e m case of Kolar district parllcularly for girls between 1996 and
1998 as compared to that of Tumkur district. This feature could be attributed once
agamto gender focus under DPEP programme.
13\ looking at the wastage rates of SC and ST children (See table 4.2.8 and
.p 9), it is noticed that the wastage rates of both boys and girls have been declming
gradualh. There has been a considerable decrease in wastage rates of boys and girls
belollgmg to SC and ST groups in Kolar as compared to that of Tumkur especially
102
;:fter Iaunchlllg of DPEP programme in Kolar district. Although, the wastage trends
do 1I1dicate a declining trend in hoth the districts between 1975 and 1998, yet g;rls'
\\astage rates among SC and ST continue to he an issue in both the districts.
Tahk -+.2.8 Wastage Rates (%) ofSC Children by Sex from 1970-1996 in Kolar
and Tumkur Districts
---_.
i
Wastage (Scheduled Caste}
: Year I
! Kolar
TlImkllr
I
- -
: Boys
Girls Total Boys
Girls Total
-.
1975 ,49
53 51 46 51 48.5
I -+3
. ~
1978 44 43,5 42
43 42,5
--
-
1981 43 44 43.5 41 43 42
1984 43 38 40,5
41 37 39
1987 34 36 35 34 34 34
1990
127
27 27 25 25 25
-
1993 27 26 26,5
25 25 25
-
1996 12 20 16 14 19 16.5
1998 ' 10
15 12.5 13 16 14.5
Source StatIstIcal Brochures, Office of the CPI, Kamataka
Tabk 4.2.9 Wastage Rates (%) of ST Children by Sex from 1970-1998 in Kolar and
Tumkur Districts
- --- ---
1
Year Wasta'e (Scheduled Tribe)
- -!
Kolar Tumkur
--
Boys G i r l ~ Total Boys Girls Total
- .. - ... -----
1--44
. 1975 44 45 44.5 41 42.5
1978 i 43 46 44.5 40 42 41
, 1981
i 33 42 37.5 25 38 31.5
, 1984 126 45 35.5 22 36 29
I 1987 19 42 30,5 19 33 26
i 1990 19 28
23,5 19 25 22
: 1993 17 21 19 17 21 19
i 1996 13 19 16 14 19
16,5
i 1998 12 16 14 12 17 14.5
Source: StatIstical Brochures, Office of the CPI, Kamataka
103
Thus, the quantitative data analysed so far with respect to UEE suggest that
there has been considerable progress in tenns of growth in institutions, enrolment,
TPR, STR, and conversely reduction in wastage rates in both the districts. However,
wastage among girls belonging to SC and ST categories continues to be a persisting
Issue. Notwithstanding the quantitative progress made, the emp;ri("al evidence
relatmg to quality of schools in terms of learning attainments in the State of
Karnataka suggest that the achievement has been far from satisfactory as revealed by
the Assessment Surveys (BAS, 1994; MAS, 1997). Even in the sample districts, the
OPEP Base line and Mid-tenn Assessment Surveys in Kolar district indicates poor
learning attainment among children in primary schools (Language: 46.39 (BAS) and
81.74 (MAS): Mathematics 40.52 (BAS) and 83.47 (MAS) for class [ and
Language 31.70 (RAS) and 59.46 (MAS); Mathematics: 32.75 (BAS) and
4834(MAS) for class Ill) In case of Tlimkur district, the MLL study of ISEC
(1998) has revealed that the learning attainments for primary class children have
been \erv low.
Thus. in the light of the above results, there is an imperative need to look
IOto the kInds of roles performed by institutional structures in addressing some of
the abo\ e mentioned concerns. The foregoing chapter looks into this aspect.
104
CHAPTER- V
ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION OF
PRIMARY DATA
In the preceding chapter, the quantitative analysis of the secondary data with regard to
progress and prohlems of Universalisation of Elementary Education in a DPEP and
non-DPEP districts was presented. In the present chapter, the primary data collected
from the field have been analysed and discussed. The analysis has been done wIth
respect to the institutional structures selected as samples at the district, block, cluster
and \llIage iewls.
DIETs in Karnataka
In pursuance of the National PoliC\ on Education (NPE, 1986 and 1992) and the
Programme Of Action (POA, 1992) to start a District Institute of Education and
Trammg for e\ery dlstnct to Improve the status of primary education, the process of
establishing DIETs \\as initiated m the State of Kamataka during the second phase in
]993 One cxistl11g Govcmment Teachers' Training Institute located in each District
Headquarters or else\\here in the district was upgraded into a DIET. There are 20
DrETs In the State of Kamataka. All the DIETs have Kannada as the medium of
mstructions However, 6 DIETs have Urdu medium of instruction as well. Further,
out of the 20 DIETs, 3 are exclusively meant for men and other 2 for women. The
remallllllg ]5 are co-educztional.
105
5.1 The Role of District Institute of Education and
Training (DIET) at the District Level
DIETs are essentially conceived as academic and technical resource centres aimed
. ,
at building capacities of teachers and schools in the district. Thus, if these DIETs
have to perform the role of capacity buildir.g, it is necessary that in the first place
these DIETs themselves should be adequately equipped with required facilities and
personnel to discharge the expected functions. Hence, in the foregoing paragraphs
an attempt has bt?t?n made to asst?ss the facilities in the DIETs in the sample districts
of Kolar and Tumkur. The asst?ssment the capacity has essentially been
madt? Within the framt?work of lIational norms and guidelines provided by the
\lHRD. GOI To begin with, the structural composition of DIETs has been
c\311lIncd.
S.l.l Structural Composition of the DIETs
Tht? gUldt?lines St?\en wings or branches for the DIET, as follows:
I. Prt?-Sef" ice Teacher Education Branch (PSTE)
Work [\perience (WE)
.' DistrIct Resourct? Ulllt (DRU) for Alternate Education/Non Formal
Education (AE'NFE)
.f In-ser\lce programmcs, Ficld Interaction and Innovation Co-ordination
(IFICJ
CUrriculum Matenal Development and EvaluatIOn (CMDE)
6. Educational Technology (ET) and
7. Planning and Management (P&MJ.
The Stafiing Pattern in the DIET is as follows
I. Princlpal-! (of the rank of DDP!)
") Vice-Principal -! (the senior lecturer of the DRU branch is designated as
the Vice-Principal)
3. Selllor Lecturers (of the rank of EO) -7
4. Lectun::rs-17
106
Thus, the total strength of academic stafT in each DIET works out to 25 apart
from the 23 non-teaching staff, which includes a Statistician, Technician, Work
Experience teacher and the Librarian.
At the time of the study, both the DIETs had set up all tre ,e\en
wings/branches. In addition, both the DIETs had clear sanctions for different
vacancies as per the guidelines. However, in terms of Staff position in different
branches, the follO\ving was noticed (Table 5.1.1).
Table 5.1.1: ShO\\ing the Staffing Pattern in DIETs of Kolar and Tumkur
I
- --.-
\Vin!!s
Kolar
Tumkur
i
Teaching. Statr
Sanctioned In Position Sanctioned In Position
I No
No.
Principal
, , , ,
Vice-Principal
f---
, , , ,
.. - ------_.
PSTE: Sr. Lecturer
, , , ,
~ Lecturer
8 8 8 7
WE Sr Lecturer
,
-
, ,
Lecturer
, , , ,
DRU Sr. Lecturer
, , , ,
Lecturer 4 4 4 4
'FIC . Sr Lecturer I I I I
I
Lecturer I
,
I I
r
C\IDE : Sr. Lecturer I - I
,
Lecturer I 1
I
I I
I
ET . Sf Lecturer 1 -
,
1
Lecturer 1 1
, ,
P&\1 Sr L""lurer I - 1
,
Lecturer 1
, , ,
Non-Teachinu Staff
I Statistician
,
-
,
1
i
,
I
Librarian
,
- I -
Lab Assistant 1 - I -
._--
Technician 1
-
1
. : . . ~
Work Experience Teacher 1 - I -
Accountant 1 1 1
-
Superintendent 2 1 2 2
Clerks 9 9 9 9
---
Peon 6 6 6 5
Considering the sanctioned positions of only the academic staff in the
DIETs, it is noticed that there is no deviation from the prescribed norms both in casc
of Kolar and Tumkur DIETs. However, co;-]sidering the academic staff in position, it
IS obsef\ed that there are differences between the DIETs of the two districts. While
107
the fonner reveals vacancies of St:nior Lecturers in WE, CMDE, ET and P&M, the
latter reveals only one vacancy of Lecturer in the PSTE branch. The proportion of
these vacancies in Kolar DIET works out to 47.1 percent, thus, depriving these
sections of the reqUired acad-cmic leadership and direction. The DIET in Tumkur
apparently scores over that of Kolar in terms of Senior Lecturers in place. It is
observed that the positions in these departments have fallen vacant since two years.
Subsequently, no attempt seems to have been made to fill this void.
Considering the technical support, both the DIETs are deprived of the
Compu!er Technician and Statistician in the Planning and Management wing. In
regard to the administrative support, excepting for the Accounts Officer's post,
\\ lm:h has fallen \:leant in the Tumkur DIET, the rest of the administrative P0sltions
in both the DIETs are found to be in place. Thus, the capacity of the Kolar DIET as
compared to that of Tumkur DIET in terms of Staff in position appears to be weak.
Sueh an inadequacy has wider implications for enhancing capacities of teachers and
schools under the DPEP intervention 111 the district.
5.1.2 Human Resource (HR) Capacity
A deeper analY,I, of the Human Resource capacity in thc sample DIETs has been
ath:mpted In order to understand the quality and nature of the same. In this direction,
an attempt has been made to look into the academic qualification and the
expenence of the DIET faculty rhe norm prescribes that the DIET
faculty should have a post graduate degree either in the content or in the professional
subJects Anal\sing the educational qualification of the DIET faculty against this
nonn. it is seen the table 5.12, that 35.0 percent and 46.0 percent of the faculty
in Kolar and Tumkur DIET, respectively, do not possess the required academic
qualification thereby VIOlating the prescribed nann. It is noticed that many among
this belong to the senior age group, who were originally admitted to the
elementary Teacher Training Institute, where this nonn of academic qualification
was not in vogue However, the Kolar DIET reveals a better picture in tenns of
highest proportion (45 percent) of faculty possessing a postgraduate degree in both
content and profeSSIOnal subject as compared to that ofTumkur DIET (17 percent).
J08
A further probe into certain demographic and professional of a
sub-s3mpk of the faculty in the two DIETs reveals some variations in HR capacity.
Considering the age wise composition of the faculty, as could be seen from the table
:'.1.2 that Kolar D[ET reveals a much better representation (63 percent) of younger
faculty that is below forty four years of age as compared to Tumkur DIET, which
reveals a reverse trend with 63 percent of faculty in the age group forty nine years
and above. One can see a clear association between the age pattern and the under
qualification of the faculty in the latter DIET.
Similarly. looklllg into the academic qualifications of the DIET faculty in the
1\\0 DIETs. as could be seen from the table 5.12 that mme than 68 percent of the
faculty ir. T umkur DIET have put III mer twenty years of service as compared to :.; I
percent of the faculty in Kolar D[ET More than 56 percent of the faculty in the Kolar
DIET have expenence less than 10 years. of whom 37.5 have experience below 5
vears. Needless to mention that the recent recruitment to Kolar DIET has inducted
young blood mto its composition.
109
Table " Demographic, Academic and Professional Background oftbe DIET
Faculty

-- -
--- - --- ----- ---
I------- --
1 B,A.
--
I (4)
,
I ".lA. --
[(4)
I BAiBSclBcom/BEdlBPEd 7 (35) 11 (46)
:
I (5) 7 (29)
: B.AvBSc/BcomIMEdiMPEdi M.PhiI. 3 (IS)
--
: \IA '\ISclrvfcomJrvlEdIl'vlPEd
9 (45) 4 (17)
; Total 20(100) 24 (100)
I II. Age in Ye31's*
.
Kolar Tumkur
1<30
I (6) --
I 31-3-l 3 (19) 2 (13)
35-39 4 (25)
lJ19)
- -
,to-4,t
2 (\3)
--
-l5-49
--
I (6)
,
6 (38) 10(63)
Total 16{IOC) 16(100)
Ill. Professional Experience in years'
I -
,
1-5 6
--
6-10 I 5
11-15 1
--
16-20 1 --
. 21-25
1 3
26-30 1 4
. 30---

4
"
Total 16 16
Note: FIgures In Parentheses denote percentages and are rounded off
::The data refer to all the facult\' in the two DIETs
*The data refer to a suh-sample of 16 faculty from the two DIETs.
the e'perIcnce, another dlnh.:nslOn that has been looked into for
a-sessIng the human resource capacity of the DIET faculty IS the experience of the
DIET faculty In the primary education. The noon stipulates that preference should
be gl\ en for facult\ "Ith prIor experIence 111 primary school. Analysing the primary
data, It is seen from the table 5 1.3 that the DIET in Twnkur reveals a better
(:' (lut of 16) faculty "ith previous experience in primary education as
compared to that of Kolar DIET (lout of 16) [n case of Kolar DIET, Lecturers
were recrUIted recenth through State Public Ser\'ice Commission for Kamataka
Education Semce (KI:5), \vhereIn experIence in primary education was not
mandator\' An\'\\a\, slIch trends rather reflect absence of clear-cut policy so far as
selection and recruitment to DIETs arc concerned
t 10
I
I
I
Table 5.1.3: Showing the Categories of Experience of the DIET Faculty.
: Experience in Kolar (N=16)
i
Tumkur (N=16)
f--
I \' ears
PS HS C
DIET Adm.
PS HS C DIET Adm.
~
1
1
4 4
4 4 2 10 1
I -) .)
--
i 6-lL)
-- :2
...,
,5
4 1
--
_ ..
5 5
!
11-15 ,
-- -- --
-- I
-- --
-..
-- --
16-20
1
3
-- .)
-- --
-- -- --
-- --
21-25 --
T 1
-- -- -- -- 5 -- -- --
i 26-30
,
-- 12 -- --
-- -- 2
-- -- --
f-----
110
: Total , 1
...,
9 5 5 14 2 15 6
"ote PS-Pnmary SchooL HS-Hlgh SchooL C-college (B.Ed., TTl and Jr. colleges etc,)
Adm - Administrative experience like BEO, AEO, lOS. EO etc.
Total does not tally because of multiple responses
An attempt has been made to look into the training and induction of the DIET
t':lcu\ty \\hl('h re\eals (Tabk 5. I A) that more than 56 percent of the faculty in Tumkur
DIET ha\e undergone some kind of professional orientation pro!,'Tamme. Whereas, in
Kolar DIET. only 25 percent of the faculty have received some kind of professional
traInIng T h e ~ e faculties include, by and large, the recent recruits to the DIET
Table 5.1.-1. Sho\\lng the Orientation/Induction Training received by the DIET
Faculty.
Kolar Tumkur
- -.----.-- -
Yes No Total Yes No Total
-\(25) 12( 75) 16(100) 9 (56) 7 (44) 16 (100)
5.1.3 Physical H.csources
. ~
--
Ha\mg examined the capacity of DIETs in terms of availability of human resources,
an attempt IS made to examine the capacity of the DIET in terms of the physical
resources that arc at its disposal. Both the DIETs were originally the Teacher
Training InstitutIons, which have been subsequently upgraded to DIETs. These
DlETs were establtshed under Phase II during 1993. Both of them were located at
the heart of the city Within the district Headquarter at the time (If field study.
III
Subsequently the DIi':T in Kolar has moved away from the city at a distance of
about 4 kms, which is easily accessible. Both the DIETs have new buildinus which
have been built after their upgradation with provisions for conduct of residential
training programmes for hoth pre-service and In-service training In the present
context the physical resource has been mainly viewed in terms of the availability of
the physical infrastructure and acadf!mic equipment at the time of study and the
analysis of the same is presented in the table 5.1.5.
Table 5.1.5: Availability of Physical Infrastructure facility in Kolar and Tumkur
DIETs
----
Indicators
Kolar Tumku!
Yes (Y) No(N) Yes (Y) No (N)
Classrooms/Lecture Halls
Y -- Y --
Audit0rium
Y
-- Y --
Seminar room
--
N
--
N
Science labouratory Y
--
Y --
Psychology labouratory
--
N -- N
Computer labouratory
--
N Y
--
Separate room for each branch ofOIET
-- N Y --
Principal room Y
--
Y --
Vice-Principal room -- N Y --
~ r ~ t e silting place for the staff Y -- Y --
Separate silting place for men &women Y -- Y --
Library reading room -- N Y --
--
It is noticed from the table 5.1.5 that both the DIETs have almost all physical
resources in terms of classrooms, auditorium, Science labouratory, Staff room for
Principal and the Teaching/Training facuIty as well as separate sitting places for
male and female faculty. However, both the DIETs lack seminar room and
Psyc:lOlogy labouratory. Additionally, the DIET in Tumkur seems to fair better in
terms of possessing a computer labouratorv, library reading room and a separate
room for the Vice-Principal also. But it should be noted that subsequently the
physical facilities In Kolar DIET had 31so been improved after shifting to its new
lecatlOn.
112
-
An aHempt has been made to examine the academic facilities in the DIETs in
terms of both availability and working conditions of various academic equipment
Crable 5.16)
Table 5.1.6. Availability and Working Condition of the Academic Equipment in the
Sample DIET,
- ---- -- --
- ----,---:-:
Equipments Kolar Tumkur

r
lGC
Yes
---
No Yes No
NIGC IGC NIGC
TV Set
Y -(3)
-- --
Y (3)
-- --
Photocopier

-- -- -- -- --
VCR Y (I)
-- --
Y (I)
- -
Video Camera --
--
N -- -- N
Film Proiector Y (I)
-- --
Y (1) -- --
OHP with screen Y (2)
-- --
Y (4) -- --
Public Address SYstem
--
--
--
-- -- N
Slide Proiector Y (I)
--
--
Y (I) -- --
Radio Y (I)
-- -- Y (2) -- --
Audio Cassettes Y (36) -- --
Y (48)
-- --
-
Video Cassettes Y (10)
-- --
Y (12)
-- --
Camera -- --
N Y (3)
--
--
Telephone Y (I)
-- --
yO)
--

Y (3)
-- --
Y (3) -- --
Printer Y (I) Y (I) -- -- --
,
.. . .
Note IGC - In Good Cend,lIon, NIGC- Nut In Good CondItIOn, Y -Yes, N- No
Figures in brackets refer to corresponding numbers of available equipment.
--
It could be seen from the table 5.1.6 that almost all the essential academic
equipment lI1c1uding certain technological aids are not only available in both the
DIETs, but also to be in good working condition. Further, Kolar DIET is
better equipped .... ith Photocopier machine. Thus, looking at the facilities it could be
inferred that both the DIETs are adequately equipped to perform the required
academiC actlvitlls But there appears to be some conflict in terms of utilisation of
these facilities m the DIET A large majority of the faculty members in both the
D!LT.., percent in Kolar and R5 percent in Tumkur) claimed that they use these
cqulplllcnt \ cry olicn during trall1l11g programmes. On the contrary, a large I1lnjority
of the heneficlaries (more thnn 80 percent) of both in-service ns well as pre-service
trall1m:.' programmes reported that these equipment were rarely put to lise.
Although, It IS h,:artening to note that both the DIETs have 3 computers cach and arc
In good \\or"iIlg conditIOn, yet, the fact that hardly any faculty could make lise of
: 13
thIS technology for their academic programmes would suggest the inefTcctive usc of
t h i ~ modern technology. Additionally, other factors such as feeling of intimidation,
lack or motivation, absence of leadership and the age of the faculty etc., seem to
influcncc the effective utilisation of this technology.
In order to obtaltl a consolidated picture about the DIET's capacity, an
attempt has been m d ~ to quantify the facilities with respect to human and academic
resources in them. For this purpose, each of the sub variables has been assigned a
numerical wClghtage apd a cumulative index has been obtained for each of the
DIET. In order to obtain a quantified score for human resource, the number of the
Staff It1 position was divided by that of thc number sanctioned as per the norm.
Whereas, Itl case of academic equipment, a score of I against each of the item
available in the DIET has been arbitrarily assigned to get the quantified score. This
analysis is presented in the following table (see table 5.1.7).
114
Table 5.1.7: Overall Capacity of DIETs In terms of I{uman Resource and
A dE
ca emlc :qUlpment
-- ---------- -
Dcpartmc Iluman
f-.
Kolar Tumkur
nts Resource
SI' II' QS SI' II' OS
-
Academic Principal I I I I I I
I I I I I
--
--
I
PSTE Sr. Lecturer
--- - --
-"- ----------- -- --- -- ---
-,
I I I I I
.. - ---
__ --.1e_cturer ____ 8 8 I R 7 08
1------
f--- ---
WE Sr. Lecturer I
- 0 I I I
Lecturer I I I I I I
----
DRU Sr. Lecturer I I I I I 1
Lecturer 4 4 1 4 4 I
IFIC Sr. Lecturer I I I 1 1 1
Lecturer I I I I I 1
CMDE Sr. Lecturer I - 0 1 1 1
Lecturer 1 I I I 1 I
ET Sr. Lecturer I - 0 I I 1
Lecturer I I I I 1 I
Technician I
- 0 I - 0
P&M Sr. Lecturer I
- 0 I I I
Lecturer I I I I
\
I I
Statistician I
- 0 I I I
Non- Librarian I - 0 1 - 0
Academic
Lab Assi"tant I
- 0 I - 0
Total 29 21 12 29 25 16.8
Academic Equipment Availabilitv QS Availability QS
y
NA Y NA
TV Set 3 -- 3 3 -- J
.--
Photocopier I -- I -- Y 0
VCR I
-- I I -- I
Videc Camera
--
Y 0 --
y
0
Film Proiector I
--
I 1 -- I
OHP with screen 2 -- 2 4 -- 4
Slide Projector I -- I I
--
I
Radio 2 -- 2 2 -- 2
Audio Cassettes 36 -- 36 48 -- 48
10
--
I 12 -- 1.2
r-
Video Cassettes
Camera Y 0
,
3 --
,
--
Telephone 1
--
I 1
--
I
Computer 3
--
3 3
--
3
t---
Printer 1 -- I 1 -- I
Total
I
62 --
53 80 -- 69.2
,
Grand Total (QS) 05
86
--
..
Note: SP - Sanclloned Post., II' - In POSIl\on. QS - Quantified Score. Y - Yes and NA-
Not Available
Looking at the table 5.1.7, it may be seen that Tumkur DIET scores over Kolar
DIET with respect to overall facilities (a total score of 86 as against 65) as well as
physical facilities (a total score of 69.2 as against 53) and human resource facilities
(16.8 as against 12) when taken separately.
1 t 5
Thus, the analysis results of the IIR capacity and physical resources of the
two DIETs suggest that the HR capacity of DIET in Tumkur is better as compared to
that of Kolar in tenns of Stafr in position, the professional experience/training and
experience in primary education of the faculty Whereas" in terms of the required
educational qualification of the faculty, Kolar DIET fairs better as compared to that
of Tumkur. As far as the physical resources are concerned, both the DIETs have
airpost all the physical resources like classroom, auditorium, Science labouratory,
Staff room etc. Similar is the case with various academic equipments. Despite these
eqUipments being in good working condition, they seem to be under utilized (to the
extent of 80 percent) as reported by the faculty. Thus, the question that remains to
be answered IS to what extent these differences are reflected in the variation of
performance of DIETs? The foregoing analysis primanly attempts to address this
question.
5.1.4 Role of DIETs
The role of the DIETs has been examined from a normative perspective. Norms
mdlcate the expected roles to be perfonned by the DIETs. Accordingly three major
roles arc assigned to the DIET. They are (I) Training, (2) Resource Support and (3)
ActIOn Research. At the outset, an analysis of quantitative data in terms of the
number of activities performed by the two DIETs in relation to the above
dImenSIOns for the 3 years from 1996-97 to I Q98-99 is attempted. The same is
presented m the table 5.1.8.
Table 5.1.8. Number of Training Activities conducted in Kolar and Tumkur DIETs
~ Year
Kolar Tumkur
25
I ~
1996-97
- --- ------
- _. -- - ~ ~
1997-98 43
1998-99 24 16
116
An indicator of the performance of !)WI"s IS the quantum of acll\ Illes
conducted. Considering the total number of programmes, conducted each \\:ar It is
seen from the table 5.1.8 that both the DIETs have been able to adhere to the norm
of 12 to 14 programmes in a year. However. the number of training actIvIties in
both the DIETs has declined over time from 25 to 24 activities in Kolar and from 57
to 16 activities in Tumkur. While in 1996-97, Tumkur DIET was leading with 57
training programmes as against 25 of Kolar DIET, in the years that IS 97-
98 and 98-99 the Kolar DIET has taken over Tumkur DIET.
A further breakup of these activities has been done to assess the role of
different branches/wings of DIET for imparting training It may be seen from the
table 5.1.9, in 96-97, while CMDE in Tumkur seems to be most active in terms of
highest number of activities (30). In Kolar DIET, the IFIC seems to be more active
in terms of highest number of activities (7). During the same year the PSTE, the
IFIC and the P & M also appear to be engaged in considerable number of training
programmes. In 97-98 the IFIC in Kolar district has conducted highest number of
activities (17). In the same year, the PSTE in Tumkur DIET outscores other wings
with 6 trainmg programmes. However, in 98-99, the IFIC in Kolar DIET seems to
be more active with highest number of training programmes as compared with that
of Tumkur (50 percent in the former and 43.8 percent in the latter). Thus, in
Tumkur DIET, the ET and the WE units seem to be less engaged in training
activities. Similarly the PSTE in Kolar DIET seems to be less involved in the
training activities.
117
Table <; 1.'1: Number of Hranch wise Trainmg Activities of DIETs in Kolar and
Tumkur Districts.
-----_.-- - - - ---.-- ~
---- - ---- -------------- ._--_.- ~ ------
Branches of Kolar
Tumkur
DIET
96-97 97-98 98-99 96-97 97-98 98-99
f-- -
PSTE
1 1
-- 8 6 --
WE 4 3 1 1
--
--
ET 6 6 2 I 1 --
DRU 5 5 6 5 I 3
CMDE I 7
-- 30 5 3
IFIC 5 17 12 6 4 7
'p&M
-
3 4 3 6 5 3
Total 25 43 24 57 22 16
Another indicator of perfonnance is the target achievement. When the
DIETs prepare a tentative annual plan of the training programmes during the
beginning of every year, they indicate the number of proposed training programmes
along with the name of the units to be involved, the number of teachers to be trained
and the estimated budget. Generally, it is observed that the annual plans do indicate
a fair distribution of the proh'Tammes across the units_ However, so far as achieving
the target, there is a shortfall between the DIETs and across the units within each
DIET Even the resource utilisation position does reveal under utilisation of the
resources provided.
Further looking into the pioposed and aChieved targets in the two DIETs, it is
noticed from the table 5. L 10, that the shortfall is to the extent of 53.8 percent in
Kolar DIET and 63.6 percent in Tumkur DIET during the year 1998-99. It may also
be noticed from the table that almost every unit in the DIET excepting IflC reveals
a shortfall in the number of training programmes conducted. The shortfall is glaring
in units such as ET and P&M in Kolar and ET and DRU in Tumkur.
118
Table 5.1.10: Proposed and Achieved Training Programme at DIFl's in Kolar and
Tumkur Districts during 1998-99
-- ---_.-
. --------.. -.------- - --
Wings of Kolar Tumkur
f--.
-------
DIET
--- -.- .. _---- ,--------- . __ .- - -- ._-
Programme Programme
_._-
Proposed Achieved r Shortfall Proposed Achieved
PSTE -- --
-- -- --
--
-----_. --
WE 4 I 3 6 --
6
----
ET 15 2 13 11 --
II
_._--
DRU II 6 5 10
-'
7
-
._-
f.-.-
CMDE I 6 5* 5 3 2
IFIC 8 12 4* 7 7 --
P&M 13 3 10 5 3 2
Total 52 24 28 44 16 28
Note: * - Excess
Yet another indicator of performance of DIET is the extent of coverage of
teachers under various training programmes in the district. The NPE has rightly
pointed out that continuous in-service training is very much necessary for all the
teachers to equip themselves for the advanced teaching-learning process. It also
emphasizes the role of DIET in this regard. Hence, DIETs are expected to discharge
a wide variety of training activities basically for the upgradation of professional and
pedagogical skills of the teachers so that the teachers are well equipped to facilitate
the task of VEE. In this context, a further analysis has been attempted to look into
the nature of training programmes to assess the focus of the training programmes
meant for teachers_ As per the norm, a DIET is expected to cover 12-14 programmes
under in-service training per year at the rate of 40-45 participants and the average
coverage of participants per year works out to be 500-600. An analysis of the data
\\ith regard to the extent of coverage of teachers in the two districts under reference
is pre5ented in tlie table 5. I. II.
Analysing the cxknt of coverage of teachers under in-service training
programme against the total number of teachers in the district for 96-97, 97-98 and
98-99 separately, it is clear from the table that both the DIETs have beell able to
adhcre to the nom1. lIowever, it may be noted that the percentage of coverage has
declined from 25.4 percent to 9.2 percent in case of Kolar DIET and from 39.3
percent to 8.0 percent in case of Tumkur DIET. The decline sut;gests the
119
diminishing in-service training activity of the D) ETs, over the years. It appears
thai the in-service training activity has saturated between 8 to 9 percent of the teachers In
the district. However, a redeeming trend is compliance with the stipulated norm. It is to
be noted that consequent to DPEP in Kolar, the training activities have been taken owr
by (he BRCs, Thus, making the DIET's role less significant.
fable 5.1.11: Showing the Extent of Coverage of Teachers under In-service Training
A .
h S chvllles III t e 10 ample lETs trom 1996-97 to 1998-99
,---:-:--
Year Kolar Tumkur
--
-
No.ofTeachers I
----
No. of Teachers No. of Teachers No. of Teachers
in the District actually Covered in the District actually Covered
1996-97 10555 2686 (25.4) 10745 4228 (39.3)
-----
1997-98 10955 \657(15.1) 11230 951 (8.5)
--
1998-99 11262 1039 (9.2) 12405 994 (80)
Note The figures III parentheses denote the percentages
5.1.5 Training Programmes iu nIETs: A Qualitative Analysis
A further qualitative analysis has been made to look into the details of these activities in
terms of the theml!, the nature of clientele and duration of the training programmes.
Considenng the theme of the training programme for the year 1998-99, it is seen from
the table 5.).) 2 that the Kolar DIET reveals a wider variety as compared to Tumkur
DIET (24 themes as against 16 themes). It may also be noticed that the major focus of
the training in both the DIETs has been on pedagog)' (42 percent in Kolar and 44 percent
in Tumkur), followed by professional orientation (27 percent) in Kolar and oth::ls (25
percent) in Tumkur
Tanle 5. 1.12: Activities conducted under different Themes In the S<!mple I )IETs
Theme Kolar I umJ..ur
"--- ._--_.. ---- ,------ - ---
___ . ProfessLc;mal ___ ________ ?f2!!2 ___ __ ----:o3_ (I'J)
__ 10 (42) 7 (44).
___ 2QlL 2 (131.
_____ . ___ _____ _. __ 4J} 5) .
J 24 16
Note: The figures in parentheses denote percentages and are rounded off
Considering the category of clientele in the training programme, It is seen
from the table 5.1.13, that the primary school teachers are the most targeted ones
This is true for both the DIETs and for different years. It may also be noted that the
DIET in Kolar reveals the coverage of teacher educators, superintendents and
educational functionaries to a greater extent than that ofTumkur [)IET
Table 5.1.13: Activities conducted for different Clientele groups In the Sample
DIETs
Clientele groups Kolar Tumkur
96-97 97-98 98-99 96-97 97-98 98-99
(N=25) (N=43) (N=24) (N=25) (N=43) (N=24)
Teacber Educators / 1
-- -- -- --
Superintendents of IT!
Primary Scbool Teachers / 19 42 19 54 22
i-"!!Y_sical Education Teachers
Head Masters / Mistresses 3
--
S
-- --
Educational Functionaries 9 6 2 2 --
Others J - --
J --
Note: Total does not tally smce It mcludes more than one count
COltsidering the duration of the training programme, the norm prescribes a
maximum of three weeks' duration for the conduct oftr3ining programme within the
DIET and of lesser duration of ahOl:t two weeks if training is conoucted outside the
DIET Analysing the training programmes from this perspective, it is seen from the
table 5.1.14, that the DIETs in both the districts have conducted training
programmes of three days, five days and seven days duration. While: the DIET in
Kolar has conducted maximum number (II (Jut of 25) of tmining programmes of
five days duration in 1996-97, the Tumkur DIET has conducted maximum number
121
--
14
--
I
J
(43 out of 57) of training programmes of three days duration. Similarly in 1997-98,
the Kolar DIET has again conducted a maximum number (22 out of 43) of training
programmes of five days duration During the same year, the Kolar DIET has also
conducted fifteen training programmes of three days duration, one programme often
days duration and two programmes of forty-two days duration. In 1998-99, the
Kolar DIET has again conducted a maximum number (8 out of 24) of training
programmes of three days duration. Similarly the Tumkur DIET has conducted a
maximum number (7 out of 16) of training programmes of three days and five days
duration during this period. It is also noted from the table that Kolar DIET has also
conducted a few training programmes of seven days and ten days duration during
1998-99. Whereas, the Tumkur DIET does not reveal any training programmes for
this duration during this period. Thus, it could be inferred that the Kolar DIET
appears to be more active in the spread of training programmes over varied duration.
Table 5.1.14: Duration of Activities conducted in the Sample DIETs
Duration in Kolar Tumkur
Days 96-97 97-98 98-99 96-97 97-98 98-99
1 day -- -- -- -- -- 2 (13)
2 days 5 (20) 3 (7)
114)
3 (5) I (5)
--
3 days 7 (28) 15 (35) 8 (33) 43 (75) 10 (45) 7 (44)
5 days 11 (44) 22 (51) 6 (25) 9(}6\ 5 (23) 7 (44)
7 days
-- -- 6 (25) 2 (4) 6 (27)
--
J 0 days 2 (8) J (2) 3 (13) -- -- --
42. days -- 2 (5)
-- -- -- --
Total 25 43 24 57 22 16
Note: The figures in parentheses denote percentages and are rounded off
5.1.6 Quality of the Training Programme
An attempt was also made to assess the quality of the training prob'famme (in-service)
conducted bv the DIETs. For this purpose, a sample of teachers (32 teachers from 20
Lower Primary Schools equally from the four sample blocks in two districts, where these
DIETs are located), who had received training from the DIETs was interviewed.
Although, there was a general consensus that th;;: training has helped the teachers to
focus on the learner and the activitIes and has enabled them to depan from the
122
conventional textbook oriented and tcacher dominated transactional methods, yet there
was a lCeling that the training mdhodology failed to equip them to manage teaching _
learning at the primary level. The deficiencies of the methodology included not only the
dominance of the trainer, but alsl) the traditional lecture method coupled with inadequate
use of instructional technological aids (56 percent in Kolar and 50 percent in Tumkur)
[t wa<; also noticed that most of the training programmes are held at the places other than
the DIETs thereby leading to very limited use of the inadequate use of infrastructure
facilities made available in DIETs. During field visits, it was observed that the
evaluation of the training prot,'famme was done orally to obtain feedback from the
tramees rather than attempting at systematic evaluation of the prot,'famme. To this
extent, either the quality of the training programme or any required improvement in the
training was found to be suffering.
5.1. 7 Pre-Sen-ice Teacher Education (PSTE): Process and Practice
Another important activity of the DIET IS the Pre-Service Teacher
Educationfrraining (PSTE) As most of the DIETs are upgraded elementary Teacher
Training Institutes, the PSTE seems to be a sIgnificant component of the DIET. In
the State of Karnataka, the pre-service elementary teacher education is called as the T
C H (Teacher Certificate Higher) course, which is of two years duration. It is now
termed as Diploma in Education (O.Ed.) with an extended six months internship
programme. Teacher preparation programme is considered as a professional
programme aiming at the preparation of the prospective teachers, who can shoulder
the responsibility of teaching effectively at the primary school. The minimum
qualification required for admission to first year of TCH course is a pass in Pre-
University course with Arts or Commerce or Science b:.lckground or an equivalent
qualificatIOn with a minimum percentage of marks prt:scribed by the Government.
The selectioJl IS done through Common Admission Cell of the Directorate of School
Education, Governmcnt of Karnataka.
In order to rcalise the objectives 01 teacher educalion, the present syllabus
has been re-designed and classi lied under four broad areas. They are
123
I. Academic Competency (In content cum me1hodology I Year)
a) I{cgionalll!nguagc or Mother Tongue (I ,\ Language)
Under Regional language, Kannada is to be studied or under mother tongue,
one of the following languages to be studied (il Kannada (ii) Urdu (iii)
English (iv) Tamil (v) Telugu (vi) Marathi (vii) Hindi.
b) English or Hindi (2
nd
Language)
c) Social Science
d) General Mathematics
e) General Science.
II. Professional Competencey (Professional theory and practical training
-II Year)
III. Areas for special study like Adult Education, NFE, Population
Education, lED, Educational Technol(lgy (IJ Year)
IV. General components like Art, Music, Work Experience etc (I and II
Year).
The Regulatory body of the Teacher Education, namely the NCTE has fixed
the norm with respect to the annual intake in accordance with the facilities available
in the TTls. It is noticed that in case of Kolar, the total annual intake ofPSTE is 90
and that of Tumkur is 60 and the selection is based on merit in both the cases. The
number of divisions in PSTE in Kolar is three and that of Tumkur is one only.
Studymg the Teacher-Pupil Ratio (TPR), Tumkur DIET reveals a more
favourable TPR of i :';0 as compared to 1:46 of Kolar DIET It i ~ n t i c ~ d that the
number of schools covered for practice teaching is six in both the DIETs. With this,
the student-school ratio in Kolar works out to 30: I and 20: I in Tumkur (including
the II ycar students) The schools covered for practice teaching are generally
Higher Primary Schools consisting of standards I to VI L
124
Induction to Teacher Training
The induction prOb'Tamme begins with an initial orientation of the prospective
teachers. The concerned methods' teachers orient the trainees with regard to
principles, procedures and techniques of teaching different subjects in a classroom
situation. Based on the perceptions of a sample of teacher trainees drawn from
Kolar (25 trainees) and Tumkur (25) DIETs, it is noticed that by and large the
trainees in both Kolar and Tumkur DIETs reportcd that they are given orientation
about the teaching profession, teaching techniques and skills and competencies
required for classroom and school management, when they joined the course. A
large majority (80 percent in Kolar and 91 percent in Tumkur) of them reported that
it was useful in understanding the course and in preparing and planning their course
work. They also reported that they were given orientation for practical work which
includes practicum, lesson plan writing, observation reeord and assignments.
Practicum
The trainees under the pre-service training are inducted into a classroom teaching
through regular practice teaching sessions. The norm stipulates that each trainee is
required to deliver 45 lessons (30 formal lessons, 15 unit lessons and block teaching)
during first year training programme and 65 lessons (40 formal lessons, 25 unit
lessons and block teaching) during second year training programme. These lessons
cover all subjects in the school curriculum, all classes (1 to VII) and different
methods of teaching. A random check of the sample lesson plans of the pre-service
trainees in the two DIETs revealed that generally they comply with the prescribed
norm in terms of nl!mber of lessons to be delivered as a part of the course
requirement to qualify in the t<;;rminal examination. However, a disaggregate
analyses (Table 5.1.15 and 5 116) of the lessons delivered by the trainees indicates
that standard I and II are generally nOl considered for practical training. It is seen
that in both the DIETs, a negligible number of lessons are delivered for standards I
and II, only 6.8 percent by the II year trainees in case of Tumkur DIET and only
136 percellt by I year trainees in case of Kolur DIET Further, Mathematics has
received low priority in both the districts for standard II. SUl:h a phenomenon
occurs as delivery of lessons under practice teaching in the pre-service tcacher
125
educatIOn IS linked to the lcxthooks in the school syllabus. Most of the lessons
delivered by the trainees are hased on the content of the prescribed textbooks for
various standards, as the lcxthooks assume a vital importance from class III when
the core subjects arc begun to he taught to students.
Tahle 5.1 15: Standard wise and subject wise number of lessons delivered by Pre-
Service Trainees in DIET, Kolar

Class I II III IV V VI VII
---
Trainees I II I I I I II I II I II I II I
Yr. Yr. _Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr.
-
Subjects
Kannada
-- --
2 -- 5 7 2 3 7 5 7 --
English
-- -- -- --
-- -- -- 5 10 6 5 --
Maths. -- -- 3
-- 4 2 4 3 3 5 4 7
--

-- -- 3 -- 5 2 5 4 5 5 5 7 --
Gen.Sc. -- -- 3 -- 4 1 8 1 7 12 5 10 --
Others -- --
4
-- 5
--
8 4 3 3 2 5 --
MCT -- --
2 -- --
-- -- -- -- I -- -- --
AC -- -- -- -- --
-- -- I -- -- -- -- --
Total -- --
17 -- 23 5 32 15 26 42 27 41 --
Note: MCT - Multiple Class Teachmg and AC - Activity Centered lessons
Table 5.1.16: Standard wise and subject wise number of lessons delivered by
Pre Service trainees in DIET Tumkur
- ,
Class I II III IV V VI VII
Trainees I II
IjlI
I II I II I II 1 II 1
Yr. Yr. Yr. I Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr. Yr.
2ubiects
Kannada -- -- --
2 5 4 2 3 :1 4 1 3 --
-- -- -- -- -- --
5 5 1
17
--
-- --
2 5 2 4 5 3 2
Maths. -- -- -- --
2 --
SSiEVS
--
-- I 2 3 2 4 2 4 1 4 --
--
Gen.Sc:_
-- 2 3 5 2 5 1 3 2 2 --

--
J)thers -- I 5 11 4 7
"-4
e-l1-
?
8 --
-- --
- ----
..

MCT --
2-.
-- 4 --
J --
-- -- --
--
-- --
--
.-
AC -- --
-- 2 -- 2 -- 2 -- 2 --
-- --
_.
34 12 28 20 33 9 28
Jotal --
9 17
--
-- --
126
II
Yr.
---
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
II
Yr.
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--
--

TeachinJ.: Methods emllloyed
With regard to the use of variety of teaching methods, the PSTE faculty in hoth the
DIETs reported that they use Lecture and Discussion methods commonly for Pre-
Service trainees in addition to self study (Kolar) and group study (Tumkur) methods.
A large majority of the pre-service trainees reported that Lecture method is most
commonly used by their teachers (76 percent of students in both the DIETs). Few of
them also reported that some of their teachers also use play way, activi!y and
discussion methods etc very occasionally.
As far as the use of audio-visual aids during teaching, the faculty in both the
DIETs claimed that they use them during teaching. On the contrary, the pre-service
trainees (20 percent in Kolar and 88 percent in Tumkur) reported that their teachers
use them occasionally. The demonstration lessons were towards activity lessons and
other kinds introduced in II year as reported by the trainees (52 percent in Kolar and
40 percent in Tumkur).
With regard to the supervision of lessons by the faculty, both the DIETs reported
that they supervise the lessons of students more frequently. But, a very few of the
trainees (12 percent in Kolar and 24 percent in Tumkur) reported that their lessons
are supervised regularly and a large majority of the students (88 percent in Kolar and
76 percent in Tumkur) reported that their lessons are supervised occasionally.
Considering the feedback mechanism, the faculty in both the DIETs reported that
they gi ve oral feedback to the students reb'lllarly at the end of a day in a group. A
large majority of students also (88 percent in Kolar and 76 percent in Tumkur)
confinned the same. Over all, the pre-service trainees seem to be satisfied with the
support provided during practice teaching.
127
:U.8 Resource Support (Linkage with) to District and Sub-district
level Institutional Structures
As indicated earlier, another important activity of the DIET is the resource support.
It is examined in terms of linkage with different institutional structures existing at
district and sub-district levels. As per the norms, the DIETs at the district levels are
expected to maintain horizontal and vertical linkages and establish a close and
continuing dialogue with the field. Additionally, elementary schools, school
complexes, teachers, head masters, school supervisors, Instructors!Supervisors!
Project officers of AE and NFE and District level officers will also have to be
closely monitored. Over and above this, the linkage with organisations and
institutions at the National, State, Divisional and District levels whose objectives
and interests converge \vith that of the DIETs have also to be maintained.
At the district level the existing institutions concerned with pnmary
education are the Deputy Director of Public lnstruction office, District Project
Office (DPO) of DPEP and District Adult Education Office (AEINFE) The 3ub-
district level institutions are Office of the BEO, BRCs of DPEP at the block level,
CRCs of DPEP and SCxes at the cluster level and VECs at the village level.
With regard to the interaction with different functionaries at the district and
sub-district levels, the Principals in both the DIETs reported that they interact
frequently with the District authorities. Although, the Principals in both the sample
DIETs, claimed that they interact with Block level officers quite frequently, it is
noticed that there is hardly any interaction as they interact for purpose of certain
administrative matters such as getting the list of teachers to be trained, getting them
deputed for training at the DIET It is noticed that DIET in Kolar has established
llllkage with BRCs through one of the faculties acting as a Nodal officer to guide
and monitor the activities of BRCs.
The interactioll. with the cluster and village level institutions is almost nil 3S
reported hy the Principttl of Kolar DIET, as same is taken over by the newly
created suh-district level'institutional structures under DPEP intervention.
128
In the case ofTumkur DIET, the Principal reported that they intl!raet with thc Heads
of school complexes once in six months, Community members rarelv and In
the district occasionally.
Regretfully, the interaction of sample DIETs with primary schools IS
conspicuously missing as observed dUring field visits of primar/ schools and as
reported by the teachers as well. There were hardly any attempts madl! by the
DIETs to follow up their training programmes through regular visits to the
This was revealed by the faculty themselves, who admitted that due to the pressure
of work within the DIET, they were not able to undenake visits to schools.
Thus, the analyses in general point to the weak linkage of DIET vertically
downwards. It is also clear that DPEP intervention in case of Kolar seems to have
affected the DIET's linkage with grassroots level institutions such as BRC, CRC,
VEC etc. This suggests the need for further strengthening of linkages especially
with sub-district level institutions so that they can have training programmes in
accordance with the district specific needs.
Considering the resource support provided by the DIETs to the schools,
school complexes and other institutions, it is noticed that both the DIETs draw flak.
Similarly, DIETs have not made any attempt to tap the resources available in these
institutions for obtaining information relating to practical problems.
Besides looking at the actual activities in the two DIETs, an attempt was also
made to gather data from the faculty (16 each in the sample DIETs) with respect to
specifi(; contributions made by the respective DIETs. It is noticed through
interview that 43.8 percent in Kolar DIET and 31.3 percent in Tumkur DICT
reported that they have contributed to the development of innovative teaching
methods such as communicative approach to teach English and innovative
techniques in tcnns of activity based tl!aching and multi grade teaching. Similarly,
with respect to their contribution for material development such as low cost-no cost
teaching aids, charts, models and modules (in case of Kolar), preparation of training
pnckage for VEe and ECCE progralTlme and teaching aids (in casl! ofTumkur), 37.5
129

rereent In Kolar DIET and 25 rercent In Tumkur DIET reported in affirmative. The
facuity (43.S rcrcent in Kolar DIET and 25 percent in Tumkur DIET) also reported
that they have made contribution in the area of student evaluation such as gradation,
rreparation of question rapers and designing unit tests etc.
5.1.9 Action Research
As per the existing norm, the DIETs are required to undertake field studies, action
research and experimentation with a view to tackle the context specific local
problems relating to UEE. Regretfully both the DIETs do not seem to reveal any
activity relating to this dimension during the reference period. However, one or two
attempts in this direction were noticed in case of both the DIETs during 1995-96 in
Kolar and 1999-00 in Tumkur.
Kolar DIET had undertaken an action research in the year 1995-96 as per the
direction of the State DPEP with a view to enhance language skills of standard T and
standard IV with a focus on developing a technique for expressing reading, writing
and speaking skills. The report of action research was sent to the concerned higher
officer. In addition, an experimental field study (Lab Area) was undertaken by the
DIET in 1995, by selecting 6 villages in Kolar. In the first stage of this field study,
a preliminary survey was conducted by the faculty and the students (PSTE) under
the leadership of the Principal for collecting basic data relating to the village. In the
second stage, a village survey format was developed to collect infonnation relating
to vi II ages.
In Tumkur DIET, an action research was undertaken in 1999-00 with a view
to expose pre-service trainees to the methodologies, procedures, analysis and
reporting of conducting an action research. For this activity, the issue chosen \\'as
Improving the physical environment and hygiene. As a part of this research
pamphlets were developed for creating awareness and were evolved
to collect the required infonnation. report of this action research has been
printed by the DIET indicating the various activities ancl the analyses or the statistics
130
and inferences. In addition, this DII:T has also identified Gubbl Taluk f()r field
study purpose.
5.1.1 0 I ntcrnal Managcment of DI ETs
Although, the DIETs are autonomous institutions, the academic control of the
DIETs rests with State Council for Educational Research and Training (SCERT).
The SCERT is an apex academic wing of the State education department, which
manages all the academic activities pertaining to school education such as Teacher
Education at elementary and secondary stages, In-servive Teacher Training,
Curriculum, Textbooks and Educational Technology etc. The grants from the Union
Government are directly released to these DIETs through the DSERT only.
In order to facilitate DIETs' autonomous functioning, there is a Governing
Council (GC) and Programmeme Advisory Committee (PAC). The GC consists of
14 members. The GC is headed by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Zilla
Parishad (ZP) and is supported by other members which include the Principal of the
DIET as member secretary, JDPI, Vice-Principal, 3 Teachers from Primary Schools,
3 non-official members and DDP! of the concerned district etc. The GC meets at
least once in three months to monitor and review the activities of the DIET. It was
noticed that both the DIETs had a GC in place. It was also reported by both the
DIETs that there was an Executive Committee headed by the JOP! of the Division
concerned and he is supported by the Principal as member secretary, the Vice-
Principal and DOPI of the distrit:t concerned as members.
Programme Advisory Committee (PAC)
As per the norms every DIET is expected to have Programme Advisory Committee
(P AC) which will advise and guide the Institute in the planning and conduct of its
entire range of programmes and activities and the Committce may have the
following:
I3t
I) Principal, J l r ~ T Convenor
2) One representative each from all ager.cies with which the DIET would have
linkagc.
i) District Board of Education
ii) SCERT, SIET and SRC
iii) Nearest University Department of Education
iv) Nearest CTE or lASE or in the absence of these, any other good
secondary teacher t:ducation institute located nearby.
v) District Education Officer
vi) District level officers in-charge of AE, NFE and Women and Child
Development
vii) CEO, DRDA
vi ii) State Director of the local Radio Station (wherever applicable)
ix) District Information and Publicity Officer
x) In case a DRU is wholly or partly outside the DIET, the Head of such
DRUs
xi) Coordinator, Nehru Yuvaka Kendra
xii) NGOs in the district working in the area of elementary/adult education
3) Representatives of client !,'TOUp and staff:
i) Two students of PSTE course
ii) One elementary teacher, one HM and one Instructor or Supervisor each
of AE and NFE who may have undergone in-service training in the
institute in the last one year
iii) Three representatives of the faculty of the institution of whom one would
be Vice-Principal, Senior Lecturer in-charge of DRU, one other Senior
Lecturer and one Lecturer.
4) Others:
i) Two eminent educationists/teacher educators, tcachers with a substantial
record or service, who may be interested in associating themselves with
and contributing to the activities of the DIET
132
ii) Two other eminent citizens of thc district whose association with the
DIET may he ofhencfit to the institutIOn.
The Principals of hoth the sample DIETs reported that they have a PAC to
guide and advise the planning and conduct of training programmes and activities.
However, there appears to be lack of adequate representation in their composition so
far as inclusion of the client groups and the stakeholders at the grassroots in both the
districts.
Considering the norms, it is noticed that PAC is required to meet twice a year.
However, it is noticed that the PAC meeting is held only once a year in both the
districts. The norm further suggests formation of sub-committees with respect to AE,
NFE, teacher education and action research. However, such committees rarely existed
in both the DIETs. It is noticed that the DIET in Tumkur had an advisory committee,
which meets twice in a year (I) to approve the annual programme and (2) to review the
progress.
5.1.11 Planning and Managing Training Activities in the DIETs
As per the prescribed norms, in order to achieve their mission with the available
resources, the DIETs will have to plan their probTfammes and activities in a
meticulous and integrated manner both over long term of five-year duration and
short term of one-year duration which will serve as blue print for all their
programmes and activities. It is noticed that there are no a1tempts made in preparing
long term plans in both the sample DIETs. Although, the DIETs in both the districts
have reported that they do prepare annual plan for institutional activities, the details
and strategies of the same could not he spelt out clearly. The DIETs do prepare
annual plans in the t<mn of liction plans or calendar of events for every year
collectively indicating various programmes for each of the wings of DIET. The
proposal-rdketil.g calendar of events is subsequently sent to the DSERT for the
approval and rclease of funds.
133
The norms indicate that further, the DIETs should make an assessment of the
training needs before they plan their activities and programmes. There were no
specific surveys conducted by the DIETs to assess the training needs. Ilowever, the
Principals in both the DIETs claimed that they made attempts to identify the training
needs of teachers either through the BEO or through the feedback of the teachers.
Contrary to this, the teachers in the field repc)rted that therc were hardly any attempt
by the DIETs to obtain thclr feedback for identifying the training needs. It also
transpired during interviews with the DIET faculty that there were occasional
requests from the teachers for training in content enrichment and methodolob'Y for
subjects like Mathematics, English and Science in case of Kolar and for Science and
Mathematics for Urdu teachers, seventh standard question paper modeling for the
DDPI in the district and orientation for school complexes in case of Tumkur DIET.
However, the DIETs do not seem to comply with this request while planning their
training programme. This once again suggests the training prob'Tammes are not self-
driven based on the felt needs of the districts. It may be noted that the DIETs do not
ha\c autonomy to select teachers for training, as the same is purely an administrative
matter, which rests with the BEO. Although, both the sample DIETs claim that they
Identify the pnority areas for the conduct of training programme, it is noticed that
thc,e pnority areas are generally in accordance with the main training prOb'Tammes
like SOPT, MLL, Communication Skills and 3Rs, designed by the DSERT
following the recommendations of the NPE (1986) to achieve the qualitative
improvement in primary education. This is further confirmed in the preceding
analysis which reveals that the DIETs' training programmes were !argely directed
towards the DSERT's main focus rather than responding to the fclt needs of the
di<;trict. Thus, the results indicate the lack of planning skill and capacity of the
DIET in deSigning the training activities in accordance with the needs of the
teachcrs. Similar findings have been reported in another study (Se'.:tharamu and
Ushadcvi 2000)
134
5.1.12 Managerial and I)sychological Factors influencing the
PCI"fonnance of [)I ET
As noted from the earlier analysis relating to facilities and the activities in the two
DIETs, it IS clearly evident that the performance of the DIET is determined hy
certain other managerial and psychologIcal fa<.:lors such as perceptions of faculty
WIth respect to goals and objectives of DIET, workload, interpersonal relationship
and job satisfaction ctc. In this context, an attempt has been made to look into these
factors. The data for this analysis were gathered from a sample of facuIty through
questionnaire and interview methods. At the outset, the perceptions of the DIET
facuIty in regard to the goals and objectives of DIET as enunciated in the national
guideiines have been examined. The national guidelines indicate various kinds of
goals and objectives for the DIET. Accordingly, statements were formulated and the
DIET faculty were asked to indicate their perception about the DIET's goals and
objectives by way of assigning preferential ranks to each of the statement given.
The preferential ranks were subjected to Delphi technique analysis in order to
identify the pI iority areas. Simple ranking method has been employed to analyse
the ranking order of the respondents. The ranks so given by them were assigned
score values in the reverse order. Since there were eight items, the first rank has
been assigned a score of eight, the second a score of seven and similarly thc rest in
the descending order. In order to study the relative importance given to the
attributes for each attribute the rank values were multiplied by the corresponding
frequencies (number (If events) and summed up. The total scores indicate the
comparative rankings of attributes (See Table 5.1.17).
135
Table ).1.17: Showing the Priority of Goals and ObJcctivcs as Perceived by the
DIET Faculty
- -- - _ ..
_.
Goals andObjecti;;--.--
---, ---_ .. ---_.-----_ .. - .--
District
R A
. . . - - -_ .. - . ---
B C D E F G H
._.-
--1---.
Kolar 1 3 x8 2 x8 9 x8 2 x8 I
x8 .- 2 x8 1 x8
2 4 x7 I x7 I x7 2 x7 2 x7 3 x7 I x7 I x7
3 2 x6 2 x6
------- f--'--c----
.-
--
\-1 x6
I x6 2 x6 5 x6
4 2 x5

4 x5 3 x5 -- I x5 1 x5 2 x5
5 1 x4 2 x4
--
2 x4 I x4 --
+---4 x4 --
6 1 x3
"---.--- --- .. _------ ------
-- -- 5 x3 2 x3 3 x3 1 x3 2x3
7 -- 2 x2
--
.-
5 x2 4 x2 2x2 --
8 5 xl 5 xl
--
-- 4 xl 4 xl
--
3 xl
N 1 -- -- -
-- --
3 2
Total 71 60 III 68 52 53 63 64
Tumkur I 4 x8 2 x8 7 x8 3 x8 2 x8 I x8 3 x8 3 x8
2
--
3 x7 4 x7 4 x7
--
2 x7 3 x7
--
..
3 4 x6 1 x6 3 x6 2x6 3 x6 -- 2 x6 2 x6
4 3 x5 3 x5 2 x5 3 x5 I x5 --
I x5
--
5 1 x4 4 x4
-- 2 x4 2 x4 I x4 2 x4
6 I x3 2 x3
--
I x3 I x3 5 x3 2 x3 2 x3
7 -- -- -- 1x2 4 x2 3 x2 3x2 2x2
8 2 xl
-- --
-- 2 x I 4 xl 3 xl 3 x I
-
N I I
--
-- I 1 --
I
Total 80 80 112 94 60 47 81 57
Note R- Ranks, A- To become a pace setting institution In the district in respect of elementary
teacher training, B- To supplement already exisling infrastructure support for elementary education,
C- To improve quality of teaching in elementary education, D- To achieve the target of
universalisation of elementary education, E- To liquidate illiteracy, F- To provide technical support
for district educational planning, G- To provide facilities for training of in-service teachers and H- To
undertake action research in the area of elementary education
As could be observed from the table 5.1.17, a majority of the faculty have
indicated the first preferential rank to statement - 'to improve quality of teaching in
elementary educatIOn' as the goal of DIET While the second preferential rank has
been indicated to the statement- 'to become a pace setting institution in the district
tn respect of elementary teacher training' in case of Kolar DIET, same in case of
Tumkur DIET has been indicated to the statenll'nt - 'to achieve the target of
uniq;rsalisatlOn of elcl11cntarv education'. The thlrel prdcrelltial rank has been
to DIET's goal 'to acllll;n; the target ,)f IIllivcrsalisalioll of elementary
educatIOn' in case of Kolar DIET and the same ror statement- 'to provide facilities
for training of i:l-service teachers in case of Tumkur DIF l'. Similar variations in
perceptions with regard 10 the goals or DIET an: observed In other preferential ranks
assigned by the faculty in Kolar and Tumkur DII:"I' Although, it is trite to say that
Db
1)11':1', have Illultlple obJectives, the IIrst and IClrel110st goal is 'to become a 11<1Ce
setlll1g Institution In the district In respect of elementary teacher training' The
analYSIS of the perceptions of the ])11,:'1' faculty In the two districts clearly points to
the t ~ H . t that there IS lack of clear understandll1g of the DIET's significant role in
regard to cielllentar\ education
In order to probe the faculty perceptions with regard to the DIET's role, a
further attempt has also been made to examine to what extent the DIET is able to
achieve the set goals. The analysis of the DIET faculty perceptions in this regard is
presented in table 5. I. 18,
Table 5, I 18 Showing the Perceptions of the Faculty regarding the Level of
Achievement of Goals and Objectives by the DIET.
--
Level Kolar Tumkur
To a great extent 3 (19) 3 (19)
To some extent 13(81) 12 (75)
Not at all
--
1 (6)
Total 16 16
From the table 5. I. I 8, it is seen that a large majority of the faculty in both
Kolar 8 I percent) and Tumkur (75 percent) feel that the respective DIETs have
achieved the goal 'to some extent' only. There are very few in both the DIETs, who
feel that the DIET has realised its objective 'to a great extent', There is also one
faculty in Tumkur DIET, who feels that the DIET 'is not at all' in a position to
realise the set oblectlves,
Work Load of Staff Members and the Principals
As per the norms, :he I'rincipals and :,tatT of DIE'I s are expected to perfonn varied
roles and tasJ..s. Ilowever, as reported hv the Piincipals in case of both the DIETs,
they seem to he eng<lgcd 1l1'lTe In ,Idmmislrativc related works rathel than academic,
As slIeh their teaching workload is found to be almost nil or very minimal.
137
Ilowever, they are found to he engaged in other duties such as organising training,
material development, visits and inspectIOn of training programmes etc.
The senior lecturers in the DIETs arc f()und to be more involved in
organising and coordinating the training programmc rather than themselves
cngaging in tcaching or training activities. Ilowevt.:r, by and large, the core
activities of the Lecturers arc !(lUnd to be teaching and training.
Analysing the perct.:ptions of DIET faculty in terms of workload, a large
maJority of them n; 1 percent in Kolar and 88 percent in Tumkur) reported that their
workload is just enough. However, in another context, when they were asked about
Inadequate follow up of the training of teachers, they cited 'heavy workload' as the
reason for not being able to adequately follow up training. Thus, such contradictory
rt.:porting by the DIET faculty reveals much scope for speculation with regard to
their workload. Similarly, a marginal percentage of the faculty (13 percent) seem to
be engaged in research activity, which is yet another important dimension of the
DIET. The faculty reported that they spend very little time.
Inter Personal Relationship
Looking into an another important aspect, namely the interpersonal relationship and
Interaction within the DIET, although a large majority of them reported in
affirmative so far as receiving natural cooperation (Table 5.1 19), yet, off the record
a few of them also Indicated certain negative aspects relating to the same.
Table 5. I .19: Co-operation within the DIET as Rated by RPs

Personnel Kolar Tumkur
VC C NC Total v
-- .. '-
C C NC Total
Principal 2 14 --
16
,
13 --
16
-'
( 13) (87)
.-1-(
Faculty 7 --
16
'}L

6 --
16
9 I
(44) (56)
-
Non-teaching Staff 1 15 --
16
_.(61 __ ,-._. _. __ ..
81 (ill.

2
14
3)
... (Xli.
(3
U
---- - ---
Note: VC - Very Co-opcrative, C - Co-operative and NC - Not Co-operative
TIle figures in parcntheses denote percentages and arc rounded oIl"
138
Job Satisfaction and Commitment
.lob <lnd Commitment is also an important ingredient In the effective
functioning of any institution. Unicss and until the concerned personnel arc fully
comTllltted and satisfied in their job, one c<ln't expect the qualitative change in any
Institution It IS a general fceling th<lt higher the job satisfaction and commitment,
higher will be the output. Hence an attempt has been made in this direction to find
out the perception of the stall with regard to their job satisfaction and commitment.
Although in general the faculty reported satisfaction about their work, yet on
probing It was noticed that lack of reco!,'11ition of the services and absence of
promotIOnal opportunities were cited as the reasons for their low morale.
Opportunities for Professional Development
To what extent DIETs provide opportunities for Professional development of faculty
is an import:lIlt question as it directly affects the motivation and morale of the
faculty'} It is noted from the table 5.120, that DIETs have made to provide
opportunities for professional growth and development of faculty in terms of
participation in seminars/conferences/workshops, refresher course and academic
tours. As revealed in the table, in both Kolar and Twnkur DIETs highest proportion
of the faculty have reported about the participation in seminars I conferences /
workshops. In Tumkuc DIET relatively higher proportion of faculty have been able
to attend refresher courses as compar;:d to that of Kolar DIET (44 percent as
compared to 25 percent). A few of them have also been able to take part in
academic tours. Notwithstanding such opportunities, the DIET faculty in general
feels that these opportunities are far and few as the benetits are not shared uniformly
among the bcultv.
139
Table 5.1.20: Opportunities fin Professional Development of I )IET Faculty
. . ~ -------- - --
.. - -
Opportunities f'or
Kolar
--.- ."-,
Tumkur
....
---- -
Professional Development
Yes No Total Yes No Total
- -------
--=- 16(100)-
-------- ..
Study leave for doctoral
16
..
16( 1 (0) 16
work
. ~ ... ... _-
- --- ----_.-
Refresher course 4 (25) 12 (75) 16 7 (44) 9 (56) 16
.-.---- ----..
------- --
---.
...........
.. _---
r ~ ~ ----- ------
Seminars / Conferences / 10(63) 6 (38) 16 8 (50) 8 (50) 16
Workshops
Academic tour out of Sl'lte 3 (19) 13( 81) 16 1 (6) 15 (94) 16
None of the above 2 (13) 14(88) 16 4 (25) 12 (75) 16
Note: The figures In parentheses denote percentages and are rounded off
5.1.13 Perceived Problems in DIETs
An attempt was also made to identify certain problems, which come in the way of
effective functioning of DIETs. For this analysis, primary data gathered from the
sample DIET faculty was used. The faculty was asked to indicate three most
important problems in their DIETs. The individual problems so identified from each
of the faculty were later aggregated into four major categories . physical and
infrastructure, academic related, administrative & managerial and motivation and
leadership.
Table 5.1.21: Categories of Problems as Cited by the DIET faculty
Categories of Problems Kolar Tumkur
(N=16) (N=16)
Physical and infrastructure 12 --
Academic related 6
I
~
-'
,
-------
! 10 Administrative & managerial 9
Motivation and leadership 7
QI
L..
------
. ~ ..
Note: Total does not tally because of multIple responses
140
It is noticed Irom the tahle 5.1.21 that the major prohlem in Kolar appears to he
in the area of physkal and infrastructure facilities (75 percent). Strangely, the DIFT In
Tumkur is found to be absolved of this problem. The next prohlem IS the
administrative and managerial which is found to he common in case of both Kolar 156
percent) and Tumkur (63 percent) A large majority of faculty (69 percent) in Tumkur
OrET has identified motivation and leadership as yet another problem. Problems
relating to academic aspect seem to have received lowest priority In casc of both Kolar
and Tumkur DIETs.
The DIET faculty was also asked to indicate suggestions for resolving the
problems identitled by them in the DIET. Apart from suggestions for the improvement
of physical and infrastructure facilities, particularly in Kolar DIET the other
suggestions include enhanced opportunity for professional development, guidance for
research work, innovative training programmes, sufficient autonomy for individual
units and proper recognition etc.
141
5.2 Role of Block Resource Centres (BRCs) at the Block
Level
Within the context of lJEE, the NI'F (J 986, J 992) recognized th<: need for
promoting decentralisation for <:nsunng greater community participation.
Decentralisation was considered as :,tratcgy for achieving universal participation In
basic education as well as for improvin!; tlie efficiency ar.d quality of educatiun
system. Following this recommendation, the GOI under the banner of DPEP made
attempts to put in place a new framework for management of primary education at
the district level. This framework was expected to have considerable autonomy with
the objective of involving the community in an active manner. Consequently, new
innovative structures called as Block Resource Centers (BRCs) have been created in
a decentralised manner at sub-district levels primarily to build capacity among the
teachers and the community, who are the real key actors in the qualitative
improvement of primary education. In the foregoing section, an attempt has been
made to examine the structure and composition, the roles and functions performed
by the BRC in improving school quality.
BRCs are exclusive features of DPEP. They have been set up with the
primary objective of stepping up of in-service training for better coverage of
teachers and frequencies of training. In Kamataka, these BRCs have been
functioning in the DPEP districts from 1995-96. In the sample district of Kolar,
there are 12 BRCs one each for every block. Each BRC is headed by a Coordinator
(CO) who is in the rank of a high school head master. The CO is supported by a
team of five Resource Persons (RPs) each in the following subjecb: Language,
Mathematics, Environmental Studies (EYS) - Science, EYS -Social Science and
Work Experience/SLJPW. These RPs arc drawn 011 deputation basis from the State
education department and arc mostly from high schools. The COs and RPs are
further assisted by a clerk cllm typist and a peon.
142
For purpose of present study, only two HRCs from Kolar district have been selected
for in-depth analysis. As discussed under the sampling design, the selection of these
two BRCs is based on the proximity to the district headquarters. At the time of the
study, the staff position in the ARCs of Kolar and Gowribidanur was as follows
Table 5.2.1: Showing the Staffing Pattern in BRCs of Kolar and Gowribidanur
Staff Kolar Gbidanur

Sanctioned In Position Sanctioned In Position

Training:
Coordinator 1 1 1
*
Resource Persons 5 5 5 5
Total 6 6 6 5
. ..
Non-Teaching:
Clerk Cum Typist 1 1 1 1
Peon 1 1 1 1
Total 2 2 2 2
Note: * One of the RPs was made m-charge
Considering the sanctioned positions of academic staff in the BRCs, it is noticed
that there is no deviation in case of both Kolar and Gowribidanur BRCs. However,
considering the st:1ff in position, it may be observed that in case of Gowribidanur,
the CO's position has fallen vacant since one year due to the deputation of the CO
for higher studies and in his place one of the RPs was put in-rharge. To this extent,
the BRC in Gowribidanur seems to have been deprived of the requiren academic
leadership and direction as compared to that of Kolar BRC. Considering the non-
academic support, it is noticed that there is no deviation so far as both sanctioned
alld Staff in position are concerned in both the BRCs.
S.2. t Human Resource Capacity
In order to assess the nature of human resources available in the BRCs, an attempt
has been made to look into the academic qualification and experience
01' RPs in BRC. Analysing the educational qualification of the BRC faculty, it is
seen from the table 5.2.2 that an overwhelming majority of RPs in both the ARCs
are graduates with professional degree in education excepting one person from
t43
Kolar BRC, who holds Diploma in Carpentry. This person is being used to train
tea.:hcrs for Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW). Gowribidanur BRC is
found to have .:omparative advantage over Its .:ounterpart in Kolar in terms of one of
the RPs possessing a postgraduate degree in both content and pedagogy.
Table 5.2.2: EducatIOnal Qualifications of RPs.
-
Educational Qualifications
Kolar Gbidanur
-
M.A MEd
-- I
SA/SSe. BEd.
4 3
SAIBSc. BPEd.
-- I
SSLC, DiQloma in Carpentry
I
--
Total
5 5
5.2.2 Demographic Characteristics of BRC Faculty
A further attempt has also been made to look into some of the demographic
background of the SRC faculty. For this analysis, primary data were collected from
all the RPs in the BRCs. Considering the age wise composition of the faculty, it is
seen from the table 5.2.3 that Gowribidanur BRC reveals a much better profile in
terms of younger (3 out of 5 below forty years of age) as compared to Kolar
BRC (lout of 5 )
Table 5.2.3: Distribution ofRPs by Age
Age in Years Kolar GBidanur
-
31-40 I 3
41-50 2 1
51+ 2 1
t-=-
----
Total 5 5
._-
Consldenng the disti'ibutlon ofR!', by sex (table 5.2.4), it can be cleacly seen
that a large ma/onty uf RPs (5 out 01':) In Kolar and -+ out 01' 5 in liowribidanur) is
male and unly une In Gowribldanur is a female. The gross under representation of
female faculty III the BRes could be aunbuted to the nature of job, whi.:h largely
involves field visits. This might perhaps act as [1 constraint lix female teachers to
accept the Job of RPs.
144
Table 5.2.4: Distribution or Rl's by Sex
: Sex Kolar (ibtdanur .--
i .. --------------- -----_____ _
I .. -1---------
__ =_5- -5-
Considering the place of residence of the BRC faculty, it may be noticed
from table 5.25 that none of the faculty live in the same place wherc BRC is
located. Furthcr looking into the distance to be covered by the BRC faculty, it is
noticed that there are only 2 faculty in Gownbidanur who commute a distance of
less than 5 kms. An overnhelming majority of the facuity in both the BRCs
commute more than 5 kms. Two of them one cach in both the BRCs commutes over
10 kms.
Table 5.25: Place of Residence ofRPs from BRCs
Place of Residence Kolar Gbidanur
Less than 5 Kms -- 2
5-10 Kms 4 2
11-15 Kms 1 1
Total 5 5
5.2.3 Professional Experience of RPs
Considering the experience of the BRC faculty, it may be noted from the table 5.2.6
that RPs from Kolar BRC have put in longer years of experience as compared to that
of Gowribidanur.
Table 5.2.6: Showing the Length of Service ofRPs.
! Length of Service in 1-. ______ -=B..:,lo:c.:c:c:.k=-::-,:-:-:,.---__
Kolar I Gbidanur
- - .-------r-j-------
f-....--- --+---------f----
5-10 1-__ 1'--_-+-._----.:2=--__

e-__ ....:. 1.::... 0-...: 1.::.. 5 ____ -- 1 __
f-....-__ -=-15=--20 1 ___ +1 ___ -_-__ _
f--___ 20+ ___ _ 3 L 1 __
Total 5 L_5
Years
145
Along with the len6>1h of service, another dimension that has been looked
into for assessing the human resource capacity of the BRC faculty is the experience
of the ARC faculty in the field of primary education. This dimension assumes vital
significance in providing and creating necessary mindset and understanding of the
problem relating to rrimary education. Regretfully the data (table 5.2.7) in this
regard reveals that not all the RPs in both the BRCs have relevant exposure to
primary education. However, Kolar BRC is placed relatively in a better position
than that of Gowribidanur in terms of having large number of RPs with primary
school experience (3 out of 5 as against lout of 5) Some of thest RPs had also
worked earlier as Graduate Inspector of Schools (GIOS). This clearly indicates that
the RPs in BRCs themselves are novice to effectively perform BRC functions. The
need for selecting RPs from High Schools however requires justification.
Table 5.2.7 Experience ofBRC RPs in Primary Schools.
-_.
Resource Persons Kolar G.Bidanur Total
Previous experience in primary schools 3 1 4
No previous experience in primary schools 2 4 6
Total 5 5 10
Ever since the National Policy on Education (NEP, 1986) was launched there
has been a spate of in-service training programmes for teachers especially in DPEP
district. Tn this context, an attempt has been made to look into the exposure to
professionai training of the RPs before joining BRC, and after joining BRC. The
same is sho\,ill in table 5.2.8.
146
Table 5.2.8: Showing the Details on'raining Undergone by the RPs at BRCs
..
Particulars ..
"---
-
No of RPs Received
Kolar GBidanur
Before
-----
.. - f---.
------- -
_.Contcllt _Orientation
-.
4 2
coming to
Audio-Visu-a-I -----..
-- --
. -----.
.-
I
--
BRC
Education
I
--
--
--_.
.- ._-
KRVP
I --
SUPW
I
--
TLM
I
--
Teachinl! Science through Arts
I I
f---
.l'J!'-f> orientation I 2
----
After Entry FEEL
5 5
into BRC MLL 5 5
Activity Based 5 5
Training on Text Book 5 5
film Based (FBT) 5 5
TLM 5 5
It is heartening to note that excepting two RPs from Gowribidanur, all other
RPs in both BRCs had undergone induction training. The two exceptional cases
included the CO and one RP for physical training. In addition, a few of them in
Kolar BRC have also received training relating to National Policy on Education
(NPE, Theory), Socially Useful Productive Work (SUPW), Karnataka Rajya
Vignana Parishad (KR VP) and Teaching Learning Materials (TLM) etc. This
suggests that the Kolar BRC apparently scores over Gowribidanur BRC in terms of
this dimensIOn of human resource capacity, Considering their training after entry
into BRC, It is important to note that there is an cfficially prescribed training in
terms of both content and duratiun. They are (1) A ten days training course namely
FEEL (FaCilitating Excellency in Effective Lt:adership), (2) MLL (Minimum Levels
of Leaming) of 10 days, (3) Activity Rased training of6 days, (4) Training on Text
Book of thr-:e da:,', Film Rased Training (FIH) of three days and (6) TLM
(Teaching I.earnltl!! Matenals I of three days.
It IS further noticed that these traltllng programmcs wcre organised by DPEP
at different places Within the State c:\ceptiTlg TI.M, which has taken place at DIET,
Karvctinagar, Andhra Pradesh and can: was taken to see ihnt these training
programmes were organised during the slack period of BRC. Against this backdrop
147
of RPs training, a further question was asked ahout the kind of expectation the RPs
have regarding their professional requirement. In this direction, no training
programmes were scheduled in both the BRCs. 3 out of 5 RPs in Kolar and 2 out of
5 in Gowrihid:mur expressed the need for further training in terms of teaching
techniques in primary education; lout of 5 RPs in Kolar and 3 out of 5 in
(;ownhldanur for the material development and content orientation, respectively.
This reveals the weak spots i 11 the current training and need for strent,rthening the
content and pedagogical competencies of the RPs. Yet, another deficient areas of
trainir.g IS related to monitoring and follow up work, an important element in the
entire process of improving school quality.
5.2.4 Physical Resources
Having examined the capacity of BRCs in terms of availability of human resources,
an attempt is made to examine the capacity of the BRC in terms of the physical
resources. The BRC in Kolar is located away from the city at a distance of about 3-
4 kms, which is easily accessihle. Whereas, the BRC in Gowribidanur is located at
the heart of the city within the town of GowTibidanur. Both the BRCs have O\'iTI
building which have been built newly after the formation of BRCs. The DPEP
norms relating to BRC have been adhered to in terms of structure and design.
Provisions for conducting residential training programmes also exist in both the
BRCs. In the present context the physical resource has been mainly viewed III terms
of the availability of the physical infrastructure and academic equipment at the time
of study and the analysis of the same is presented in the table 5.2.9.
148
Table 5.7.9 Physical Infrastructure facility in BRCs
--------
--------- -_._----_.

Indicators
.- .-.
Kolar GBidanur
- -:.=r:----.... -. --..... -- ..
Yes No Yes No
Seminar room
1
-- I
--
-
._---
_____ room for Co-ordinator 1
-- I --
-
Staff room for RPs
I
--
I
--
._----
Kitchen Room 1 --
I-
--
SeQarate Hall for Men and
1-----
I -- I --
Electricity
I -- --
I
Drinking Water
I -- --
I
Separate Toilet for Men and Women I -- I --
Generator 1 -- I --
Telephone 1 -- I --
I--
Mattresses,lamkhanas 1 -- I --
Almirahs I
--
I
--
Water Drums 1 -- I --
Notice Boards 1 -- I --
It noticed from the table 5.2.9, that although both the BRCs have the basic
infrastructure in place such as seminar rooms, Staff room for RPs, separate room for
COs and kitchen room, separate halls for men and women and separate toilets for men
and women etc, yet essential infrastructure like electTlcity and drinking water are
lacking In case of Gowribidanur BRe. However, it is to be noted that both the BRCs
have power back up (electricity generator) facility. While the Kolar BRC has regular
supply uf water, the GG\vribidanur BRC draws water from nearby source_
Further analysis has been done with regard to the academic facilities in the
BRCs In terms of both availabiiitj and working conditions of various academic
equipmcnts (Table 5 2.10)
149
labk 5210: /\vallablllly of /\cademlc Equlpmcnts at HRCs
..
--
-- ------ -
-- -- ---- ----
Equipments
---
Kolar

-- - ---
Yes No Yes No
-
IGC NIGC lac

-
.. -- --
--
-- .. -------
TV Set V (I)
--
-- .riD_ -- --
PhotocoEier V (I)
-- -- V{I) -- --
VCR
_Yill -- --
Y(I)
-- --
------
Video Camera Y (I)
-- -- -- --
N
___________ OHP with screen Y (I)
-- --
Y (I)
-- --
Duplicating Machine Y (I)
-- --
Y (1\
-- --
Science and Maths. Kit Y (I)
-- --
Y (Il
-- --
Radio Cum Tape Recorder Y (I)
-- --
Y(\\
-- --
Audio Cassettes
-.-
Y (10) -- --
Y(J( -- --
Video Cassettes Y (3)
-- --
Y (3) -- --
Camera V (I)
-- --
Y(I)
-- --
- ------
Librarv books Y (65)
--
-- Y (60)
-- --
T:toe Writer Y (I)
-- --
Y (1)_ -- --
,
.. ..
Note: IGC- In Good CondItIOn, NIGC- Not In Good Condition, V-Yes, N- No and
the numbers in parentheses represent the number of equipments.
It is seen from the table 5.2.10, that almost all the essential academic
equipments including certain technological aids are not only available in both the
BRCs, but also are found to be in good working condition The Kolar BRC has a
Video Camera in addition. Thus, both the BRCs in both the blocks are well
equipped in terms of various academic materials to perform the expected roles. But
there appears to be some conflict in terms of utilisation of these facilities in the
BRC. Considering the utilisation of these facilities while a large majority of the RPs
in both the RRCs (more than 85 percent) claimed that they frequently use these
equipment during training programmes, a large majority of the beneficiaries (more
than 75 percent) of in-service training programmes reported that these equipments
were rarely IIsed. In this context, the in-service trainees emphasised the need for
using such eqlllpillents to make thc training programmes livelv and mcaningful
150
5.2.5 Role of BRCs
The norms prescribe the following roles and functions ror BRCs.
I. To conduct in-service training and other related programmes
2. To undertake school visits in order to help the teachers to upgrade their teaching
bv being a friend, philosopher and guide to increase their
confidence and supervision ofCRCs,
3. To provide inrormation on the availability and use of teacher guides in schools
to the relevant authorities and
4. To assist in designing pupil evaluation prob'Tammes.
In addition, the BRCs are also expected to mobilise community through
awareness building programmes like Maa-Beti conventions, Chinnara mela and
VEe mela etc.
The above prescribed roles and functions of the BRCs indicate both multiplicity
and variety of activities to be performed by the RPs. This points to wide range uf
skills and capacities that the RPs should have in order to perform the above
mentioned roles. Further the prescribed roles and functions also indicate that the
major thrust is given to BRCs in terms of academic capacity building of CRCs,
teachers and institutions for the purpose of academic improvement of schools and
teachers.
Considering the above roles and functions of BRCs, it is observed that the 2
BRCs selected from the sample blocks of Kolar district have been performing the
prescribed functions, although the degree varies from block to block. Further, a
deeper qualitative analysis has been attempted in the foregoing section to examine
the individual activities performed by the sampk BRC's.
(1) Conducting in-service training and other ."elated programmes
I3RCs have been conductin
o
n wide variety of training programmes continuously
o _
from their inception. Following are the training programmes conducted by them.
151
Intiudion Training: TIllS rackage heen developed locally to proVide training
for newly recruited h.:achers.
VEe Training: A training package Jointly developed by the State Project Office
(SPU) and the DSERT with a focus on enabling VEe members to take responsibility
for education of girls and SUST children.
Training for Anganawadi Workers: It has been specially prepared with a focus on
pre-school education for purpose of enhancing children's participation in primary
scheols.
In-Service Teachers' Training in Revised Module (6 days): A revised module,
which enables teachers to experience activity based and child centred teaching
methodology.
In addition, the BRCs have also conducted the awareness programmes like
VEC Mela, Chinnara Mela and Maa-Beti conventions besides conducting the follow
up work.
VEe Mela:
Training of VEe members and strengthening of VEC is a major activity of
this programme. One-day conventions are held for trained VEC members thorough
them an occasion is created for mutual learning and sharing experiences of different
VECs. The convention also provides a forum for planning further acitvities.
Chinnara Mela:
The concept or Chillnara Mcla got momentum In the district during 1998-99.
The baSIC purpose of tillS Mcla is to create in the community regarding
the Universalisation of Flementary Education (UEE) and to develop creativity
among children.
152
r
Maa-Ikti Conventions:
This is a special way of conducting conventIOn of mothers of t'lrl children to
motivate them to disseminate the idea of continuatIOn of girls' educatllln It IS
generally one-day programme at Cluster level involving anout 200 mothers and their
daughters. Discussions are held in smaller groups regarding the issues pertaining to
girls' education.
At the outset, an analysis of quantibtive data in tem1S of the numhcr of
activities performed by the two BRCs in relation to the above dimensions for the 4
years from 1995-Q6 to 1998-99 is attempted. The same is presented in the tahle
5211.
Table 5.2.11: Number of Training Activities conducted in Kolar and Gowribidanur
BRCs
,----
Year
Kolar Gbidanur
1995-96 5 (6) 7 (8.0)
1996-97 20 (23) 18 (21 )
1997-98 27 (31) 30 (34)
1998-99 36 (41) 33 (38)
Total 88 88
Note: The figures in parentheses represent percentages and are rounded otT
Considering the total number of programmes conducted each year, it is seen
from the table 5.2.11, that the number of training activities in both the BRCs has
increased over the time from 6 percent to 41 percent in Kolar and from 8 percent to
38 percent in Gowrihidanur. While in 1995-96 and 1997-98. (Jowrihidanur was
leading with 8 and 34 percent or training programmes as against (, and:; I percent of
Kolar BRC, in the years 96-97 and 98-99, the Kolar BRC has surpassed the
Gowribidanur BRe. The total number of acti\lties in both the BRCs reveals that
there is a uniform in conducting the training programmes at BRCs.
\;3
Theme of the Training and Clicntele Groups
/\ deeper qualitative analysis of the data relating to the training acti,,'itlcs In the two
nRCs has been attempted in terms of theme of the training, type or clientele, number
of hatches, duration, extent of coverage and perceptions of the clientele about the
quality of the training programmes In the first place the analvsis has been done
with rcspect to the nature and clientele category classification. Table 5.2.12 gives
the details of training pro!jrammesiactivities undcrtaken by the sample BRCs,
selected from tWi) blocks, namely Kolar and Gowrihidanur.
Table 5.2.12: Details ofTrainmg Programmes / Activities undertaken by the BRCs
at Kolar and Gowrioidanur from 1995-96 to 1998-99 .
..
Theme of Clientele Kolar G Bidanur
1---
Training
95-
98- 95- 96- 97- 98-
96 97 I 98 99 96 97 98 99
.-
Content & In-service Teachers 5 19
I
16 11 7 17 14 7
Pedagogy
Induction Newlv Recruited Teachers
-- I I I --
I 1 2
Management VEC Members
-- --
8 19
-- --
12 J7
Community Community --
--
2
I
5
-- --
3 7
Mobilistaion Members
Total 5 20 27 36 7 18 30 33
- - ------
Considering the themes of the training and the category of clientele covered
by the BRCs in their training progrdmmes, it may be noticed that there are broadly 4
themes and 4 clientele categories. The themes are Content & Pedagob'Y, Induction,
Management and Community Mobilisation. The clientele groups include In-service
Teachers, Newly Recruited Teachers, VEC Members and Community Members.
Analysing the data from the table 5.2.12, it could be noticed that in both the BRCs
that the predominant theme of training is the content & pedagob'Y related and the
predominant target clientele are the teachers. This trend is observed
dunng the mitial pen,)d of 95-96 and 96-97, to the extent of 100 percent during 95-
96 and 95 percent during 96-97 in case of both the BRCs. However, in the
succeeding year, there appears to be a shift in both the theme and the clientele
groups. Whiie Kolar reveals 59 percent of the training programmes related to the
content and pedagogy of tn-service teachers' category and Gowribidanur reveals
154
46.7 percent of the training programmes related to the same theme and clientele
category. In 98-99 there is further reduction in the percentage of traming
programme m case of both the BRCs in terms of the theme and the clientele
category. During this year, the themes relating to management and community
mobilisation seem to have emerged as the major focus in the training programme.
Accordingly, the VEC members have emerged as the major target clientele groups
in both the BRCs.
Duration and Number of Batches:
Considering the number of batches and duration of the training programmes (see
table 5213) in the two BRCs, it may be noticed that the duration of the training
programmes varies from 1 day to 10 days. There are programmes of 3,4 and 6 days
in between. During the year, 95-96, that is the year of starting of BRC, both the
BRCs have conducted only 10 days training programme, which is the activity based
training. While Kolar BRC has conducted this programme for 5 batches, the same
in Gowribidanur BRC is found to be for 7 batches. Assuming the norm of 50 intake
per batch, the coverage works out to about 250 and 350 teachers respectively.
During the year 96-97, Kolar BRC has conducted 1 day programme for 1
batch, 10 days prof,'I'amme for 9 batches and 3 days prof,'I'amme for 10 batches and
the GO\vribidanur BRC has conducted a 3 days programme for 13 batches and 10
days duration for 5 batches. Again considering the norm of 50 intake per batch
while the Kolar BRC seems to have covered a whopping 1000 clientele during the
year. It is likely that the same clientele would have undergone all the training.
During the year 97-98, there appears to be a peak of training activities in
both the BRCs, Thus. suggesting that the BRCs haw picked up momentum
overcoming the initial lull. While Kolar BRC has eonduckd I day, 6 days and 10
days training programme, the Clowribidanur BRC has conducted I day, 3 days, 4
days, 6 days and 10 days training probrramme.
155
Considering the spate of training activities the Gowribidanur I3RC scores
ovcr Kolar BRC in terms ofhigher number of batches of training programmc (30 as
against 27) Once again, the former reveals an edge over the latter in terms of extent
of coverage of clienteles in the training programme (1500 as against 1350).
During the year 98-99, both the BRCs have conducted I day, 3 days and 6
days training programme However, in terms of number of batches of training
programme, the former scores over the latter (an overall 36 as against 33). As a
result, the former seems to have overtaken the latter in terms of higher coverage of
clienteles (an overall 1800 as against 1650). Further, it may also be observed that
the concentration of II batches of training for 6 days duration in case of Kolar BRC
and 7 batches for the same duration in case of Gowribidanur BRC pertaining to the
activity based training, which was earlier conducted for 10 days duration.
Table 5.2.13: Number of Batches and Duration of Training Programmes conducted
in the Sample BRCs
Duration Number of Batches
Kolar Gowribidanur
95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99 95-96 96-97 97-98 98-99
I day
--
I 11 8 -- -- 3 10
3 days
-- 10
--
17 -- 13 12 16
4 days -- -- --
--
-- --
I --
6 days -- -- 10 11 -- -- 10 7
10 days 5 9 6
--
7 5 4 --
L--- Total 5 20 27 36 7 18 30 33
Coverage of Teachers:
Looking into the extent of coverage of teachers for various training programmes in
the two BRCs over a period of time, it may be noticed from the table 5.1.14 that
there has been an increase in the coverage in absolute numbers in both the blOCKS.
However, there are fluctuations in between years. A desegregated analysis of the
male-female teachers' coverage reveals certain patterns. During the initial year 95-
96, a higher proportion of mak teachers has received the benefit of training as
compared to their female counterparts (47.2 percent) While in Kolar, 52.8 percent
156
of male teachers have received training during the year, the same in case or
Gowribidnnur works out to R5.R percent, Thus, revealing a poor cov.;mge of female
teachers.
During the year 96-97 and also 97-98 and 98-99, the trend is found to be
reversed in ease of Kolar. A higher proportioll of teachers is found to have
received the ber.efit of training as compared to their male counterparts. Incidentally,
it is to be noted that the Kolar block reveals an overall higher proportion of female
teachers in primary schools.
In case of Gowribidanur block, although the coverage of female teachers
under various training programmes appears to have picked up (from 20.3 percent to
23.9 percent), yet their coverage does not form half of the total teachers trained. In
contrast to Kolar, Gowribidanur block reveals a !,'TOSS under representation of female
teachers in primary schools.
Table 5.2.14 Number of Teachers covered under various Training Programmes of
BRCs
Number of teachers
Year Kolar Gowribidanur
Male Female Total Male Female Total
1995-96 132 118 250 303 50 353
(528) ( 47.2) (100) (85.8) (14.2) ( 100)
1996-97 454 600 1054 683 174 857
(43.1) (569) (100) [!9.7) (20.3) (100)
1997-98 334 586 920 567 178 745
I-
(363) (637) (100)
-
(76.1 ) (23.9)
(100)
1998-99 264 328 592 283 145 428
(446) (55.4 ) (100) L661)
(33.9) (100)
Note: -- The numbers In Parentheses represent percentages.
Quality of Training Programmes/Activities
Ensuring quality is an important in the training programmes conducted by
the BRC. In this direction an attempt is made to look into the quality aspect of the
same For this purpose, the perceptions of the bencticiaries in one of the training
157
programmes have been captured 1\ samplc of trainees (20 trainees equally from
two BRCs), were interviewed about the training programmes conductcd at BRCs, In
general, the trainees (8 out of lOin Kolar and 9 out or lOin Gowribidanur) felt that
the training programmes conducted at the BRCs were comprehensively designed in
terms or content adequacy, sequcncing of activities and appropriate methodology,
However, with respect to duration of the training programme in particular Film
Based Training (FBT) was found to be inadequate (7 out of 10 in Kolar and 8 out of
10 in Gowribidanur) Attempt was also made to elicit the trainees' perceptions with
respect to facilities, transaction mode, relevance and resource support etc, The same
IS presented in table 5,2,15,
Table 5,2,15: Perceptions of Beneficiaries about the training programmes at BRCs
fdicators of quality or training Kolar Gowribidanur
Yes No Total Yes No
Tot<tL
Relevance 10 -- 10 iO -- 10
Scope for interaction 10
-- 10 10 -- 10
facilities 10 -- 10 10 -- 10
by the RPs 10
--
10 10 -- 10
i Duration adequacy 3 7 10 2 8 10
-
It is evident from the table 5,2,15, that there is universal affirmation with
respect to all specific aspects related to quality of training, Every one without
exc\!ption felt that the various training programmes organised at BRCs were
relevant. The trainees felt that the training that they received at BRCs is going to
make a difference In quality of their work (100 percent in Kolar and Gowribidanur),
Besides they also strongly recommended such kinds of training to their colleagues,
The trainees in general reported in negative to a question whether the
traming seSS10n was monotonous'" Conversely, they felt that the training at the
BRCs provllkd greater scope lilr interacting effectivelv 'very often' (9 out of 10 in
Kolar and I () out of lOin (iowribldanur), An ovt:rwhclming majority also reported
that the training was going to be useful in the daily classroum teaching, One of
positive features of the training programmes conducted at BRCs is ,the diverse
methods uscd f(lI transactmg training, Various methods employed ti)r training
include interadiv..: dlsClission, group work, role-play, activity oriented tasks, case
15R
study etc When the Rl's in the sample BRCs were asked about the difTerent methods
used for training transaction, the following responses were offered. It was observed
during the visit to the sample BRCs that all the said methods were being commonly used.
Tahle 5.2.16 RPs' Ratings of the Training MP-lhods
Mett-.od
ofIf-0lar (N=5)
- ~ .. --.. --
Gbidanur (N=5)
-. --
Training Mostly Some Rarely Mostly
I Some---
Rarely
times times
Interactive 2 2 I 2 I 2
Discussion
Group Work 5
-- --
4 I --
Rolcylay 2 I 2 2 -- 3
-----'-c .
-
Activity 4 I -- 3 2
--
Case Study I
--
4 0
--
5
Note: Total does not tally because of more than one response
As could be seen from the table 5.2.16 in both the BRCs. the RPs employ a mix
of different methods for training transaction. However, group discussion and activity
oriented methods emerged as the most common training methodology. The researcher
further got It confirmed during the visits to the BRCs, when the training programmes
were being held.
In addition to the above, the teachers working in pnmary schools were also
interviewed For this purpose. a sample of teachers (16 teachers from 10 Lower Primary
Schools equally from the two sample blocks, where these BRCs were located), who had
rt'ceived more than two traimng from the BRes was interviewed.
A further analysis of the perceptions of teachers reveals both strengths and
weaknesses of the training programmes Same of the strengths according to the teachers
who have received training arc:
(I) Helpful in the development of low cost-no {'ost teaching-kaming materials (8 out of
8 in Kolar and 7 out of 8 in GowribidanLlT),
159
(2) To improve the activity based Instruction at primary classes (6 out of H l:ach in
both Kolar and (,owribidanur),
(3) To take care or multi grade classroom teaching (4 out of 8 in Kolar and 5 out or
X in (jowribidanur)
In contrast to the above, some of the teachers also depreciated the training
programmes for the deficiencies. They arc:
(I) I.ack of prior distribution of reading materials for trainees (7 out of 8 each in
Kolar and
(2) Lack of familiarity among the RPs in regard to primary classroom teaching
learning practices (5 out of 8 in Kolar and 6 out of 8 in Gowribidanur).
(3) Lack of use of audio-visual aids such as TV, Tape recorder etc (4 out of 8 in
Kolar and 5 out of 8 in Gowribidanur)
Notwllhstandir.g the above, there was a general consensus that the training
helped the teachers to focus on the learner and the activities and has enabled them to
depart from the conventional textbook oriented and teacher dominated transactional
methods. During field visits, it was observed in the sample BRCs, that there were no
I
systematic attempts made to get the feedback of the training programme. However,
oral feedback by a very few trainees was collected at the end of the training
(2) To undertake school visits and supervision of CRCs
The visits to schools and eRes by the RPs of BRC are mainly undertaken to assess
how far skills and abilities de\cloped during training programmes. are actually
put Into practice /\ milJoritv of the RPs under study reported thai they do visit
schools at least once or two Illonths to give tlte required inputs to the teachers.
However, 111 realitv, it was obsef\ed during the personal visits til the sample schools
bv the researcher, that the visits were undertaken rarely by the RPs, once
In a year or S,) In order to identify the number of visits n,ade by COs and RPs of
BRCs, the r,'searcher collected the data from the visitor's book available in the
160
sample primary schools as well as from the observation reports in the concerned
BRCs. The following table (table 5.2.17) presents the number of visits to the school
undertaken by the BRC faculty
Table 5.2.17: Number of School Visits by BRC Personnel for the Year 1999 - 2000
--------
._-
---------- .. _-----
Sample Schools in
Kolar District
1
I
Staff of
-
r
------1
Kolar
Gowribidanur
,
BRC
I 2 3
4J
5 Total 6 7 8 9 \0 Total
CO -- -- --
-- -- -- -- --
I
-- -- I
RPs --
I I I -- 3 I I I -- 3 6
-
~
-
It is noticed from the table 5.2.17, that the visits are not uniform across the
schools in the sample blocks. The visits by the COs are very rare and there is only
one visit to one of thc sample primary schools in Gowribidanur. On probing, it was
noticed that the visit was made to issue a cheque tl) the school for the best VEC
There are two schools in Kolar and one school in Gowribidanur which have never
been visited either by the COs or RPs during the entire year. Similarly, one school
in Gowribldanur has been Visited thrice by the RPs. Such a trend reflects the weak
academic support that the BRCs provide to the schools in enhancing quality. In the
case of RPs also, the school visits are minimal. This clearly reflects that school
visits are rarely found in the agenda of their work. This is in contrast with the recent
Audit Report of DPEP (2002), which reveals that in Kamataka 69 percent of the
teachers confirmed that the task of monthly visits and monitoring of school rt!cords
were performed by the BRCs. On further probing, many types of reasons emerged
from the RPs, which have bt!en arranged in the order of prioflty
O\er burden 1\ Ith Iheir training programme at BRl's,(all of them in both the
BRCs) This is further confirmed by the study (CI:RES, 1995), which indieatt!s
that the RPs are so busy, in particular with training programmes that they have
no tll11e to provide supportive supervision to the SclhlOls.
161
2 The number of schools and teachers to be supervised are more in such a way that
it IS difficult for them to spend time and cnergy for the visits (6 out of R in Kolar
and 7 out of 8 in Gowribidanur) and
3. Inaccessibility and lack of transport facility to some of the primary schools (4
out of 8 each in Kolar and Gowribidanur)
As far as the supervision of CRCs is concerned it is noticed that the RPs of both
the BRCs do visits to each CRC at least once in a month. This is mainly due to the
fact that these RPs are the nodal officers to the CRCs concerned and are expected to
provide the required academic and resource support to the COs of CRCs and
teachers by being a friend, philosopher and guide to increase their confidence. It is
interesting to note that the researcher could trace the presence of RPs during his
visits to some of the monthly sharing experiences in the sample CRCs.
(3) To provide information on the availability and use of teacher
guides in schools to the relevant authorities
It IS the duty of RPs of BRCs to provide information on the availability and use of
teacher guides in schools to the relevant authorities. It is basically done for the
purpose of identifying the necessity of teacher guides as well as the usage of them in
the classroom teaching-learning processes. It is noticed that such information is
being collected with the help of COs of CRCs concerned.
(4) To assist in designing pupil evaluation programmes.
Assisting in designing pupil evaluation programme is yet another task assigned to
th';! RPs. The hasic purpose of this is mainly to improve the teaching-learning
processes in pTlmary schools. During interviews with the RPs of both the BRes, a
large majority ofthell1 reported that they do assist hoth COs ofCRCs and teachers in
designing pupil evaluation programme. But on the contrarj, teachers 111 the sample
schools reported that the Rl's of BRCs rarely visited the schools. As such there was
I!:tle help received hy the Rl's 111 designing the pupil evaluatIon programme.
162
5.2.6 Process of Designing and Implementing the Training
Programmes
Most of the training programmes of BRCs are initiated and funded by the State
Project Office (SPO), under the OPEl' programme. The Coordinators and RPs of
each BRC has been trained by the OPE!> Personnel and DIET faculty. The
coordinators and RPs, so trained by them inturn would assume the role of a trainer to
organise the training programmes in their respective resource centers.
As seen from the interview and observation during field visit, under the
OPEP programme, a project office called District Project Office (OPO) has been
established at the district level with the provision of both men and materials required
in the effective functioning of the same. The cffice is headed by the Deputy Project
Coordinator (OyPCO) assisted by three Assistant Project Coordinators (APCO).
The OyPCO has undergone training programmes like preparation of A WP&B
(Annual Work Plan and Budget), workshop on procurement procedure, Workshop
on DEP (Distance Education Programme), micro planning and other workshops at
State level for enabling him to implement the project activities smoothly_ The
APCOs also have undergone teacher training programmes and administrative
training programmes at district and State level. Some of them have also visited the
neighboring States (Kerala) to learn success stories in OPEP programme. The
process of implementation begins only when the grants are released. It is noticed
that SPO releases fund first to the OPO, which in tum releases the same to the BRe.
As far as the planning is concerned, it is observed that BRCs in both the
blocks do prepare an annual plan for its academic programmes and institutional
activities. These plans are prepared involving the COs of eRC, lOS and the
teachers in the block. Action plans will be designed based on the sharing the
experiences of RPs in the block. Both tl-}e BRCs reported that they do make an
attempt to identify the training needs before they plan their activities. While Kolar
BRC reported that the training needs were assessed based on the test outcomes
during one of the 6 days training programmes. Accordingly hard spots in
163
Mathematics and Science emerged, as one of the hasie training needs. In ease oj"
Ciowribidanur BRe, it was reported that the training needs have assessed during
CRC meetings when all the teachers under the cluster assemble liJr sharing their
experiences. So far as implementation of the activities of the BRCs, there is a Block
Implementation Committee (BIC) at the block level, which oversees the HRC
programmes. The composition of the committee consists of Block Educational
Officer (BEO) as a Chairman, Coordinators and RPs of HRCs and representatives of
teachers.
Despite BRCs' making attempts to identify the training needs by locating
teachers with specific deficiencies, yet when it comes to the question of selecting the
trainees for training, it is the office which has the last word to choose and
depute teachers for training at BRCs. This leaves BRCs with little scope for
addressing different tIaining needs of the teachers in the block,
5.2.7 Linkage with Sub-district level Institutional Structures
As a resull of the NPE (1986,1992), in order to facilitate the task of VEE, the
institutional structures have been created not only at the block level but also within
the block levels. Within the organisational structure of education at the sub-district
level the BRCs are expected to maintain linkages both horizontally and vertically
other organisations These sub-district level organisationslinstitutions are
BEO's office at the block level, CRCs and SCxes at the cluster level and
VECs/SDMCs at the h'Tassroots level
With regard to the interaction of BRCs upward with the district level
organisations, the COs in both the BRCs reported that their interaction with the
DDPI is unlv limited dUring the meetings of District Implementation Committee.
However, their interaction with the Deputy Project Co-ordinator (DyPCO) of DPEP
is much more frequent. Similarly, at the block level, their horiwntal linkage is
found to be very limited with the BEOs. It is only during the BIC meetings that the
164
BRC and BEO come together. Additionally, for some administrative related matters
such as obtaining the list of teachers for training purpose or for seeking deputation
of teachers for the same, the BRCs do have some linkages with the BEOs. There
seems to be some conflicts between the BRC and the BEO. The BEO cribs about
total marginalisation of his office by the OPEP programme. The BEOs feel
dlsemp0wered in the context of BRC emerging as additional structures at the bloek
level with fairly adequate financial resources. The financial autonomy enjoyed by
the BRC COs seems to be the point of envy. The BEO feels that the OPEP has
created enclave completely isolating the main traditional structures. The BEOs are
also rarely involved in planning, designing and developing different kinds of
academic activities by the BRCs. The BRC COs on the contrary reported during
mformal dialogue that the BEO's office fail to provide adequate cooperation in
conducting various training activities. They also claimed that the monitoring and
supervision support provided by them to schools were much more beneficial than
those of lOS fBEOs, who are primarily administrative officials. In this context, they
reported that sometimes they find it difficult to implement training at the school
level due to lack of sufficient executive powers and control over the teachers and
schools. In this direction, they reported that the BEOs/IOS should also form an
essential component of the OPEP training programmes.
The interaction with the Community members or VEC members is at least
once in three months as reported by the COs in the sample BRCs. But in this regard,
it is noticed that they interact with village level institutions only during maa-beti
conventions, VEC mel a, Chinnara mel a and such other programmes or during
training of VEC members.
Regretfully, the II1tcraction of sample BRCs with primary schools is very
less as observed during field visits of primary schools and as reported by the
teachers as well. There lVere a very few attempts made by the BRCs to follow up
their training programmes through regular visits to the schools. This was revealed
by the RPs themsel ves \\'ho admitted that due to the pressure of work within the
BRC, they were not able 10 undertake more visits to schools. The researcher also
t65
noticed that they undertake school visits only in the absence of training programmes
at BRCs.
Thus, the analyses in general point to the weak linkage of RRC horizontally
with the traditional organisational structure (131::0) and vertically downward
excepting the CRCs at the cluster leveL
Figure 5.2.1: Structural Linkages of BRCs with District and Sub-district level
Organisations
ow*

DPO OIET
1
RIC**
I
+
BEO
I I
RRC
(,R(,***
VEe
b-d SCIIOOL# H NFE
Note * District I.evel. .. Block I.c,el. ... Cluster L('lel H Village level
5.2.8 Work LOlid of COs and RPs
/Is per the norms, the COs and RPs of BRCs arlO expected to perform varied roles
and tasks. While the COs arc engaged in both administrative as well as academic
Ibb
related tasks including training, visits to schools/CRCs and inspection of training
programmes at eRes, thc RPs are engaged largely in academic related tasks such as
training and field visits to schools and CRCs.
Further analysing the perceptions of RPs of BRCs in terms of workload a
large majority of the RPs in both the I3RCs (more than 90 percent) reported that
their work consists of training and supervisory jobs. With regard to the
time consumption for their work, majority of them reported that they devote more
tllan 80% of their time towards training during the training programmes and 20%
towards other activities like preparation for training programmes, participation in
awareness camps etc. When there is no training programme, they devote 80% of
their time for follow up work and 20% for other activities. Some of them also
reported that their services are utilized for doing miscellaneous work related to
DIET, DDPI, DPO and BEO's offices
To another question relatIng to their workload, although, a majority of them
(9 out of 10) replied that it was 'just enough', yet they felt that continuous and non-
stop involvement in long duration programmes left them thoroughiy exhausted. But
only lout of 10 reported as very heavy (Table 5.2.18). The supervisory work,
which is a key element for improving classroom instructions, is found to be
distributed among RPs on the basis of both geographical spread and number of
schools and teachers in the cluster. instance, a RP IS given in-charge of 2-3
CRCs and an average 80 to 90 primary schools located under these CRCs, on the
basis of closer viCInity. Such huge number of schools attached to each RP makes it
difficult to provide continuous and closer monitoring support.
Table ).2.18: Workload as Rated by RPs
-----
G Bidanur
Level Kolar
f-----
Very Heavy 1 --
Just Enol!gh 5 4
Not at all
--
--
-- - ---
Total 5 5
-- ----
167
For the question, how hlr IS the nature or your work load relevant to the goals
of BRC", a majority of them (7 out or I () ) were of the opinion as to a great e.'l:tcnt
and the remall1l11g as to some extent Crable 5.2.19).
Table 5.2.19 Nature of Work Relevant to the Goals of BRC as Reported by RPs.
= 1G13nIJr-
To a great extent 3 .. I 3
To some extent 2 2
'--_--'N..:.oO'.'t:..:a ... t.,.-a.,1I __ ---i- --=_'-_ ---I
,-' __ Total ___
With regard to the view of rele,,'ance of BRC by other organisations in the
community is concerned a 2 out of 5 RPs in Kolar and 4 out of 5 in Gowribidanur
reported that it is very relev;:nt and the remaining RPs reported some what relevant
onlv. None of the RPs reported it as not relevant at aiL
[n general, the BRC faculty felt satisfied about the kind of work that they
were engaged 111. They reveal a sense of pride in contributing directly towards
qualitative improvem<!nt in primary education through various training actIVities and
follow up work subsequently. They felt that they were comparatively in
advantageous position in doing this task as compared to their previous roles.
However. there were certain apprehensions regarding their future job prospects
subsequent to termination of OPEP programme. Further, the RPs also felt
marginalised in the monthly meetings at the block level in the presence of BEO and
others In this direction, they once again reiterated the need for conducting
orientat;on for all the functionaries in the mainstream organisation and also for
strengthenll1g communication linkages of BRC and CRCs with the BEO/IOS. They
further reiterated the need for recognizing their services and incentiv(;s for
enhanCing their promotional prospects.
168
5.3 Role of Cluster Resource Centres (CRCs) at the
Cluster Level
CRes havc bccn set up for providing the required academic and resource support
within the context of DPEP programme, with a view to intensify the proximity
between schools, teachers and the administrative units. These CRCs are meant
mainly for the purpose of solving the educational problems experienced by teachers
in their school context through peer review, seminar and experience sharing
workshops etc. Each CRC consists of 20 to 30 schools and 40 to 60 teachers located
within a geographical area of 5 to 10 kilometers. Although these resource centers
have been established under DPEP programme from 1995-96 in the state, they have
becn found to be operationalised from April 1997. As such these CRCs arc
fledgling institutions which are yet to assumc their full responsibilities.
CRCs have been established under DPEP in Kolar district from 1997. There
are 89 CRCs sprel\d over 12 BRes of the district. The distribution of CRCs in Kolar
district is given in the table5.3.1.
Table 5.3.1. Number ofCRCs, Schools and Teachers in Kolar District
: SI. No. Blocks CRes Schools Teachers CSR CTR
I Bagepalli 7 307 633 44 90
2 6 277 679 46 113
. 3
7 225 631 32 90
4 Chintamani 8 371 903 46 113
_.
5 Gowribidanur* 10 364 940 36 94
6 Gudibanda 3 III 208 37 69
7 Kolar'" 14 413 17.73 30 91
8 KGF 4 175 456 44 114
9 Malur 6 303 757 51 126
10 Mulabagilu 8 356 880 45 110
----- -- - - - . -
------
I 1 Shldla1!hatta 7 250 577 36 82
-- ---------
36 87 12 Srinivasanura 9 326 781
--1--------
Totl\l 89 3478 8718 39 98
-
,
Note ... Sample Blocks, CSR- CRC-School Ratio and C I R- CRe Teacher RatiO.
169
It may be noticed from the tahle ')] I that the numher of ('Res IS not
unJ1imnlv (listrihuted across 12 hlocks In Kolar district. Gudihanda hloc!( has the
lowcst numher of ('RCs (]) and Kolar has the highest numhcr (14) of CRes. Thus,
thcre arc altogether !N CRes in 12 hlocks, which work out to over CRes as per hlock
in the district.
Looking at the CRC-School Ratio (CSR), it may be noticcd that the mcan for
the district as a whole works out to 39 schools per CRe. This mean figure cxcecds
the prescribed norm of 20-30 schools per CRe. Kolar block has the lowest CSR of
30 and Malur block has the highcst CSR of 51. Thus, excepting Kolar no other
block in the district adheres to the pieseribed norm of a maximum of 30 schools per
CRe. Similarly, looking at the CRC-Tcachers Ratio (CTR), the norm prcscribes 40-
60 tcachers per CRe. The mean CTR for the district as a whole works out to 98
exceeding the prescribed norm. Shidlaghatta block reveals the lowest CTR of 82
and Malur block reveals CTR of 126. Thus, cvcn herc there is no block which
adhercs to thc prescribed norm of a maximum of 60 teachers per eRe. Thus, there
appears to bc violation of the norm in so far as allocating schools and teachers to the
CRCs. Although, the ratIOnale for such a distribution of schools and teD-chers to the
CRCs appears to be Justified in terms of spatial distribution, yet, such over
burdening of schools and teachers to CRCs may jeopardise the monitoring functions
ofCRCs.
5.3.1 CRe-Schooll Teacher Ratio in the Sample Cluster
FollowlIlg the above analYSIS, a similar attempt has been made to examine the CRC-
School/Teacher Ratio in the eight ch:stcls selected as sample for the study. The data
in this r e ~ r d arc presented in the table
It is evident from thc table 5.3.2 I.hat the CRCs in Gowrihidanur block revcal
higher proportion of teachers and schools in their jurisdiction as compared to that of
Kolar. While :)ug:JIUf eRC in Kolar reveals a minimum of 21 schools and a
minimum of 4] teachers, lhe same in the case of C,owrihidanur IS revealed bv
170
Thondebhavi CRe (29 schools) and 111 Ilosur CRe (7.1 teachers) Similarly, the
maximum numher ofschllOls (45) and teachers (99) is reveaicd hy Narasapura eRe
in Kolar. In case of Gowribidanur, C,owrihidanur CRC reveals a maximum of 52
schools and 120 teachers. This clearly points to CRes in (Jowribidanur, heing
overburdened with schools and teachers.
Table 5.3.2: Number of Schools and Teachers Per CO in the Sample CRCs
I
Particulars
.
Kolar Gowribidanur
CRC CRC CRC CRC CRC CRe

I 2 3 4 1 2
Numhers of Schools
21 38 32 45 41 38 29 52
I Numbers of Teachers
i per Coordinator * 43 85 65 99 73 76 86
I
120
I
Note *lnclude both LPS and HPS, **Only LPS Teachers
Considenng the structural composition of CRCs, it is noticed that each CRC
IS headed by a Co-Ordmator (CO), who IS in the rank of a primary school teacher.
These Coordinators are drawn on deputation basis from the state education
department and are mostly the graduate primary school teachers. The selection of COs
is generally based on their quaiification (a graduate) and a minimum of 10 years of
experience. These Coordinators are required to conduct teacher interactive meetings,
\ ISlt schools and participate in trainmg conducted by BRCs for teachers and VEC
memhers.
5.3.2 Academic Background of COs
IIH: norm rrescrihes a degree \\Ith a certiticate In eicmentary teacher training as
mlnlll1Um qualificatIOn I(lr at() In addl1llln, the norm also stipulates a of
I() llf exp::nence (It IS n:laxable 111 certain cases) in primary schools. When
the academic background of the COs is examined agamst this norm, it is tloticed
:"rom the tahic 5 3 :; that all the R COs in both Kolar and (,owribidanur CRCs have
t71
the required qualilicatioll ()Ile of them from (,owrihidanur eRe has a Postgraduate
III prokssional education (MYd.)
Table 533: Educational Qualifications of COs.

.. --. .. ------_.
Educational Kolar Ghidanur

SAl BCom TCI{ 4 3
I SA Tel-l Med __
t==== Toml
5.3.3 Professional Background of COs
An attempt has been made to examine the professional background of COs in tenns
of number of years of senlce and professionaltraming undergone.
It is noticed from the table 5.3.4 that 7 out of 8 COs have put in more than 15
\ears of sen Ice ThiS IS not surprising considering the nonn of 10 years of
experience fixed for their appointment. Ou! of the 7 COs while 5 have put in 19
\ cars of service. the remaining 2 have put III years of service. Both the COs
bdong to the CRes belongmg to GO\\Tibidanur block.
Table 5.3.4. Showmg the Total Years Experience of COs.
. ----
Experience m Years Block
Kolar GBidanur
10-14 1
--
15-19 3 2
--_.
20-24 --
2

I
.- ------
Total 4 4
Looking at the professlollal tramlng of COs, it is noticed from the table 5.3.4
that none of them ha(i ulldergolle trailllllg before their entry into CRe. Aller clltry
into eRC, the COs are required to undergo training in certalll essential areas. They
172
I
are (I) MLL (Minimum Levels of Learning) of 10 days, (2) Activity Based training
of 6 days, D) Train1l1g on Text Book of three days, (4) TLM <Teaching Learning
Materials) or three days and (5) Film Based Training (FRT) of thrce days. It was
noticcd during field visits that thcse training programmes wcre organiscd by DPEP
mostly at the concerned BRCs in the block. All the COs had undergone all these
training programmes However, they expressed t h ~ need for further training 111
respect orhoth content and pedagogy for upgrading their professional skills.
5.3A Age and Sex of COs
It is noticed from the table 5.3.5 that COs in both Kolar and Gowribidanur CRCs
belong to 40- years age group (7 out of 8). only one CO form Kolar CRC is in the
age group of 30-35. Two COs each from Kolar and Gowribidanur belong to the age
group of 45 to 50 years age group.
Table 5.3.5: Distribution of Coordinators by Age
Age in Years Kolar Gbidanur
35-39 I --
40-44 I 2
45- 50 2 2
Total 4 4
Considering the distnbutlOn of COs by sex (table5.3.6), it can be clearly seen
that there is only one female CO f,'om out of the total 8 COs. This female CO
belongs to CRC located in Kolar. The unequal representation of female COs in
eRes CQuid be lttributed to the nature of job, which largely involves field visits.
Table 5.3.6 Distnbution olTOs by Sex
~
Sex Kolar
Gbidanur
Malc 3 4
Female
f- --------+-- -------+--4- ---
l'olal 4
173
5.3.5 I)hysica I RCSClU rccs
The sample CRCs In both the blDcks have own building which have been built
nt.:wly alier the fonnatlon of CRCs. In the present context the physical resource has
been mainly viewed in terms of the availability .of the physical infrastructure and
academic equipment at tht.: time of study and the analysIs .of the same is presented in
the table 5 3.7
Table5.3.7: Distribution .of CRCs by Physical facilities and Equipments
Physical facilities and equipment
CRCs in KDlar CRCs in Gowribidanur
I 2 3 4 I 2 3 4
Training Hall Y
y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
--
Separate roDm fDr Coordinator Y
y
Y Y Y Y Y Y
Drinking (StDrage facility Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
drlJms) __
--
. Electricity
N N N N N N N N
Toilet Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Separate Toilet for Men and N N N N N N N N
Women
Chair Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Table Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
. Almirah Y Y
I
Y Y Y Y Y Y
I Radio Cum Tape Recorder Y Y
Iy
Y Y Y , Y Y
AudIO Cassettes Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
lamkhana Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
SCience and Mathematics kits Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Notice Board Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
----- ----- - - - ----
Note Y- Yes and N- No
It IS noticed from the table 5.3.7 that the CRCs in both the blocks have the
baSIC Infrastructure facility in place such as training hall, separate room for
Coordinator. toilet. drinking \\at.;r (storage facility in temlS of steel drums).
Furniture ,uel1 ;\\ .:hairs, tabks_ for seating arrangement. Almirah for
storing 1<I(ill\\ and academiC equlpmL'nts such as RadiO Cum Tape Rccordcr, Audio
Cassettes and SCience and MathematiCs kits iD carryout academic activities arc also
eXisting III all the CRes under study It may be noted that the nt.:ed tilr electricity
u':age IS almost nil during the acadellilc st.:ssions in eRe. In addilion, to tht.: above
physical every eRe is eqUIpped with academically motivatlllg materials
t74
such as charts, maps, graphic writings, low cost-no cost teaching-learning aius anu
other colorful carus anu hangings
5.3.6 Roles and Functions of CRCs
The specific roles anu functions expected by the Coordinators working in CRCs are
as follows
I. To Identifv the villages with and without schools in the CRC limit,
, To prepare list of schools, teachers and Anganwadi Centres.
3. To prepare the map ofCRC,
4. To collect statistics on schools, children and teachers,
5. To conduct munthly meetings to provide educational information,
6. To help teachers for the development of teaching aids and in solving educational
problems,
7 To super\lse NFE centers,
8. To help the children for medical checkup,
9. To undertake any work aSSigned bv the Department of Education at any time,
10 To \ IsH c\ery school m the CRC limit at least once in a month to provide the
academic guidance to the teachers,
II. To assist m VEC meetmgs,
12. To orgamse and maintam proh'Tammes like a)VEC Mela, b) Maa-Beti
conventIOns, C) Chmnara Mela and d) Micro Planning etc,
13. To cooperate with BRCs in organising traming programmes by providing the
rC<.julred information,
14 To assist in the a) euucatlOnal tours, b) sports. c) cultlllal activities conducted in
Ihe schools under ('R(' limit.
15 To UIslflhule a) lesl h(l(lks, h) furnllur,'. c) kach111g aids and slleh other materials
prO\lded bv t he department to schools,
16 To mallllain all the records and registers relating to CRe,
17 To n,a111lalll the Iinallee orCRC as pel th': order of the Department and
18 To prepare the annual works plans and adhere to the s a 1 1 1 l ~
175
A cursory glancc at the above duties and functions of the COs of CRCs indIcates
that the COs ')1' CRt's arc required to discharge a wide variety of tasks related to the
improvement of primary education. Thus, the muillplicity and variety of activities
or C()s suggest that they need to have wide range of skills and capacities to perform
the same. When the ahove activities are further classified in terms of academic,
administrative and miscellaneous tasks, the following typology emerges:
Tahlc 5.3.8: Classi fication of the Duties and Functions of COs
Duties Administrative Duties
Miscellaneous works
--
I. Monthly sharing I.
Identification of Villages,
1. Departmental works,
of experiences, 2. Preparation
of the list
of 12.
Organisation
2. School visits and
schools, A W centers etc, different kinds

Preparation of 3. Preparation of CRC map,
I
melas/conventions -'.
teaching aids and 4. Collection of Statistics,
and
identification of 5. Supervision of NFE centers, 3. Cultural activities.
solution to hard 6. Helping Medical check
UD of
spots in different children,
subjects. 7. Assist in VEC meetings,
8. Assistance to BRCs,
9. Distribution of texibooks,
teaching aids etc,
10. Maintenance of records and
registers,
11. Maintenance of finance and
12. Preparation of work plans.
The classification typology of the prescribed duties and functions reveals that the
major pre-occupation of COs is administrative followed by academic and
miscellaneous. However, it is to be noted that the duties between and among these
three categories overlap. Thus, contrary to the major thrust given to CRCs in terms
or providing academic support to teachers and schools, the job chart appears to
provide more scope: for administrative and miscellaneous dutIes to the COs.
As against the prescribed dutH:s and func!ions of COs of CRCs, an attempt
has been made to analyse the actual tasks performed by the COs in thc present
176
of
of
For this purposc, qualitatlvc data gathc[<;d from both prlmarv and <;c(;ondarv
in thc sample eRes in two talukas of Kolar district have hccn uscd.
Tahle 5.3.9: Pcrfonnance of Ditkrcnt Functions in Sample eRes
IFulict
...... ----------K'- -.
____ . __________ 0 ar ... Gowribidanur
IOns CRC I CRC2 CR(j-- -CRC4
1
---y- f.-----.Y-- y Y Y I- Y Y Y
----
2
Y Y yy- --Y-- --Y--- - Y Y
3 Y Y Y Y Y Y
-Y
Y
----
4 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
- - - -
5 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
6 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
7 N N N N N N N N
8 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
9 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
10 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
11 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
12 a Y Y N N Y Y N N
b Y Y N N N N N N
c N N N N N N N N
d N N N N N N N N
13 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
14
AI
N N N
]\I
N N N N
BI
N N N N N N N N
C N N N N N N N N
15 a Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
b Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
c
y
Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
16 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
17 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
18 Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
Note: I to 18 are the functIOns, whIch correspond to the functIOns listed 10 sectIon
5.3.5, page 175
Y= Yes and N= No
It is noticed that almost all the COs of sample CRCs have been perfonning
the tasks entrusted to them exccpt some of the tasks like supervision ofNFE centers,
educational tours, sports and cultural activities and some mclas and conventlOns
such as maa-heti, chinnara mcla and VEC dc. As there arc no N FE centers In Kolar
district, COs do not perfonn functiom relating to the same. The VEC 111elas and
Maa-beti conventions arc found to be perfonned by 4 CI{Cs and :2 CRes,
n:spectively. While VEC training for VEC members is a for organismg
VEC mclas, Maa-beti is exclusively found in slich villages, where there is higher
t77
concentration of girl dropouts llencc there is variation. While Chinnara mcla and
MIcro Planning arc yet to begin in full swing, the educational tours, sports and
cultural activities are pcrhaps not considered serious enough f()r quality
improvement by the COs. Before attcmpting at the deeper analysis of major tasks of
CRCs, an analysis of each of the individual activities performed by the COs in the
sample CRCs has been attempted in the foregoing section.
Listing Villages with and without School Facilities
It is the primary duty of a CO of CRC to list out the villages with schools and
without schools for purpose of identifying the need for starting a school in a village.
It is noticed that all the CRCs have prepared the list of such villages with the help of
teachers. The lists so prepared are kept in the CRCs for further use. In most cases,
these lists are forwarded to the higher offices for initiating further action.
Listing the Primary Schools, Anganwadi Centers and Pre-primary
Schools
It is the duty of a CO to see that the Primary Schools, Anganwadi CenterslPre-
primary Schools are listed and kept in these centers. The basic purpose of this is to
identify the necessity of Anganwadi Centers for providing Pre-primary education
support for improving the enrolment and retention of children especially the girl
children in primary schools. This information is collected as per the prescribed
format, which contains the name of a village, its distance from the CRC, population
of that village, the number of primary school, Anganwadi centers with pre-primary
classes etc. It i, observed that all the COs i!l sample CRCs have prepared this list
with the help of teachers. In 3 of the CRCs, it was also observed that a follow up of
this information had resulted In the establishment of Anganwadi centers for
prOViding pre-primary cdllcation.
Preparation of the Maps of CRCs
All the CRCs had prcpared the map. The b"sic purpose of preparing these mr.ps is
to indicate the various facilities available in the cJuster.A typical CRC map consists
178
of the geographical location of tile village showing the North-South directions,
location of villages and distance between them, villages with schwls and without
schools, roads, NGOs, School Complexes, CRC centers, rivers, hills/mountains
Village Panchayats, Training centers, hostcis, hospitals, hanks, police stations, post
offices and such other facilities
Collection of Statistics on Schools, Teachers and Children
The norm also requires that the COs of CRCs collect statistics relating to Schools,
Teachels and Children for further planning in improving the primary education. It
is noticed that the COs are given the prescribed formats consisting of the serial
number, name of the school and address, type of the school (government, private
aided and unaided separately), the date of establishment, sanctioned posts,
vacancies, number of standards and teachers who are working at present etc. It also
contains the physical facilities like the number of classrooms, drinking water
facility, toilets and playground, curricular materials such as Science kit,
Mathematics kit, library and such other things. There is also a remark column
against each of the items to indicate the availability, working condition etc. The
format on information of teachers consists of the serial number, name of the school
and address, name of the teachers who are working presently, the sex of the teacher,
caste, educational qualification, date of birth, date of joining the service, years of
service in the present school, number of times training received by them and
remarks if any. The fonnat on students infonnation consists of the name of the
school, its address, enrolment and attendance of children caste wise and sex wise
and remarks if any. It is noticed that all the CRCs had compelled the above statisti;;s
in the required format with the assistance of teachers.
lIelping the School Children in Medical Check up
With a view to enable all children to participate III the school activities, medical
check up progmmmes is undertaken in every ,chool to assess the heal[h status of
l ~ c h pupil. Under this programllle, it is tile COs of CRCs to distribute the health
cards to schools and assess the health status of the children. It is noticed that they
t79
dlstrloute these cards either during their schnol visits or ,haflnl' 01
, ,
expeflences The health card malnlv consists of the name of a student, father's
name. class in which studying, income of the parents, height, weight and dlsaohtll:s
if any and remarks. It was also revealed that none of the schnnls coming under
sample CRes had reported ahout severc handicap dUfing health check up
programme. Despite COs identifying health among sch001 children
coming under their purview, it is noticed that subsequl:nt follow up work towards
remedial measurl:S is not performed to the expected level.
To undertake the Jobs assigned by the Department
It is reported by all the COs that they are assigned with certain miscellaneous jobs such
as Census, elections, CPE, Pulse Polio etc. Although these Jobs are not of routine and
regular nature, they do affect their academic activities as they (fonner) demand their
time and effort. It was also noticed that the COs did not have any option but to accept
such jobs thrust upon them.
Arrangement for VEe Training
COs are required to act as facilitators in the smooth conduct of VEC training. They
are expected to identify the members, who are yet to receive sHch training at BRCs
and to give the list of those members to concerned BRCs, It is noticed that all the
COs have been giving assistance to such meetings by sending the list of such
members for VEC training.
Melas and Conventions
As per the norms prescribed, it is the duty of COs to conduct awareness programmes
like (I) Maa-Beti Conventions, (2) VI'C mela, (3) Chinnara mel a and (4) Micro-
planning exercises. In the present analvsis, a narrative reporting of one such sample
Maa-Beti Convention and VEe mcla have been presented,
180
Maa-Hcti ('onv('ntion
It is an awareness programme filr hringing the female dropout children into the
school system. In this convention, school going girl children and their mothers arc
made to sit with the non-school going girl children and their mothers in small groups
and interact with each other.
This is mainly for the purpose of changing the
mindset of hoth the non-school going children and their mothers through creating
awareness anong them about the importancc of female education. In this context,
the rese .. rcher had the benefit of personally ohserving one such convention, held at
Thondanayakanahalli higher primary school, Kolar Taluk and the gist of the
diSCUSSion held by each group has be(:n highlighted hereunder.
The programme started at 12 noon, although the expected schedule was at
10-30 AM. The schedule was delayed because a large number of mothers could not
come for the meeting/convention on time owing to their personal
The programme started with an invocation of the students of that school. The CO of
CRC, Holur welcomed the gathenng <lnd Sathyanarayana, HM, Government high
school, Nayakanahalli inaugurated the programme In his inaugural address, he
emphasized the need and importance of girls' education in the Indian context. Later,
the mothers from 10 different villages were divided into 4 groups and were scnt to 4
different rooms along with the RPs of BRC. Four different topics such as
Government facilities for girls' education, importance of girls' education, health of
mother and child and treating equal among beys and girls in tenns of intelligence
were discussed among the four groups. There were four RPs allotted to each group
for purpose of moderating the discussion. Arrangements had been made to rotate
the 4 RPs alternatively between and among the four groups, when the discussions
were heing held in each room. The investigator ohserved the discussion by
pcrsonally sitting 111 each room. E\'el\ tlille the RP in the concerned room was
rotated, the 111\ cstlgator also rotated himself ht:lwccn and among the four different
groups. The highlights of the obscl\'atlon havc been described f()f each of the b'fOUP
separately as presented hereunder
181
I (,roup:
Th..: diSCUSSion 111 th..: lirst grOUI1 was initiated hy the RP with focus on highlighting
the iml10rtallt role I1layed by mothers in being the first and the foremost teacher
('(,um') j()r the child.
The underlYing message in this context was the primary responsibility of the
mothers in ..:ducatlllg every child in the family be it a 'boy' or 'girl'. The RP further
lin pressed upon the mothers that they tlrst begin, to teach the child the very basic
concepts such as 'father', 'mother', 'brother', 'sister' and whole lot of social
relationships within the family circle.
Within the context of such major
responsibility the mothers are expected to send their daughters also to the school, as
they would do so with their sons. At this juncture, the RP made the mothers realise
their failure in fulfilling the basic responsihllity of sending their daughters to school.
The discussIOns essentially centered around creatmg awareness among the women
(mothers), the importance of educating the girl child through sending her (girl child)
to the school. Although not every participant mother was involved in the discussion,
a few of them however did participate in the discussion. It appeared that the
underlYlllg message had reached all the participants.
In the next part of the discussion. the RP attempted to sensitize the
participants with regard to the differential roles performed by men and women in the
household. The underlying message that was intended to be passed on to the women
(mothers) was the gender imbalances in t..:rms of workload, within the context of
household responsibilities. In this direction, the RP made sincere attempts to elicit
from the gathering the kind of household chores that they are engaged day in and
out. The responses from the women (mothers) did reveal the complexity and extent
of workload and responslbLlitl":s that wom..:n are cntrust.:d with. At this pomt. th..:
RI' Impr..:"..:d upon th..: \\omcn that lack or cducallon had led W0111CII (moth..:rs) to
weakly acc..:ptlng most of th..: f:Ullilv and household responsibilities without realizing
the \'alue alld worth of tile same ThiS was further substantiated when mothers
reported that II was again their daught..:rs and not sons, who help..:d and assist..:d
them In discharging their hous..:hold responsibihties. It was also clear from the
182
discussion that the mothers in general refused to seek assistance from the sons in
discharging their duties, basically becausc the son went to schooL Thlls, the RJ> was
able to impress lIponthe women the nature of gender discrimination that prevails in
every household.
II Group:
The observation of the discussion in the second group while the investigator was
present was centered on identifying gender-reiated barriers for girls to attend the
schooL It was observed that most of the mothers, who had gathered were illiterates.
The RP highlighted the need for educating the girls as well in the present context
Further, he also highlighted the need for sending girls to secondary schools as welL
However, at this point, the mothers reported that as high schools are located at far
ofT places, they were reluctant to send their daughters to such long distances in view
of personal safety and security point At this juncture, the RP impressed upon the
mothers the need for sending their daughters to high schools, which would equip
them with skills and competencies, thereby empowering them with economic
security and employment. The RP provided comparative illustrations of increasing
number of girls in urban areas receiving secondary education and subsequently
getting into employment market and becoming economically independent. The
mothers were told to be favourable and supportive of their daughters' higher
education, thereby taking them on par with boys in different sectors.
III Group
During the time when the investigator was present in the third i;,'TOUp, the discussion
centered around the facilities and support services available for girls in the education
sector. The RP was partially successful in eliciting the list of government incentive
svstems for girls existing in the education system from only a very few mothers.
The RP while highlighting a wide rangc of incentive systems provided by the State
impressed upon the women the good intentions behind such scheme as well as the
positive benefits that can accrue to girls through such incentive system.
Ill)
IVCiroup
DUring the time when the investigator was present in this group, the R!' was
attempting to find out from the gathering" the reasons for large majority of them not
going to school when they were young, The reasons from the mothers revealed that
they were prevented from going to school by their elders in the family due to
prejudices and apathetic attitl!des, Although, in contrast, to what their elders dId
them, the mothers in general seemed to be inclined in sending their daughters to
school, yet, when the question was asked about ~ e n i n g their daughters to higher
education, they were apprehensive At this juncture, the RP once again impressed
upon the women folk about the importance of higher education for girls in the
present day situation and the positive benefits of higher education for girls,
Thus, about 2 to 2 y, hours in the forenoon session (which extended beyond
half past two in the afternoon due to belated starting) were spent on interaction with
the participants, After this, there was a lunch break close to an hour. During the
post lunch session a valedictory session was scheduled wherein the participants were
expected to express their impressions about the programme, However, due to heavy
rains, the entire valedictory session was called off
From out of the observations, that the investigator made of the four groups,
the following conclusions emerge,
The attendance of mothers and their girl children was more than 80 percent
(50 out of60) It was noticed that only a very few of them used to participate in the
discussion and others were sitting quite with hesitation, Some RPs were successful
in drawing the attention of mothers and some others had not made any attempt in
motivating them to participate activdy in the discussion Out of the interviews it
further emerged that there was inhibition to talk to mcn R!'s, Because of this. they
were not actively participating in the discussions with the Ri's of opposite sex, This
brings out certain points f(Jr consideration, Firstly, women need to unlearn certain
IIlhihitivc behavioural tendencies among women so as to actively participate iI' the
discussions, Therc/(lre in this direction, the RPs have to pay more attention,
184
,
Alh:rnativcly, then: is a need to appoint kmale Rl's In such meetings, which can
pronwh: greah:r among the women. Perhaps, If a woman such as some
Executive olTicial or a I'anchayat's President/Member were to he invited to
inaugurate such a function, it would have served an appropriate role model for
wOl11en to be more interactive. Despite such deficiencies, the programme in general.
was well organised with enthusiasm and Interest.
It appeared that the RPs were, by and large, successful in creating awareness
among the mothers of the dropout girls regarding the importance of education of the
girl child. As a result, some consensus seemed to emerge from the participants so
far as ensuring their daughters would never miss school henceforth.
VEe Mela:
The eos are required to organise mel as for VEe members in their respective
clusters to assess the Impact of VEe training. These melas are intended with the
following purp0ses in view.
I) To create awareness among VEe members about enhancing physical and
educatIOnal facilities in the schools,
:2) To exhibit the low cost-no cost teaching aids prepared in schools,
3) To exhibit the contributions made in cash or kind by the members of VEe and
4) To I 111 prove the school-commul1lt) relationship.
The researcher had made modest attenlpt to gather certain observations in one
such programme conducted at eRe, Kolar Taluk on 25
'h
Sep 1999. The
description of the same is here under.
a, the Maa-Beti eOl1\ellt10n, even tIllS programme started belatedl\' at 11-30
AM Instead of scheduled I () AM due to late arrivals of the members. The
Coordinator (lITRe welcomed all the VEl' members the dignitaries 0!1 the dais.
The CO of BRC, Kolar Illtrodueed the Sl'SSlOn through n:iterating the roles and
responslbdllies of VEe memhers. The Pri!1('ipai of government junior college by

name Maheshappa lIlauguraled the session In his in<\lIgural address, he emphasized
the Importance of primary education and the r;lle of community in strengthenir.g the
quality or primary education. The Deputy CO of OPO Kalappa, who was the Chief
(,uest of the day, in his speech voiced the concerns about the irregular nature of the
VEC meetings and the negative implications such meetings for the smooth
funetiol1lng of rrimary schools. In his speech, he further emphasized that the role of
VECs should never be limited merely to arrange for the national and state festivals.
After the completion of the inaugural session, the members of VECs from different
villages were divided into 5 groups to share their experiences with the RPs from the
LOneemed BRC. The purpose behind such experience sharing were mainly to
highlight (I) the extent to which the VEC training has made impact on VEC
members, (2) experience sharing in tenns of cashlkind contributions made bv the
VECs, participation and the nature of the role played by the VEC members and
Member Secretaries and (3) the mOllitoring of teachers and schools by the VEC
members. As done in the case of Maa-Beti convention, even here, the investigator
happened to observe all the five groups on rotation basis. The observations for each
of these groups IS presented below.
I Group
To understand the relationship between VEC members with their concerned teachers
a question was posed by a RP from BRC like this.
RP. How is the relationship between you and your teachers?
Members It is good now especially after training.
RP If any teacher comes late to your school, do you question them?
Members: If any body comes late once or twice due to some unavoidable
circumstances we don't questIOn him or her. But if the same thing repeats definitely
we will question himlher.
RP: If teachers are regular and punctual, is it enough
0
Members (some): No, they should engage the and should teach as welL
RP: Do you supervise schools regularly')
Members (most of them) We arc not regularly bl!t occaSIOnally.
RI' How many of you h,l\'c encouraged thc meritorious studcnts with rewards
(pnzes)0 was Intended to understand whether the members were
aware of meritorious students in their schools and to what extent, they made ell()rts
to promote such students)
Members (most of them) We arc supporting such students t:1TOugh awarding prizes.
Fuothcr, another question was posed to understand the nature Gf cOl'tributiPtls
made under resource mobilisation exercise.
IS6
RP: What arc the kinds of contributions (cash/kind) you havc made to your school'.'
Members (only few of them): Land, chairs, table etc (l[ the development of schools.
At the end, the RI', while highlighting the more active roles played by the
VECs in terms of higher wntributions and better monitoring impressed upon the
VECs to follow the suite
II Group
An attempt was made by the RP to assess the extent of resources mobilised by each
VEC in terms of various types of to the schools. In this context, the
RP made inquiries with each of the VEC member and listed out the contributions.
While the members from one VEC (Arjenahalll) reported contributions such as wall
clock, water jug, steel cups, tea jugs, plates, water filters. chairs, benches, table and
mirrors, another VEC (Koratimandanahalli) reported contributions in terms of
Photos of national leaders and land for construction of new school building, yet
another VEC (Kudagol) reported contributions in terms of chairs and tables. There
was also an attempt made by the RP with regard to the extent of utilisation of DPEP
fund during the last four years. It transpired that there were a few VECs, which are
yet to utilize the DPEP funds. In regard to this, the RP emphasized the need for
effective utilisation of the DPEP fund for school improvement.
III Group
Dt.:ring the when the investigator was present in this, the RP was making
attempts to find out whether the VECs reCOb'11ized the meritorious students in their
schools and how and when do they honour such students. In this context, some of
the members reported that they honour meritorious students generally when the
schools celebrate State/National festivals. Further, they also reported that the prize
money usually came from the collective contribution of the VEC members. At the
end, the RP impressed upon the members, the need for their presence in such
celebrations.
iV Group
When the investigator was present in this group, there was an attempt by the RP to
find out the frequency with which the VEC members visited the schools and the
purpose behind such visits. In this context, the following was observed.
RP. How many of you have Visited your schools?
Members (most of them): We all have
RP For what purpose do you \isit schools')
Members (most of them): Just to check the presence of the teachers in schools.
RP What arc the problems that you ha\e generally notIced during your \isits to
schuols')
Members (very few) Ahsenteelsm of students, lack of hlcil itlcs ctc.
RP: Have you taken any action on such
Memhers (a very few): Yes, to some extent.
RP: Have yuu noticed any child, whu is out of school!,1 your village?
Members: No such incidents.
187
V Group
At the tllnc, when the investigator was present in this group, the RP was making an
attempt to lind out from the VEe members, the purpose of VEe and the roles and
responsibilities In the VEe. In this context, the 1()lIowing was observed.
RP: Why have we constituted VECs')
Members (most of them): To check the regularity and punctuality of students and
teachers.
RI': Wlil your school improve, if there is no supervisory support by you?
Members: No.
RP: What you should do?
Members (some of them): We have to take responsibilities about the improvement
cf our school.
RP: In what ways have you helped your schools?
Members: ElectrIcity connection, furniture, bringing out of school children into
school etc.
At the end, the RP advised the members to perform their roles and
responsibilities properly to improve the participation of children in schools. This
was followed by a lunch break. During the post lunch session, a valedictory session
was arranged for which the BEO, Kolar had delivered the valedictory address. The
BEO in his speech emphasized the need for support structure like VEC for
improving the quality of education. During this session, some of the members
expressed their views voluntarily. The members highlighted their contributory role
in the improvement of their schools. The session ended with vote of thanks by one
of the teachers.
From the observations of the above meetings, the following emerges.
The attendance of members it was about 80 percent (80 members out of \00). The
participation was quite good because a majority of them used to participate well in
the interactive session. It was observed that there were a few members, who rarely
or never part!eipated in the discussion. However, the RP did not make any effort to
involve such members in the discussion. An another observation that was noticed is
the silelll'<: of the \ ~ o m I l mcmbcrs in thc group. As the discussion was dominated
by the malc mcmber, cven hcre, the RI' did not make any special cffon to persuade
women memhcr to participdtc in the diseussi(Jn. As in the case of Maa-Beti
convcniion, e\cn this programmc W<lS wcll organised with grc<lt interest and fervour.
188
Chinnara Mela:
It was noticed that although, these Melas were organised by many of the eRes 111
the sample blocks, the investigator could not get an opportunity to observe the same
as these Melas were not organised during the period of data collection hv the
investigator. The purposes of these melas arc generally the following.
I) To develop national Integrity among children,
2) To make the schools more attractive,
3) To increase the attendance of children,
4) To make teaching-learning more attractive,
5) To develop gender equality among children and
6) To develop and improve the community relationship with schools.
Micro Planning:
It is the most effective means to create awareness regarding the concepts of access,
retention and achlevement of children. It was noticed during field visits that most of
the COs in the sample CRCs were not involved in thlS process, not only due to the
fact that there were no attempts made by the concerned authority in their areas but
also due to lack of training on the part of them in this direction. They also reported
that the actual needs and problems are being identified and solutions are planned
through discussion and it is usually done for the following purposes.
I) To improve the enrolment, attendance and educational progress of children at
primary level,
2) To create awareness among the community members about the importance of
primary education,
3) To involve the community actively in the success of VEC and
4) To stn;ngthell the VECs fix further of schools.
189
Maintenance of Records and Registers in CRCs
The COs are required to maintain certain records/registers in the CRCs. Some of
thelll are:
I) Attendance, 2) Visitor/s Book, 3) Equipments and Furniture, 4) Information of
Teachers,S) Information of Children, 6) Information on VECs, 7) Cash book, 8)
Distribution of TA, 9) Registration of teachers, 10) Attendance of teachers, II)
Memo book, 12) Frolll Register, 13) To Register, 14) Bank Challans, 15) Addresses
of Resource Persons and expert teachers, 16) Diary of CO and 17) Movement
Register, 18) Receipts and 19) Travelling Allowances and Daily Allowances
The COs reported that preparation of such a big list of above documents
consumed a lot of time and effort. Notwithstanding this, the cas felt that such
documents as ready reckoner for sending information especially when the
higher officials asked for the s&mc.
Annual Work Plans (Calendar of Activities)
Every CRC is expected to prepare an annual plan. Such an annual plan should
reveal schedule of activities month wise. It is noticed that all the 8 CRCs had
prepared such annual plans. But in reality, these plans are not strictly adhered to as
many of the were not carried out as per schedule. On probing, it was
reported by the COs that due to heavy workload, many of the scheduled programmes
could not be carried out. Thus, there seems to be a gap between pldnning and
execution of the plan.
l\laintcnance of Finance
Every CRe gcts a grant of Rupees 1000 per annum (One Thousand) towards
meeting expendIture for variolls items. It is noticed that not only all the CRCs had
recclved this grant, but also had uti:ised the same according to the prescribed
guidelines.
190
5.3.7 Activities of the CRCs - An Analysis
The two major roles of COs of CRCs arc monthly interactive meetings and school
visits. Accordingly, an in-depth attempt of these two roles has been done by
gathering data from both primary and secondary sources.
1. Monthly Interactive Meetings (Monthly Sharing of
Experiences)
It is the responsibility of COs of CRCs to arrange the monthly meetings in these
resource centers for the teachers in the schools that they supervise. The basic
purpose of the meetings is to help the teachers to teach and manage the class very
effectively and efTiciently by maximising the individual teacher's potentialities and
capabilities through peer review in a participatory approach. Hence, to this extent,
these meetings are targeted at sharing of experiences by the teachers in different
school/village context. These meetings are generally conducted as a follow up
training session and mostly in the form of \\;orkshop, where routine educational
problems pertaining to teaching of different subjects and topics are discussed and
possible solutions sought. Generally, either the COs or the experienced and efficient
teachers in the group present demonstration lessons and role play exercises for the
teachers to make them confident in the teaching-learning process of a classroom and
thereby ensuring the qualitative improvement in pnmary education. It is also
noticed that some times teachers themselves discuss their educational problems and
arrive at workable solution in a participatory mechanism. During such interactions,
it is expected that they would playa facilitative role through appropriate guidance
:lnd counseling.
:\umhcr of held
At ihe outset, the number of meetings conducted by the CRCs has been examined.
The peTiod of rL'krence for this has been from April 1997 to Jan 2000. The
following table gives the number of meetings held in sample CRCs of Kolar and
Gowribidanur during this period.
191
Table 5.3.10: Number of Meetings held at Sample CRes
. _.
, --"- - -- .-
-- ----- --_.- ._- -- .
._----
Year
Number of Meetings in the-CRCs _. __ .
--_._----... _-_. __ .- _. ------_ ..
._---
Kolar Gowribidanur
I 2 3
...
4 Total I 2 3 4 Total
._-=-
1997-98 5 6 5
c---1_ 21 5 5 5 5 20
.--------------- -- --- .
t----.-
r----
--
1998-99 4 6 5 5 20 5 5 5 5 20
- --- -
1999-00" 4 3 3 3 13 4 3 3 3 13
Total 13 15 13 13 54 14 13 13 13 53
---
----
Note: N umbers I, 2, 3 & 4 In the first hOrizontal row correspond to the sample
CRCs, selected
* Up to Jan 2000
The very fact that none of the col umns reveal 12 meetings in an year suggest
that the meetings are not held regularly every month as per the nonn (table 5.3.10).
The average number of meetings for all the three years either in Kolar or
Gowribidanur works out to 5 only. The shortfall in the number of meetings could be
attributed to a number of facturs. The meetings have to be conducted by the CRCs
as per the directions Issued by the BRCs, which means CRCs are not well equipped
to plan and organise meetings in their own. It seems that they are dependent on
BRC for planning and organising meetings. Either CRCs are not equipped with
appropriate to conduct meetings or then: are administrative bottlenecks, which
come In the way of conducting meetings on a reguiar monthly basis. However, in
depth interviews with the COs revealed that they either wait for the BRC direction
or hold the meetings as and when the need arises from the teachers. This suggests
thai CRCs are not adequately empowered to plan and organise meetings on their
0\\11 and they do nut appear to function as independent autonomous academic units.
in any case, the CRC training should focus mor.: on developing skills and capacities
to empower the COs to take timely decisions.
:\aturc of :\1ccting
I\n attempt has been made to examine the nature of such meetings through analysis
of records, which document the minutes of the meetings. It is significant to note that
lhe process of each and every monthly meetings of sharing edu(;ationai experiences
IS being documented In every CRC under The process of docullleniation of
meetings is an innovative concept followed under DPEP intervention with a vieIV to
1<)2
develop skills relating to observation, interaction and recording. It IS observed that
generally the C') of CRC entrusts the documentation work to one of the groups
identilied in the heginning of the session. This group would record all the
proceedings of the meetings and present the same to the group at the end of the
session. A copy of such report is generally sent to the concerned BRCs for thcir
perusal. It is ohserved that the records generally include items such as invocation,
welcome, preparatory activities, the kind of tasks performed, rcmarks if any and
vOle of thanks etc.
Minutes of the Meetings: A Content Analysis
As said earlier, the minutes of the every meeting are documented at CRCs. An
attempt has heen made to analyse these meeting reports to understand the nature of
functions performed by the COs. For this purpose, all the documents relating to
such meetings held in CRCs during 1997 to January 2000 have been considered. The
data are gathered from the eight sample CRCs and the period of reference is 1997 to
January 2000. Altogether, thert> werp. 107 such reports, 54 from 4 CRCs in Kolar
and 53 from 4 CRCs in GO\uibidanur. There are prescribcd norms/guidelines, which
suggest what should be the focus of such meetings at CRCs. Some of them are as
follows
I. Finding out the hard spots in various subjects, finding solutions from different
sources like BRC faculty and schcol complexes,
2. Identification of talented teachers in the group for the preparation and
of innovati'/e activities and to make use of their services in the
future meetings,
3 l Jse of work cum text hooks-methods and techniques,
.t [)e\ elopment of possible low cost and no cost teaching aids for e:lch
COIl1 pctency,
5 Identification of problems of multi-grade teaching and discussion on possible
solutions,
6. Discussion regarding competency based evaluation tcchniques and plOcedurcs.
7. Innovative actiVities j()r diflerent competencies in the classroom situation,
\9.1
R. Collection of information on various aspects,
9. Discussion on strategies f()r the co-ordination with VI':C,
10. Utilisation of school and teachers' grant,
II. Maintenance of cleanliness including toilets and water supply in the schools and
12. Discussion on Kali-Nali newsletter.
In order to understand the kind of emphasis given on each item listed above, the
frequencies of the activities undertaken in the meetings have been calculated and are
presented in the table 5.3. II.
Table 5.3.11: Frequencies of Activities Undertaken in the Meetings at CRes
I Activities undertaken in the (,RCs
Kolar G bidanur
._---------- -

Fir.ding out the hard spots in various subjects, finding solutions 35 34
fac!llty and school complexes, (65) (64)
Identi fication of talented teachers in the group for the preparation 30 35
and presentation of innovative activities and to make use their (56) (66)
sef\ices in the future meetings,
Use ()f .... ork cura text books-methods and techni.ques. 17 (31) 16 (30)
De.elopment of possible low cost and no cost teaching aids for 19 18
each competency, (35) (34)
Identification of problems of m!llti-grade teaching and discussion 21 19
on possibk solutions, (39) (36)
, DIscussion regaruirog competency based evaluation techniques 18 16
and procedures,
_._-- ----
(33) (30)
Innovative activities for different competencies in the classroom 14 18
situation, (26) (34)
---- ---
Collection of information on various aspects, 25 26
(46) (49)
Discussion on strategies for the co-ordination with VEe,
13 13
(24) (25)
of school and teachers' gr:mt,
21 24
(39) (45)
Maintenance of cleanliness including toilets and water supply in 6 5
schools and
(II) (9)
,
DisclIssion on KaIi-l\!ali newsletter. 12
2
L_
- - ----- -------------"- --
- - - -
1 (41
t4L ____
---- - - --- . - -- --- --"--- --- -- .
i\otc: I'Igurl's In Parentheses refer to the Percentages
As can be secn from thc tarle 5.3.1 th-:re is an uniform adherem;e \0 the
activities as per m.nns. Ilo\\'c\'cr, it could be notIced tlte major emphasis hi!s
been given \0 the academic related activities lIke linding out the solution to the hard
194
spots in various suhjects and identification or talented tcachers in thc group to make
use of their services and administrative activities like collection of information and
utilisation of school and teacher grant. Activities such as identification of problems
or multi-grade teaching and discllssion on possihle solutions, dcvelopment or
possible low cost and no cost teaching aids ror each competency and discussion
regarding competency based evaluation techniques and procedures are also given
considerable importance in the CRC meetings The kinds and patterns of these
activities do not appear to differ much in the two taluks. The researcher also noticed
that some of the CRCs in the sample blocks have gone to the extent of organising
exhibition of teaching-learning aids at these resource centers. On further intcrviews
with the COs majority of them reported that these meetings enabled them to solve
educational problems faced in the daily classroom teaching-Iemning process and to
Impro\e their academic competency. However, a few of the teachers expressed
apprehensions regarding less weightage given for activities relating to multi grade
teaching, development of low cost-no cost teaching aids and use of workbook in
such meetings. Even Khaniya (1997) also observed that this system of regular
meetings has developed in teachers a sense of confidence.
The content of the 107 meding reports is further supplemented with the
personal observation on the spot during field visits. One such observation report is
narrated here undtr for each CRC of Kolar and GowribidanuT.
CRC, Vcmagal, Kolar Talul{:
This CRC is located at a distance of about ten kilometres from the taluk headquarter
The researcher went to this center on 26.12.99 by 10 a.m. The CO and some of the
teachers were present at that time in the CRC center The researcher was well
n:ceived hv the OT!.!anisers alier introducmg himself. Thc CO calkd somc students
and asked tt; sweep the !loor and the tt:achcrs sprcad the jamkhanas on tht:
floor. The programme was supposed to he started by 10.30 am, but it started by
1045 am, as some more teachers were expected to arrive. The programme started
\\uh an Il1\ocation by Teherahi, I!M, Hlrapura and welcome speech by the CO of
eRe. Thc or the mceting was quite and it was 63 OUI of 65.
In the heginning of the meeting, i,lstructions of the Depat1l11cnt of Education were
gm:n by Mr. Muniyappa, lOS, Kolar Taluk. The instructions \Vcre as follows.
19:'
I. There will not he annual examinations at taluk level for the classes I to 4'h and
class level examination for 3
rd
and 4'1. standards should he conducted only on the
competency based questions
2. The teachers of the DrCp prize awarded schools were asked to meet at
Narasapura on 1.3.9l) along with their school children for the prize distribution
function.
3. The total number of working days should not be less than 220 days and
attendance of each and every chi Id should not be less than 75 percent of the total
working days.
Most of the teachers wrote down the instrudions. However, a few of them
simply listened to him. Then the teachers were asked by the CO to prepare the flash
cards individually relating to mathematical numbers, with the help of card board and
sketch pens. In the succeeding session, in the forenoon, the teachers were basically
engaged in preparing the same.
In the afternoon session as soon as they prepared flash cards, they were further
allowed to prepare a scale of one meter with the help of card board and sketch pen.
Afterwards, the CO demonstrated the method of teaching some concepts in
mathematics using the cardboard and the scale prepared by the teachers. During
demonstration, there was interaction among the teachers. The CO was making
attempt to elicit questions from the participants and provide convincing answers to
such questions. The demonstration lasted for about 15 minutes.
Overall, the participation appeared to be good since most of them participated in
the activitv. It was clearly evident that the session was quite helpful in both
improving the capacity of the teachers and in helping them to prepare low cost-no
cost teaching aids with less effort and limited resources.
CRC, Gowribidanur, Gowribidanur Taluk:
This eRC is located in the campus of BRC itself. Here also the programme started
latc by 20 minutes because of late arrival of some teachers. The programme started
with an invocatioll of group song by all the member teachers. Mr Sanjeevarayappa,
CO of CRe welcomcd all the teachers and conducted a preparatory activity
through Identl fication of animals and persons based on the sounds created or
qualitles/attnbutes described for the teachers. The basic purpose of the activity was
to keep teachers alert. 1\ large of them actively took part in It Then the CO
asked the teachers to open their handbooks and to sing a song ""Dcvara
pepparamentenamma (God's Candy)" in a group. Aller this, the reasons for singing
poems with rhymes were discusseu. The point, which emerged out of discussion,
was explained well by the CO thai new words could introduced for children
through singing poems with rhymes. Then the teachers were tilrmcd into dilTerent
groups 111 accordance with their numbers. The teachers were then asked to list out
the thir.gs, class wise and subject wise to be taught in the month or September and
1%
October and were allowcd to discuss the problems if any. Then the group leaders
were asked to present the topics and the problems if any and the solution lor them
were found uut with the fellow teachers. After this, each and everv teacher was
invited to pick a chit, to act and to develop a story on it. All the participated
in the programme well. Then, the CO gave some infurmation on Maa-betl
programme.
The afternoon session was started with the preparatory activity' Aane banthu
Aane (Elephant carner In the beginning of the session, to keep the teachers
motivated an activity was conducted. In that activity, certain pictures were stuck on
the back of a few teachers without revealing the same. Others would pose questions
to such teachers on the basis of which they had to identify the pictures pasted on
their backs. Further teachers were divided into 5 groups and were given some charts
to each group. Then they were allowed to list out the topics, which can be taught
With the help of those charts The charts essentially consisted of certain indigenous
and rural folk concepts of play, games and symbols. The group leaders then
presented the list of topics, which could be taught, out of those charts in a classroom
situation. Most of the teachers attempted to ask questions but a very few of them
did not make any effort in this directIOn. At last one of the teachers by name
Rajashekar from Channenahalli presented his experiences of his three-day Film
Based Traming (FBT) conducted at BRC He appreciated the teaching method and
teaching aids of Heggadadevana Kote (Mysore district) experience, shown in FBT.
For this session, Mr Nanjundaiah, the CO ofBRC, Gowribidanur was invited. In his
specch to teachers, h;; stressed the importance of competency based teaching to
enhance learning m the classroom and also he talked about the need for creating
awareness about girls' education.
Sum mary of the Observations:
It was noticed that the attendance of the participants even here was more than 95
percent. In this meeting, while the group leaders were seriously involved in the
\,'ork, the others did not appear to be serious. But, the CO appeared vigilant in
observing the activities of the teachers very keenly and made sincere efforts to draw
the attention of the participants, who were not seriously involved in the group work.
It clearly evident that the session was quite helpful in hath improving the
capacity of the teachers and in helpll1g th':l11 to prepare low cost-no cost t.:aching
aids with less effort and IIIl1ited resources
'['h frolll the observalio11S it could he concluded that although, th.:
us,
. . . I tl t' l' g(llld, t'l"r" \\,,'IS interactions in the
partiCipation In 10 1 ,Ie cases w, S I v v
Vernagal CI{C meetmg than in (JOIHihidanur eKe. Because, the teachers were
assigneJ the oTiented individual \\,Irk as coll1par.:d to the latter. But, the CO
t97
was very active and keen ohserver in Gowribidanur eRC than that of VemagaL ThIs
hrIngs out an Important point that drawIng the attention of the participants depends
largely on the kind of activities undertaken in the CRCs. Despite such deficiencies,
both the meetings had proved more useful for the teachers to improve their
capacities, since the programme in general, was well organised with enThus,iasm
and interest.
Experience Sharing at the Monthly Meetings in CRCs: Quality
Aspect
One of the important ways of assessing the quality of these experience-sharing
activities is through the eyes of beneficiaries of these programmes. In this direction,
an attempt has been made to capture the perceptions of a sample of trainees (40
trainees equally from two CRCs in two different blocks) were interviewed about the
monthly interactive meetings conducted at CRCs. In general, the trainees (17 out of
20 in one of the CRCs of Kolar block and 16 out of 20 in a CRC from Gowribidanur
block) felt that the experience sharing meetings at the CRCs were comprehensively
desib'11ed in terms of content adequacy, sequencing of activities and appropriate
methodology. An attempt was also made to elicit the trainees' perceptions with
respect to facilities, transaction mode, relevance and resource support etc. The same
is presented in table 5.3.12.
Table 5.3.12: Perceptions of Beneficiaries about the Monthly Meetings at CRCs
---
Indicators of quality of monthly CRC in Kolar Block CRC in G.Bidanur Block
meetings Yes No Total Yes No Total
Relevance 18 2 20 17 3 20
1----
---
18 2 20
Scope for interaction 17 3 20
Adequate facilities 15 5 20 14 6
--
Resource support_by th.<: S::Os __
I- 14
6 20 _15 __ 5 20
j----
._- ---
Duration 16 4 20 15 5 20
It is evidC'nt frolll the table 5; 12 that a large majority of beneficiaries in the
CRCs, belonging to two diffcrent blocks has expressed their satistilction with respect
19R
to all spccilic aspects rclated to quality of monthly sharing of experiences at eKes.
Besides, they also strongly recommended such kinds of training to their colleagues
Further, for the question was it monotonous, majority of them (75 percent)
rcsponded in negative. With regard to the usefulness of the programme to their
daily classroom teaching, all of them (cent percent) reported in affinnative. Ovcr
all, teachers seem to bc satisfied with the quality of the experience-sharing
programme at the CRes. Thus, it can be inferred that these prohTfammes arc well
designed and more useful to them in their classroom teaching-learning process.
I n addition to thc above, the perceptions of teachers working in primary schools,
which were visited by the researcher, have also been examined. About sixteen
teachers from ten sample schools drawn from the eight sample CRCs were
interviewed. Some of the strengths of the sharing of experiences at the CRCs as
indicated by them are as follows in the order of priority.
1. To solve some of the daily life educational problems, especially related to
classroom instructions (14 ),
2. Helpful in the development of low cost-no cost teaching aids (II) and
J To improve the activity based instruction at lower primary classes (10).
Alternatively such meetings are also found to suffer from certain deficiencies as
revealed through perceptions of the teachers. Some of them in the order of priority
arc:
I. Lack of experience on the part of most of thc COs working in CRCs (10),
2. Lack of follow up work especially on academic supervision (9) and
3. Lack lif more emphasis on multi grade teaching and preparation of locally
availahle teaching aids (8)
t99
2. SchO(11 Visils
School \ iSlt is yl:t anothl:r imrortant rUllction or c(), Till: data ror this anal\ 'I' arlO
drawn from the Tour I'rogramlm:s. VI\It dalfll's and VISit rerorts avallahle III thL:
sample pnmary school and In the concnned IlRt \ In order to understand the kind "I'
tasks performed bv the COs dunng their visits
Tour Program mes (Tl's):
Each and every CO is expected to prerare a tentative TP, which indicates the date.
name of the school and proposed visits during working days of the month In
advance. Noonally the TP consists of the number of working days, holidays, the
date, name of the school, number of visits to the schools and other tasks to be
undertaken during these working days. An attempt has been made to analyse the
TPs of COs in order to understand the quantity and variety of tasks performed bv
them. The TPs of the COs for three months have been selected randomly from each
of the eight sample CRCs. Monthly averages have been worked out to arrive at
number of days proposed for different kinds af activities Tile ,arne is In
the table 5.3.13.
Considering the average number of days proposed by the COs for drtTerent
kinds of jobs, it is the 'School visit' job, which emerges as the single largest actiVity
as revealed by the figures in the table (more than 90 percent). Thus, it is clearly
evident from the TPs that the major task of the COs is school visits. As per the
nonns, every CO has to visit all the LPSs and primary classes (I to IV) In the HPSs
which come under hislher jurisdiction at least once in a month. However, it is to be
noted that TPs indicate only the proposed of COs, as an ad\'anced plan.
:!oo
Tahk S.),I:; Numbcr or I lays l'roroscd rm I )lifcrcnl !\clivitics oy the ('()s
Number
activities
or days
alld I !\verage NUlllher "I'I lays
Kolal (ibidanur
i Total number
I mont h
! I I 2 , I 4 I I 2
or days III a!,O 1,0 ,(I ilO !ll 31
Ii: 1_
! Tolal numher of
,
I including_Sundays
Total number of
holidays I () I () I (, I () (, 6
JI
6
25
1
31
25
Number of days 011 \\ l11ch i2:----+:--=2c:
2
- '-(2926) -- 22 23 2-1'---+-2-3---123
school visits were proposed (92) I (92) (91) I (92)
bY.!b.e COs i I
rumber of days proposed'for 2 ~ 2 2 -+--:-2--- 4 : 2
l
administrative. and. oth. er (8) 118) 1 __ (_8._> (e) (8) I (16) I' (8)
tasks by the COs____ ... , .. ---'--__ --'--__
Note: 1,2,3 and 4 in the top most row represent CRCs
Figures in parentheses represent the ?ercentages
Consolidated Monthly Reports (Field Diaries) of the COs:
2
(8)
As a contrast to the TPs, the Consolidated Monthly Rerorts (CMR) of the school
visits indicate to what extent the COs has been able to adhere to the TPs in reality.
The field diaries for the respective months of the TPs were selected and the average
number of days have been carried out for every month as done in the case of TPs.
An n l y s i ~ in this direction reveals the follOWing,
201
Tahle 5.1.14: A Comparative Analysis or the Average Numher or days Proposed alld
Spent ror DII"I<.:re11t Activities by the COs
---- ..
-- ---------- _.
Numb.:r of days and activities
Average Number of Days
Kolar Ghidanur

I
--._---- .. -------
CRC CRe eRe' eRe' CRC CRC
I" .--... . . ... .-.--.---.
I
3 4 I 2
:;
4
. ..
Total number of workillg da.Y" 24 24 24 24 25 25 25 25
-------- - -- -- ------ -- .- ... - .. -' ------ ----- -- ._._------- - - -_._---
Number of visits to schools as 22 22 22 22 23 21 23 23
_ ____ ....2r TP
-
.fi2) (92) (96) (92)
(
92
1
(84 )
(92 ) ..
...
Numher of visits to schools as i3 15 12 15 10 12 10 10
. _______ per _
_
I-J50)
{(l)L
....i
4O
L
J.40J.
Number of days proposed for 2 2 2 2
I
2 4 2 2
administrative and other tasks (8) (8)
(8) (8) (8) (16 ) (8) (8)
TP


"lumber of days spent for 8
8 8 13 I I 12 II
administrative and other tasks (33) (29) (33 ) (33) (52) (44) (48) (44)
as per CMR
Number of davs spent for

2 4 I 2 2 3
4
j
,
I
I
miscellaneous' tasks as per (13 ) (8) ( 17) (4 ) (8) (8) (12 )
(16) I
CMR
..
Note: Flgilles m parentheses represent the percentages
Unexpected holidays, Casual Leaves etc.
It IS evident from the table 5.3.14 that although a large proportion of their
time is spent on visiting schools, thele is a greater declme in the same when TPs are
considered. As contrast to the TPs, it is observed that there is increase in the time
spent on administrative and other tasks rather than the school visits as revealed in
the TPs. The deviation between the proposed and the actual duties explains the kind
of leeway enjoyed by the COs in preparing their duties. Besides, it also indicates the
kind of other duties that they are involved. As contrast to the number of days spent
by the COs for school \I,its in the TPs the consolidated monthly reports reveal an
aetual reduction in the number of days of school vIsits. Altt'matively tllt're seems to
be a rise in the number of days spent by the COs for administrative and other duties.
The other duties include: CI'E works. censu;, enu111t:ration. electIOn duties, pulse
poliO programille. mcetlngs and organisation "I' Li, fkrcnt Mclas. On further probing.
maJority of the COs reported that they arc the lirst pick ups to do all kinds of odd
jobs (,I' the government machinery.
202
of Varil'ty of Tasks I't'rformed hy the ('Os:
In order to L1nderstand the J..lnd of actlvltlcs pcrformed by COs, a further analysis has
ht:cn attempted by taJ..lIlg a deeper look into the t:onsolidatt:d monthly rt:ports of tht:
COs. Tht: actl\ities arc broadly classified into three categories of tasks namely tht:
academic. administr;JtJ\e and other/miscellaneolls tasks depending on the kind of
tasks involved in each ene ofthern. The salTle is prt:sented in the table 5.3.15. It IS
from the table that the admll1istcative and miscellaneous tasks of COs arc
ht:avit:r rather than the academi(; tasks. Undt:r these circumstances, expt:cting COs
to be continuously engaged 111 academic improvement activities may farfetched. In
fact Christ's (1995) study finings confirm that not only the COs are overburdened
\\llh administrative duties, but also with other/miscellaneous tasks. The fact that the
COs are overburdened with administrative duties and such functions come in the
way or smooth monitoring of academic programmes of schools are further
confirmed by studies of Christ (1995) and Khaniya (1997), which revealed that it is
difficult for COs to undertake the academic works seriously under such
circumstances.
Table 5.3.15 Different kinds of Tasks of COs
1 j\cademic Administrative Other / Miscellaneous
[?-'cademic supervision, Collection of information, Meetings:
I Training i workshop, Dt:partmental works, Preparatory meetings for
! Preparation of question Distribution of uniforms, different prob'Tammes
papers and i Health cards, Mid-Day Meal CPE works
I Monthly sharing of I (Ration cards), NSC Census enumeration
expenences certiticates etc, I Meetings with BEOs and
Answer paper Examination duties, BRC Coordinators and
e\aluation Maintenance of records and Resource Persoils
rel!isters Elcction dutics
and consolidation Organisation of Melas:
ofl:MIS I--VLL'
SlIPCfV1S101l of schools towards, --Chl11l1ara mcla
community pwgrallllllc ' I'rngrammc
Distribution of Stamps Celebration of important
(Tcachers' and Childrcn's Day) National Days
a nL! Co" cct ion and handing I'ulse pl Iii 0 prngmllll1les
L__ove!the 11l()11Cy.
20.1
Quality of Field Visit Functions:
Visit reports should essentially relleet hoth plus and minus points of classroom
teaching-learning so as to enable the teacher to make appropriate corrections ICJr the
Improvcment of classroom teaching-karnlng proce.:ss and conditions of schools.
When once the school is supervised it is the re.:sponsibility or each CO to write the
visit report and s.:nd the copies of the same.: to the concerned school and oftlce of the
8RC. During the field visit, It was disc,lVered that there is all ofticialiy prescribed
format called School Visit Report Format". It is entirely different from the earlier
report format, which the Inspector Of School (lOSs) used to write in hand as far as
the contents in the fonnat are concerned. [t contains not only the name of a school,
name of the official visiting with address etc, but also the following information.
I. Strenbrth and attendance of children grade wise and sex wise
2. Subjects being taught from I to IV standards and name of the teachers, who are
teaching and the details pertaining to the utilisation of teachers grant (500
Rupees per Annum)
3. Mastery of prescribed MLL competencies by the children class wise and sex
Wise,
4. Activities prepared by teacher themselves (other than the activities 111 the
teachers guide),
5. Educational problems faced by teachers while developing competencies,
6. Use of learning materials in the class.
7. Notes of lessons on competency based teaching,
8. Evaluation,
9. Details on utilisation of school grant ([000 Rupees per Annum),
[0. Details on VECs, about the number of meetings conducted and matters discllssed
In those meetings.
11 Sharing of VlellS, with VIT l11embers by the offiCial, who visits,
12. Utilisation of hcilities In terms of text books, radio cum cassette player
(RCCP),TLM, and [\lathematl(s kIl,
1:1. Matters discussed durin!,! the YlsiC
14. Action taken on the children, who dropped out and
204
15. Suggestions and instructions of the official vistled.
Thus, it is evident that the new format aims at a more comprehensive analysis or
the school visit function by the COs. It aims at obtaining information from the
teachers with respect to different aspects of academic and administrative functions
of the school. The visit report in essence alms at gatheflng more of qualitative data
relating to classroom interaction and the related problems. It is intended that such a
visit report would enable the teacher to identify his/her deficiencies and make
appropriate mid-course conventions for the improvement of quaJily teaching.
Number of School Visits by COs:
In order to identify the number of visits made by COs, the researcher collected the
data from the visitor's boo
l
, available in the sample primary schools as well as the
observation reports submitted by COs to the concerned BRCs. The status of follow
up work, which covers the frequency of the visits of the concerned, is presented in
the table 5.3.16 11 is clearly evident that the CRe COs are more frequent visitors to
schools than thelT counterparts in Sexes, BRCs, DIETs and education offices.
Table 5.3.16: Number of School Visits by Different Functionaries for the Year
1999-2000
Functionaries Sample Schools in Kolar District
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tota
I
DIET
--
-- --
--
-- -- -- -- --
-- --
BRC
-- I 1 I
--
I 1 2 --
3 10_
CRC 2 2 3 3 3 2 4 2 3 2 26
sex
--
I -- --
--
-- -- -- -- -- I
lOS
--
2 2 1 2 2 I 1 -- I 12
.. -
~
BEO
--
I --
I 1 -- -- -- --
--
-'
- - r-----
---t . ~
~ D D P I --
-- I -- -- -- -- -- ; -- I
--
Activities dtlring School Visits by COs:
It is worthwhile to examine what preciselv the COs do du,ing their srhlHll visits and in
what way these visits help the teachers and schools in the illlProvement of quality in
primary education. I\s per the norm the C<)s or CRt's ,lie expected to visit each school
205
at least once in a month [()r the purpose of providing acadellllc and resource support to
schools and teachers in the cluster. It transpired during rnkrvlews of COs that they
were able to supervise one or two schools each day, depending on the convenience and
geographical distance and spend nearly two to three hours in each school during their
visit. Although these visits arc supposed to bL: carned out in accordance with their TPs
it IS noticed that they are generally done in accordancc with their choice and
convenrence.
The researcher during his field visit could trace the detailed visit reports in
most of the sample primary schools. It was observed that most of the reports,
available in the sample schools concentrated more on the administrative aspects than
the academic aspects as required. Regretfully, most of the suggestions or
instructions given by the COs of CRCs emphasized the deticiency on administrative
aspects such as maintenance of records and registers, cleanliness, utilisation of
teacher's and school grant etc, rather than helping for improving the academic
environment in the schaol and classroom.
During interviews, most of the COs reported that they visit schools at least once
in a month to givc the required academiC and resource support to teachers in the area
relating to activity lessonsfMLL based/Multi grade teaching. The regularity in visits
by the CO is further confirmed by the teachers from sample primary schools as well
(: lout of 16) The DPEP Audit Report (2002) for Kamataka confinns that the task
of monthly visits and monitoring of school records were performed by BRCs/CRCs.
However, the teachers in sample primary schools reported that the COs during their
visits mostly concentrate on collecting miscellaneous information and hardly
provided mentor support. Further they reported that hardly a few of COs tested
learning attainments or chi Idren III the clas,rool1l durin!,' their visits. Teachers not
receiving adequak pedaloglcal support from the Sup<.::nisors is reported by
Scnmelkes et.aL (1996). On further probing this aspect a littk deeper, majority of
COs reported about several constraints such as relllote locution of schools, lack of
tra!1sport filcilities and pr<.::-occupation With routine ollocral actiVities. Similar
findings aho"t inadequate monitoring support for academic Improvement have h<.::cn
206
rerorted by several other studies as well (Bangladesh Ministry of hJucatlol1 1 < ) J 2 ~
ChrISt, 1995: CERES, 1995: Schmclkes et.al, 1996 and Kh<lnlya, 1')97)
5.3.6 Perceived Roles of COs and their Work Load
In order to understand the perceptions of COs with reg<lrd to the kind of roles that
they have to perform in facilitating the task of qualitative improvement in primary
education, the COs of all the 8 CRCs were interviewed. During interviews, a
majority of them reported that their major task IS to facilitate the work of teache.'s
through adequate counseling support in identifying the problems encountered by
teachers and resolving the same. They also reported that they have to undertake the
administrative tasks entrusted by the higher officials and the task of mobilising the
community to ensure greater participation of children from all sections of the
society. It also transpired during interviews, that they enJoy better rapport not only
with the teachers but also with the community members and they are easily
acceptable to both of them. [ntotal, they consider themselves more of academic
counselors mther than administrators. Thus, it can be inferred that most of them
have understood the key role that they have to perform in the development of
primary education especially towards improvement in quality. The COs however
feel that their workload is heavy and offered following explantions for not being
able to adequately perform their academic tasks.
t 1) The prescribed duties and functions are very complex and ambitious. As they
are also expected to help and render support for the implementation of many
programmes of various departments in the clusters.
(2) As mentioned earlier, the number of schools and teachers (Sec table 5.3.1) to
be supervised IS large and ull\\ield\. Lack of transport t:lCilit\ and remote locatIOn
of schools furhter compound the problem of super\'ision and mOnitoring.
(3) They are also asked to attend to odd jobs and other ll1iscellanCOIiS duties
delegated by their higher ofticials like BEOs and lOSs.
207
5.3.7 Linkage with Sub-district level Institutional Structures
With regard to the interaction or CRCs upward with the hlock It.;vd organisations,
the COs in CRCs of both the hlocks reported that their interaclion with the BEO is
limited during the meetings of Block Implementation Committee. However, their
interaction with the concerned BRC<; is much more frequent. Similarly at the cluster
level, tl,eir horizontal linkage is found to be very I imited with the SCxes, although, a
large majority of them reported that they meet the heads or SCxes once in two or
three months.
The interaction with the Community members or VEC members is once in a
month or two months as reported by the cas in the sample blocks. In this regard, it
is further noticed that they interact with village level institutions during maa-beti
conventions, VEC melalmeetings, Chinnara mela and such other programmes.
It is heartening to note that the interaction of CRCs with primary schools is
more frequent as observed during field visits of primary schools and as reported by
the teachers as welL There were frequent attempts made by the CRCs to follow up
their actiVities of monthly meetings by visiting the schools.
Thus, the analyses in general point to the weak linkage of CRC vertically
with BEO at the block level and honzontally with SCx at the cluster leveL
5.3.8 Bottlenecks in CRCs and Suggestions as Perceived by COs
For the purpose or identifying the hottlenecks in effective functioning of CRCs, the
cas were asked open ended questions to mention three importa'lt prohlems \\h;ch
thl') were In the dTecti\e or CI'Cs. The r-:spondents werc also
further asked to suggest three important mcasures to improve the functioning of
CRCs. These responses wen; ranked on the basis of percentage of respondents
reporting The replies were IIlth the responses fmlll X CRCs, located in
the sample hlocks. Although there was no unanimous opinion among the cas in so
far <lS the problems <lnd suggestions arc concerned, yet, there were specific vIews
cxrrcssed as follows
I) Il1lposil1on of other tyres of works other than monthly meetmgs and follow up
work (All of them),
2) Lack of cooperation and interest amont?, the BEOs and their staff members sueh
as lOS, (3 out of 4 in Kolar and 4 out of 4 in Gowrihidanur) and
3) Difficulty in :lccomplishing their tasks m so far as writing the visit report IS
concerned due to conflicting situation in the functions performed by their
counterpart in the tradllional structures (3 out of 4 in Gowribidanur and lout of
4 in Kolar)
In this context, some of the measures suggested by the COs include:
I) Relief and break from the miscellaneous duties (8 out of 8) and
2) Orientation for BEOs, AEOs and lOSs to work in tandem with tht: reform
measures.
209
S.4 Role of School Complexes (Sexes) at the Cluster
Level
The idea of improving the school education hy using School Complexes (SCxes)
was first mooted by the EducatIOn Commission (1964-66). The basic purpose of the
complex was to improve the quality in primary education by integrating the
neighbounng primary schools to a nuclear second31)' school, so that the schools of a
geographical area may function as a whole. The underlying assumption behind this
was to help in drawing on each other's resources and diffusion of new ideas and
practices for the developml:nt of primary schools with mimmum external control
and support. Subsequently, the NPE (1986, 1992) also reiterated the need for School
Complex to provide academic support to primary schools and teachers. In pursuance
of the policy recommendation, the Government of Karnataka established SCxes at the
cluster level. The SCxes are generally located in high schools and such high schools
are termed as lead schools or nucleus schools. These lead schools use the material and
human support available in them and also from the surrounding schools to provide
academic guidance and direction to the primary school teachers under them. At the
cluster level, SCxes have been set up for short training programmes like seminar and
experience sharing workshops. Both the sample districts in the present study have
SCxes at the cluster level. While Kolar block has 21 and Gowribidanur has 20
SCxes in Kolar district, the Tumkur and K u n i ~ a blocks have 28 and 30 SCxes
respectively in Tumkur district. However, for the purpvse of present analysis, JO
SCxes representing 2 blocks in each of the Kolar and Tumkur districts have been
considered. Before attempting the analysis of the selected SCxes, a general
description orthe structure, roles and functions orthe SCxes has been presented.
S.4.] Structure/Administrative Setup of School Complexes
The head teacher of a lead school/nucleus school IS designnted as the l-lend/President
of each complLx. Each I lead IS suppmled by a Secretary, who is generally the head
teacher or a senior teacher of a component primary school. The SCx Committee
210
consists of the President (Ch:l1Tman) of the Committee, the Secretary and the Head
teachers of primary schools The COIn1nlttee steers all the activities relu:ing to sex.
The President is vested with the power to ovcrsec the activities of the component
schools as wcll as to monitor thc Secretary of the SCx Committee.
i\t the Block level. all the SCxes come under one administrative unit of a
Block, which is headed by the BEO and assisted by an AEO. The BEO is sole in-
charge of the SCxes, which come under his/her Block. The BEO inspects all the
primary schools and Sexes and signs the bills of teachers of all levels of schools in a
sex and forwards the same to the District Oflicer. Thus, the administrative unit of
the block faCilitate the easy communication between and among the schools under
the respective Sexes, thereby identifying the problems of the SCxes.
The basic Idea of sex is not only to streamline the decision making process,
but also to integrate the primary schools into sex and the Sexes into a Block (Area)
in a decentralised manner. The idea makes it possible to provide the required help to
the schools through close supervision for the following purposes. They are mainly
( I) To improve the regularity and punctuality of teachers,
(2) To impro\'e the enrolment and retention rate of students,
(3) To provide an appropriate guidance to teachers in the component schoos,
(4) To improve the involvement of teachers and
(5) To plan and organise the activities and programmes on their own.
5.4.2 Roles and Functions: An Analysis
In the present analysis, the roles and functIOns of Sexes are examined in the light of
the prescribed norms. The norms stipulate the following specific roles/functions.
I. To organise 1110nthly meetings of all teachers working within the SCx and
arrange model 1':s50ns by expert teachers,
') To identify difl!cult topics in different subleets and finding out the solutien for
the same.
2t I
3. To dewlop and organise exhlhltlOns of low cost-no cost teaching aids,
4 To organise competitions/co-curricular activities for teachers, working within
the sex,
5 To undatake visit and follow up work
When the School Complex heads were asked whether they perform the
ahove functions, the following were reported.
Table 5.4.1: Performance of DifTerent Functions in Sample SCxes
,.-:--c-
I
--
School
Functions
Complexes Kolar District
Tumkur District
I 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5
I Y Y N N Y Y Y N N Y
2 Y Y N N Y Y Y N N Y
3 Y Y N N Y
v
Y N N Y <
4 Y Y N N Y Y Y N N Y
~
Y Y N N Y Y Y N N Y
Y Y N N Y Y Y N N Y
17
Y Y N N Y Y Y N N Y
8 Y Y N N Y Y Y N N Y
9 Y Y N N Y Y Y N N Y
10 Y Y N N Y Y Y N N Y
Note: Y= Yes and N= No
I, 2, 3, 4 & 5 correspond to above-mentioned 1 to 5 roles/functions in the
saille order
It IS clearly evident from the table 5.4.1 that the SCxes commonly performed
the lSI, 2"J and 5
th
roles as reported by thc Heads of the Sexes, namely orga!lising
monthly meetings, helping to n:solve difficult topics and undertakmg visits and
follow up work. ThiS trend IS ullifonnly observed across 10 Sexes in eaeh of the
ulstrict. Ilm\e:n:r, It IS to he: l1otc:d that functions such as developing of low cost no
cost tcachlng aids and orgallising co-curricular activities for tcachers seem to he a
casualty In both the distrIcts. 011 funher probing, both time and financial resources
were reported as constrains for undertaking thcse activities in Sexes,
2t2
The Kothari Commission envisages utilisation of the available resources in
terms of teachers, equipment, library books, labouratory and such other teaehing-
learning materials, in the SCx to maximum extent. As per the norm, the nucleus
schools should co-ordinate exchange of scarce resources. I lowever, it is noticcd that
the utli isatlOn of resources and exchange of teachers and teaching aids have not been
given adequate importance in all the Sexes either in DPEP or in non-DPEP district.
Similar findings have been reported by Sinha Jai (1981) study on the School
Complex.
5.4.4 Monthly Meetings: Regularity
Monthly meetings are expected to be held by the Head of the SCx. In these meetings
problems faced by teachers especially with regard to teaching of different subjects
and topics are discussed. The basic purpose of the meetings is to help the teachers to
teach and manage the class very effectively and efficiently by maximising the
individual teacher's potentialities and capabilities. The Resource Persons (RPs)
generally demonstrate the difficult lessons to enable the teachers to teach the same
with ease and efficiencv
It is noticed that generally lhe meetings are conducted in the nucleus school
irrespective of DPEP or non-DPEP situation. Sometimes, the meetings are also
conducted in the component schools attached to each complex, depending on the
convenience and such meetings are generally conducted in the working days.
However, it was observed during field visits that such meetings did not effectively
serve the !Jurpose for which meeting was called. The nonn prescribes a regular
meeting of SCx every month Accordingly, there should be a minimum of I?
meetings every year in any sex. Tile analysis of the data in this regard frullt April
19CJ7 to 1\1a[(;11 2(1()() re\eals the f(lllo\llllg
213
Tahle 5.4.2 Number of Monthly Meetings held at Sample SCxes
- ~ - . -
- ------ - - - -.---.------
School
Year
.. . .
--- ----- --
---- -------- -
---------
Com pie Kolar
Tumkur
xes 97-98 98-99 99-00 Average 97-98 98-99 99-00 Average
~
1 6 4 3 4.3 5 5
_ 1----
6 5.3
1---.-
2 5 5
2 4.0 4 6 5 5.0
----,----- 1------- -
3
1------
6 5 2 4.3 5 6 6 5.7
------.- . --_.- --
4 5 6 3 4.7 5 6 5 5.3
_.-
.- --
5 6 5 3 4.7 6 5 6 5.7
.-
6 6 5 2 4.3 5 6 5 5.3 __
- ----
7 6 4 3 4.3 4 5 6 5.0
--
8 5 5 2 4.0 4 6 5 5.0
9 6 5 3 4.7 4 5 6 5.0
10 6 5 3
L-_
4.7 5 6 6 5.7
Looking at the statistical data presented in the table 5.4.2, it is clear that in
none of the sample SCxes monthly meetings have been held regularly every month
during all the three years under reference. Computing the average number of
meetings for each of the sex, it is noticed that Sexes in Tumkur district reveals a
slightly higher average than that nf Kolar. While the average number of meetings in
Tumkur varies from 5 to 5.7 across the Sexes, the same for Kolar reveals 4 to 4.7.
The low average for Kolar could be attributed to the presence of CRes in the DPEP
context, which undertake similar kinds of activities. Thus, the data clearly point to
irregular nature of the SCx meetings both in DPEP or non-DPEP context.
It is !:\ratifYlng to note that the Sexes generally document the proceedings of
the meetings. It is noticed that one of the teachers is identified in advance to
document the proceedings cf the meetings. There are also stray occasions, \\.'here
tIll: Secretary of the sex itself does this Job It is observed that such documents
generallv include agenda ilcms stich as imocation, welcome. preparatory activities,
th.: 1..11l0 oftasb per/ilrilled. presld.:ntial remarl..s irany and vote ofthanl..s de.
214
SAA Monthly Mcetings at Sexes: Participation
ParticipatIOn In meetings at the S( 'x IS a mandatory requirement. Therelim\ looking
at the attendancc of teachers in slich meetings, it was observed that it was more than
YO percent. Lailthamma et.al ( 1978) study confirms regular participation of teachers
in slich mcetings Notmthdrawing such regular participation in the meetings, the
I kads of the SCxes, however felt the need for improving the quality of the activities
m the sex
SA.S PerfOl'maDce of Sexes
In order to understand the performance of Sexes, an attempt has been made to look
mto the mmutes of the meetings. For this purpose, the minutes of the meetings
re1at!ng to 20 :.ampie SCxes dn:wn from Kolar and Tumkur districts during 1998-99
ha\e been examined. Altogether, there were 105 reports 49 from Kolar district
(Kolar and Gowribidanur blocks) and 56 from Tumkur (Kunigal and Tumkur
blocks) dlstnct.
,\n analysIs of the agenda of the meetings reveals a wide range of subjects as
seen m the table 5.4.3. It IS seen that subject orientation has received highest
prIOrIty In Kolar (71 percent) and Tumkur (65 percent). This is next followed by the
identificatIOn of hard spots to the extent of 45 percent in Kolar and 36 percent in
Tumkur ActivilIes such as model lessons on difTerent subjects and topics in the
SCxes arc observed to the extent of 18 percent in each of the districts. Similarly,
preparation of the annual work plan of the sex is observed to the extent of 20
percent III Kolar and 18 percent in Tumkur. It is to be noted that the identification of
hard spots IS conducted more for higher primary than for lower primary. In this
connectHln, the deSired that mOTe emphasis for activities relating to hard
srob III dllflclIll slIhlech has ttl he !,!I\en at the lower prIlllary stage.
('onslLiering another I'ararm:ter namely the training transaction in SCxes, it
was ohserved that the Il'cture method was predominantly in use in all the Sexes. I\s
RPs In these Sl 'xes were generallv drawn i'wm the high schools, they were unable to
w,e appropriate method()lll!,!v relevant tll teach primary This often kd to
215
poor rt:'iponse from Ihe pnmarv 'ichoul It:achers Ilm\C\er, Ihe par1Klranh t>\ and
largc, st:t:med 10 ht: satisfied wllh Ihe meeting' a, It hclpt:d th<.:m In c'IHH;h,ng thell
content compctence and addressed Immediate ",ue, related to classroom rrohkm,
Table '14.3 Fn.:quellcles or Activities Undertaken In the Meetings at sexes
.. ----- . --- - - --
._----,----
" . -
.,,-
Activities undertaken in the Sexes
Kolar Tllmkur
-'
.- ---_. ------.-
(N __
__ . orthc orthe sex 10(20)

orientation _ 35 (71 ) 38(68)
___ ditTerclll 9 (18) 10 (18)
Identific,!,ian ()f hard spots and finding outthe solutions 22 (45) 20 (36)
"QrRanisat!QI1()[ co-curricular actiVities
6 (12) 5 (9)
_ Maintenance of cleanliness in the school premises 3 (6) 4 (7)
Sethu Bandha prof,,'Tamme 7 (14) 8 (14)
..
Note: r he Figures In Parentheses refer to the Percentages
Probing further, the efficacy of the training programmes conducted at sexes
through in-depth interviews of the primary school teachers, who had recm ed
training at the Sexes revealed certain drawbacks of the Sexes. For this purpose, 111
beneficiaries each flOm Kolar (OPEP) district and Tumkur (non-OPEP) dlstnct were
interviewed. The following aspects emerged as some of the major drawbacks In the
sex:
I. Lack of emphaSIS on lower primary classes especially related to preparation of
teaching-learning materials (13 in Kolar and 12 in Tumkur)
2. Lack of in:1ovative teaching methods (II in Kolar and 13 in Tumkur) and
3. Inefficient use of training time-deviation from the main agenda pf the
8.lId discussing administrative related tasks (II in Kolar and lOin TlImkllr)
4. LlnElmiliarity of Rl's with prohlems relating to primary sch()()h (Ill In Kol:l[ and
12 in Tumkur).
216
5.4.6 School Visits and Follow lip functions ofthe Sexes
As per thi.: norms, thi.: hi.:ads or l X l : ~ ari.: expected to undertakl: school visits once ill
a month. This is mainly to assess how far the training activities conducted by the
Sexes an.: actually put into practice. Majority or the SCx heads in both DPEP and
non-DPEP districts reported that thev do visit,; at least once in 3 or 4 months of time
and give the required inputs tv the teachers in the component schools. However,
contrary to this, the interaction with the primary school teachers during personal
visits revealed that a large majority or them had not visited the school even once
during the year. On probing, this a little deeper with the SCx heads, the following
reasons emerged as constraints to undertake school visits.
4. Over burdened with their regular work of high schools;
5. The number or schools and teachers are rar too many;
6. Lack of financial assistance and transport racilities.
It was further observed that very rarely, the SCx heads either wrote the
supervisory report or submitted any to the BEO's office as required. However, in a
few cases, where visit reports were available, the following activities were found to
be performed by the SCx heads.
1. Checking the strength and attendance of teachers and students,
2. Checking the distribution of books, uniforms etc,
3. Checking difrerent kinds of records and registers,
4. Collecting different kinds or information from the records and registers if
required and
5 SUl!l!estions for further improvement.
Thl: abO\.: actlviti.:s clearlv suggest th.: rllutme administrativ.: aspects rather than
accu.kmlc. I'II1S fact was further conlirmed by th.: teachers III the schools, who
reported about t!le inadequacies and arbitrary nature of the viSit functions. In this
direction, they were of the cpllllon that more frequent visits and purposeful
supervisory support would help th':ll1 a lot in improving the classroolll learning.
217
II is observed Ihal Ihere n ~ many faclors, which arc resronsible for sexes, beme
inaclive and unproduclive hrslly, an absence of clear guidelines/frameworks. '1 his
has resulted in confusion and connict regarding the pOlVers and funclions. In
addilion, they also desired Ihal SCxes should be well equirped wilh lilerature and
other reading materials, which could enhance their academic competence. They also
emphasized the need for finaneial assistance for makmg SCx more productive. The
educational functionaries at the block le\lel abo reiterated the need tor supplying
relevant literature and orientation for the sex heads. Secondly, (he workload in the
Sexes seems to be unviable for any head to accomplish the set goals.
In order to understand the quantum of work of the sex Heads, data relating
to the: number of SChO('llS and teachers under each sex have been analysed. It may
be seen from the table 5.4.4 that the number of primary schools to be supervised
ranges from a minimum of 10 (0 a maximum of 25 in Kolar and from a minimum of
10 to a maximum of 28 in TumkuT. The mean value is found to be 16.7 for Kolar
and 16.5 for Tumkur. Looking into the teachers under the sex, the number ranges
from a minimum uf 31 to a maximum of 70 III Kolar and from a minimum of 30 to a
maximum of 81 in Tumkur. The mean for the same works out to 48.8 and 50.7
respectively. Thus, there seems to be not much variation in terms of either the
schools or teachers in either DPEP or non-DPEP context. However, a large majority
of the Heads felt that their current workload was quite heavy. In this connection,
they opined that the number of schools and teachers under each sex should not
exceed more than 10 and more than 15 respecti vely. It was also observed that
although a maj:)rity of the constituent schools are located within a radius of 8
kilometers, only a very few of them (5 percent in Kolar and 4 percent in Tumkur)
were located beyond 8 Kllumeters.
218
Table 5.4.4: Numher of Schools and Teachers per I lead (1999) in the Sample Sexes
Sample School
Kolar Tumkur

-- - . -.- ... _---.
.-------.. . -- - -- ----_ .. .. -- ---. __ ._ .. _--.
___
Schools
Teachers Schools Teachers
---_ .. _---
-- - ..... _--" .. _-- --.
--------
.. ------ .
I 10 34 12 30
... ----- . "-- -_._- _.- -----,----- - -, ,-_. ----_._- ---
---- .
.
2 14
49 28 81
- -------------.

----._---- -------- .. -

- .. -.-
1
12
31 16 39
_. -- ---"'---_._.-
---------- ._-._---------- --
------- -- - ------
4 15 55 14 45
- j--.
-
5 25 70 14 49

f-
6 16
41 21 74
7 15 47 10 34
8 23 55 14 59
-
9 18 41 20 58
10 19 52 16 38
Total 167 488 165 507
Average 16.7 48.8 16.5 50.7
--
Note: Teachers and schools mclude both LPS and HPS
219
s.s Role of Village Committees (VECs) at the
Village Level
Thl: Programme Of Action (POI\ 1986,1992) for thl: National Policy on Education
(N!'!:: 1986, 1992) recommended for constituting Village Education Committees
(VEl's) for facilitating the task of universalisation of elementary education. The
malor responsibility of the cornmlltee is the operationaitsatlOn of micro planning and
school mapping in the village through systematic house to house survey and periodic
di<;cussion with the parents.
In the state of Kamataka, VECs have been constituted during 1995 following
the orders of the State government vide its order (No. ED 162 NCO 94 date, 1-8-95).
It is to be noted that very recently the VECs and SBCs have been replaced by the
School Development and Monitoring Committees (SOMCs) in the state of
Kamataka as a result of the recommendations of the Task Force Committee on
Education under the Chainnanship of Dr. Rajaramanna in 200 I vide Its order (ED 1,
PBS 200 I, Bangalore, date, 28-4-200 I) The underlying philosophy behind the
VEC (now replaced hy SOMC) is to streamline the decision making process at the
grassroots leveL Such an initiative is expected to integrate primary schools thereby
strenh>thening the school community relationship. However, for the purpose of
present analysis, the field data gathered through personal visits are analysed with
reference to the VECs as they existed at the time of the present study. Although, a
comparative analysis of the structure and function of VEC and SOMC is attempted
later, presently, the analysis is confined to 20 VECs selected from Kolar (Kolar and
Gowribidanur Blocks) and Tumkur (Kunigal and Tumkur Blocks) districts.
5.5.1 VEe Functioning
The functional aspects of VECs are examined in terms of the number of meetin(;s
held, the partieir,ation of members in the meeting and the ISSlIl:S raised in the
meetings. The data ltlf thiS analysis an; drawl! from the recordsm:gisters of VECs in
the 20 schools selected from the two districts.
220
a) VEe Me('tings - Regularity:
The norm prescribes monthly meetings j()r VEe Accordingly, In an year, there
should be at least 10 meetmgs during the academic year. The data relating to 3
academic years from 97-98, 98-99 and 99-00 arc examined to assess the functional
performance of VEe The number of meetings conducted by the sample VECs in
the two districts is given in the table 5.5. I.
Table 5.5.1: Number of Monthly Meetings held at Sample VECs
VECs.J.. Kolar
Tumkur

97-98 98-99 99-00* Aver 97-98 98-99 99-00* Aver
age age
I 3 3 2 2.7 2 I 3 2.0
2 I 6 4 3.7 5 4 5 4.7
-- --
3 3 4 3 3.3 2 I I 1.3
4 2 4 2 2.7 5 5 7 5.7
5 1 3 4 2.7 5 7 3 5.0
6 3 3 3 3.0 3 5 5 4.3
7 6 8 5 6.3 3 3 2 2.7
8 2 8 8 6.0 1 3 2 2.0
9
-
3 7 3.3 5 5 4 4.7
JO 3 3 4 3.3 1 2 4 2.3
Average 2.4 4.5 4.2 3.2 3.6 3.6
Note: * Up to Jan 2000
It may be noticed from the table 5.5.1 that none of the VECs has been able to
adhere to the norm of one meeting every month in Loth the districts. The year wise
data for all the schools in both Kolar and Tumkur reveal violation of the stipulated
norm Even considering averabe number of meeting for individual VECs in both
Kolar and Tumkur, majority (80 percent) of the VECs in Kolar has conducted less
than 3 There are only two schools. which reveal an average of 6 meetings
and above. In case of Tumkur district, the merage meetings for Individual school
varies from 1.3 to 5.7. About fifty percent of the VECs reveals an average of 4 to 5
meetings. There are only two VECs, which reveals an average of 5 meetings and
above. Over all, the VECs in Kolar district reveals a slightly higher avaage than
that of Tumkur from 97-98 to 99-00. This evidently points to the malfunctioning of
VECs in lerms of their core function ortll'lding regular meetings.
221
b) VEC M('ctings -Attcndaucc:
Yet another parameter consH.icred for performance of VEC IS the extent of
participation of members in VI:C meetings. Participation is examined In terms of
percentage of attendance at the VEC meetings
Table 5.5.2: Average Percentages of Attendance of VEC members during Monthly
M . h Id S
eetlngs e at ample VECs
---- .. _._--
VECs.J.. District
-- ----------
-

Kolar
Tumkur
97-98 98-99
'---'
.. ,-
99-00* Avera 97-98 98-99 99-00* Avera
ge ge
I 53 53 73 60 66 65 72 68
._-
2 75 49 58 61 75 78 66 73
3 74 78 78 77 66 67 65 66
4 78 80 64 74 71 67 75 71
S 80 47 55 61 5S 64 72 64
6 84 89 67 80 67 74
,
62 68
7 74 70 57 67 40 55 58 51
8 32 44 58 45 38 71 75 61
.
9 --
44 52 48 68_ 72 70
70._
---_.
\0 64 97 75 79 51 53 56 53
Average 68 65 64 66 60 67 67 64
Note * Up to Jan 2000
It is clearly evident from the table 5.5.2 that the attendance at VEC meetings
in both Kolar and Tumkur is not cent percent either in any of the VECs or any of the
years under reference. The average attendance at the VEC in Kolar district in fact
reveals a declining trend from 68 percei1t in 97-98 to 64 percent in 99-00. In
contrast, the percentage of attendance at VEe meetings reveals an increasing trend
from 60 percent in 97-98 to 67 in 99-00 in case of Tumkur district.
['urther examining a\erage attendance over the years in the two districts,
it Tllay be seen that there is onl\' olle VIT 111 Kolar. which re\eals 80 percent
attendance. Another ,0 percent of the VEl's re\eal an average attendance of 70 to
79 percen!. Another 40 pcreent of the VEl's n:veal an average attendance between
60 to 7'J perc,'n!. There :,re t\m VEl's. which rcveal Icss than 50 pcrcent attendance.
222
Analysing the trend of attendance in Tumkur district, it may be noticed from
the table that there arc 3 which reveal an attendance of 70 to 73 pern:nt.
Another 50 percent of VECs reveal an attendance between 60 to 70 percent. There
arc two VECs, which rev..:al 50 to 53 perccnt of attendance.
Thus, the atte'ldance pattcrn in the VEC meetings ckarly reveal variation.
However, it is to be noted that in some cases, the attendance of the members is recorded
through circulation although not through actllal presence in the meetings. Therefore, the
attendance could be even much less than what is being reported in the attendance
registers of the VECs. This was further confirmed by the researcher when visits were
made to meeting venue. Even the interactions with members revealed that their
signatures are collected in the attendance registers even when they do not attend the
meetings Ushadevi's (2001) study relating to VECs in Karnataka confinns poor
attendance rates in VEC meetings across the State.
Majority of the HMs in primary schools (more than 90 percent) while reporting
about low attendance in VEC meetings in both the districts explained that members do
not show much interest in attending such meetings and the members need a lot of
persuasion even after the repeated meeting notices to attend the same. But on the
contrary, a majority of the members of VECs (more than 75 percent) during interviews
reported that the inconvenient timing of the meetings is one of the problems t'or their
non-attendance to these meetings. The reason cited by them is that these meetings come
in the way of their daily wage earning. It is also noticed that majority of the members,
who can not attend the meetings are the agricultural labourers and woman members.
Members belonging to labour categories reported that they have to forego their wages
during such meetings if they attend the same. Most of the woman members reported that
they could not attend such Illedings mainly du..: to their -:ngagement with various kinds
of household and other works. ;\ few of them also reported about belated receipt of
meeting notices, which onen len them with no choice but to skip the meeting They
further reported that they attend if the meetings arc conducted in the evening especially
alier 7 p.m. On further iilterviews with the a large majority of them reported that
they find it difficult to conduct such meetings in the evening, since most of them
223
commute to the school from outside and have to leave the village every day. llnder
such circumstances, ensuring participation of wage earm:rs and woman memhers
hecomes difficult, thereby deprivtng these segments their right to participate in
education. This clearly suggests the need for strenb1hening the attendance of members of
such categories to make these meettngs very
c) VEe Meetings -Issues Discussed:
As far as the discussion of issues is concerned, it is noticed that a wide range of
subjects is discussed in the meetings as shown in the table 5.5.3. In order to
understand the kind of emphasis given on ea;;h activity, the frequencies of the
activities undertaken in the meetings have been calculated and are presented in the
table 5.5.3. As can be seen from the table there is much of uniform adherence to
the activities in the VECs of both Kolar and Tumkur districts. However, it could be
noticed that although, the major emphasis has not been given to the academic related
issues like teacher related, students related and academic equipment in both the
districts, the percentage of academiC issues discussed in the VEC meetings at Kolar
is comparatively high as compared to that of Tumkur. It can also be seen from the
table that the issues discussed in VEC meetings in Kolar cover a broad array of
topics related to all kinds of problems of teachers, students, school, facilities,
schemes, school and village problems as compared to Tumkur district. This may
either be attributed to frequent viSitS by the CRCs and BRCs personnel or due to the
impact of VEC training on the part of VEC members.
It appears from the table that in Tumkur, the highest percentage of VEC
meetings have been held only for celebrating either the State or the National
festivals as wmpared to th;t ()f Kolar. Issues such as students related, physical
equipment and miscellaneous aspects arc also given some importance in the VEC
meetings. Teacher related and academic eqUipment Issues have not at all been
discussed in TlIlllkur. Whereas, lhe :;ame has been discussed in Kolar at least to
some extent. The lacl\ of discussion on teacher related !SSlH:S in both the districts
might perhaps he due to the filcl tint it is the 11M (Member Secretary), who prepares
the agenda of the meetings During personal visits to some of the VEC mcetlllgs, it
224
was noticed that despite certain dominant memhers playing key role in the\e
mectings, decisions were generally found to he arrived on consensus based on
majority opinions. In these meetings, it was further ohserved that a majority or the
VEC members wcrc just observers. Such mt:mhcrs wcre, by and largc, illiterates
Thus, this clearly suggests the need for addresslllg these issues in the capacity
building programmes for the VEe.
Table 5.5.3: Issues discussed in the Meetings at Sample VECs
r----
I Issues discussed in the Meetings __ r Kolar (N= III)
Teachers related
f------------ ----- -c:-----=--------+ ---
Stud.:nts related
School Improvement
a) Physical equipment
b) Academic equipment
School Upkeep
Celebration of StatelNational Festivals
Assets
Miscellaneous*
__ ---:----'---'-==_-.c_
Utilisation ofDPEP fund
2 (2)
30 (27)
28 (25)
5 (5)
II (10)
35 (32)
6 (5)
20 ( 18)
19 ( 17)
Tumkur (N=I09)_
15 (14)
13 (12)
--
6 (6)
74 (68)
4 (4)
19 (17)
--
Note: * SelectIOn of President and Members, sendmg VEC members for training,
distribution of books, uniforms, ration cards, prizes, Pulse Polio programme,
supporting SCx meetings, Maa-Beti programme, educational tour etc. in Kolar.
of President and Members, educational tour etc. in Tumkur.
-The figures in parentheses refer to the Percentages and are rounded off.
With regard to exercising of powcrs by the VECs, it is noticed that most of the
prescribed powers in the above list (Powers of VECs) do not seem to have been
exercised by a majority of the members of VECs in Tumkur as compared to those of
Kolar. A simple reason is that a large majority (more than 75 percent in Tumkur and 50
percent III Kolar) are not aware of the powers given to them. Such members are either
illIterates or have not received VEC trailllP-g. This clearly pOints to the r.eed for
addressing this in the training
As far as the SCh001 visits is concerned, a large majority of VEe members 111
Kolar have reported that they visIt primary sch',)()ls at least once in a week compared
to those of Tutnkuf. Still a considerable number of members reported that they visit at
least once in a I(lrtnight "nd a very negligibk percentage ofmcl1'obers viSit ('nee in a day.
II i, also quilt; interesting to note that some members (15 percent in Tumkur and I ()
perc:nt in Kolar) never VISit the school. But m reality, it is noticed that malorlty of
VIT members generally visits schools only dUring the celebration or either the Stale or
the National lCstlvals as reported by the IIMs of primary schools. For the question what
do you mcan hy supervision') The reply was encouraging only in the case of DPLI'
distriCt, especially among the membcrs who had received traming.
With regard to functional linkagc also, it is noticed that there is lack or
horizontal and latcrallinkage between VECs and other parallel structures. In case of
Kolar, VECs have closer linkage with BRCs at the Block level and CRCs at the
cluster level as compared to the VECs in Tumkur. The lack of horizontal and
vertical linkage may have negative impact on the whole spirit of decentralisation.
5.5.2 Gender and Caste Composition of Members in the Sample
VECs
Further, an attempt has been made to understand whether the representation of
different categories of members in the sample VECs is in accordance with the
prescribed norm or not.
The norm envisages that each VEC should have
representation of 113
rJ
women members, at least a member from SC and ST
categories. It is clearly seen from the table 5.5.4 that all the VECs either in Kolar or
in Tumkur have not given representation in accordance with the norm. But the
VECs in Kolar have better representation of women, SC and ST categories as
compared to thosc in Tumkur. The Violation of norm in Tumkllf to a greater extent
is mainly due to the fact that the then existing School Betterment Committees
(SSCs) were treated as VECs as per the oral instructions from the higher officers as
reported by all the rvieillber Secretaries ofVECs by and large.
Table 5.5.4: (,ender and Caste composition of VIT members in the Sample Vt:Cs
Representation
II:;' Women
SC
- --
Kolar (N=20)
Yes
No
-
7 3
--- ---
<)
I

,
7
f---- .' - -_._---
10 --
-
- Total
Yes No
2 8 20
2 20

226
5.5.3 Training Status of VEe Memhers
With regard to professional training, the NPE, POA and CAl3I: Committee envisage
that the concerned members should be provided with detailed information about the
functioning of the VECs at the village level
They also further suggested
eliminating any misgivings about its successful Implementation through appropriate
training to the concerned. As against this, an attempt has been made to see the
training status (Table 5.5.5) of VEC members under study. It is noticed through
interviews that a large majority of VEC members under study have not undergone
VEC training, relevant to the conduct of VEe programmes. The percentage of
trained VEC members in Kolar is more as compared to that of Tumkur. This could
be attributed to the fact that the training of VEC members in Kolar are undertaken
by the concerned BRCs at the block level. Whereas, in the case of Tumkur the same
is entrusted to the DIET at the district level. The lack of adequate professional
support on the part of the members further result in some type of misgivings, power
connlcts and lack of adequate performance. On further interviewing, it transpired
that the members of VECs need professional training for the better functioning of
the scheme. So was the opinion of the HMs of primary schools and the then lOSs,
AEOs "nd BEOs. If this IS the case, it may not be possible for the VEC members to
perform their tasks efficiently. This clearly suggests the need for capacity building
of VeC members urgently in facilitating the task of UEE.
Table 5.5.5: Training Status ofVEC Members (As on 20-1-2000)
~
Training Status Kolar Tumkur
Received Training
31 (27.9)
6 (63)
Not Received Training
80 (72. I )
+
89 (93 7)
. ~
Total
111(100)
9 5 ~ ~
Note: The figures In parentheses represent the percentages.
227
5.5.4 SI>MC as compared to VEe
In the preceding section, the roles and functions of VI:Cs were examined using the
field data. In the present analysIs, thc discussIOn of the newly constituted SDMC, its
structure & composition, roles & functions and powers arc compared with that of
earlier VEC structure in order to draw lessons for effective functioning of SDMe.
a) Structure and Composition of VECs and SOMes
Table 5.5.6: Structure and Composition of VECs and SDMCs
- --------------
VEe SOMC
'!tis constituted by the Panchayat as its sub-
.. _-
All the parents of the children of that school shali
Committee with not less than 7 and not form the General Body'.
more than 15 members
Every village will hwe aVEC Every school will have a SOMC
Chairman of the Panchayat or a member of One among the selected members will be the
Panchai'at from the village concerned Chairman of the SOMC
Member Secretary is the Head Teacher of The Head Teacher of the respective school will be
Priinary/Upper Primary school in the the Secretary-cum-Treasurer
village concerned
Members: I The General Body chooses the members for the
One member ofSC, ST, BC and Minorities SDMC in which three are women", two from
A representative of PT A (Parent) SC/ST and one from Minorities.
An Anganwadi Workc:r TIle ex-officio memhers are:
A person interested in education from the 1. Members of the GP/TP/ZP of that locality
,
village 2. An Anganwadi teacher of that village
Of the total membership of the Committee, 3. Health worker of that area
i at least one third should be women 4. Head Master of the school
i
,
II Note: I. :VI embers than elected
Nominated members #:
Panchayat members will be nominated by
The gentleman who adopted the school
the Panchayat from Gram
Those who donated land for the school, constructed
in the village
school building and donated a sum ofRs. 10,000
and "bove in the foml of Teaching Learning
Materials or (;ash
Educationist or the retired teacher of that area
I Two members from NGOs
An Office bearer of the \' ollth or Women
Org.anisation
A student fwm the class '11
-_. ._----
- I
-
, ..
.,
Note: fhe membersll1p of the parents conttr.ue as long as child III th.1t school
If 110 representation Irom SC/ST and Minorities, these scats call be lilleJ by
others
II They have no voting, power
228
Considering thL: structural composition oj" VEC and SDMCs, it may bc noted
that while VEC is meant for every village, SDMC is meant for every school
including Iligh SdlOOI in the village. WhiiL: thL: composition of VEC ranges from a
mlTlimum of7 members and a maximum of 15, the general body ofSDMC includes
all thc parents or school going children. WhiiL: the Chairman of the VEC is eithcr
the Chairman of the Viilage Panchayat (VP) or any VP member of the village
concerned, the Chairman of the SDMC will be one of the selected members. While
the head teacher of primary or upper primary school in the village concerned is the
Member Secretary of the VEC, the head teacher of the respective school will be the
Secretary cum Treasurer in case of SDMe. While the members of VEC include one
each from SC, ST and Backward Classes and Minorities, Parent Teacher
AS30ciation representative (parent), an Anganwadi Worker and a person interested
In education from the village concerned. Whereas, in case of SDMC, there are
selected members giving representation to different social groups from the village as
could be seen from the table 5.5.6. Thus, the SOMC composition reveals a broad-
based structure as compared to that of VEe. However, one distinction that n e e ~ to
be noted between VEC and SDMe is that the latter restricts membership to only
parents of school going children.
b) Roles and Functions ofVECs and SDMCs
Looking into the roles and functions of VEe's and SOMCs, it can be noted from the
table 5.5.7 that the responsibilities are more specific and focussed in terms of
universal retention and ensuring quality in case of the latter. The new roles of
SDMCs assume that they now have a greater responsihility and challenge to monitor
and manage primary schools in their communities for realising the goal of education
lor a! I.
229
Tahle 5.5.7 Roles anu Functions of VECs <Inu SDMCs
VEes
: SDMCs
I) (jenerntion and sustenance of awareness among
village community ensuring participation of all
segments of population
t --... ... _. . ... - .. -_ .... _- - ... -.....
I )Should create awareness among parents so that
they send their children to the school reb'lJlarly
2) Promote enrolment drives in primary schools
and persuade parents of non-attending children to
send their wards to schools.
3) Reduce drop-outs in primary schools by
initiating measures and services for retention
4) Mobi lise resources and help schools to have
water supply, urinals, playgrounds and other
facilities
5) Assist in smooth functioning of primary schools
6) To seek support of teachers, youths and women
and others for educational and other linked health
and wei fair programmes
7) To prepare plans and proposals within their
resources fur develop",ent of education in the
village and attaintatal adult literacy and VEE
8) To present reports and proposals to Panchayat
Samities and make periodic self assessment of
progress ofCom",ittees etforts
9) To coordinate with other secial service
departments and committees for mutual support
10) Supervision over AE, ECCE and NFE
II) Supervision over composite upper primary
schools under the delegation of authority from
Panchayat Samiti
c) Powers ofVECs and SDMCs
2) Should lead the enrolment drive to get all out of
school children into the school
3) To identify all children who are out side the
school and to organISe suitable bridge course,
chinnara angala etc to ensure children back to
school. A list be prepared and published in public
places like school, chavadi, Gram Panchayat's
office etc.
4) To ensure quality education to all children
5) To protect school premises !Tom lrespass and
destruction
6) To ensure functioning of the school as per
school Calendar
7) To ensure that school should funct;on 220 days
per year and 5 and a half hours per day
8) To organise General Body meeting three times
in a year in the months of July, November and
February
9) Can open a joint Bank Account in the name of
the President and Secretary and given powers to
collect donations
10) To take up school building construction and
repairs with the tcchnical assistance of GP
II)T (l monitor quiek and suitable distribution of
incentivc, provided by thc Stqte
12)To organise periodical Medical Check-up for
the children
Considering the powers of VECs and SDMCs, it could he noticed from the tahle
55.8 that the I<ltter has statutory powers to decl<lre holidays, auctioning assets
generateu III Ihe sclHlol and unserviceable or the' school and ulillSation or
Taluk l'<Inchavat "nu 1.1IIa I'anchayat funus for purchase of necessary articles. This
may further help the SDMCs to feci the ownership of the school.
230
Tahlc 5.5.R: Powers orVECs and SDMCs
VEe,
---- - -.- - ---
I )To visit educational institutions
2) Tu check allendance and other registers
to enquile and report to concerned
authorities on educational dc!iciencies and
requircmcnts in the village
J )To recommend annual budget of school
to concerned authority
4)To undcl,ake construction and repair
works entrusted to them
5) To report on regularity of students,
teachers attendance and school f,mct IOning
6)To frame the schoc'! calendar under the
guidance of Zill" Parishad
- .. --
SOMes
- -- ----------------- -- ----- -------
I flo monitor the functioning of the school and attendance
of teachers
2) lIny problem related to regular attendance of the
I teaching staff could be discussed and pass resolution in
" the monthly meeting and report the same for the Higher I
, Ollicials for necessary action
3) To declare 4 holidays according to the local needs
4 )To auction the crops grown in the school land and debit
the amount for school education fund
5) The Chairman/President have the power to sanction
la,ual Leave to Head Master of Lower Primary, Higher
Pri mary and High Schools
6 )To write-off unserviceable articles worth 2000, 5000
and 10,000 rupees respectively for Lower Primary, Higher
Primary and High Schools and these articles can be
auctioned and amount could be debited to school
education fu nd
8)To organise cultural activities, sports meet and
educational tours
9)Non-govemmental funds like Library Fee, Sports Fee
and Labouratory Fee could be as per the rules
10) Funds from the State and Centre to Taluk Panchayats
and Zilla Panchayats could be utilized purchase necessary
articles for the school
5.5.5 Lessons to be learnt for SDMCs
In the earlier analysis of the VEC, it was dtscovered that VECs suffered from certain
dysfunctlOnalllies in tenns of its functIOning. Neither the meetings were held
regularly nor the participation pf the mt:mbers was regular. Therefore, it becomes
\ cry significant to make SDMCs mort: functional in order to gain maximum results
from such an tntervention Although, the efforts of the governments is highly
appreciahle in creattn!! an institutIOnal l11t:chanism at the grassroots level especially
t,) monitor and primary schools Ihrough particlpalory process, it is necessary
to the: rollt)\\ 11l:c' a'pc'ch for Ihe: \\t:11 runctlonlllg or institutions.
lht:re should be ;111 arrangt:lI1ent t,,\ cnsure the regularity of l110nthly meetings
and parllclpation (lr all sc(tions or pcopk In the: decision mak;ng process.
231
2. The tlll1illg' or Ihe meetings should he in such a way that it should he eonvenicnt
to maJority or the memhers.
3. Marglllal sectlollS or people such as women, wage earners, illiterates ete need to
he emrowered through an arrroprsate intervention strategies for the well
functioning of such Institutions.
4. The capacity huilding programmes should aim at generating positive attitudes,
indl\'ldual caracities and skills for self managing and owning the school and
similar training literature (as in the case of VECs) should be made available in
time.
5. There IS an urgent need to train all the members to ereate awareness about the
Importance of primary education.
6. There should he an 0verriding priority for issues related to teacher, student 'lnd
academic eqUipment etc in such meetmgs for the well functioning of the system
Thus. in all. although the analysis of functioning of VECs has revealed both
strent,,>1h as we II as weaknesses. one can say very precisely that the well functioning
of such Institutions depend largely on the nature of capacity building programme.
Now It needs to be seen how far the SDMCs will be able to fllnction very etlectlvely
III managing and 1110llltonng village schools, so as to promote quality.
232
5.6 Promoting School Quality
The Cllncept of school quality especially in the Indian context gained its impetus
only after launching the NPE (1986) and POA (1987) The policy emphasizes that
the obJective of UEE should not be only to provide access to schooling but also
ensure success: SUCCess for all children in satisfying their basic learning nceds
irrespective of caste, creed, religion, language and geographic area etc.
Therefore, the elTort sholild be to achieve minimUio level of quality in all institutions
improving primaf\' education. With regard to the school quality there is no
consensus among the researchers and educationsists as to what constitutes it in
pnmary education') Although, the understanding of the quality parameters in a
c'e\eloping country like India is very poor, it is a general agreement that the school
quality III pnmary education can be more objectively and concretely seen in terms of
the quality of primary schools. But here arises the question that what constitutes the
quall!\ of schools,) Should one look for the level of availability of infrastructure
facilities III terms of both phYSical and human capacities? Or should one look into
the classroom processes') Or should one look into the learning achievement in
dlfTerent subJects')
Howe'.er, diiTerent scholars define education/school quality in different ways
gl\'lng focus on different aspects of education. The quality of education is a
nebulous notion about which little beyond rather truistic generalisations are known
(Hurton) The quality of education must be defined in terms of what students
achle\e ie , outputs of the educational system rather than the nature of inputs used
In their education (Mark Blaug, 1(70) The quality may be viev..ec as qualitative
change which can be t.lclined as "3 simple IlIIear expansion or t.liminution of current
practice ll10re or less. of \\hat already exists. 1110re Illore students and
teachers, fem.:r e\all1lnatlon of the present types alld standards" (Ikeby, 1(79). The
definitIOn of goal" the content of the school cUlTIculum, the organisation or the
tcachlllg-Icarning proce\s anu teaching styks III the schools \\ere given emphasis on
the quality of schoolll1g in a book improving quality or schooling (David Hopkins,
1 t)87)
231
The review of related studies (Chapter II) reveals that di fferent researchers
have used different Indicators to represent school quality. The definitions on school
quality and the research evidences over the years reveal that school quality is a
multifaceted and complex phenomenon involving su many factors. The studies Oil
school quality tirst of all, not seem to be based on clear perspective of what exactly
constitutes the school quality in primary education, even though, each study in its
own way reflects essentially on this aspect (Govinda and Varghcese, 1993, p.12) It
is of course true that many researchers tend to equate school quality with that of
school effectiveness In order to assess school quality, some researchers give
priority for the availability of physical and human inputs or the quality of actors
(teachers) and actions (teaching-learning process) involved in the school
functioning. Some others give an overriding priority for the learning achievement in
the classrooms.
Thus, it clearly indicates that the comprehensive coceptualisation of school
or effectiveness of primary schooling, which brings together various physical
and human invuts along with classroom processes and learning attainment.
Therefore for understanding school quality, it is important to consider each aspect of
schooling namely, the inputs (both physical and human), teaching-learntng
processes and the learning attainment in schools. Further, it is also necessary that
investigations into school quality or effectiveness have to be contextual and
generalisations drawn with regard to parameters of school quality have to be
obviously context specific.
In the present study, some of the indicators are academic
atmosphere in the schools, classroom curricular process, dropout of children,
effective usc of time, teacher-rupil ratio and learning attainment of children
etc. The ratiollJic I(lr considering these indicators is based on the that the
institutional structures arc essentially intended to enhance caracities of the schools
and teachers. Therelilre, it would be trite to mentIOn that these criteria would in one
way or the othcr n:: 11 ect the contribution of these structures in promoting school
quality. The basie purpose of the present study is not to assess the school quality as
234
such but to see its relationship with the performance of the institutional structures,
which are intended to provide academic and resource support to primary schuols and
teachers.
For this analysis. the data collected from 20 sample primary schools coming
under the purview of the sample institulional structures in the OPEP (Kolar district)
and non-DPEP (Tumkur district) have been considered.
Academic Atmosphere:
One noticeable change that the institutional structures at the district and sub-district
levels have brought about in the primary schools is the enhancement of academic
environment in the school. This is reflected in terms of the colourful writings and
decorations on the wall of the school both within and outside. In this direction, a
variety of teaching-Iearnmg materials have also been produced following the
training of the teachers in these institutions. It is in this context, an attempt has been
made to look at these factors in the sample schools.
235
Table 5.6.1: Academic Atmosphere in the Sample Schools
- - -- ---

------.
-- --------
I'articulars Kolar
-- ".------------_._------ ._----
Tumkur
I 2
-- ----
._,--- -
-- ---
45
--
--
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 123 6 7 8
0
Colourful Wall Y
- -
V

--
-
- y -
Y
- -
- - - - - -
-
p'aintillgs*_.
Activity Cards# V V V V V V V V Y V
- ---
- -
- - - - - -
Children's Y
- -
V Y Y Y V V
- - - - -
-
- - -

Flip Chart V Y Y Y Y Y V V Y
----
Y
- -
- - -
- - -
(Chinnara Mela)
Craft work'" V
- - - -
y
-
y
Y -
- -
- - - - - -
Tg-Lg Aids
--
Maps:
World Y Y Y V Y Y Y Y Y V Y Y - Y - Y - -
Country Y Y V Y V V Y Y Y V V Y Y V V Y Y Y
State V Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y V Y Y
District Y Y Y Y Y V V Y V Y
- Y - Y Y Y V Y
Taluk
-
- -
y
-
- - - - - -
-
- -
- -
- -
Village Y - Y
-
- Y - Y
- - -
-
- - -
- - -
Charts:
National Leaders Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Y Y - - Y
Alphabets Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Y Y Y Y - Y Y
Numbers Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y - Y Y Y - - -
y
Animals Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
- Y Y Y - - - -
Flowers Y Y Y Y - Y Y Y Y Y - Y -
- - - - -
VegetablefFruits - -
- - - -
- - - Y -
- -
-
-
-
Birds Y Y Y Y - V V Y Y
- - Y - Y - - - -
Health&HeYf(ine Y Y Y Y V Y Y V Y V
- - - Y - Y - -
Chinnara Mela
(Flip Chan) Y Y V
Y1Y
Y V Y Y Y
-
- -
- - - - -
I
I
.. . .
Note Paintings/names of famous personalltles/arumals/thlngs like pohtlcal leaders, hterary
gaints, national bird/animal and national flag etc)
9

I
0
- -
- -
-
-

- -
- -
y y
y
V
Y V
Y Y
- -
- -
Y Y
Y -
- -
- -
- -
-
-
-
-
Y -
-
- I-
Blackboard painting for the bottom portion of the inside classroom wall for children
Prepared wi!h locally available materials such as bangles, sticks, papers etc.
# Cards used for activity oriented lessons
I
As far as the academic atmosphere in primary srhools are considered, it can
be seen from the above table (see table 5.6.1) that there are wide varieties of .
\t:achmg-Iearning aids in the sample schools of Kolar as compared to those of
In terms of numbers also, they were more in sample schools of Kolar
as compared with those of Tumkur. It was during field visits that in
Kolar, the classroom walls were covered with plenty of tcaching-learning aids
provided by the department as well as self Flip charts at chillllara mela, a ,i
children's' fair were also displayed on the walls or classroom. In addition, a 1'1
2.16
padahandha, a play activity with Idters and words, students and teachers craft work
c,:xncismg their creatiVity through paintings, thermocol cuttmgs etc, w.;re also
observed in some of the schools. The same is mainly dut: to the fact that to some
c,:xtcnt, a special attention was given under the project to equip schools with basic
teaching-learning material The findings arc in line with Yadav et.a!' (India
LdUl:ation Report, 20(2), who also envisage that the availahility of teaching-learning
materials has considerably improved in all the project districts under DPEP between
1994 and 1997.
It was also noticed during field visit that there was Black board paintings for
the bottom portIon of the inside classroom wall for children, exclusively meant for
children's work in Kolar. Whereas, in the case of Tumkur, the same was not
observed. Further, even the seating arrangements for children to facilitate group
activities in the classrooms. Such a shift in the classroom arrangement promoted
better participation of children in the learning process and eliminated the distance
between the teacher and students. Thus, it clearly indicates that the academic
atmosphere in primary schools of Kolar is more congenial as compared to those of
Tumkur. During interviews with the stake holders (VEC members), a majority of
them reported that their children are more eager to go to schools nowadays as a
result of DPEP intervention. They further stated that the DPEP programmeme had
successfully created awareness about the importance of primary education among
them.
Considering another indicator namely, school participation rate, data were
collected with reference to dropout phenomenon in each of the schools. It is seen
from the table 5.6.2 that the dropout phellomcnon t?XlstS even in the [)PEP context in
Spit.; of enhancement of academic atnlllsphen: in Although, the dropout rate
IS ler\ (2l)S "0) In the lWI':P schools, yet, It IS higher than that ofTumkur
( I 67 %) Additionally, two of the sample primary schools reveal to the extent of
763 and pcrcent as compared to lower dropout rates among sample schools in
non-I)f'I:!> district. On further probing, It was noticed that a large majority of these
drop-outs belong to vulnerable sections like migrant labourcrs, Scheduled Caste,
237
,
Scheduled Tribe etc., who run the risk of leaving schools prematurely. This
evidently suggests that DPEl' is still not been able to address the issues relating to
children at risk. Furthermore, it also implies that the education and training imparted
by the new institutional structures under DPEP have not been able to equip teachers
and schools adequately to tackle the phenomenon of dropout.
Considering the Teachcr-Pupil Ratio (TPR), more favourable TPR was
observed in the sample schools of both Kolar and Tumkur. The State TPR is 1:50.
Further conSidering the TPR in terms of pupil attendance, a siightly better picture
emerges for both the districts ( : :20 in Tumkur and 1 :22 in Kolar).
Table 5.6.2: Percentage of Drop-out Children in Sample Primary Schools
Dislrict Sar.,ple Schools
Enrolment Dropouts Percentage of
Dropouts
Kolar I 45 I 2.22
2
118 9 7.63
3 42
-- --
4 42 2 4.76
5 48
-- --
6 46 3 6.52
7 63
-- --
8 36
,-
--
--
9 28
--
--
10 35 -- --
Total 503 15 2.98
Tumkur I 22
--
--
2 46 2 4.35
3 28 1 3.57
4 56 2 3.57
5 46 I 2.17
6 31 -- --
--
7 36 --
--
8 51 I 1.95
9 46 --
--
10
57 -- --
Total 419 I
7
1.67
-
-
By considering the school li'm:table, it was observed that thiS timetable was
never adhered to in any of the schools leading to speCUlation of possible loss of
learning time. On further probing, it was noticed that the core subJects like
MathematiCs and S c i ~ n c e wen: invilrJably the tiL,t casualty whell the prescribed
timetable was never followed.
,
Classroom leaching-learning process IS an imrortant determinant or the
school quality. lJn/()rtlinalely, our under:,landing of the complex process of
classroom teaching-learning activities in primary schools is extremely inadequate
due to the absence of well-estahlished research. Although it may not be appropriate
10 judge very precisely what happens in the classroom leaching-learning process in a
few Visits, it was possible to obtain some general picture about the prevailing
pedagogical practices both in IJI'EP and non-IJPEP context. The details in this
regard are shown in the tabIe5.6.3.
Table 5.6.3: Classroom Curricular Process in OPEl' and Non-OPEP Districts
--------=c---:-----:::-:---=c .. - ---- ~
Tumkur (Non-DPEP)
~ -----
I Kolar (DPEP)
Activity based teaching
Child centered method
Workbook miented
More scope for interactive peer
learning
Competency based learning
More scope for active participation of
::hildren
Use of variety of teaching-learning aids
Teacher suppml materials
Adequate scope for the development of
questioning spirit
Adequate scope for Joyful learning
More pedagogical training to handle
multi grade class
No activity based teaching
Teacher centered method
Textbook oriented
~ Less scope for interactive peer learning
Textbook based scholastic learning
Less scope for active participation of
children
M ore use of textbooks
No teacher support materials
Inadequate scope for the devt'lopment
of questioning spirit
Inadequate scope for joyfullearninr,
Less pedagogical training to handle
multi grade class
l3y and large, it is noticed from the table 5.6.3 that there is a perceptible shift
in the classroom pedagogical process in the primary schools of Kolar as compared to
tho:;c pf TumJ.;ur The style of classroom organisation and varieties of activities
Inlllil I n ~ small ~ r o ~ I P teaching arrangcment reflected the use of child centered
method In most oj" thc sample primary schools In Kolar district. One could alst'
ooserve the scope given for the interactive peer learning through activities oy children
In the teachtng-karnlng process This reveals that the children are not merely treated
as passlv\.: learners.
It \\as al;:o ('bserved that the emphasis is on competency based
learning but not on the textbook-based information loaded leaming.
During
interviews, a large majority of teachers in the sample primary schools In J ) 1 1 ~ 1
district reported that the old method of teaching (hefore I)PEI' intervention) was
teacher dominated without much concern for the child's level of comprehension.
Whereas" the new method provides an ample opportunity for children and hclp to
develop a questioning spirit Teachers, hy and large, feel that BRCs and CRCs have
not only enabled them to acquire innovutive curric,ular strategies to make classroom
learning more effective, hut also have helped them to equip schools with a wide array
of learning materials and resources. However, they also point out that theIr
innovative pedagogic practice demancl more time and effol1 on their part.
Thus, the results of the analysis point to the fact that schools in OPEP
context fair better than that of non-OPEP in terms of enhanced academic
atmosphere. However, it is to be noted that the outcome of such an enhanced
academic climate could only be determined by pupils' learning attainment. Hence, a
further attempt has been made to examine the pupils' learning attainments in the
sample schools.
Learning Attainment:
In order to find out the learning attainment levels of students, they were
administered the standardised MLL tests in 20 exclusively lower primary schools, 5
each in 4 hlocks!talukas from 2 districts in OPEP (Kolar) and non-OPEP (Tumkur)
districts in Karnataka. All the students from third standard in the sample schools
were given the tests in Language, Mathematics and EVS. The total sample covered
wcre 186 students, out of which 108 students (48 boys and 60 girls) from Kolar
district and 78 students (35 boys and 43 girls) from Tumkut district and these tests
\\cre gi'. ell at the end of the academic \'e,!L Tile achievement levels of children
\\erc e\aluated alld the results arc sho\\11 beloll.
240
Table 5.6.4: Mean Percenlages Scores of Children in Achievement Tests in difkrent
Subjects the Sample Schools in Kolar and Tumkur Districts

r-------
. __ ._-- .... "--
-. -----.---- - - --- ---,- -- - . ,-. -"- . -
S5 ..
--
Mathematics EVS
Boys Girls
- .. ---, --
Boys .
.. _--.-
-- --- --- -
Total
Total Bovs
aid, ,-""I
I Kolar
I 53.3 49.3
c-Jl}- 50.4 t 572
53.8 58.3 56') 576
----------
2

------- - -
405

40.2 413 403 40 g
..

I
I
I
-_ .. -- ----- - - _.
3 45.2 57.8 51.5
49.3
44.8 48.4 466
4 38.3

40.3
--.- ----- -
-_.
_ ..
44.5 49.3 46.9 37 I 42.4 3'J.B

-----_. --_.- ------
5 45.9 45.9 45.9 44.0 44.7 44.4 495 49.0 493
Gowribid 6 52.0 42.8 47.4 52.8 41.0 46.9 47.7 40.0 '13.9
anUT 7 38.3 425 40.4 45.0 42.0 43.5 37.5 40.5 39.0
8 60.9 65.8 63.4 64.0 58.9 61.5 63.3 62.0 62.7
9 63.3 61.8 62.6 61.0

62.5 62.1 67.4 64.8
10 39.7 31.8 35.8 39.3 38.0 38.7 34.9 28.9 31.9
.
Total
47.7 48.0 47.9 49.1 49.0 49.0 47.7 47.6 47.6
Tumkur 1 47.4 42.2 44.8 43.3 40.0 41.7 38.6 39.S 39.1
.- - ...
2 22.2 34.4 28.3 48.0 33.0 40.5 44.3 40.7 42.5
3 60.0 57.8 58.9 52.0 56.3 54.2 45.7 43.1 44.4
-
4 49.6 48.9 49.3 43.3
44:2..
43.7 42.9 43.3 43.1
5 43.3 46.7 45.0 61.0 64.0 62.5 50.0 55.7 52.9
Kunigal 6 37.8 43.0 40.4 43.0 35.0 39.0 43.6 64.7 54.2
7 43.9 29.4 36.7 430 31.5 37.3 36.4 26.1 313
8 60.0 63.3 61.7 69.0 69.5 69.3 59.3 65.4 62.4
..
I
9 37.2 45.5 44.0 44.8 46.1 45.9 46.0
,
52.2
1
44.7
I Total
10 I 52.6 ! 51.7 523 52.0 50.0 51.5 50.8
,
46.7 49.7
,
!
i5
4
1
465.Li?9 50.0 47.0 48.5 45.7 47.6 46.6

. ---:- .
Note: S S = Sample Schools, EVS = EnYiTOnmental SCIence. Kolar and Gownbldanur
blocks come under Kolar district, Tumkm and Kunigal blocks come under
TUfi1kur district
It is seen from the table 5.6.4 that there is a difference in the achievement test
scores between Kolar and Tumkur districts. Kolar reveals better learning attainments
among both boys and brirls in Lanb'Ullge, Mathematics and Environmental Studies
(EYS) (47.9, 49.0 and 47.6 in Kolar as compared to 45.9, 48.5 and 46.6 in Tumkur).
However, it IS to be that til': mean percentage for both Kolar and Tumkur
dtstnets hovers arnund 48 percent In the former and 47 percent in the lat1er. . Fllrthcr, at
dtsaggregate level, there arc a few school, 1!1 hoth the districts (4 out of I il schno\s In
Kolar and 3 out of 10 Sdl00ls in 'Iumkllr) n:wal a much higher mean than
the district average The gender ditkrelltials ill learning attainments in dilli:rent
eumcular subJects aPlICar to have been n.mnwed down in case 01 Kollir as compared to
that ofTlimKur. Tht' morc favoumble achlevcment in the sample schools of Kolar may
be due to the fact that as a part or DP1:1' programmeme ill the district, a new child-

centred pedagogy has been developed which is appropriate to Multlgraul: situatIOns.
I lowevcr. an a ~ m p t has been maUl: further to understanu whether 1)1'1 ':1' has bel:n able
to address its one of the important objectives, namely reducing the difTerence of
achi(:vement level between boys and girls to 5 percent in Language and Mathematics.
It is seen from the table 5.6.4 that there is not much of a difference in the
mean achievement levels of boys and girls in all the three subjects (Language,
Mathematics and EVS). It signifies that the OPEP has been able to reduce the
gender gap in the achievement levels in different subjects. mentioned above.
Similar findings were reported by some of the recent Surveys conducted by NCERT
(1997). OPEP (BAS. 1994 and MAS, 1997) and Jayalakshmi (2000).
242
CHAPTER - VI
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
6.1 Introduction
[n India, provision of free and compulsory education to all children until they
complete the age of 14 years is a directive principle of the constitution, which was
supposed to be fulfilled within a period of 1 U years from date of adoption of the
Constitution in 1950. However, several concerted efforts in this direction failed to
yield the desired results. Therefore the National Policy on Education (NPE, 1986)
and Programme Of Action (POA, 1986) updated in 1992 gave overriding priority
not merely to enrolment and retention, but also for the substantial qualitative
learning attainment in primary education. Some of the major interventions launched
in this direction are:
I. Operation Blackboard (OB, 1986)
II Institutional support for capacity enhancement of schools and teacher
through establishment of District Institute of Education and Training (DIET)
at the district level ( 1988)
III. National cHrTIcular guidelines in terms of prescribed Minimum Levels of
Learning (MLL) competencies.
By the time of adoption of NPE, elementary education was already too vast to be
covered by national and state level agencies alone. Therefore, provision of support
to it in a decentralised manner became imperative. The NPE and POA accordingly
envisaged addition of third district level tier to the support system in the form of
DlstTlct Institute of EducatIOn and '[ raining (DIETs) at the distTlct kveL The
or this \\ould he or "ider quanti!ati"e coverage as well as ljualitatlwly
better support as thesc Institutions would be closer to the tield and therefore m(lfe
'llive to Its probiems and needs.
In addition to the national efforts towards realizing the goal of UEE,
pfllgrallllllcs have also been launched through international funding support. One
243
such programme was the World Bank supported District Primary hlucatlOn
Programme (DI'FI', 19(3) in sciected districts, hased on their low female literacy
rates The maJor lilcus of DPEI' project is thl: participatory planning and
managemcnt of elementary education at the district level through creation of
additional sub-district level institutional support structures such as Block Resource
Centers (13RCs) and Cluster Resource Centers (eRCs) (in addition to the already
existing School Complexes (SCxes) at the cluster level and Village Education
Committees (VECs) at the village levd
Increased high Gross Enrolment Ratios (GER) over the years, but persisting
phenomenon of irregular attendance and subsequent dropout in large number of
children continued to be a great cause for concern. Another matter of concern has
been the slow progress in providing education to the disadvantaged sections of
population like girls, children belonging to SCs, STs, and Backward Classes and
Minorities. All these issues have posed serious challenge for management of
education. Following the 73
rJ
Constitutional :tmendment, 111 regard to
decentralisation of powers the CABE (Central Advisory Board 111 Education)
Committee recognised that decentralisatIOn of educational management under the
IllSlItutions ofJocal self-government would ensure active and greater participation of
people and their representatives.
Enrolment data and age specific literacy rates suggest that India has made
much progress in expanding access to education; in 1993 about 100 million children
In the relevant age group were enrolled in primary school as compared to 85 million
dllldren in 1 '}87. Notwithstanding this, abou! 32 million of the 105 million children
aged n-lO were out of school in 199:; In addition, ab,lIlt I <;-20 per cent of the
children enrolled did not attend schooi regularly and ab'lIlI 35 per cent of those who
cnrol dmppedout before completing the primary schllol cvclc.
I) Illkr these
C I rcum:;tances, reachi ng full enrol ment of the 6- I 0 rema i I1S a I11aJOf challenge ill all
states of India and dlst:lIlt ~ ) a l 111 some. Further, considering the learning <lttainment
Ie"els 111 primary schools, It IS noticed that children who n:ach the final war of lower
primary school often have poor mastery levels. It is in this regard, the l)3
rJ
144
Constitutional amendment a15 .. makes it mandatory 10 enrol all the out of school and
school - aged children for elementary education; initiate steps to retain thcm in
school till the complction of elementary education and ensun; minimum levels of
learning. Recent Baseline survey in different parts of the country have reiterated
these aspeds. However, other states including Karnataka, and districts within the
states may require special attention if India wishes to make real progress towards
achieving the goal of UEE.
Considering the literacy levels in the state of Karnataka, where the present
study was located, it was observed that the State reveals increase in literacy kvels from
1991 to 2001(67 % in 1991 to 76 % in 2001 for male and 44 % to 58 % for female
during the same period). However, the phenomenon of out of school children, poor
attendance and low mastery learning levels continued to be serious concerns especially
in backward regions as well as with respect to female population.
The District Programmeme of Primary Education Project has been launched
during 1995 to hasten the process of realising the goal of universal primary education
in the state of K3f!1ataka. Initially four districts revealing low female literacy levels
have been covered under DPEP phase -I and subsequently seven more districts in
phase II. To support the DPEP project, the resource centres namely, the BRCs at the
block level, the CRCs at the cluster level and VECs at the village level have been
formally established during 1996-1997. The already existing DIETs were expected to
provide the required academic support and complement the DPEP intervention in the
district. However, the functional efficiency of thcse institutional structures are
determined by various organisational, structural, systemic and organismic factors.
The reyiew or literalure in the r e l ~ l t e area has enabled the researcher to
conceptuallse the present problem as well as In identil\'ing the factors, which arc
crucial determinants for promoting school qU:llIly in the context of [JEE. Iii
partic<Jiar, the review hns pointed oul the f(lllo\\ing, which nppenr to be relevanl in
the context of the presL;nt study.
245
(I) The poor quality of primary education is not only a feature of the Indian Primary
education but also m many other developing countries,
(2) Although, the factors related to classroom and school processes arc found to
i n l l u e n ~ quality of\earning in primary schools more than the non-school factors,
yet the results of some studies are open to doubt.
(3) The teacher factor is the most crucial factor, which determines the quality of
schooling,
(4) Qualitative research studies which have gone deeper into understanding the
organisational and management process and practices relating to primary
education are far and few especially in the Indian context,
(5) Studies pemining to the role of support system in particular of the newly created
institutional structures are rarely attempted.
ThlL'>, in the light of the above, there wa;; an imperative need for an in-depth
study to examine the role of institutional support systems for qualitative improvement
in primary education. Besides, the creation of academic support institutions at the
district and sub-district levels for bringing about qualitative improvement in universal
primary education was a recent phenomenon. Hence it was of utmost importance to
examine the functions and activities performed by these institutions for improving
5cnool quality in the context of UEE. Even in Kamataka State, there were no attempts
made in this direction particularly with respect to qualitative research. Hence the
present attempt could be considered as a pioneering effort in this direction
NotWIthstanding the poSitive developments, II was observed that the quality of
pnmary education in general and the participatinn of children from vulnemble sections,
poor attendance in schools, poor learning attainments and persisting phenomenon of
ou: of school children in certain backward regions in particular point to the madequate
246
role perfonned by these institutional structures Under these circumstances, the
following issues assumed vital signilicance In the context of the present study.
To what extent lJEE in Kamataka has heen successful in tenns of enhancing
particIpation and retention of children in primary schools over the years?
h ~ t has been the impact of a major intervention like OPEP in hastening the
goal of UEE In Kamataka?
To what extent the newly created institutions have been able to contribute to
quality improvement in primary education in tenns of enhancing capacities of
schools and tcachers?
Whether the newly created institutional structures like the DIET, BRC, CRC,
SCx and VECs at district and sub-district levels have adequate facilities and
capacities in themselves to perfonn their expected rolt:s of providing technical
and academic support to primary education?
What are the major bottlenecks, which come in the way of effective functioning
and performance of these institutions?
In the light of the issues that have emerged In the present context, the
following specific objectives have been outlined.
6.2 Objectives of the Study
I. To exall1ine the ,tat us of UFF in I'-arnataka. TUll1kur and I'-olar districts.
2. To study the organisational structure and composition of DIETs, BRCs, CRCs,
School Compkx(;s (Sexes) and VI:Cs.
247
<
, .'
3. To examine the tasks, roles and responsihillties of DII:Ts, BRCs, CRCs, School
Complexes (SeXeS) and VECs as per the prescrlhed norms.
4. To study the processes and practices of training and other activities of DIETs,
BRCs, CRCs, School Complexes (SCxes) and VECs.
5. To study the perceptions and views of trainers trainees beneficiaries and other
, ,
educational functionaries with special reference to the role p l y ~ d by DIETs,
BRCs, CRCs, School Complexes (SCxes) and VECs in promoting school
quality.
6. To identify bottlenecks, if any in the operationalization of DIETs, BRCs, CRCs,
School Complexes (SCxes) and VECs.
7. To compare the roles played by these institutional structures in promoting school
quality in the DPEP and Non-DPEP contexts.
6.3. Methodology adopted for the Study
A multi stage stratified random sampling design has been followed to study the
sample units namey DIETs, BRCs, CRCs, School Complexes, VECs and Primary
Schools. The sample has been selected at six stages.
In the first stage, the educational division (Bangalore) and in the second
stage, the districts (Kolar and Tumkur) under the Bangalore division have been
selected in order to select DIETs. In the third stage, the educational hlocks (Kolar
and Gowrihidanur In Kolar district and TUlllkur and Kunigal in Tumkur distflct)
have heen selech:d on the baSIS Dr their proxllnity and remoteness Iiom the district
headquarters in order to selcct BRCs. In the fOUith stage, institutIOnal structures at
duster level namely, CRCs and School Complexes from the sample blocks and in
the fifth stage, VEl's at the vi:lage level from the sample cluste,s have been selected
from both [)l'EP (Kolar) and non-OPEl' (Tumkur) distrits. Finally, Primary Schools
248
attached to the sample VI:Cs have been selected for purpose of studymg school
quality.
Thus, the final sample size selected for purpose of present study includes 2
DIETs, 2 BRCs, 8 CRCs, 20 SCxes, 20 VECs and 20 Primary schools. The sample
was drawn in such a way that it forms a single chain of hierarchy in the educational
structure of the district originatmg from the basic school unit up to the district level.
The present study being an in-depth case study in nature demanded both
qualitative and quantitative data.
Therefore, a combination of checklists,
questionnaires and interview schedules has been used for data gathering. This is
further supplemented by observation technique for collecting data relating to
classroom process and documentary analysis for collecting data from vanous
records, reports and other written materials available in the selected sample
institutions. In all, fifteen research instruments have been used to gather data for
the study. They are (a) Institutional Profile Checklist (DIETs, BRCs, CRCs and
SCxes), (b) School Quality Indicators Checklist, (c) Interview Schedules
(Functionaries of DIETs, BRCs, CRes, SCxes, VECs and primary school teachers),
(d) Questionnaire (pre-service trainees in the DIET) and (e) MLL Tests, constructed
and standardised by the MLL study of Institute for Social and Economic Change
(1998), content analysis and observation techniques. For the purpose of studying the
role of DIET, an adopted version of tools constructed and standardised by the
NIEPA for a national evaluation of DIETs have been used. The research tools
developed by the researcher for purpose of collecting data for the study were
validated by giving it to the experts as well as through pilot survey.
The data for the present study have been drawn both from primary and
secondary sources. 1leld data have been collected from the state, district and sub-
district level institutional structures and primary schools. The nature of data collected
includes both quanlitative and qualitative. Quantitative data relating to enrolment,
teachers, schools fll1d t l < ~ i r physical facilities have been collected through statistical
documents as well as lISlllg checklist in the sample institutions. The qualitative data
24'l
n;lating to activities and runctions, sch!xli quality and perceptIOns or the runctlonarles
In the selected institutions have been collected largely through In-depth InterViews
Additionally, data have bcen supplemented by Information gathcn:d through
observation and content analysis of thc relevant documcnts. The data relating \0
learning attainmcnts of children have been cnllected by administering the standardlscd
tests to tbe students in the sample schools. The field v l ~ t s for data collection was
spread over a period often months beginning from the academiC year I YY') to 2000.
As the present study is largely qualitative In nature, the analvsis has been
descriptive and interpretive. Narmtive method has been employed for analYSing
qualitative data from case studies. For purpose of analYSing numencal data, Simple
measures like frequencies, percentages and means have been used wherever
necessary.
6.4. Major Findings of the Study
The analyses of the primary and secondary data have reveals the following major
findings.
A. Findings of Secondary Data Analysis
Descriptive analyses of the time series data on some major educational indicators
selected for the purpose using secondary data sources revealed the following:
Educational Progress in tbe State of Karnataka
Literacy
1. It was observed that the total literacy rate has moved up from 1930 percent
in 1951 to 67.4 percent in 2001. Similarly, the literacy rates among men and women
has also increased during the period, with women registering slightly higher gains
(483 percent as against 47.2 percent of males). Although, this has resulted in
narrowing the gender di1Terelltials in literacy over the period, thl: gcndl:T gap persists
to the extent of 18.8 percent in 200 I.
2S0
2. The literacy rates in both rural and urban areas reveal an I ncrlAl\lng tn:nd
Ilowever, tbe gains seem to be more in favour of urban regions as compan.:u to rural
he tween 1951 and 2001. Additionally, the rural-urban differences had heen
persisting right through 1951 to 200 I at the State level.
1
J. Considering the literacy gains among males and females in urban-rural
regions, the females in urban regions have registered higher literacy gains to the
extent of 51. 9 percent between 1951 and 200 I. This is followed by rural males,
rural females and urban males.
4. Despite impressive achievements in terms of literacy outcomes in Karnataka
in the last few decades, inter district variation continued to persist in 2001. It was
noticed that the literacy among males was higher than that among females in all the
districts of the State. The difference between male and female literacy at State level
was over 19 percent But across districts, it ranged from 28 percent in Koppal to 9
percent in Bangalore. It i<; pertinent to point out that more or less, the districts,
which had registered the highest and lowest literacy rates in 1951 continue to
maintain their positions even during 200 I. This is true for males and females. Thus,
although more than half the population in the 7 years and above age group is literate
in the State in 2001, there are still wide district level variations ranging from 50 to
84 percent.
Access to Primary Education-Provision of Facilities in terms of Schools
5. There had been a spectacular incfease in elementary education in terms of
provision of schooling facilities in Kamataka during post-independence per;od.
Considering the provision of schooling facilities in terms of growth of primary
schools in the State, it was noticed that the total number of primary :,chools had
grown from 22520 in 1956 to 48135 in 1<)99. 011 further examining the: growth, It
was seen that Higher Primary Schools (HPSs) had grown at a much faster pace than
the LPSs obviously due to the increased demand of primary educatIOn, which would
have resulted in upgradation of the existing LPSs.
Growth of Teachers in Schools
6. It was observed that although, the rrogre\\ III the /lumber "I teadlcrs \lIKc
1950 had not been of unlfc)rm race. thefe had hccn a steadv Increas!! In the t<ltal
number of teachers during different tllne It \\a\ eVident that the number of
teachers bad increased ov<::r the years from 608!!2 III I to 210000 III 19')')
Teacher-Pupil Ratio (TPR) anll Standard-Teacher Ratio (STR)
7. It was seen that the TPR in primary went ur in the late clghlles and
the early nineties, but since then there was healthv declinlllg trend due to the
massive programme of recruitment of teachers taken up from 1993-94 The TPR
had come down from I: 53 in 1991 to I: 42 in 1999. Improvement in TPR over the
years has also positively impacted the STR since 1971 onwards. The reductIOn in
STR is quite remarkable from 1991 onwards with I: 1.55 In 1991 to 1 1 29 In 1999
Enrolment in Schools
8. There has been a phenomenal increase III the enrolment of both boys and
girls at lower and higher primary levels in terms of absolute numbers At the lower
primary level, the ratio of boys to girls rose from 53 III 1956 to almost equal III
1999. Whereas, in the case of higher primary level, the percentage increase III the
enrolment of !,TirIs at both the levels has certainly been rapid as compared \vith those
of boys between 1956 and 1999.
Dropouts
9. There has been a phenomenal decrease in the dropouts of children from the
above said period. It was noteworthy that the percentage of dropouts decreased
from 51.91 percent in 1980-81 to 13.55 in 1999-0\) exccrting In 1993-9--1 '\t thl'
lower primary level. the drop out r;lte of girls decreased more drastlcall\ th:m that 01'
boys decreasltlg by around 77 percent hetween 1980-81 and 1999-00 as colllrarcd to
only 70 percent for hoys.
252
Educational Progress in Kolar and Tumkur Districts
Literacy
10. The literacy position in both the districts has steadily increased from 1951 to
1991. Although, the I iteracy rates in the total population seemed to have increased
between the decades, yet the literacy gains made by different population segments
does not present a happy picture in both the districts. Even though, the literacy had
increased rapidly among both males and females in both the districts, males continue
to maintain their dominant position and the females continue to trail behind during
all the years. Considering the male-female gap, it has increased from 17.04 percent
in 1951 to 20.33 percent in 200 I in Kolar. Whereas, in the case of Tumkur, it has
declined from 20.6 in 1951 to 19.7 in 2001. But between 1991 and 2001, Kolar
district reveals a higher decline in gender differentials (5 percent) as compared to
Tumkur (3 percent).
Elementary Schools
II. There has been a rapid increase in the number of schools in both the districts
from 1960 to 1999. The number of schools at lower primary level had declined
slightly from 1994 to 1999 in both the districts. The percentage increase in the
number of schools at higher primary level in Kolar (55%) is double than that of
Tumkur (27%).
Growth of Teacbers in Elementary Scbools
12. Both the districts reveal an increlsing trend from 1960 to 1999. However, in
case of Kolar, the number of teachers has dropped between 1985 and 1990 and has
picked up once again in the subsequent years. Kolar 2 9 ~ o ) reveals a higher increase
in the number of teachers as compared with that of Tumkur (22 %) between 1995
and 1999.
Enrolment in Elementary Schools
13. Considering the absolutc enrolment ligures, it is noticed that there definitely
has becn a significant imprO\cl11cnt in the enrolmcnt of boys and girls in both Kolar
253
and Tumkur districts. However, the growth rate in both the districts reveals certain
fluctuations with rise and fall in the enrolment from 1980 afterwards. Another trend
that could be observed is the ratio of male-female enrolments. The gap in the sex
cnrolment ratio seems to be closing in dUring the 1990 decade. The sex differential,
whi::h was around 30.0 percent in both Kolar and Tumkur districts seem to be
narrowmg down almost equal in the 1990 and afterwards. Positively in case of
Kolar district, boys and girls' enrolment has reached equal proportions due to girls
registering J higher growth rate between 1994 and 2000.
TPR and STR
14. Although, the TPR reveals a declining trend from 1970 to 1999 in both the
districts, yet there has been a fluctuation in between these periods. There is a
healthy declining trend in the STR in both the disticts. However, the STR in Kolar
reveals more fluctuations with rise and fall in STR as compared to that of Tumkur.
Between 1995 and 1999, the STR decline in Kolar (from 1:1.60 to I: 137) is more as
com pared to that of Tumkur (from I: 1.71 to I: 1.44).
GER
IS. There has been a phenomenal increase in the GER of both boys and girls at
lower primary level. The GER in primary level rose from 93 percent in 1970 to 115
in Kolar and from 97 percent to 104 percent in Tumkur under the reference period.
On the positive side, girls' enrolment registered impressive gain especially between
1995 and 200 I in Kolar as compared to that of Tumkur.
Wastage
I h. There has been a steady decline in the wastage among both boys and girls
since l'rJO in both thc districts The rate of wastage to total enrolment decreased
from 52 percent In 1970 to 39 percent by 1990 and to 15 perccnt in 1996 in Kolar.
Whereas, in Tumkur, it has decreased from 63 percent in 1970 to 27 percent by 1990
and \0 19 percent In 1996
254
17. Considering the wastage percentage among boys and girls separately, while
more or less, same percentage (around 50 percent) decrease in the wastage rates was
ohserved for girls in both the districts. Whereas" in case of boys, Tumkur district
reveals a slightly higher reduction in wastage (45 percent) as compared to that of
Kolar (43 percent). lIowever, interestingly, the wastage decrease has been
impressive in case of Kolar district (9.16 percent) particularly for girls between 1996
and 1998 as compared to that of Tl!mkur district (0.5 percent).
18. The wastage rates of SCs and STs among boys and girls has been declining
gradually. There has been a considerable decrease in wastage rates of boys and girls
belonging to SC and ST groups in Kolar as compared to that of Tumkur especially
after launching of DPEP programme in Kolar district. Although, the wastage trends
do indicate a declining trend in both the districts between 1975 and 1998, yet girls'
wastage rates among SCs (15 percent in Kolar and 16 percent in Tumkur) and STs
(16 percent in Kolar and 17 percent in Tumkur) continue to be an issue of concern in
both the districts.
B. Findings of Primary Data Analysis
DIETs:
1. The DlETs in both DPEP and non-DPEP districts had almost all the physical
resources in terms of classroom, auditorium, Science labouratory, Staff room and
other bus;c facilities as well. Both the DIETs were also well equipped with respect
to essential academic and audiovisual instructional aids, which were if' good
working conuition I-Io\\"-::\'er, these academic equipmcnts were found to be
underullhsed to the extent of 80 percent as reported by pre-service and in-service
trainees. Additionally, both the DIETs were also eqUipped with three computers
each which were found tn be unutilised. A large majority of the DIET faculty in
,
both the districts was not trained for making use of computers.
255
2. Thc capacity of the DII-:Ts In terms of human resource equipment was found
to t:e bettcr in Tumkur DIET as compared to that of Kolar considering the Staflln
position, the latter revealing vacancies of senior Lecturers in WE, CMDE, ET and
I'&M.
3. The DIETs' human resource capacity in terms of professional experience
was fOlJnd to be lacking in both thc districts. About 25 percent of the faculty in
K01ar DIET and over 50 percent of thc faculty in Tumkur DIET were not exposed to
any kind of professional training after their entry into DIET. Similarly, poor
perception and lack of understanding of the goals and objectives of the DIET among
the faculty created additional constraints.
4. It was also observed that both the DIETs revealed underqualified Staff as
against the norm to the extent of thirty five percent in case of Kolar and nearly forty
SIX percent in case of Tumkur. However, the Kolar DIET revealed a better picture
in terms of highest proportion (45 percent) of faculty possessing a postgraduate
degree in both content and professional subject as compared to that of Tumkur DIET
(167 percent).
5 A very negligible percent of faculty in Kolar DIET (6.25 percent) and
considerable percent of faculty (31.25 percent) in Tumkur DIET had previous
expenence m primary education or had received any training in this regard.
6. It was seen that the major pre-occupation of both the DIETs seemed to be
only the traming a:;pect The resource support and action research aspects were
fOlmd to ha\(.: been vlrtua!ly neghxted in both the DIETs.
7 In terms of the quantum of the training acti\ities conducted by the DIETs. it
was seen that although both the DIETs had been abk to adhere to the norm of 12-14
programmes per yellr Ulllkr the reference period, the number of activities in both the
cases had declined ove' tlille frolll 25 to 24 activities in Kolar and from 57 to 16 in
Tumkur. During 1<)9R-<)9, a shortfall to the extent of 53.8 percent in Kolar DIET
and 63.6 percent in Tumkur DIET was noticed so far as the number of training
256
programmes was concerned. The shortfall was glaring in Unl:S slich as FT and I'&M
m Kolar and ET and DRU in Tumkur.
8. Although the DIETs had been ahle to adequately cover the teachers m the
district under in-service training programme for 96-97,97-<)8 and lIX-lI9, It \\a,
noticed that the percentage of coverage had declined from 25.4 percent to 9 2
percent in case of Kolar DIET and from 39.3 percent to 80 percent m case of
Tumkur DIET. In case of Kolar DIET, the BRC under DPEI' interventIOn has taken
over the in-service training activities thereby marginalizing the DIET's role.
9. Whi!e the DIET in Tumkur is found to largely target the teachers of primary
schools for training, the DIET in Kolar was found to target the teacher educator and
c.ducational functionaries in addition to primary school
10. In terms of nature of the training activities, the Kolar DIET revealed a wider
variety as compared to Turnkur DIET (22 themes as against 14 themes) and the
major focus of the training in both the DIETs had been largely on pedagogy and
professional orientation.
II. Although, the DIETs m both the districts had conducted training
programmes of three days, five days and seven days duration, the Kolar DIET
appeared to be more active in the spread of training prob'Tammes over varied
duration (additionally 6 programmes of 10 days duration and 2 prob'Tammes of 42
days duration).
12. By and large, the teachers in both the districts (56.3 percent in Kolar and
50.0 percent in Tumkur) felt that the training methodology of in-ser/ice programmes
in the DIETs was inadequate to equip them professionaily. The dcticiencies of the
methodology included not ani" the dominance of the trainer, but also the traditional
lecture method coupled with inadequate lise of instructional/technological aids
However, there W(lS a general consensus among the tramee,; that the training had
helped the teachers to focus on the learner and had enabled them to shift their focus
from the conventional te.(tb0ok orienied aad teacher dominated
methods to child ccnten:d methods.
n. So far as pre-service trainmg programme 10 DIETs arc concern.:J.
DIET revealed a more favourahle Teacher-Pupil ratio of 130 as compar.:d to I 4601
Kolar DIET. Both the DIETs had provided initial OrientatIOn to the student tram.:.:s
with respect to classroom teaching. A large majority (80 percent 10 Kolar and q I
percent in Tumkur) of the student teachers reported that It \\as us<:l'ul In
understanding the teacher preparation course and in planning their course work.
14. Generally the pre-service trainees adhered to the prescribed total number of
lessons to he delivered in different curricular subjects as a part of their praclicurn
However, the practicum rarely exposed them to planning, preparing and delivenng
lessons for standard I and JI, which are crucial from the point of achieving lJEE. It IS
seen that in both the DIETs, a negligible number of lessons are delivered for
standards I and II. While no lessons were delivered for standard I either by I year or
II year trainees, a mere 6.8 percent of the II year trainees in case of Tumkur DIET
and only 13.6 percent of I year trainees in case of Kolar DIET delivered lessons for
class II. Further, Mathematics had received low priority In both the dlstncts for
standard I I. As lesson planning under practicum in the pre-service was linked to the
textbooks in the school syllabus, most of the lessons delivered by the trainees were
based on the content of the prescribed textbooks for various standards. Therefore,
there was a proliferation of delivery of lessons from class III onwards by the Pre-
service trainees.
15. The pre-service training programme conducted by PSTE in both the DIETs
generally had no linkage with the other branches of the DIET and vice-versa
Looking into the notes of lessons, observation records and observation of classroom
delivelY of the pre-service training programmes suggested that the teacher
pn:paratilln programme \\'as largely rote, mechanistic. ilmard looking and
stereotypical.
16. The student teachers were also found to receive insuffiCient monitorIng and
support from the teacher educators as a large majority of the students (88
pcrccnt ill Kolar and 76 percent in Tumkur) reported that their lessons were

supervist!d occasionally and only a very few of the trainct!s (12 percent in Kolar and
24 in Tumkur) reported that their lessons were supervised regularly.
17. Dcspite the presence of Programme Advisory Commiitec (PAC) in the
DIETs for guiding and advising the matters relating to planning and conduct of
training programmes and activitit!s, there appeared to be lack of adequate
representation in their composition so far as inclusion of the client groups and the
stakeholders at the grassroots in both the districts were concerned. Further, the PAC
seemed to be less functional so far as the regularity of meeting is concerned.
18. The DIETs in both the districts did not seem to prepare long term plans to
plan their programmes and activities. However, the DIETs did prepare annual plan
for institutional activities in the fom:. of action plans or calendar of events for every
year indicating various programmes for each of the wings of DIET.
19. There were no specific surveys conducted by the DIETs to assess the training
needs. However, the Principals in both the DIETs claimed that they made attempts
to identify the training needs of teachers either through the REO Of through the
feedback of the teachers. Contrary to this, the teachers in the field reported that
there was hardly any attempt by the DIETs to obtain their feedback for identifying
the training needs. Although, both the sample DIETs claimed that they identify the
priority areas for the conduct of training programme, it was noticed that these
priority areas were generally in Jine with the overall State training agenda. Thus, the
activities of DIETs seemed to be more outward directed rather than self-driven,
which indicates that training is done for extensive coverage and spreld rather than
attending to specific capacity buiiding in the district.
20. The weakest POlllt III the DIET lias the 1,1Ck of planning skill and capacity,
and the key figure who should be in this aspect was the Principal.
The Statt'$ recruitment and deployment policy for the DIET was lound to adversely
affect the D[ETs' functioning with the Principals drawn from the DO PI cadre.
Consequent to this, the DIET Principals' current foclls appeared to be more of
d
. I t' t DII"I' As a result. the DIET
administra1ive rather than aea emlc aspects re a I ng 0 :. .
259
was found to be deprived of the required academic leadership and direction.
Further, the transfer policy was also found to affect the stability of the Principals in
the DIET
21. Although, the Principals in both the DIETs claimed that they have a regular
interaction and meeting with the District authorities and Block level organisations, it
wa, noticed that there was hardly any interaction with the latter. However, the
DIET in Kolar has established linkage with BRCs through one of the faculties acting
as a nodal officer to guide and monitor the activities of BRCs.
22. The interaction with the cluster and village level institutions was almost nil
as reported by the Principal of Kolar DIET, as the same was taken over by the newly
created sub-district level institutional structures under DPEP intervention.
Whereas" in the case of Tumkur DIET, the Principal reported that they interact with
the Heads of school complexes once in six months, with Community members
rarely and with NGOs in the district occasIOnally
')'
Regretfully, the interaction of sample DIETs with pnmary schools is
conspicuously missing as observed during field visits of primary schools and as
reported by the teachers as well. There was hardly any attempt made by the DIETs
to follow up their training programmes through regular visits to the schools. This
was revealed by the faculty themselves who admitted that due to pressure of work
within the DIET, they were not able to undertake visits to schools.
24. The DIETs seemed to be embroiled in kinds of problems, as
perceived by the faculty. It was noticed that the major problem in Kolar appeared to
be In the area of phYSical and infrastructure facilities (as reported by 75 percent of
thl: facultv) Ihl: admlnistrativc and managerial problems \\I:re found to bl: I:ommon
In case of both Kolar (as reported by 56.25 percent of the faculty) and Tumkur (as
reported by 62.5 percent of the faculty). A large majority of facuity (68.25 percent
of the faculty) in Tumkur DIET had ;dentified motivatIOn and kadership as yet
200
another problem. Pmhlems relating to al:ademic aspect seemed to have received
lowest priority in case of both Kolar and Tumkur DIETs.
BRCs:
25. The organisational structure and staffing pattern in BRCs (Kolar and
Gowribidanur) was generally found to be adhered to the prescribed norms.
Howevcr, in terms of staffing position, the BRC in Kolar seemed to have an edge
over its counterpart in Gowribidanur taluk. The faculty in both BRCs had required
minimum quaiifications as per the norm.
26. Although, both the BRCs had the basic infrastructure in place such as
seminar rooms, Staff room for RPs, separate room for COs and kitchen room,
separate halls for men and women and separate toilets form men and women etc, yet
essential infrastructure like electricity and drinking water were missing in case of
GowTibidanur BRC. However, it is to be noted that both the BRCs had powt:r back
up (electricity generator) facility. While the Kolar BRC had regular supply of
drinking water, while the Gowribidanur BRC used to draw water from nearby
source.
27. Considering the academic equipmenls, both the BRCs were well equipped in
terms of various academic materials to perform the expected roles. But there
appeared to be some conflict in terms of utilisation of these facilities in the BRC.
Considering the utilisation of these faCIlities, while a large majority of the RPs in
both the BRCs (more than 85 percent) claimed that they frequently use these
equipmenb during training programmes, a large majority of thc beneficiaries (more
than 75 pcrl:ent) of in->ervice training programmes reported that these equipments
were rarely used. In thiS context, the in-service trainees emphasized the need for
using such t:quipments (0 make (he training programmes lively and meaningful.
261
2R. DPI\P had enhanced the human resource capacity of RPs in terms of
exposing them to different professional training programmes. 1\ positive feature of
this institutional structure was that a large majority of the staff in BRCs had received
induction training prior to or immediately alier their appointments. However, there
seemed to be a gap In the teacher training In terms of teaching techmques (3 out of 5
RPs in Kolar and 2 out of 5 in Gowrihidanun and content orientation (lout of 5 RPs
in Kolar and 3 out of 5 in Gowribidanur) in primary education.
29. Considering the total number of programmes conducted each year, it was
seen that the number of training activities in both the BRCs had increased over the
time from 6 percent to 41 percent in Kolar and from 8 percent to 38 percent in
Gowribidanur. While in 1995-96 and 1997-98, Gowribidanur was leading with 8
and 34 percent of training programmes as against 6 and 31 percent of Kolar BRC, in
the years 96-97 and 98-99, the Kolar BRC had surpassed the Gowribidanur BRe.
The total number of activities in both the BRCs revealed that there is a uniform
adherence in conducting the tramlng pro!:,'Tammes at BRCs.
3C. Considenng the th('me of the training and the category of clientele covered
by the BRCs in their training programmes, it was noticed that there wen: broadly 4
themes and 4 clientele categories The themes were Content & Pedagogy,
Induction, Management and Communitv Mobilisation. The clientele groups were
In-service Teachers, Newly Recruited Teachers, VEC Members and Community
Members. The predominant theme of training was the content & pedagogy related
and the vredominant target clienteles were the in-service teachers. This trend was
observed during the initial period of 95-46 and 96-97, to the extent of 100 p;:rcent
during "I'i-YO and 95 percent dunng 96-97 in case of hoth the BRCs. However, in
the: succe:e:d1l1g year, the:re: appe:are:d t(l be a shift 111 both the the:me: and th.: clicntelc:
groups While Kolar r..:v..:aled 59 perc..:nt of the training programmes related to the
content and pt!dagogy of in-serVice teachers' category and Gowribidanur revealc:d
4> 7 percent of the training programmcs related to the s:lIne theme and clientele
category.
h, YX-{)9. there was further reductIOn in the perccntage of training
b I I
['I'C's' I'll t-'rnIS' 01' the theme and the clientele
programme 111 case or ot 1 t lC '"
262
-
category. During the same year, the themes relating to management and community
mobilisation seemed to have emerged as the major focus in the training programme.
Accordingly, the VEC members had emergt.:d as the major target clientele groups in
hoth the BRCs.
31. Considering the numbt.:r of hatches and duration of the training programmes
in the two it was noticed that thc duration of the training programmes varied
from I day to 10 days. There were programmes of 3, 4 and 6 days in between.
During the year, 95-96, that was the year of starting of BRC, both the BRCs had
conducted only 10 days training programme, which was the activity based training.
While Kolar BRC had conducted this prol,'Tamme for 5 batches, the same in
Gowribidanur BRC was found to be for 7 Dunng the year 96-97, Kolar
BRC had conducted I day programme for 1 batch, 10 days programme for 9 batches
and 3 days programme for 10 batches and the Gowribidanur BRC had conducted a 3
days programme for 13 batches and 10 days duration for 5 batches. During the year
97-98, there appeared to be a peak of traming activities in both the BRCs, rhus,
suggesting the BRCs had picked lip momentum overcoming the initl3llull.
ConSidering the spate of training activities, the Gowribidanur BRC scores
over Kolar BRC in terms of higher number of batches of training programme (30 as
against 27). Once again, the former reveals an edge over the latter in terms of extent
of coverage of clienteles in the training prol,'Tamme (1500 as against 1350). During
the year 98-99, both the BR-Cs had conducted I day, 3 days and 6 days training
programme. However, in tenns of number of batchcs of training programme, the
former scores over tht.: laltt.:r (3n overall 36 as against 33). As a result, the former
to haw overtaken the laller in terms of higher coverage of clienteles (an
0\ crall 1 XOO as again,t
33 Lookmg mto the e'\tcnt of cllVerage of tertci1ers for variolls training
programmes in tht.: two IlRCs over a pt.:riod of time, althpugh, thert.: were
fluctuations in between years, during the mitlai )ea, 95-96, rt higher proportion of
male teachl:rs (52.S percent III I\.lliar and 85.8 percent in Gownbidanur) had received
26J
the benelit of training as compared to their female counterparts (47.2 percent in
Kolar and 14.2 in Ciowrlbldanur). Thus, revealing a poor coverage of female
teachers in Gowrihidanur. During the year 96-97 and also 97-98 and 98-99, the
trend was found to be reversed in case of Kolar. A higher proportion of female
teachers was found to have received the benefit oftraming as compared to their male
counterparts. Incidentally, the Kolar block reveals an overall higher proportion of
female teachers in primary schools. In case of Gowribidanur block, although the
coverage of female teachers under various training programmes appears to have
picked up (from 20.3 percent to 23.9 percent), yet their coverage does not form half
of the total teachers trained. In contrast to Kolar, Gowribidanur block reveals a
gross under representation of female teachers in primary schools.
34. The method of training in BRCs was predominantly the interactive
discussion and group work and the clienteles of the various training programmes in
BRCs generally seemed to be satisfied with these methods.
35. BRCs seemed to lack autonomy and initiation in conducting the training
pro!,'Tammes suitable to the specific needs of teachers and schools in the block.
Lac!.: of co-ordination between the parallel structures at the block level seemed to
have afTected the BRCs' planning activities. Periodic intervention by the district
level structures to the BRCs further compounded its functioning.
36. Despite BRCs' making attempts to identify the training needs through
locating teachers with specific deficiencies, yet when it comes to the question of
selecting the trainees for training, it is the BEO's office, which has the last word to
choose and depute teachers for training at BRCs. This leaves BRes \\ith very little
scope for addressing different tr<tllllng needs of the teachers in the block.
37. Thert: seemed to be a weak structural linkage between the BRC and other
block level organisati(lnal s t r u t u r e ~ as compared to BRCs' vertical linkage down
the line with the cluster level institutions. As a result, the triiditional Block
264

Education Office (BFO) in the educational hureaueracy seemed to he marginalised
in the DI'LI' conlL:xL
38. The faculty in ARC not only to have poor perception ahout the
I3RC's role, but also wen: found to suffer from low morale, poor motivation and
identity crisis.
CRCs:
39. The organisational structure and staffing pattern in CRCs were generally
found to be adhered to the prescribed norms. The faculiy in CRCs had required
minImum qualifications as per the norm The DPEP had enhanced the human
resource capac:ity of COs in terms of exposing them to dIfferent professional training
programmes. However, there seemed to be a gap in the teacher training in terms of
content orientation and material development as reported by the COs in CRCs.
AddItionally, It was also noticed that the COs in CRCs were not trained to develop
specific skills for monitoring and follow up of the training programme.
40. The CRCs in both Kolar and Gowribidanur blocks had the basic
infrastructure facility in place such as training hall, separate room for Coordinator,
toilet, drinking water (storage facility in terms of steel drums) Furniture such as
chairs, tables, jamkhanas for seating arrangement, Almirah for storing facilIty and
academic equipments such as Radio Cum Tape Recorder, Audio Cassettes and
Science and Mathematics kits to carryout academic activities were also existed in all
the CRCs unda study. In addition to the above physical facilities, every CRC was
equIpped WIth academically motivating materials sl1ch as charts, maps, graphic
writIngs, 10\\ cost-no cost teaching-learl1lng aids and other colorfUl cards and

41 One of the major activities undertaken by the CRCs was the monthly
me';tlllg of tl:achers as a part of shanng their Although, such meetings
were found to be conducted irregularly, the major empha3is in such meetings was
265
found to he on the academic related activities rather than administrative and
miscellaneous duties. The shortfall in the number of meetings could be due to
waiting lor the directions of the I3RC, lack of appropriate skills to conduct meetings
and some administrative bottlenecks.
42. The method ('f training in CRCs was predominantly the interactive
discussion and group work and the clienteles of the various training programmes in
CRCs generally seeilled to be satisfied with these methods. However, the Clienteles
had given desire on skill based training for the development of low cost no cost
teachlllg-leaming materials.
43 Another major activity undertaken by the CRCs was the 'School Visits'.
Although a large proportion of time was spent on visiting schools by the COs, there
was a greater decline in the same when Tour Programmes (TPs) of COs were
considered. As a contrast to the TPs, it was observed that there was increase in the
time spent on administrative and other tasks rather than the school visits as revealed
in the TPs. The deviation between the proposed and the actual duties could be due
to the involvement of other duti(!s, such as CPE works, census enumeration, election
dUlles. pulse polio programm(!, meetings and organisation of different Melas.
44 Although, the COs of CRCs were more frequent visitors to schools than their
counterparts In Sexes, BRCs, DIETs and education offices, such visits were
generally done in accordance \\1th their choice and convenience as against their TPs.
It was observed that most of the reports were concentrated more on the
administrative aspects than the academic as required. Regretfully, most of
the suggestions or Instructions given by the COs of eRCs emphasised the deficiency
on administratlVe aspects such as maintenance f)f records and registers, cleanliness,
utilisation of teachers and school grant dc, rather than helping in Improving the
academic environment In the school and classroom The regularity in visits by the
and lack of pTOYlsion or Illt:ntor suppol1 by tht:11l ,,ere furtht:r contirmt:d by the
tC"chas in sample pnmary "hoob (II out of 16). In this regard, a large majority
of COs (more than 90 per cent) In Kolar and Gowrrbidanur blocks reported several
266
--=-
-
constraints such as remotc location of schools, lack of transport facilities and prc-
occupation with routine official activities.
45. Although CRCs in general, seemed to plan in advance various activities for
the monthly meetings, in reality they did not seem to enjoy autonomy in
operationalising them. Frequent interference from the BRes affected the activities
of the CRCs.
46. The workload of COs in CRCs seemed to be heavier as perceived by them.
Their heavy workload could be due to very complex and ambitious nature of the
prescnbed duties and functions, a large and unwieldy numbel of schools and
Involvement in other odd jobs and sundry duties delegated by their higher officials
like BEOs and JOSs.
47. With regard to the interaction of CRCs upward with the block level
organisations, the COs in CRCs of Kolar and GowTibidanur blocks reported that
their Interaction with the BEO was limited during the meetings of Block
Implementation Committee. However, their interaction with the concerned BRCs
was much more frequent. Similarly, at the cluster level, their horizontal linkage was
found to be very limited with the SCxes, although, a large majority of them reported
that they meet the heads of SCxes once in two or three months. The interaction with
the Community members or VEC members was once in a month or two as reported
by the COs in the sample blocks. In this regard, it was further noticed that they
interacted with village level institutions during maa-beti conventions, VEC
mt!lalmeetings, Chinnara Mela and such other programmes It is heartening to note
that the interaction of CRCs with pnmary schools was mort! frequent as observed
during ficld visits of primary schools and as reported by the teachers as well. There
\\cr.: rr.:qucnt attempts made by the CRCs to follow up their activiti.:s of monthly
mcetings by viSiting the schools.
267
48. ,\lthough. thc COs in eRe sccmed to have IJl:tter rcrception about the
eRes role. hcavy workload, lack of II1centJve, low morale and prornotlOn:d
opportunitll::s secmed to aflcctthe COs in discharging their duties properly.
sexes:
49 ConsIdering the SCxes in both OPEl' and non-OPEP context, it was noticed
that they exi stcd as just nom i nal structurcs rather than ful! -fledged insti tution(ll
support structures As a result, they maintained a very low profile in terms of their
academIC activitit's at the cluster level. Organising monthly meetings, helping to
resolve difficult tOpICS and undertaking visits and follow up work were the tasks
performed by thc SCxes as reported by the Heads. ThIs trend was uniformly
observed across 10 SCxes in each of the district. However, the functions such as
developll1g low cost no cost teaching aids and organising co-curricular activities for
leachers seemed to be a casualty in both the districts.
50. Generally the SCx mee!lI1gs w ~ r conducted in the nucleus school
irrespective of DPEP or non-DPEP situation. Sometimes, the meetings were also
conduckd in the component schools attached to each complex, depending on the
com enience and s ~ h mcetings were generally conducted in the working days.
Howcvcr. It was observed during field VIsits that such meetings did not effectively
serve the purpose for which meeting was called
5 j. MOllthly meetings were not held regularly every month during all the three
years under refelence In all the sample SCxes. Computing the average number of
Illeetlllgs for each of the SC"c''. It was noticLd that SC"cs in Tumkur district
revealed a slIghtly hIgher :l\wage than th:lt of Kolar While thc average numbcr or
meeungs In Tumkur \aneJ from 5 to 5 7 across the sexes, the same for Kolar
revcaled 4 10 4 7.
52. Particlp;ltlon In mectlngs at the SC" was a mandatory requirem(;nl.
Thereforc, 10okI\Jg at the attendance of tcachers in such mectings, It was observed
26H
--
that it was more than 90 percent Notwithdrawing such regular participation in the
the I leads of the sexes, however felt the need for improving the quality of
the activities in the sex.
53. As per the norm, the nucleus schools should co-ordinate exchange of scarce
resources. But it was noticed that the utilisation of resources and exchange of
teachers and teaching aids were not given adequate importance in all the Sexes
either in DPEP or in non-OPEP district
54 Considering the nature of meetings at SCxes, it was seen that subject
orientation had received highest priority in Kolar (71 percent) and Tumkur (65
percent) This was next followed by the identification of hard spots to the extent of
45 percent 111 Kolar and 36 percent in Tumkur. Activities such as model lessons on
different subjects and tOpiCS in the SCxes were observed to the extent of 18 percent
in each of the districts. Similarly, preparation of the annual work plan of the SCx
lIas observed to the extent of 20 percent in Kolar and 18 percent in Turnkur.
55. Considering another parameter namely the training transaction in Sexes, it
\las observed that the lecture method was predominantly in use in all the SCxes. As
RPs In thest! SCxes were generally drav.'P. from the high schools, they were unable to
use appropnate methodology relevant to teach primary classes. However, overall the
participants seemed to be satisfied with the meetmgs as it helped them in enriching
their content competence and addressed immediate issues related to classroom
pn'blems
56
With rel!ard to the school viSits, a maJorltv of the sex heads in both DPE!'
. .
and non-lW!:1' dl,trlcts repl)llcd that the,' do IISlt at least once in 3 or 4 months of
tllne and glle the required Illpuh to the teachers In the component schools
However. to tIllS, the Interaction With the primary school teachers during
personal I I\IIS re\ealed that a hrge majofltv of thel11 had 110t visited the school even
once dUfing mal11ly due to hurden ot' their regular work of :ligh
schools. It was further observed that \Cry ran:ly the SC:o( heads either wrote
supervisory report or submitted any to the BEO's office as required. However, in a
tcw cases, where visit reports were available, clearly suggested the routine
administrative aspects rather than academic. This fact was further confirmed by the
teachers in the schools, who reported about the inadequacies and arbitrary nature of
the visit functions. In this direction, they were of the opiOion that more frequent
visits and purposeful supervisory support would help them a lot in improving the
classroom learning.
57. The Sexes seemed to be embroiled in several kinds of problems as perceived
by the Heads. It was noticed that the major problem appeared to be an absence of
clear guidelines/frameworks.
Lack of adequate literature and other reading
m'lterials for enhancing their academic competence, lack of financial assistance for
making SCx more productive and workload of the Heads in their regular High
Schools further compounded the effective functioning ofSCxes.
VECs:
58. VECs as participatory grassroots level structures had recently been replaced
by the School Development and Monitoring Committees (SDMCs). The erstwhile
VECs in Karnataka State seemed to have discharged their duties in certain aspects of
primary education such as ensuring participation of all segments of population,
enhancing enrolment of girl child and meeting the educational expenses through the
identified donors etc. There were certain dysfunctionalities in the functioning of
VECs in terms of conducting monthly participation of members in the
meetmgs. However, the VECs in DPEP district seemed to be more active and
functional. VECs in general had isolation from the grassroots' political and
adOlirmtrative set up in the decentraliscd context.
Promoting School Quality:
59. Considering the asped of school quality in terms uf an important indicator
like Teacher-Pupil Ratio (TPR), the micro level data revealed a much lower TPR in
both the districts with TUlnkur district revealing a slightly lower ratio (1 :20) as
compared to that of Kolar (122).
270
60. Considering the school quality In terms of physical facilltle, and academiC
equipment in schools, the schools in Kolar scored over the schools III Tumkur in
terms of quantity, quality and variety Similarly, in terms of academic envlf()I1ment
the schools in Kolar revealed wide varietit:s in h;rms of tt:aching-leafiling matt:rials,
motivating classroom climate and innovative child centered and activity centered
pedagogical practices.
61. So far as school quality in terms of learning attainments of children in the
curricular subjects, it was seen that there is a difference in the achievement test
scores between Kolar and Tumkur districts. Kolar revealed better learning
attainments among both boys and girls in Language, Mathematics and
Environmental Studies (EVS) (479, 49.1 and 47.6 in Kolar as compared to 45.9,
48.5 and 46.6 in Tumkur). However, it was noted that the mean percentage for both
Kolar and Tumkur districts hovers around 48 percent in the former and 47 percent in
the latter. Further, at disagregate level, there were few schools in both the districts
(4 out of \0 schools in Kolar and 3 out of \0 schools in Tumkur) revealed a much
higher mean percentage than the district average. The gender differentials in
learning attainments in different curricular subjects appeared to have been narrowed
dO\\11 in case of Kolar as compared to that of Tumkur.
Conclusion:
Thus, from the above findings, the study points out that Primary education in
Karanataka has made a remarkable progress quantitatively in telillS of increase in
enrolment of chiidren. recruitlllt:nt of teachers and educational institutions etc, frolll
1956 to 1999. Howe\ er, the perslstillg dropout rates particularlv at higher primal)
\eyel and among girls ,lIld the unfavourable STR reneet rath,;r a poor quality in
primary educJtion in the State. Even in the sample districts, tht: findings with
respect to UEE suggest that then: has been progress III terms of growth
. . t't t' nrolment Ti'l( STR and reduction in wastage rates in both the
10 10S I U Ions, e . , " ,
271
districts Kolar district has made a remarJ..ahlt: edu(;atlllnal progress <1\ cmnparcd '"
that of Tumkur especially atter launching of DI'I:), In the d,strlct In (If
recruitment of teachers, Improved learning attainments of chrldren, decrease In
enrolment gap between hoys and girls and reduction In dropout ralcs of chlld'cn
However, wastage among girls hclonging to SC and SI categories continued to IlC a
persisting issue in both the sample distncts The analySIS of primary data from IW(\
districts relating to the role of institutional structures at d:slricl and
levels pointed certain dysfunctionalities In lerms of phYSical, material and hunan
resource capacity of these institutional structures for promoting school quality. The
major findings emerging from the present study suggesl that the C1pacity of so
called capacity building institutions themselves is far from satisfactory. DPEP docs
seem to have enhanced not only the learning levels of ch;ldren but also the academK
environment of primary schools in Kolar In terms of improved
atmosphere, training of teachers, shift In cumcular transaction from
teacher/textbook centeredness to child/activity centeredness as compared to thaI of
TumkuL
6.5. Policy Implications
Having put new Institutional Structures in the decentralised setup, it becomes
crucially important to address issues relating to motivation and leadership
capacities of the functionaries. Efforts are required to emplo\' innovative
training strategies involving technology meQiokd training to address these
Issues.
Strengthening of linkages between and among the Institutional Structures
horizontally and vertical with the existlllg traditional orgamsational slructun:s
become very important. Needless tll Illcntilln. that am nl'\\ In\tltlltillnal
Structures should function in tandem with the CXlSting traditional structures

Separate Staff recruitment and dcployment policlcs n..:ed to be t:\ohcd nn a
priority basis for stabilising the Staff pllsititHlS and for tht: poSltl\e
gains from such innovative Institutional Structures
-
As the training in a cascade model is bound to diluk the training content down
the line, care should he taken to Identify and plug thl! leakage at different levels.
Alternativdy, training modules could be developed at districtlsub-dtstnct levels
alier conducting a need assessment survey
6.6. Suggestions fo. Further Research
By the time this study was concluded, the DPEP programme in the State was being
phased out. Subsequently, the SSA of the GOI has been taking over the DPEP
interventions in order to sustain and consolidate the focus of DPEP and mainly
towards the goal of UEE by 2007. A variety of interventions are launched under
SSA in ordcr to hasten the process of UEE. Yet, problems persist in the form of
effecting changes in the systemic process and factors, motivation and mindset and
community involvement. In the light of this, the following suggestions are made.
A comparitlve study of the roles and contributions made by the DIET, BRC a!1d
CRC in different socio-economic context could be undertaken.
A correlation studv of the DIET, BRC and CRe and primary schools could be
attempted.
Attempt could also be made to study how the positive gains of the DIET, BRC
and CRC are consolidated and sustained in the light of the emerging scenario.
Impact of the training programme conducted by DIET, BRC and CRC could
be undertaken through small tracer studies.
273
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Name or thc DI ET
D"trlct
Postal nudrcss
Phon\! r-..; ullllJ"Cr
APPENDlCF.S
I. GENERAL INFORMATION BASE -DIET
l'amc of the present Prlnc'pal/ In-charge Principal
(,) PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Y car of cstabli,hmcnt
2 Is the DIET convcrted from Pre-serv'ee TeacherEduCDllon Institution?
whol type of institution' I Go\'crnmcnt I Private
3 Localloll a) Rural/Urban
If Rural b) Tribal/Hilly / Desert
D,stance from d,stl1ct head-quarters ...... Kms.
Yes INa
:i AcccsSlb,lity of the mstllutc Motorable road J Kuchha road
6 Total area of the campus ....... ..... Acres
7 Total carpet arca of the building .... Sq metres
8 Bulidmg . a) Rented / Own b) Under construction
9. Has the buildlO come up aficr DI ET was established" Yes / No
If no. for what purpose was it used earlier? .......... ..
10 Has there been an\' new construction after the DIET came up": Yes I No
If yes. whal part of the building was it ................... .
II Present condition of the buIlding :Very good / Reasonably good I vcry poor
12 Total number of classrooms
13 A ,ailabil,ty of the folio\\lng rooms
Scm mar room
Sc,encc labouratory
Psycholob': labourator)
C omputcr labouratory
Separate room for each branch of DIET
Work shed
Staff room - Principal's room
- Vice-Pnncipars room
- Separate sittmg place for faculty members
- Separate staff room for men and women

Audltonum
- Scaling capac it)
Library
- Scating capacity
14 Othcr fBciliues
Safe drinking" aler
Regular of cicct,oicil)
Canteen
Tl'I11,'ts (Scpnrntl' for n:..'1l & \\omen)
I" 'r0 car of constfllC!lOn of hostel
l" ScpJratc hostcl..:; for men & \\ omen
Tolal cllpaclty of"mcil's hoslel
Scats occupied Jt prCSL'IIt
Total of wOOlen's hO<;lcl
Scats occupied III present
I 7 F "ei lilies m the host"'s
Dining hall
C'tlmmon room
Yes/No
YeslNo
YesHlo
Yes/No
Yes I No
Yes I No
Yes I No
Yes / No
Yes INo
Yes I No
Yes I No
Yes/No
Yes I No
Yes I No
Yes I No
I' No
YL's:No
Yes IN,)

Qucstinnnair", prcparc'd by NIEPN!'vlflRD. GO(, for c"calualion of DIETs in India. :WOO
Dispensary
Toilets (Separate fur men and "IHnen)
I K. Pro\:islon of sudT quarters in Ule campus for
Principal
Faculty members
Supporting sluD'
Class IV employees
19. Open Arca
Do vou have a garden"
Do you have a playgrour,d
(ii) TECHNICAL AND ACADEMIC EQUIPMENT FORMAT
Id th n lcalc e eqUipments available in the instilute
Yes I No
Yes I No
,--------- -----------,
Number
AvaIlable OCCUPIed
Yes I No
Yes I No
Equipment No. In working condItion (VIN)
TV set
Photocopier
V.CR.
V Ideo Camera
FIlm Projector
OHP "ith screen
Public address system
Slide proJcctor
Radio
Audio Recorder
Audio casset!es
V Ideo cassettes
Carne<a
Telephone
Fax Mdchine
AnI' other
2 (al Computers
Number
Models
Any ureradation done in the past
Arc you able to purchase computer
consumables regularly
What software do you have
Do you have any maintenance contract'!
(b) Pnlltcrs
Number
Type
Model
(c) Who arc the users or computers"
(d) Is there a provision or usc of computers 111
tllue table')
3 L,bra"
Total number cfbooks in the horllry
Timings ortltc lIb,,,,,'
- Hours
DB'S
Number or proresslOnal Journals
Ves/No
Ves INc
Ves I No
Dot matrix Ilnkjct I Laser
Trainees
,I I
OlYlCl' Pcrsl'llncl
Yes I No
From
---------.,...-........

o 111.'\\ "p.IP":I sand mag<l"lIlcs
...
- l.ocal
- Lnglish
(III) HUMAN RESOURCES FORMAT
I A I bl \'\11 a I Ih 01 stall al present
i-P()SITION
PRESENT POSITION
Sanclioned
e-!!'-
-- ---- ._- ---------
TLACHING Number
--
r---;;--- -
Male Female
mncipal

PSTE Sr Leclurer
-------
1-:-, Leclurer
WE Sr Lecturer
-=-=-Leclurer
L; Sr Leclurer
------------
Leclurer
IFle Sr. Lecturer
Leclurer
Cf:iOESr Lecturer
Leclurer
ET Sr. Lecturer
Lecturer
P & M Sr Lecturer
Leclurer
StallSticlan

Llbranan
Lab AsSlstanl
C r ()pcrator
T cchmcian
AccounlJlnl
Supcrimcndent
CIcrb
Peon
Mali
2 Number of stafT members who hnc teaching cxp..-ricn<.e al prilDlll)' educatior. level :
3 Is a ",bool aached 10 the DIET? Ycs!No
If yes. gl\e the <'clall.
No. of Slandards ... ,Ih secllons
No of sludenl'
No of tC3,=hC"'s
(n I AC\DI\flC PRO(iRA\1\'ES AND ACTIVITIFS FOR\"T
Do, nu rrc..,,<lll" .11\ .1111111111 pLm for 1Il,llllIthtllJI .:lell\ HIC',') Yes I No
Vacant Since
! h,." 'I ---------
h(m olh.'11 :)11.: llu.: 111\:..:llIIg'" held III iI Oncc/ Tv.icc I Thrice
!'re-Sen ICC r';lInmg
I \\'h3' h the .,llnu;1: ml;JL.c'
2 110" many dl\'ISIOns arc !hcr.:"
--
--
--
3
4
'i
(,
Number or tminces
flo\\ teachers arc illvohcJ III pn.:-scn'icc tcaching
Teacher - PupIl RatlP
Number of schocls where practice Leaching is dune
M F Total
Year I
Year II
Total
7 Examination rcslIil of last h\o) cars
Ycar No. of Tramces
Appearcd I Passed
I
In-Sen icc Tr",oing Pro,,'famme
I
2
3
I Please "nte the number of courses conducted dunng the year 1997-9810 cach box (excludmg AEINFE
programmes
Client Group Teachers Head Education Community Tola!
Masters Officers Workers
Areas
Content related
Pedagogy and Technolob'Y
related
Management related
Total
2. Please "nte the number of courses conducted dunng the year 1997-98 undcr cach of the category
of
duration
a) Duration less than one week
h) One week duratIOn
c) Duration more than one \\ eek
3 Please indicate the number of participants trained
\m:lg e\'ear
-
d th 199798
Teachers Hcad Masters Education Officers Community Workers Total
F Icld Interacuon
I What is the frequency of the meetmgs With
Block level functlOnanes :Once in 3 months I once in 6 months i'annually I No
Interaction
Heads of school complexes Once 10 3 months I OIlCC III (, OJ'lOthS I annually I Nc, InteractIOn
District Authorities Once In 3 months I once In h months / annually I No
Interaction

CommuOl!\ Jt
ill months I once in 6 months I
...s I No Interaction
N(iOs mlhe Dlstnct in 3 months 10m.: ...' 1/1 h m{)nths I alllHlillly I No Interaction
2 Any newslellc.,- pllhlished b\ the DIET"
I ryes, .. o, hill IS thl: '.'
1, Any paml'ltlclS, hrochures ctc prcxhlCL'd the
DI ET ror dlslributu-'n amoll!; sehenl (';o'lIpkxcs I
Iryes. please specify the number
Yes I No
Yes.' No

eo 111.:\\ "P'IPt.:IS and maga/lnCS
\uh\cnocd
- Local Language
-
(ill) HUMAN RESOURCES FORMAT
I A I bl r \'ar a 11\ (1 slalT.I present
----
POSITION
PRESENT POSITION
_._._--- ----------
Sanctioned

TEACHING Number
Male Female
Pnncipal
rYlce-Prlncipal
cJ'ST E Sf. Lecturer
f-:-, Lecturer
WE Sf. Lecturer
Leclurer
DRLi Sr. Lecturer
Lecturer
IFIC Sf. Lecturer
Lecturer
eM DE Sf. Leclurer
Lecturer
ET Sf. Lecturer
Lecturer
P & M Sf. Lecturer
Lecturer
-- -- -
I-7=_Slatistician
NON-TEACHING
Librarian
Lab Assistant
Computer Operator
Tcclmician
Accountant
Superintendent
Clerks
Peon
-
Mali
2 Number or stafTmembcrs who hal'c teachmg cxp.:rien<e at pnm8l) educatior. Ie,d.
3. Is a Prim8l)' hool attached to the DIET? YesINo
If yes, give the follow;n
6
cletail
No. of standards Witll sections
No. of studcnL'
No. or tcache's
(I\i AC\ DUvllC PROGRAM>"lES AND ACTIVITIES FOR>"t\ T
00 you im ;lI1I1ua! plan ror IIlSlitU(hJIlJI :let!' HIC"')
If \'cs. h()\\"
Yes I No
V_S'MIC
3 hO\\ oneil :u..; the hdd In Once I T\\lcc I TImcc
Pre-Sen'lcc ['r:lUling
I \\'hat IS the
2 110\\ many di\ Isions arc
3. Number of Irainees
4 I [0\\ many teachers arc involved in pre-service
:; Teacher - Pupil Ral",
6. Number of sch(){)ls where practicc tcaching is done
---
M F Tolol
Year I
Yeor"
TOlal
7. Examinalion ,csolt of last two years
rear No. of Tramces
Appeared I Passed
I
In-Sen icc Trai"ing Prob'ramme
I Please wrllC the number of courses conducted during the year 1997-9K in each box (excludmg AEfNFE
programmes
Client GTOup T cachers Head Education CommuOlty
Total l
Masters Officers Workers
Areas
I Content related
2 Pedagogy and Technology
relaled
3 Management relaled
Total
2. Please write the number of courses conducted dunng the ycar 19n-Y8 under cach of the category
of
duration
a) Duration less than one week
b) One week duration
c) Duration more than one week
3. Please indicale the number of participants trained
dUI1:1g th 1997 e ,'ear -98
Teachers Head Maslers Educalion Officers Communily Workers Tolal
Field InteraclJon
I. What is the frequency of the meetings with
Block le\'el fWlcllonaries :Once in 3 months (once in 6 months ('annually / No
Interaction
Heads of school complexes: Once in 3 months / once in 6 m0nths / rumu.lly / Nc, Interacllon

District Authorities
Once in 3 months / once m (, months / annually / No
Interaclion

Once in 1 ,I onCl' in 6 months I

Interaction
NCiOs III th\.> 111 J months / OI1C(' In () months I ;lIl1Hldlh .' Nnlntcraction
2 Any nc"slctler pubhshed b, thc DIET"
If yes. \\hat IS
Any oft ..lChurcs elc produced by the
DI1:'I' for dlslnbullC'n :1111011 c(I'nplcxcs I Scil<x"ls?
Iryes. picilSC the number
Yes I No
Yes,' No
'" Leaching aid!'> Clrculaled among school
Complexes I schools')
5. Number of \lSlts of DIET facultvfm the
last :1 months) to
school complex meetings
IIldindual schools
Yes I No
(, During the last 3 months, has the DIET facully advised school complexesl schoolteachers on any
of their professionallacademlc problems'l Give details.
Rcsc",!"ch
IndIcate the research conducted at the DIET.
SI No Titles of Studies completed Year of completIOn
SI No. Title of On going studies Y car of commencement
I
DRU
I. During the last three mo.lths, has the DIET faculty advised AEINFE personnel on any of their
professIonal/academic problems? Give details
2. Training fo, or.d NFE inotruotors during the last one yea.
!'jumber of programmes Number of inStl uctors co\'ered


Induction training I __
Annual Refresher \--- I
3. Number of visits of DIET facull), (in the last three months) to
AE centres ............ .
NFE centres .............. .
I I
I
II. INTERV .. :W SCIfEIHJU:S ... OR TEACJIING STAFI< OF DIETS
A. PERSONAL INFORMATION'
I. Name _ _ _ _ _ 2. Age _____ 3. Sex Male/Female
4. Education _____ 5_ Experience' (a) Pnmary School Teachmg ____ _
(bJ Total _______ ( .. Spcclali/.iltlon, if alll'
7 Whether) ou received Orientation / I nducllOn" . Y es' -------
H ICycs. give details about (he induction progrummcs(sclcction criteria. programme dClnils etc)
a ProfesslonallIatntng undergone before coming to DI ET
b Aner entry into DlET(Profosslonal de,elopment, lIaliling / workshops details etc)
c Whal more do you expect?
'i Designation: Sr. Lee! Lee.
10. Unil In which working PSTEIWE/IFICICMOElETIPM/ORU
II. (0) Whcther you slay in the slafT quarter of DIET? Yes I No
(bJ If no. "hal is the distance bet\\ccn your residence and place of wor"?
Belo\\ 5 Km.I; to 10 Km I More lhan 10 Km
GOALS & OBJECTIVES
12 You must be aware that the scherne of DIET has been dcslgned for achieving certain goals and objectives as
mdlcated below. Please rank these in order of priority by putting 12,3clc
Goals & Objectives Rank
To become a pace setting institution in the district in respect of elementary teacher lIaining
To supplement already existing infrastructure support for elementarv education
To improve quahty of in c1ementar\ educatIOn
To ach,c,e the largel of Uni"ersalisation of clement"" educatIon
To hquldate Illiteracv
To pro\'lde technICal support fN distncl educational planning
To pro\ldc facilities for tramlllg of in-service teachers
To underlilkc acllon rescarch in the area of elemcntar\' education
13. To what ex:ent, III your oplllion. these goals and ob)CCII\'es have been achlc,ed by the DIET you are
workmg in?
aJ Toagrcatextcnt b) Tosomcextcnt c) Notatall
14 How effeclive, you think, is your role in realising these goals and obJcctives?
a) To a great extent b) To somc extent cJ Not at all
C NATURE OF WORK & WORK LOAD
15. As a stafT of DIET ),ou may be perfonning a number of duties. both tcaching and non-teaching. Indicate
f kl d han. below m terms 0 approxunatc percentage ,'our wor . 03 agalllst cae categorY m a seSSI
Calegor, Percentage
Teaclung (Pre serv'ice)
Training (In service)
Admmislration
Research
Othcr actintics
I (, How do you rate your workload?
aJ Vcr, hca\'\' b) Just """ugh c)
17 .. : far ;s the of your \\ork rclc\"anl to the (11' j)1 FT')
;:t) loa great extent b) To some ex(ellt c) Nnl ;11 all
1 K [)o"-""':) \\ork proVide any scope for mnO\ 'J Y i No
I) INJ'flll'fRSONAI.IIFlA1l0NSHII'
II), In orgmlismg aClivities of DIET you may Iw\"c to depend 011 olh!.fS In the institution. In
sud-, situations how you will rate the cooperation f,,)11 I\'e lrom .
Pri'lcipol - VCl") cooperatl\"c!coo!JCrat;\cJnnt coopcl,lll\c
T cachtng st.IT
Non Icaching slaff - .. .
20 lim\. do H)U viC"t'lhc cooperation rCCI." 1\ cd from agcllu-.:s/orgamsatwns tor DIET
Jcll\ Illes? a) J-ligh h) Moderate c) Lov.
21 do olllcr organisations in the cOOlmululy vic\\ the rc\(;vOllcc or ()IET In the conk\t of
ckmcnl,uy cdm,',Htlon In your dl<llrict'l
a) Vcry relevant b) Somc\\hat ;c1c\unt c) Not rCk\'anl
K METHODS OF TEACHING
22 Out of' the following methods, Indicate \\hich ones Jrc lL<.Jcd you Jnd also the c:xtcnt of usc for both prc-
sen'ICC and in-service calcgorll-'S
Methods Pre-service
In-sen.'icc
--
Mosth Sometimes Rarely Mostlv
Rarel"
Lecture
Demonstration
Discussion
.-
Seminar
Project
Field work

teaching
Self studv
23 WhIch of the following equipmenlS are available in the institute and which arc used bv YOU 10 teaching I
tralnmg
'J
EqUipment Available Used
Audl Cassellcs
Video Cassettes
OHP
RadiO
TV
Film Projector
Slide ProJcctor
Computer
2J If vou are not uSing any of the above, state the reasons.
F, PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL & JOB SATISFACTION
25. How is your performance in the job is appraised"
a) Through ACR b) Review Committee c) Any other. specify
26. Arc you salisfied with the method of performance appraisal? Yes I No
27 Are often do YOll receive rccogmtionlincentiv'e for doing your job \\cll"
aJ Alwa,,- b) Sometimes c) Nev'er
2x Which of the following opportwlitles for professional development have been availed bv you?
Study leave for doctoral work
Refresher Course
Seminar I Conference I Workshop
Acadcinic tOllI
non of the .bove
21) Ho\\ satisfied .rc you WIth your Job?
0) VerV'salisfied b) Salisfled e) Not satisfied
30 Plcas(: mcnlton >c 0" Ie conln lIllon I all\' YOU l'HL' rna C \\' 11 C war 109 III
Area
Contribution
TC;Jl.,;hi'll' mctl,tXis
Mat.;ria. dc\\;loQmcnt
c,'aluiltlon
"
,
,
l I f b r
d II
DIET"
-=l
I
) I IndlcJlc tim.:..: most Important problclIS rdallllg to 01 E I III \\ Im.:h ou ,lrl: \\01 Am!;;
:r:! Please ofTer three suggestions for impr('lvc,mcnl in the fUllctioning of DIET.
III. INTERVmW SCHEJ)(ILE FOR IHET I'RINCII'ALS
I3i1cJ..grolilld Informnlion
Name
Qualificallons alAc"demlc '-------------------------- b) ProfessIonal _______________ _
bpenence (In Chronological Order)
=:> Before Joinmg the present DIET
7;> In the presenl 01 lOT
Mode of Seleclion a, n PrincIpal of DIET
2 Whnt goals a DIET IS slrlvmg to ach,eve"
3 Arc obj.xlives of DIET broadly the same as e1l\'isagod by Elementary Tcacher EducallOn Inslltullons
that eXlsled before DIET came up" Ifno, in ",hat asperts arc Ihey dIfferent?
4, Whether avallnble facilities arc adequate for achievement of stated objectives of DIET and ils
effeet,,'e functioning') (In case of inadequacy gIve detaIls)
a) Buildmg
=> Adequacy
=:> Institute Building (Admmistralive & Acadcmlc Wings)
c ~ Hostel
=:> Staff Quaners
(ondlllon
=:> Institute Building (Administrative & Academic Wings)
=:> Hustel
=> Staff Quaners
b) Furniture for
=> Office
=:> Academic staff rooms
=:> Classrooms
=:> Aud,torium
=:> L i b r ~ / reading room
=:> Hostel
c) Equipments and Material for
=:> Work Experience
=> Art Education
=> Resowco Room for PhyslCa!/\ HandIcapped Cluldren
=- LabolUatory
=> Games and Sports
=> AudIO V isual and other teaching aIds
For givmg qualtt)' lratrung to ETE pupil teachers
For gi\ !f.g training to teachers in the usc of latest t.xhmques and equipments,
Do you have well equipped seminar rooms especially for conducting In-Service
programmes? If yes_ what are ils special features" Ifno. what arrangements do
you make for conducting in-service programmes?
During vacation
DUflng month when ETE classes arc also hemg held
,', Whelher the prescnt organisatIonal structure of DIET facilitates its
functioning? I[not, what r.:forms do you sUgcst as regards:
a) Sevcn Branches (Should these branches be upgraded as Departments WIth adequate
stafT strength to carry out its 5pecilic Jcti, itics/Mcrgcd/Rctaincd 1111hc present f.:mn)
=:> PS]I,
""
WE
""'
DRLJ
=>
IFIC
=> CMDE
=>
loT
=> I'&M
R ",fhat an: the areas where the stJIT members ('If dincrcnl branches seck cooperation of each other?
,!, Arc )OU satisfied \\Ilh the pres':nl mode of selection of cirmcntary teacher oducators? If not, what
changes do you suggest as regards:
a) Educational Qualificalions for Lecturers & Sf. Lecturers in various branches
b) Pn)ics ... iol1al Qualifications
c) Minimum e'<perlcnce rcqlllrc:d
d) Mode of select.on
Ih"ugh some Central I State I District b'el "geney
" On dcpII;ation I direct rccmitmentl both
10 What.s the present strength of teachers working on deput"lIon baSIs'> What type of parent
organlsaljons have lhey come from"
II How frequently the staIT is transferred to the other DIETs in the Stale or staIT from State Education
Ocpartmentlf, transferred to DIET and on what cntena'i
12. How frequently and through which institullons induellon and conllnuing training programmes are
rro\ Idod to the faculty?
13 \\.'hat critena do you adopt for nomonatong the staIT members for attending programmes I seminars I
conferences clc_ '}
14. Do the teacher take classes on elementary schools located nearby? If yes, how is their work schedule
planned') . .
15. How do vou ensure that In the present set up leachers gel enough freedom for their professional
growth? What measures rio yop adopt fo!" cncouragin2 / facilitating teachers for their professional
growth'>
16 How arc the results of the research studies undertaken by the members communicalcd I Glsseminated
to the teachers I Educationists I AE-NFE personnel in the District?
17. Ho\\' do you plan the mtake (no of pupil teachers) in PSTE course ever), year?
a) No. of scats is fixed
If so, gIve the 110. and the basis on wh.ch the no has been fixed so.
b) Take stock of
I Average of posts of clemental)' teachers likely to be crcalcd annudlly
II No. of tramed teachers unemployed
iii. No of vacancies likely to ansc due to death, retirement. rcslgnation etc
c) Any other criteria
1& Is Elementar) Teacher Educalior. course still provided by other institutions in the Dislnct? If yes, give
no and names of those IIIstltutions
19 Ho" many ETE instJlu\Ions in the D,strict have been
a} Upgraded as DIETs ___ .
b) Phased out
I, there any increa:;e or decrease in the total intake number of pupil teachers in the District in ETE
course as a result of out of certain ETE institutes'"
I \VhJt IS the mrx1c of sckction for adl1l1SSIOnll) Iht.: ElI::
ollnthc DIET
b) In other ETE 1I1.,titutlOlb (il';.))\)
22 the pr.:scnl nlOdc appropriate'} If no, \\'hot reforms you suggest as regard::; l1Iode.. of sdcction for
admission to the course?
n Whether the cUrrlcululll follo\\eJ 11) ETE cOl'rse has been dc\'elopet! by Ihe Stnte Itsclr' If no, \\'hich
turTiculum IS being foI1O\\'cd'! Will.:'(l the curriculum rcvisoo las!'.)
What is the teacher - pup. I ratio III the DIL:r'
25 Do lOll prepare teachers for primary level or elementnry level'l What inputs (conlent, strategy etc) me
gl\'cn exclusively for preparing teachers to teach Ht the
a) Primary level
b) Upper pnmary level
2(, Do you think that there is any need to ma,c reforms as regards
Duration of course
Eligibility criteria
(' oursc structure
Course con Lent
Course methodolob'Y
27 Wnat arc thc main training progra!llmc.s (besides PSTE courses) which arc conductcd by the DIET"
28, How do you ensure that elcmentary teachers and AEfNFE pc"onnel arc systematically sponsored for
traimng 10 DIETs?
29 Arc you able to tram the requisite no of personnel everv year? If not, why"
30 How do you set the targct for tn-,crVICC programmes every ycar"
31 \Vhat arc the aehie,'emcnls of the DIET with speCial reference to production I replication of
Slides
Audio programmes
FIlms
TV programmes
V Idco replication of TV longinal prograrrunes
32 Has any sun",' regarding the availability and utilisatJOn of audiO Visual aids (especially OB material)
in schools ever conducted by DIET? If yes, what were the findings & follow up taken by the DIET"
33 How many lab areas have been adopted by DIET smce It has come up? \!illat arc the major
achie,ements of that area as a result of tnt""entlon of DIET?
34, What IS the reiatJOnslup of the DI ET with
SCERT
Dlfcctoralc of School EducatIOn
Municipal Corporation
Directorate of Adult EducationINon Fomlal Education
Department of Education
35 Ho\\ frequently do Interact , ...ith
Block le,eI functionaries
Heads of school complexes
DlStnct authonllcs
Community workers
NGOs in the DlStnct
3(, \!ill"t t,j>C of support IS prOVided bv the DIET to DBE I EducatIOnal Planners / Educational
for planning and administration of educational programmes"
:n I\-PC of assis.tance is pronded the DIET members to scho ....)1 / schools'}
3X Has DIET been successful In impro\ing upon the elementary cducJltonlo t!K Dlstnct Ihcs, whJt tire
th(' "cllIc\'cmcnts i1S regards'
ImpTm Cllll!nt in acCL'SS to schl..)l.)l"
InCTl:aSC In enrolment
Rcdtlcing the drop - Ollt fule
)1) Has th..; mlcf\cnllon of DIET rcsu!tcd In IIlCn;IISl:' 10 the literacy rule' of the Distnct') If >\.'S. by how
much"
\A.'lIB" Inno\'ot;oll!-. h.1\ I.: h"::clI made llh,' DII: r III th\.' 8:'('il or c;,'lllcnlary cduCtilioll I Lkmcntnry
Teacher EJucnholl')
41 V/hal inltialives hIt' c beell tal..cll b:
l
- the DI L r for ,I(hi(""inf', the target or EFA by lOOO III tilL District
EductltlOn (Formal System)
NOli hJrmal FduCi:lllOn
Adult I:dUc.ltlon
What role DIE r IS "la\l1lg 111 the overall NLM strategy"
,,1.' \\'hat problems do fflce In procurmg the funds for running the institutIOn?
44 Is the fund rccci\cd sufficient ror out various acti\'llics" Ir not, what arc those
arcns/acllvilics ror \\111ch more funds arc requlred'i
4, a) Do DIETs enjoy adequate Itmctlonal autonomy"
=> Academic
=> Administrative
Financial
b) What slcps arc taken to ensure th,s"
4'\, Do you prepare annual institutional plans?
40 What mode of evaluation is adopted for determmmg the extent to which DIET has succeeded in
achieving the targets I norms fixed for the year"
47 Has any e,aluotion been conducted by any extcmal agency till date? If yes, what were its major
observations I recommendations'!
4X (a) Ho\\ cfTectlle you think is your role 111 realwng the goals and obJcctives of DIET"
To a great e"tent ITo some extent I Not at all
(b) If not at all, why?
4Y (a) As the head of the DIET, ,WhICh are the tasks that you perform" And give the average time spent
on them
Admimstrau\'e I Academic i Any-'o!hor (:;pecif,,) 3
50 While \\orkmg in the DIET for thc improvement of elementary education you will have to de;>end on
others m ti,e mstltute as well as outSIde the In such SItuations how will ),ou rate the
cooperatIOn from the follow!!'!;

Very co-operative Co-operatil'e Not 1
DIET staff- Tcachin!!ITrainme
0?.IET_ s!alT- Non :reaching
In-scn'icc trainees
--
Educational
Commumt"
I
AnI' other (specify)
51 Hm, do othcr organisatIons in the communlt), "iew the relevance of DIET in the context of
clementary education in ),our ,"strict')
Very rele,ant I Some what relc'''''t I Not rebant
52 (a) Has any of your work been recoglllzed',' If,cs, in what ways has It
b',cn rccogni/cd" (a) Awards (b) Increments (c) Any other
110\\ satisfied an.: ou WIth our joh',) Satisfied I Not satisfied
:\-l (a)()o 011 f,.:.:1 that DIETs Jro: (''\pefl!.:nclIIg sum..; proh!ems In 1helr erfectlYe working? Yes I No
(b) slich pflJh I I..' illS
)) (JI\"C suggestions for the ctTcctlrc worl..l11g of DI ET s
IV.
BLOCK IU;SOliRCE CENTRE PROPILE
Name of the BRC
(I) PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
Y car of establishment
l.ocation
If Rural
Distance from rustnct head'G"artcrs
orthc institute
Namc of the present CO-Ordinator
0) Ruml/lJrban
b) Tribal/Hilly / Desert
Kms.
Moturablc road / Kuchh. road
Total arca of the camVlls Acres
Tot.1 carpel arca of thc bUIIdmg ..... Sq. metres
BuIIdmg : a) Rented / Own b) Under construction
Has the bUilding COniC aficr BRC was cs,ablished" Yes / No
If no, for what purpose was it uSC<! earlie,'1
Has there been am ncw constructiol. afier the BRC came up? :
If yes, "hat part of tho bUilding was It ........... ..
Present .:ondilion of the bUlldmg
T olal number of rooms
A"allability of the follOWing rooms
Seminar room
Computer labouratory
Work shed
Yes I No
: Yes/No
. Yes/No
. Yes/No
StaIT room - Co-ordmator's room Ycs / No
Separate silting place for faculty members: Y cs I No
Separate staIT room for men and women . Yes / No
Auditorium . Yes / No
- Scatmg capacIty
Other faCilities
Safe dnnkIng watcr
Regular supply of electriCIty
Canteen
Toilets (Separ.te for men & women)
Pro, lSiOn of s:.IT quarter.; m the campus for

II
Yes I No
Yes I No
Yes I No
Yes I No
Number
Available Occupied
-=------
C o-ordmator

F acuh, members
Supportmg stafT
IV cmlovees
Open Area
Dc) ou have a garden? Yes I No
(11) TECHNICAL AND ACADEMIC EQCIPMENT FORMAT
Indicate th e eqUipments a, allable m the institute
F(JlIIpnK'111
N"
111 cIlndil!PIl (Y
--
- ------
I V .. ",I

_.
l'lklhl\:orm:r
Vllk.() ClIInL"I'U
I >lIP With scrL't.'1l
--
Put'lh..: udJrcs,!' :-\ skill
KaJltl
I\Lltho Rc.,;urJl'r
AudiO C/U!Wttcs
---,
-
V ,lic{1
I

-
Am IIlher
(II) ('oll1pulcrs
Number
Model,
Any upgradutlon done III the past
Arc you able to purchase computer
cOllsumablcs regularly
\Vl13t software do you have

Do you ha\ c any maintenance contract?
(b) Printers



Number
Type
Model
(c) Who arc the users of computers"
Number of profeSSional Journals
subscribed
Daily nc\\spapcrs and magazines
subscnbed
- Local Language
- Enghsh
(1111 RESOURCES FORMAT
A ,ailabllity of staiT at prescnt
POSITION PRESENT POSITION
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Dot matrix / Ink)et /

Office Personnel
SanctIOned In Position Vacant Reasons for not
Number Since filhng the DOSt
r ramlnl!. Personnel Male Female
o-ordinator
esaurcc ncrsan-I
lResource DcrSOIl-2
Resource ncrson-,
Resource
Tramm" stafT
Comouter Oocrator
Technician
Accountant
Su')Cnntendcnl

Poon
Mali
2. Work profile of te.dung / training stafT
Position Work load of one week (Total _____ _
Training Admlnistrati\'e Other tasks Additional
(Specif,) rcspOllSlbilitiesl2nceit\)
, __
Wsourcc pc:rS(mcL__-- _ . ____ . _' _--j ___________ . __ ---,
__ .1 .. -.!----------+' ___________ 1 -.----.-----------j
l-------t--------- ------l--------i-----.-------.=---'
3 Number of starr members who h3\-e tcaching
4 Experience at primar; level
-' Stall de,elopment-Ind"idual proille 1(" three yenrs
---------
(,'0-( ,rtlill alor
------1----------- -
_ Resource
---------- r---
_
- - -- -------(

__ _
_Ky"ollrcc __

------.-.- ---.. ---- r-------(
-----------'---__ -'-____ J
(II) ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AND ACTIViTIES FORMAT
Do you prepare an annual plan (or institutional
aClj\ itics?
I r yes. how"
Yes / No
I
2,
3 .............. ,"_
2 Docs the BRC ha,e a Programme AdVIsor, Commlllee? Yes / No
If yes, how onen arc the meetings held in a year') Once I T\, icc,' Thrice
In-Ser,ice Trainmg Programme
3 Please wnte the number of courses conducted during the year 10 each box (excluding AEINFE
programmes)
Client Group Teachers Head Masters Education Ollicers Community Workers Total
Areas
Content related
Pedagogy and
Technology related
Management related
Total
4 Please write the number of courses conducted durmg the year 1998-99 under cach of thc categor\, of
duratIOn:
a) Durallon less than one week
b) One week durauon
0) DurallOlI more than one week
5. Please indicate the number of partIcipants tramed
during the ycar 1998-99
Teachers Head Masters Education Officers
(,) F Icld Interaction
(, What is the frequency of the meetings with
Community Workers T vtal

Block Ie\'el functionaries
Once in 3 months / once m 6 montllS / annually / No
Interaction
Heads of school complexes Once in 3 m"nths / "nce in (, months I annualiy / No Interaction
Dlstflct Authorities :Oncc In nlonths I once in (, months I annually I N0 Interaction
lOmmullIly \\ orkL:rs / Panch;), at Once In 3 IIhmths / o[1cein (l months I
. . JnrlllJII, ,/ 1\0 Inil:I'llCll(\O

NGOs III the Illo\ k

Pnm!lr) s(.'hools Hl Ihl! block
7 AI1\ nc",lcllcr puhhshcd bv the BRei
"hat IS the 'J
Once in 3 month::; I once in (, months I
annually/No Interaction
. Once In ., months I once in (, months I
nnnualh I No Inlcraction
Yes / No
K. Any pamphlet;. hrochures etc produced by the BRC for dlSlribu!!on among school comple,e, I
schools" Yes I No
If yes. plcnse spee.fv the numbcr
9. Number of visits of BRC foculiy (in thc last 3 month,) 10 .
school comple" meellngs
ind"'idnal schools
I 0 During Ihe lasl :1 monlhs. has thc I:IRC faenliy adv.sed sohwl complc,csl schoolteachcrs on any
of their professional/acadcmlc problems? Give delalis.
(VI) Programme Planning
1 Docs the BRC have
a) PCTSpcet"e plan (long range plan)
b) Annual plan
c) Programme plan
2 How is the annual calender of train 109 activities prepared by the BRC'I
3 How arc programmes pla
l
J1ncd?
a) Plnnmng committee
b) Week" planning by all the staff members
4 a) Docs the BRC have certaIn priority areas for training? Yesl No
c I If 'cs. what a:'o these?
5. How arc the lrairung needs Identified?
6. Docs the BRC r=i,e requests for trammg programmcs? Y cs! No
a) If ycs, IOd.cate the arcas.
7 Docs the BRC have any institutional dcvelopment plan? Yes! No
g Is therc a conuruttec formed to ad"ise and guide on the planning and conduct ofBRC activities?
9. What IS the composition of this committee?
(VII) Internal Manugemcnr
I. Does the BRC have an advisory cornrruttce'l Y cs I No
2. Ir,es, what is the composition of this committec?
3 Hoy, many umes did it meel durmg last year?
4. How.s the work allocated?
5. Is the work allocauon discussed inn staffmeetings'l
(, If cs. what .s the frequency of mectings?
(viII) Academic and Resource support (0 elementary educational system
After (he tramlllg of elementary teachers what is done as a follow up by the BRC
1
I
V. INTERVIEW SCIlEnllLES "OR TlIESTAFF OF BHe
A Pcrsol1l11lnfoflJl;1110n
Name
Age in Years
Se,
(1\ I Qualification
(\) Date of Joining
hi) Expcrience 111 Pnm,,'") School: a, Teaching __ _
b, Admimstration
h Ii) Details about the induction programmes(seleetion criteria, programme details etc}
(a)Profc-sslonal tramlOg undergone before coming to BRC
(t)After ent'") IOta BRC (Professlon.1 development, training / workshops details
etc)
'tWhat more do ou expect"
hili) Distance between \our ,""dence and the place of work. Below 5kml510kmlMore than IOkm
8 Goals and oblecti\'cs
I You must be aware that the scheme ofBRC has been designed for achieving certain goals and objectives as
Indicated below Plea,e rank the following in order of pnority by putting numbers \,2,3etc,
Goals Rank
To become a pace seUing instllullon m the block m respect of elementary teacher training
To sUllolement already existing IOfrastructural support for elementary education
To impro"e qua"ty of teaching in elementan education
To achieve the targel of unt\'ersa"sation of elementary edueallon
Topro' Ide teehni"al support for bloc I- educallonal planmng
To undertake action ,"search 10 the area of clementarv education
L To facilities for trammg teachers
2, To \\hat extent in your opinion the above goals and obJectl\cs been achieved by
the BRC you arc working in? To a great e,tent / To some extent / Not at all
3, HOll elTeetive, you think is your role in realising these goals and objectives?
T a a great extent / To some extent / Not at all
C Nature of Work and Work Load:
4 As a fDeuity of BRC. you may be performing a numbe, of duties Indicate below in tenns of approximate
percentage "our work load agams( each catego'), in a sesSion
CDtegorV' When There is no

T ra",mg(Perccntage)
Tramtng
Research
Folloll.:'!.l'-work

Othcr actl\ltlCS (If am')
-,
5 (a) HO\, do ,ou rale ,our "orl- load') Ven ollou!;h / Not at alj
(b) If ,"cry hea\ y. gi\ reasons
h Ho\\ far Ihe nature of your \\ork rein ant to the RRC')

"'} (a) Docs lHd\ld..: scope ror Illllo\,atli..lt1!\aru:ly> Yesl No
(b) .. cs. In
D Inter Persollal
X In orgamsillg ilctl\ It ICS of BRC h,l\ C (0 depend nn ulhas ITl the institution In such situations how
Will rale Lhl! fO-Opcr('lIHlII you reu:" l' frol1l the fllillm Ill!;
r . '{ry. e 00."'".'---- C-"". - - 1 ..,,,",,,,,,,,, j Co-ordll18tor -- ---
----------1-- ----
Training) ________________________ --
, Non-tenchlng stafT f-- --
\Iew the cooperation from aut SIde for -- - - -----
RRC actilltics ') High I Moderate I Low
10 HOll do other organisations in the communitv view the relevance of BRC in the
context of elementary cdueation in your block? Very relevant I Some IIhat reb ant I Not rclevant
E Methods of Teaching
II. Out of Ille following method., inrucate "hieh ones used by you and also the extent of usc for training
actinlies .
Methods
Usc
1----
Lecture
MosUv Sometimes Rarelv
Demonstration
Discussion
Seminar
ProJect
Celd work
Labourator\'
MICro
Self study
12 \VhlCh of the folloll,"g equipments arc available in the institute and which arc used b, In training?
Eqwpment Available Used
AudIO C assates
V ideo Cassettes
OHP
Radioff ape Recorder
TV
F 11m ProJector
Slrde Projector
photostat
C()mpUIer
I An, Other
,
1_, I f you ore not using any of the avove, state the reasons.
F Performance Appraisal and Job Satisfaction
14. How IS \ our performance In the job is appraised?: lbrough ACR I Review Committee I Any other (specify)
15 ( a) Arc you lI.S\lsfied with the method of performance appraisal? Yos I No (b) If no, why?
16 How often do you receive recogmtlon I incentive for doing your Job well" Always I Some times I Ncvcr
17 WhICh of the followmg opportUnities for professional development ha\T becn availed
b) you?
Stud) \cave for doctoral worl..
Refresher course
Seminar I conference I workshop
Academic tour abroad
"one of the above
18 How satisfied you arc \\ ith your job? V Of\' satisfied I Satisfied I Not satisfi"d
19 Please mention below specific contribullon if lny you hoye made while working In
==========_-::_- ___ -_-_- __ __ __ -__
Student evalualion j
20 ind,cale three most import."t pr"l>lems to BRC in which you nrc working.
21. !'lease ofTer three suggestions for improvement ",the functioning of BRC.
VI. CLlISTER H':SOliRCE CENTRE I'ROHLE
Name of Ihe eRe
Bock
Name or lhe ('O-OrdlTlator
(I) PItYSICAI.INFRASTRUCTLJRE
Year or establlshmenl
Location
If Rural
Dlslance from dlslncl head-quarters
Accessibility of the Institute
Kuchha road
Total area of the campus
Total carpet area of the building
Building
Under construction
Has the building come up after eRe
was established?
If no, for what purpose was it used
carlier')
Has there been any new construction
after the eRe came up"
If yes. what part of the building was it
Present condilion of the building
Total number of rooms
Availablhty of the follm"ng r""ms
Semiilar room
Co-ordinator's room
Other faei lilies
Safe drinking water
Regular sllppl, of electricity
Toilets (Separale for men & women)
Open
Dl) you ha\ c a gmdcn'!
a) Rural I Urban
b) Trobal! Hilly I Desert
Kms.
Motorable road
Acres
Sq. metres
a) Rented 10m,
Yes I No
Yes I No
Very good I Reasonably good I Vcr\, poor
: Yes/No
:Yes/No
Yes INo
Yes I No
Yes I No
Yes I No
(il). TECHNICAL AND ACADEMIC Ef)LJIPMENT FORMAT
1 I d h
.. n Icatc 1 c cqulplllcnts <I\'ailablc in the institute
Equipment
RadiO cum Audio Recorder
Audio Cassettes
Video Casscttes
AnI Other
Number of profeSSIOnal Journals
subscribed
Daily nc\\spapcrs and m[lga.lincs
subscribed
- Local Language
- English
(iii) HUMAN RESOURCES FORMAT
6. I b Aval a .htv of staff at present
POSITION
Sanctioned
Number
Personnel
ro-ordinator
V\ny Other
..
No In worklllg
conditIon
(YIN)
PRESENT
In Position
Male Female
Reasons for not f!lllllg
Vacant
the post
Sillce
4. The foHowing table has been prepared in order to get on idea of the Co-ordinator in position at the
CRC during the last three years. The columns Q I, Q2 etc.,indicate the four quarters of the year
1e. (QI J M h Q2 A.I J Q3 J I S d Q4 0 Dc ) = an- arc , =.\pn - une, = u v- cpt an ct- c.
Staff 1996 ]997 1998
Traming QI
' 02 03 04 01 02 03 Q4
0]
02
1)3
04
o-Qrdinator
Any Other
5. Wrk fi f o c pro lIe 0 tcac hi / ng. trrurung s taff
Position
Work load of one week (Total number of hours oer week)
Training Administrative Other tasks(Specify) Additional
rcsoonsibilities(Specify)
C o-ordmator
i
6 S ffd ta eve 0 ment- pro I e or ec years
Position
T rainingPro grammcs I Organised by
Venue
Duration
J
attended
-- - ----
--,_ ..
---
Co-ordmator
\
J
,
_______ L
j
.. ---
(II) ACADEMIC PROGRAMMES AND ACTIVITIES mRMAT
I Do you prepare a monthly ptan for institutional actilitid' Yes / No
If yes, how"
I
2
3
.. Docs the eRe 11I1\C il Programme Advisory l'cs / No
.' IrYes.
(n) what IS the composilion or the committee',)
(b)how of len arc Ihe meellllgs held In a year"
Once 1 TWIce 1 Thnce
In-Service Training Programme
2 Please write the numhcr of courses conducted during the ),'CllI 19<JtP)<) In each box
('hent Group Teachers Head Maslers Community
Areas
e ollleni related
Pedacol..'V
Management
Total
(V ) FIeld Interaction
6. What IS the frequency of the mcclings WIth
Block level functionaries Once in a month 13 months 1 (, monthsl
annually 1 No Inleraction
Heads of school complexes Once in a month 13 months I 6 monthsl
annually I No Interaction
Distnet Authorities Once ID a month 13 months I (, months!
annually I No Interaction
Community workers I Panehayat : Once in a month 13 months 1 6 monthsl
annuaUy f No interaction
Primar:- schools in the Cluster Once in a month 13 months 16 monthsl
annually f No Interaction
7. Any newsletter pubhshcd by the eRC? Yes INo
If yes. whal is the frequency?
8 Any pamphlets. brochures etc. produced bv the CRC for distribution among schools"
If yes, please specify the number
9. Any teachmg aids circulated among lhe schools of your cluster? . Yes 1 No
Number of v'sits of eRC faculty (10 the lasl J months) to individual schools
Dunng the last 3 months. has the eRC faculty ad,ised schoolteachers on am cf their
professional/academic
problems? Give details.
VI Programme Planning
10. How arc programmes plaloned"
d) Plnnnulg committee b) Wccklv planning by all the stalTmembcrs
II. a) Docs the eRr have certain iln:a.s ror training? Yesl No
C) If yes, what arc thes,,:')
12 How (lrc tl)C training needs uknlliic-d')
13 Docs the eRe recciyc requests for {nulling programmes') Y csJ No
b) If,,,,. IIldicatc the areas
VII Academic and Resource SIIPPOr! to c!cmentar:- educational system
After the training of elementary t""chers what is dOlle as a follow lip I" the eRe"
Total
Yes/No
VII. INTERVIEW SCIIEDlJLE FOR CO-ORDINATORS OF eRe
Name orthc CRe

No of schools altnlhcd
D,stnncc from CRC
Schools
CS -- ----- -- ._" ----

Year of establishment
Co-ordll1l1lors name
___ ,LPS __ ._HPS
Less than 5kms
57 Kms
-.---
Age __ Y cars. Sex: Male! Female, Mantal slalus:Married I Unmarried
"duca/lOllal qilalifica//On
Place of residence
E.xpe,ience (teaclllng) . LPS: __ --', HPS_-,--_" High School: __ _
Experience (Non.teaclung) (If any)
A. and Objectives
810 Kms 10 & above
I You must be aware that the scheme of CRC has been designed for achieving certain goals and obJcctlvcs as
indicated below Please rank these in order of priority by putting numbers 1,2,3 etc.
Goals a'ld Ob:ectiv""
To conch the content
To improve pedagogy and evaluaLion skills
To Imprme Qualit, oftcaching in elementary education
To the target of Universahsation of Elementary Education
To proVIde technical support for cluster educational planning
Am' other(speclf,)
2 (a)To "hat extent, in your opinion these goals and objectl\'es have been
achieved by the CRC you are working in?
To a great extentIT a some extenliNot at all
(bl [fnot at alL \\hy"
3 (al Ho" effectIve you thmk is your role in realiEing these goals and
obJcctives?
To a great extentIT a some extenliNot at all
(b) If not at all, why"
B. Nature of Work and Work Load
4 As a co-<>rdinRlor ofCRC, you may be performing a n:.unber of duties
Both teaching aDd non-teac!lir.g. Indicate below m terms of approximate
k [d t h t . esson
percentage \"our wor ' oa eac._
egory In a s I
Category
Teaching
-1!aining .
.-.
RC$carciI (if any)
.-
I-Cc- .

Olhn i1cli, ilics
. --- --- .

5 Hm\ du ou ratc your work


Vcry hcawlJust enough/Light
(, far IS the nature Of)'Ollf work to Ihe goals ofCt?C?
To a great extentffo some e,tonliNot at all
(b) If IIot .1011, why'/
Percentage
r
L.-
7 (a) \)OCS) om \\ork provide any scope for inn(l\'ation/\'aricty" yes I no
Rank
(b) Ifno.
C Inter ""rsonal Relatiunship
X In organising nctivilics ofCRC you may ha\'c to depend on others In the institution In slich sItuatIOns ho"
\\ i II you rate the cooperation you recclve from
(Very Co-operative Vc. lo-operative C. Not-lo-operative NCj
(i) Head Master I Mistress ' vr I C I NC
(ii)
(III )
Teachlllg staff
Non-teaching SI.lIT
,VCIC/NC
VC/C/NC
9 How do you vic\\' the cooperalion received from out side the agencies/organisatIons for eRe Jcll\'llIc:.?
(i) BRC swfT : High I Moderate I Low
(il) DIET stafT High I Moderote I Low
(iii) BEO's office staff High I Moderate I Low
(IV) Any othcr(specif)) High I Moderate I Low
I 0 How do other organisations in the commumty VICW the relevance of CRr in the con;ext of elementary
education in yow- cluster?
Very relevant I Some what relevant I Not relevant
D. Performance Appraisal and Job Satisfaction
II How is yow- performance in the Job is appra;,ed'i
(i) Through ACR
(II) Renew Committee
(iiI) Any other (spCClfy)
12 Arc you satisfied With the method of performance appraisal? yes f no
13 (a) Are often do you receive recognition/incentive for doing job well?
(i) Always
(il) Sometimes
(iii) Never
(b) If never, why?
14 which of the fol\ov"ing opportunities for profeSSIOnal development have
been availed by you'l
(I) Refresher cow-se
(ii) Seminar/Conferencolworkshop
(Iii) Academic tour abroad
(iv) None of the ahove
15 How satisfied are you with your job
O
Very satisfiediSatisficdlNot satisfied
E. Roles and Functions
16 (a) How do yOU generally identify the villages with and without schools
which come l!I1der your dusterO
(b) have :;OU rc(;civcd any traming in this n:gard? yes Ino
\) If yes. give details
(Who. what. when and duratIOn etc. should be collected)
(d) What do you do with the mrorlll.:JtlOIl so coIlCCIC(j"
17 (a) lIav'c you prepared the map of(RC'
(b) If yc-s, did you rCCCI\'C any from others?
cf) If yes. give detolls
Time taken: ______ _
Whose help ___ __ _
(d) Hnvc you received allY lrammg in this rcg;JrJ?
(e) If _'OS, give details
(who, when. where, dllnlllOn and how should bl.: collected)
cs J no
\'cs j no
/ 110
I X How do you collect the stati!;tics relating to schools, children. teachers etc. in your clll::iter')
(procedure and tllne C(lllstlnlcd)
19(a) Hm'c you arrangeJ any traiOlng programmes for teachers in your cluster?
yes/no
( b) I r les give detai Is

Name of the Duration Place Resource No, of persons received training
I'rgffi
Person
--
Male Female

What IS your role In tim regard'
20 (a) Do ''au generally conduct monthly meetings in your cluster" yes / no
(b) If,es, glle detalls (minutes of the meeting, agenda. % of attendance.
resolutions passed etc_, )
21 (a) What are tile common kinds uf educatIonal problems that the teachers
generally report to you"
(I)
(II)
(b) How do you generally resol,e such problems?
22 (aJ In what ways do IOU help teachers to prepare Teaching Learning
Materials(TLMs)'
(bl What IS the response of teachers towards It? positive / negative
23 (a) Do you supen ISC the NFE in your clt:stcr'l
(b) If, es, how onen" (periodicity)
yes / no
C What arc the general observatIOns / problems that' au ha\'e generally
notIced In these centres'
(d) What kinds of actions have you entrusted In sohing sueh problems?
24 (a: How do you generalh help in medical checkup of school students in
\ our ciustcr'}
(w ho, VI hen, where and special problems Idenllfied etc,.)
(b) If am spcClal problem, arc IdentIfied, what acllons arc taken them?
25 (al What arc the ,,orl.s ,"Hch arc general!> assIgned b, the department to
\ OU')
( III
(b) HO\\ dn Oll do 1["
III Effort
colkcti\ C IlIldi\ Idual
(11) Our.tllon
(III) Procc<Jurc ____ _
I lIaH! you expenenced probkms 111 doill!; it')
(J I I r, cs. lISt lhem in tho order of preference
yes 1110
Response from
the respondents __
2(, (J) 110\\ oflcn do you \ ISlt schools ory-our cluster"
(b) Do y<'111 Illl\:C prcscnhcd forll1i1t In this regard"
(' Whal do 011 do durmg your visit'l
OUlillioll_ (lI) aGiJcmic ________ (b) __
yes I no
yes Illo 27 (.J 1I.\e )OU org.msed training for VEe members"
(b) Iflcs.J;"edctatis
'or
M F
2K (a) Have you organised and conducted ralhs" yes I no
(bl If yes. give details.
2Y (al In whot ways h3\ C IOU been helplll!; III the orgamsahon of tramlllg
programmcs"
30 la) Do IOU the tcachlng-leamlllg matenals I eqUlpments
supplied from the department to schocls" ,es f no
(b, Ifycs. gile dew tis
(Tlmeiy supply. adequael. procedure. time & elTort and response from
the t.caehers / head master)
31 t a I In \\ hal do you co-opcrate in cducationaltours conducted In
DPEP schools"
(b: G" e dctatis about It')
(pUrpo5<:. procedure. no. of schools. lime and elTort and response from
the p::r1lclpants etc .)
32 (a) In what \\a,s do you help III sports. cultural and such other co-
cllmcular actlvitlcs conduclt;ci under the scheme?
(bl Gil. det",ls about the achllUes that you have conducted.
(Name of the BCUlitics. procedure. duratIOn. partICipation. hme &
elTort. method and response from the partICipants )
33 \\ nat arc thc problems that you general" face III mamtainmg dilTerent
\.mds of rcoords / regISters')
Hov, do you maintain finances In your cluster"
(I) Operation of moncy
(Iii Utilisation ul!hsed / not ul!hsed
(III) Purpose (Ifutilised)
,II I Rca;on utilised)
IJ) Do prepare! annual \\orl.. plan"
Ihllf,cs. g"c dcullis (lime. clTon.nd procoourc etc.!
., 1.11 l.>tl \011 fccllha( ( ar\,." ":'[1\-'rll,:IKIl11,; S('llll..' . ..lbl\"I\s III lhl:lf
Yes/no
\\Orkllh!" \!.:s I nll
,bl mention prnhll"w; aad measures for the
cITccll\'c \\Ort..Jnf prCf{('"
37 GI\l! flll dT..:&.:I'\( \\\JrklllgofCRCs
j1artieipants
VIII. INTI(RV":W SCHlmlJU: FOR THE HEADS OF SCHOOL
COMPLEXES
Name of the school complex
No of schools allached
LPS: _____ liPS:
No of tCJchcrs.
__ ___ liPS
Name of the Head
Age ____ --'ycars.
Sex: M I F, Qualification:
'---
E'per'ence (Teaching)
: LPS ___ , HPS: ___ ,H S __ ,
Any other:
Expcnencc (Non- teaching) if any : __________ _
A, Roles and Responsibilities
M (a) H.,'c you organised monthly meetings of allto.chers working wlthmyour school complex" yes I no
(b) If yes, gl\,e delalls about those meetings
(DuraIion. place. allendonce. agenda. resolutions and response of the participants etc. should be collected)
C If no. why?
2 (a) Ha,'c )'OU arranged for modcllessons for all teachers working "ithinyour school complex? Yes I no
Ib) If,es. gl\e detaIls
(How often. attendance. resource person. approach. duratIOn and response oflhe participants etc" should be
collected)
t; If no. why?
3 (a) Ha,e you organised competitions for teachers working withinyour school comptex? Yes I no
(b) If) 0$. gi\'e details,
(HO\, often. duration. whal actinties. purpose, allendance and response of the participants etc .. should be
o:ollccted)
C Ifno, why?
la) Ha"c you organIsed cxtllbltlOns of low costno cost u-a<hmg aids? yes/no
(b) If,(.s, gi"c dCUlils
(How often. duration, place. purpose, allendance and response of the participants etc, ;llould be collected)
(0 tfJ\ C you recci\ cd trJining in prcpanng these teaching aids? CS.' Ilu
Idllf,cs, gi\e details
(PbcC'. durallon. resource person ilnd mchod etc_. should be cnllcclcd)
5 (a) Which arc Ole trainmg progranlmcs you ha\"c undertaken to lmpro\ c th...: (apacity or
Icachcrs"
1
---
I Name :>f the programme Dur.tio Place Particlpat
n person
Ion
1'.1--;
E
- ---"
_____
----- --------
F
. -
6 (4) What are the common of edueatlonnl proolcms L1ll1t le.chers n:I'(II1to )Oll ./
Response from

(b) 110\\' do \ OU resolve such problems'}
(' III "hat do help teachers to prepare teaching-learning matenals?
(d) \Vh.,t IS Ihc response oftcachcrs towards It')
7 (0) 110\1 do general II the ddTlculttopics/ subjects in your
comple', '1
(hi WI'at do ,'ou do Jflcr idenlif)lng them')
K (a) Ha\ c vou done the followup of actllitlos in schools? Yes / no
(b) f d I H fi ') I glvc elal s owo en
Paniculars Academic Non-academic
LPS
I
IlPS

(el Ifno. "h, )
9 In w hat ways IlJlI e you been helpmg In academic Improvement activities entrusted by the government?
A. Goals and Objectives
10 You must be aware that the scheme of sex has been designed for achieving certaon goals and obJecLives as
indicated below Please rank these in order of pnontv bv putting nwnbers I 2 3 etc
Goals and Oblectl\'cs
To enneh Ihe contcnt
To Impro\e pedagogy an(jcvaluatlOn ,lulls
To Im[lro\'c guahtv of teachmg in element",, education
To ach,c"c thc Largct of Unovcrsahsation of Elementary Education
To [lrondc kchmcal support for cluster edueatoonal plannin,g
[Any' other(speclfv)
II (o)To what extent, m lOW op,noon these goals and objectives have been
ach,e,ed by the SCx you arc workong in')
To, great .xtcntfT a somc exlentINot .1 .11
(bl IfnOl31 all. why?
12 (a)How effective you think is your role in realising thes goals and
ObJCCtl\'CS?
To a great cxlcntfTo some extentfNot at ""
(bllfnol al all, why"
or Work and Work Load
Rank
1_' As a head of the school (lmpk\.. ou be rlcrl(:mmng D llumber of duli('s both lcnching and non-tcadnng
l)cfn'lltl\gc ,our \\ork cach catcgon' in n session
('ate on Perecnta"'g"'.e'---_____________ -i
Tcach:n.___ _____ ------ -+-----
Tralnm
AdmiOlstr,l"m _____________________ ...j. _____ . __________ ------1
RclCarch(lfiUl...u.. ________________ /--______ . __________ --j
Other 3cll\ IltCS'-______
14 Ih,,; du you rate your work load'!
hcal')'/Just enough/Lisht
15 (a) 1I0w far IS Ihe nolure of your work rcie,"nt to the goals of sex'i
To n greal e"lentfra .ome cxlenliNol al all
(b) Ifnol 81 nil, 'I
16 <a) Docs :00'" work pro\'lde any scope for inno\'allon/variely') yes I no
(b) If no, why'l
C. Inter personal Relationship
17 1n organising acti\ ilics of SCx you mily hll\'c (0 depend on others in the Institution In such situatlJns ho\,
will you ratc the cooperation receive from (Very Coopcrall\'C --0- Yr. Coopcrativc=:C. Not.
NO
(1\) T=hing slafT
(\') Non-teachm!; stafT
(,,) Trainees
VC / (' / Nt:
,VC/C/NC
'Ve/c/;-.Jc
18 How do you vicv, the cooperation rccci\cd from out si<!.c the agcllcics/o:ganisations for sex activities"
(\') I3RC stafT : High I Moderale / Lo"
(\,1) DIET stafT ' HIgh / Moderate / Lew
(vii) BEO's office statT : High / Moderate I Lew
(\,lIi) eRC stan' : High / Moderate I Lew
(ix) Any other(specif)') : High I Moderate I Lew
19 How do olher orgamsations In the commu"'ty \'icw the relevance of sex in the context of elementar:
education in your cluster?
Ve') rele\'ant I Some what rele\'ant I Not relevanl
D, Methods of Training :
20 Out of the follow 109 methods, indicate wluch ones used by you and also the extent of use for training
activ ties I
Metl,oos
Mostlv
Lecture
Demonstration
Dlscussion
i
Proiect
Field work
Labouratory
h Micro teaching
Self
E, Performance Appraisal and Job Satisfaction
21 (a) Has ""y of your work been recognized so far
1
Always I Some limes I Never
(b) Ifn"cr, gl\'e reasons
22 How satisfied are lOU wllh Yo!lrjoh'
Veo\' satisfiediSatislied/Not satislied
Use
Some times
(a) Do \'ou feci thaI school cx-.l1plc,es h .. e been faclOg so many problems
their dTecl"c working loward, the IInpro\ cment of quality of in
pnmOf)' edueat IOn " Y cs I no
(b) If vcs_ list oul the problems, \ ou c\poricncod
Rarelv
c
IX. INTERVIEW sellEIHILE FOR TilE MEMBERS (W VE
Name of the respondenl
DesignallOn
Name of Ihc V EC
Year of fannulalion
Slrenglh "nd compoSlllOn of V EC
Members Deslgnauv Age
r.
A. Roles and Responsibililles,
Sex
I (a) Wh.1 do you mean by supcnision?
Caslc MaLslalus
(b) How often do )OU supenise the pnma'}' schools In ),our area?
:C Whal aelivilles do you generally Car'}' oul under your supervision?
Occupallon
2 (a) Whal actmlles do you generally carry oUI for general Ion and suslainance
Ed!
level
of awareness among "llIage community to ensure participation of all segments of popul&tioo?
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(b) How have you done?
3 (a) Whal aclmllcs do you generally carry oullO promole enrolmenl drives in primary schools?
(b) How do \ou persuade the parents of non allendmg children to send thClr wards to schools?
4 (a) Whal kmds of programmes and aClivities are undertaken to momlor
(I) RegularilY and punctuality of school functioning
(Ii) Regularity and punctuahl' of leachers
(III) Regular and punelual partlclpallon "f children in school programmes
5 (a) In what wavs ha"e "OU been assisting ,n smooth functIOning of primarv schools?
No.
ehil
(bl How do you seck thc support of teachers. ,ouths and others for educational programmes in schoc
. .
(1 (al Ha\C" moblltscd resources'! Yes/no
dOH gl\\."lh.:t:ul"
\\'ho
Whal
Ho\\ much
Hl'\\
c What did, ou do With these rcsources"
How many meetings have you held dUrIng last yc..1r in connection WiUl the improvement or primary educallon
- allcndancc - Ag, cn,' the m,C ,C[i,n
g
Res, olulions -, Of,
t__ ______ -- -- .... """""''''''''''=J
8 (a) Ha\e you prepared plans and proposals for Ihe dcvclopme;;; ofpnmary cducallon" yes I no
(b) If yes. how have you done il?
( what did you do with II"
(d) In whal ways docs help ii"
9 How do you generally make periodic self assessmenl of progress of committees reports?
10 <a) Do you co-ordinale wllh olh", social 5Cn'ICC departments and committees for mulual support? yes / no
(b) If yes, givedelails
(I) Which are Ihose?
(Ii) Wben do you do il?
(III) Ho" do you do ii"
II (a) Hove you nOllced any change In the improvemenl of school funclions after devolution of powers to local
bodies' yes! no
(b) Ifves, (gIve dclalls) on whal ways?
12 (0) Do you thmk thai the presenl efforts to Improve primary educalion are sufficient? yes f no
(b) Ifno. "hal more efforts arc reqUired?
13 (a) Do you think thai the existing delegaled powcrs arc adequale for the improvemenl of primary education in
your area" Y cs I no
(b) If 00. \\ hal moce powers Jre required for you 10 make primary education effective?
14 (a) Do you fcclthat VEes have been experiencing problems in the effective improvemenl of primary
education in your area? Y cs I no
(b) If 'os, menllon such problems and suggesl necessary measures for the effective functioning of primary
schools','
B, Goals and ObjPctives
(a)Te what extent, in your opinion these goals and objccti,cs have been achieved by the VEe you are
\\orkinc; m','
To a !,'rcal extenlfT 0 some cxtentfNot at all
I b I If nOI at all, why"
(J) How cITccli\'c you tlllJ!k is your role in rCOllismg goals and objectives?
To a great extent/To somc c\.lcnVN01 rot all
(b) I r not at all, why"
C. Nalure of Work and Work Load
I (0) As" momber of VI:e. how do VOll ratc your work lond"
VOr\' hea, "/lllst enough/Light
(b) ir,'o,}hoavy, how do YOll say"
2 Ilow rar IS the nature or your work relevant to the goals of VEC"
To G great e'tentiTo some extent/Not at all
(b) Ifnot at .11. why?
C. I nter personal Relationship
Whllc workmg WIth VEC In the improvement of school efTectivenss you mal' have to depend on others In
the commiltcc and also in the institution. In such situations how will you rate the co-operation you receive
from the following (Very CocperDtlvc VC,
Head Master I MIstress
Teachmg stafT
Non-teaching swfT
President of V EC
Other members

VCIC/NC
.VC/C/NC
.VCIC/NC
.VCIC/NC
'VC IC INC
VCIC/NC
2 How do you \lCW the cooperatIOn I cceivcd from out side the agencics!organisations for VEC activities?
ORC stafT
DIET stafT
BEO's office staff
eRC statT
Am other(spcclf,)
HIgh I Moderate I Low
HIgh I Moderate / Low
High I Moderate I Low
HIgh I Moderate / Low
High I Moderate I Low
3 How do other organIsations In the community view the relevance ofVEC in
the context of ciemcntary education In your villager?
VCI) relevant i Some "hat relevan: I Not relevant
D. Performance Appraisal and Job Satisfaction
J (a) Arc often do you receIve rccognillon/incentive for doing jcb well?
(1\) Always
(\') Somell mos
(\I) Ne,er
fb) IfnevCT, why"
15 !-iO\\ satisfied arc you with yOlu JC'b?
Very satlsfledlSallsficd/Not salls lied
X. INTERVIEW SCHEI>lJLE FOR EI){JCATIONAL A(JTJIORITIES
Yuu arc "Ircady aware that institutional structures (DIET, BRC'. CRC, SCx and VECs) have bccn established at
dlstm:t lUld sub-district IC\'els to prO\'idc (Jcadcm!c and resource support at UIC gras!! rool Ic\cI for the success or
\'anous strateglcs and programmcs being undertaken in the area of elementary education with reference to the
Unl\ersahsalJon of Elementary Education (UEE). In the hght of thiS obJcctlve, your views / opinion / comments /
ubservations arc solicited on the followmg aspects
I General Information:
a) Name
bl Age
c) Qualification
dl[xpeneoce
(I) T rammg
(III Research
(1I,IA.dmllustratne work
c I Date of Jo.nmg the present position
2 What arc your expectations [rom these institutional structures in view of the needs and requirements of your
d,slr.ctlsub-<listrict With rcgard to elementary education:
la) Teacher effectIveness
I,) DIET
(II) BRC
(III) CRC
(bl
1,1
I II)
(IU)
(1\ I
(vI
(c)
Iii
(II)
( III)
(1\ )
(
0)
III
!ll)
IIIII
I l\ )
i' ,
,,1
III!
( III )
( 1\ )
CI
(,)
(II)
sex
ImproVIsation of school pr.cllccs
DIET
BRC
CRC
SCx:
VEe.
Uni,,ers.1 enrolrr.cnt, retention and attainment
DIET
BRC
CRC
SCx
VEe
What are your regarding influence orthcsc institutional structures on imprm'cmcnt of primary
educalJon in ,our wstnctlsub-ilistnctlcrels \\ ith special reference (0 the follOWing
School Effcctiveness (infrastructure. tC:lchcr mpuls and tc<!ching-Ic:lrning
DIET
IlRC
CRe
sex
PUIJII AtL31nlllcnt (academIc, SOCI<11 and
DIET
flRC
eRe

SchOClI Commum(1
of school educatIDII)
DIET.
IlRC
In(crnet;on (VEe &. PTA for porccption and participation of community in the pracess
(ill) eRe
('v) sCx
3 Kindly mention nature of co-ordination between these Inshlutional structures and your dCparLfTlcnUoflicc
"lIh rcgilrd 10.
a} Administrative Matters (school mapping. micro planning. mstitutlOnnl planning and instltutiollal evaluation)
(,) DIET
(II) BRC
(II') CRC
('v) sex.
<-) VEe:
b) Financial Matters and Ollicc Procedures
(,) DIET
(,i) BRC
(IIi) CRC
(1\) sex
(,) VEC
C) Academic Mallers (programmes for training," leadership and motivation and planning management related
inputs)
(I)
(11 )
(lll)
(1\ )
DIET
BRC
CRC
SCx
d) Community ParllClp31lOn in School Educatio:: (Formation of committee. their functioning so as to ensure
communlt,'s pOSltl\e contnbutlOn to educational programmes)
(,I
(ii)
(iIi)
(I, )
DIET

CRC
sex:
4 Kindly mentIOn your role and contnbullon In the functiomng of these institutional structures with speeial
reference to: a) Providing Resources
(,) DIET
(11) BRC
(lll) CRC
(II) sex
(I') VEe
b) Leadership for Impro,cment of AcademiC Programmes
(I) DIET
(il) BRC
(,ii) CRC
(iv) SCx
b) MaJ.ing Teachers Available for In-scryice Training Programmes
(I) DIET
(ii) BRC
(iii) CRC
(II) SCx
d) Extens,on aellVitie> espec,ally '\lU-. to Adult L,terac\' and Contmuing Education Programmes
(Ii DIET
(11) BRC:
(,"I CRC
(1\) SC"
(" VEC
c) RL"Scarch and Evaluation Pertaining to thL" EOi\,;ICllCY (inlcnlal and ..:xtcm<Jl)ofthL"sl! Institutional Structures in
improVing Srhool EfTcctivcncss and ExtenSion Ilcti\'ltics III
(,) [)I ET:
(III BRC:
(,"I eRC:
(1\) sex:
(\) VEe.
c I All) Olher
XI. "ERCEPTIONS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS
I Personal Inrormation
Name
Address of the School
.. Dcsi,bnntion
.. Qualification
Teaching experience in elementary stage Years Months
Ad,l1lnrslratl\'c experience in elementary school: Years ___ Months
'Whether attended any In-sc" ice traming m the fOllowing
(I) DIET Yes/No
(II) BRC
(III) CRe
in! School CQI']plex (Sc,)
: Yes/No
: Yes/No
:Yes/No
II Kindly state what do you expect from the follo"ing Resource Centres
(Put tick mark against the altcmah"e suits to your response and r.ote : ALE= Agree to Large Extent, ASE=
Agree to Some Extent and LA= Least Agree)
Statements
DIET BRC eRe sex VEC
I Contribute towards improvement of teaching learning system of
elementary education
2 Coordinate with all concerned agencies in distnetlsub-dlstriet for
devcioDment of elementa,,' education
3. Develop leadership quahtles among teachers to solve problems of
element3f\' education at local level
4 Guide teachers from time to time for improvement of elementary
school svslcm
5 prm ,de quality ]n-s.::nlce traming for refreshing knO\\ lodge and
skills ofteachw]; amongst teachers.
---- -- - - - - --- --- ---
6 Pro, Ide e,oerience based trammg to teaehers
7 Enable teachers to sohc day to day problems of teaching
effeet"e"
8 Enable teachers to manage school system effectlveh with
community sunnort
III What arc your perceptions of the quahtv of training organised for in-sen'ice teachers by
dIfferent resource centres Please put tiCK mark against appropnate alternative against following iiems.
(Onh those teachers who have anv in-service training 10 th DIET !BRCI CRC I SC ) e . x
,Jitalernents DIET BRC CRC SCx
-
In your opinion
slcal facilities for in-sen'ice tramin. activities arc aooTOonale
2 The objectivcs of in-SCr\'ice traimng arc reb'ant to the nocds and
nroblcms of teachers
3 C ontcnls co' crcd arc rclc\,ani. La objectivcs of in-SCfVl(C tralnin!
4 Learning mater,nl;; suppiicd to trainees during in-scTncc training nrc
",crul
>-==---
- ------
, The heads of del"cr. content during In-serVice training nrc

-- --- - . ----- - ---- -- ---_._._- --1----- -------- -,
(1 Audio-\ isual aids/media used during training help in better
compression
7 activities arc
--
,
--
arc competent ones
9 Assignments during trainmg (whether in
question answer
) \'our competency
-- -
I 'J Follow of in-service traininlLl.if any) arc useful to you
9 Your skills of effecllve eval""II"n_ ofl"" ... ' .. ___
B.ln your opinion what arc other improvements perceived by you?
Inslllullonal Struelures PerceDtion
DIET
BRe

sex
VEe
V. In ,our opinIon to whal exlent the follOWing institutional structures have influenced development of
clementary educauon in \our dlstnct and sub-dlstnct le\'els
Stalements
f-"='-- -- ------
I Played a significant role in tcnns of:
DIET BRC CRC SCx VEC
I EnhanCing enrolmenl In schools especially in backward
areas
2. Sustainln' reientton of studenls in classes
3 Checking dropout rates especially among weaker sections of
I sociCl\
I 4 Achle\lng target of minImum level of learning In pnmary
I schools
5. De, clo;';n. oarenls motivation in education or the" wards
6 Prm IdmS leadCTslup In adult and non-fonnal educallon in
I the dIstrict as a resource centre
VI Am other a:cas of develo menl as ,islble In vour districtlsub-district levels olease write in the
Hnstitullonal
Perceotion
--
DIET
, BRC
,-CRC
sex
VEe
VII_ Are you interested In trauung progranune. of the following frc
r Institutional Frequently!As & when I fleas!, gi ,e reasons.
Structure ncededlLeast
DIET
-
BRe

--

,
eRe

--.- -----.- --- ----T------
"- -- - - -- -
.- -
----
j
----- -- -------
- - _.--
VIII. On Ihe b:L<lS of your e'percence kcndl\' wnte a few obscrnlions on the follOWing:
district and sub-dislriet \evels

Strc:rtl!ths of training organised b\' different tnstitullona structures al
Institullonal Structure
Slrcnlilhs of Training "elivilies
-
BRC
-----------
----------------1
CRC
SCx
IV(A> . edd
h I
- ... _-'-_. . -- - __ , ___ im _
r .. ------- -- DIET ""flR.c::.... CRe

I ----- --
.. "--
2. Yo", problemS-of tcaching -
-----
r-----
-- - ---
'-
org,!,isalional
--
master" subjects
.5 Yonr compelene\" in usrngd,rrerenl melhods
lo adopl mno,alions in school SYSlem
--
...lYon'. acquamtance with new technolog1 in svslem
1I. Your skills of developmenl of local specific audio-visual aids
9. Your skills of effective evaluation of learners performance
Bin lour opinion what arc other ImprO\cmenls perceived by you?
- -
-
I Inslilutional Structures
DIET
BRC
CRC
SCx
VEC
V In \ our op'nion to what exlent Ihe following institutional slructures have Innuenced development of
clementM\" education in \"our districi and sub-distrietlevels'
, Statements
DIET BRC CRC SCx VEC
,
I Played a signl ficant role in terms of :
I EnhanclOg enrolment in schools especially 10 backward
ar"",
-
2. SustalOlng higher rale of rete nil on ofsludents in classes
,
I
3. Chcckmg dropout rates especially among "caker sectioos of
I
SOClcl\
,
I 4. Athie, mg target of m!nlmum level of learnmg m primary
I schools
: 5. Dc,cl0p'!'Kparents' mot,,'aOon in oftl>eir wards
r--::--::- - - .
. 6. Prondrng leadership in adull and non-formal .:ducatlon In
the dlstricl as a fCSOurce centre
VI. An, other areas of develo ment as visible in your districtlsub-districllevcls please write in the following:
__ ____________________________________________ ___
DIET
, BRe
: CRe
!sex -----+1-------------------1
VII. Arc you intcrest'!d In particioatlOQ DTOlUUI1I11es of the I o lowlOS fr equer.
II ?
v.
loslrlutional Frequentl'/ As & when If least. give reas&os.
Structure needcdlLcasl
DIET
.-
r BRC
I
---
. ___
eRe

-_. -----_. -- ----- ---------
se,
---- --
. - --- --- - --- .---- _.- -------- .-----
- -
VIII. On the baSIS ofmur c'pcTlenec kindly \\Tile a few obsenalions on the followrng'
I bv different inslrtutional at districi sub-districllcvcls:
!- I-;;s.;;;;,tonal Structure Sirenglhs ofTroming .\ctivilies

r eRe

_______ .

XII. LEARNING LEVELS OF PRIMARY SCHOOl.
CHILDREN
fiIl
;)r::kl (Dr o::b ;;jo::b;::b (Actual) I
r
llO- 1l
u' N I __ __
't;;:,-;;J>j;;jnF: 1 = DB
2 =
3 = L.
'4= 'Q30
------------------
lit MLL lest prepared by Dr. C S Nagaraju for the MI.L Projecl, ISEC, Bangaiore, 1998
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