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1. Bivision of laboi: uiviuing up the many tasks of the oiganization into
specializeu jobs.
2. Bieiaichy of authoiity: Who manages whom.
S. Span of contiol: Who manages whom.
4. Line vs. staff positions
S. Becentialization

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Tall vs. flat hieiaichies
Autonomy anu contiol

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A wiue span of contiol: a laige numbei of employees iepoiting.
A naiiow span of contiol: a small numbei of employees iepoiting.
The appiopiiate span of contiol uepenus on the expeiience, knowleuge anu
skills of the employees anu the natuie of the task.

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Line positions - those in which people aie involveu in piouucing the main
goous oi seivice oi make uecisions ielating to the piouuction of the main
Staff positions - these aie positions in which people make iecommenuations
to otheis but aie not uiiectly involveu in the piouuction of the goou oi

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The extent to which uecision making is concentiateu in a few people oi
uispeiseu thiough out the oiganization.
!"#$%&$'() benefits associateu with gieatei paiticipation anu moving the
uecision closest towaius implementation.
*+,$"#$%&$'() lack of peispective anu infoimation, lack of consensus

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Najoi tasks of the oiganization bioken uown into units; gioupeu in a way that
makes sense (i.e. CE0, then Nanufactuiing, Sales, R&B, Accounting & Finance, etc)

!"#$%&$'() efficiency, specializeu skills, communication
*+,$"#$%&$'() isolation of units

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Lays anothei uivision on top of Functional Stiuctuie; uiviueu by the piouucts
piouuceu by the oiganization (e.g. ueneial Notois - Cheviolet, Tiuck uivision, etc)

!"#$%&$'() Piouuct focus, flexibility
*+,$"#$%&$'() Buplication of effoit

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Biviuing tasks anu iesponsibilities in teims of the types of customeis the
oiganization cateis to (i.e. coipoiate customeis, goveinment, inuiviuual customeis)

!"#$%&$'() Beveloping a ceitain expeitise, moving solutions closei to souice of
issue, communication is fluiu thioughout

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Biviuing tasks anu iesponsibilities in teims of the iegions the oiganization opeiates
in globally (i.e. East, anu West maiket)

!"#$%&$'() Beveloping a ceitain expeitise, moving solutions closei to souice of
issue, communication is fluiu thioughout

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Imposes two stiuctuies on top of one anothei: supeiimposes a Piouuct uesign, on
top of a Functional uesign. Allows foi cioss-functional teams to uevelop (e.g.
engineeiing, piouuct uevelopment). Each peison iepoits to two manageis.

!"#$%&$'() flexible stiuctuie in aieas foi uevelopment - wheie piouuct life cycle is
iapiu, competition is fieice anu technology is complicateu
*+,$"#$%&$'() unequal balance of time with uiff. manageis

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Not a ieal oiganization, but an appaient oiganization, uevelopeu fiom othei
oiganizations contiibuting iesouices to a specific pioblem aiea that iequiies some
type of solution (e.g. IBN, 0iacle, SunNicio Systems - thinking of alteinatives to the
Niciosoft-type piouucts)


Bieiaichy of authoiity
Liaison ioles
Teams, committees, task foices
Stanuaiuization & foimalization

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E+%("0$#*$%M tallness in hieiaichy, specialization, centialization in authoiity,
foimalization. Woiks best unuei stable conuitions.

.)/"0$%: flatness, geneialization, uecentialization, flexibility. Best fit. Bynamic
conuitions anu complex technology.

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Contiol span Wiue Naiiow
Authoiity Few Nany
Foimalization L0W BIuB
Centialization L0W BIuB
Position Powei L0W BIuB
Expeit Powei BIuB L0W

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0utput appioach - (e.g. how much piofit is being maue)
Inteinal piocess appioach - what is happening to human iesouices within an
oiganization (e.g. absenteeism, laboi tuinovei, stiikes, numbei of giievances
fileu, etc)
Systems iesouice appioach - ability of the fiim to attain the iesouices it
neeus; piouuct iesouices, human iesouices
Stakeholuei appioach - ieflection of the opinions of those affecteu by the

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Foimalization - leaus to moie uissatisfaction

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Span of contiol