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Sky Wave Propagation

Sky Wave Propagation

Outline

Outline • Sky Wave Propagation • Ionosphere • Layers of ionosphere
Outline • Sky Wave Propagation • Ionosphere • Layers of ionosphere

• Sky Wave Propagation

• Ionosphere

• Layers of ionosphere

Sky wave Propagation

Sky wave Propagation • EM waves that are directed above the horizon level are called Sky
Sky wave Propagation • EM waves that are directed above the horizon level are called Sky

• EM waves that are directed above the horizon level are called Sky waves.

Sky waves are radiated toward the sky, where they are either reflected or refracted back to Earth by the ionosphere.

• Sky wave propagation is used for long distance point to point communication (1000 km or more).

• EM waves of frequencies 3 to 30 MHz are reflected back from the ionosphere and frequencies more than 30 MHz are penetrate the ionosphere.

Sky wave Propagation

Sky wave Propagation
Sky wave Propagation
Sky wave Propagation

Sky wave Propagation

Sky wave Propagation
Sky wave Propagation
Sky wave Propagation

Ionosphere

Ionosphere • The ionosphere is the upper portion of Earth’s atmosphere ranging from 50 km to
Ionosphere • The ionosphere is the upper portion of Earth’s atmosphere ranging from 50 km to

• The ionosphere is the upper portion of Earth’s atmosphere ranging from 50 km to 400 km from the Earth’s surface.

• Ionosphere is the most important region of the atmosphere for long distance point to point communications.

• Ionosphere absorbs large quantities of the sun’s radiant energy, which ionizes the air molecules, creating free electrons.

• The most important ionizing agents are ultra violet raditions, α, β rays, cosmic rays and meteors.

• Once a molecule is ionized, it does not remain ionized indefinitely, since the process of recombination continued all the time.

Ionosphere

Ionosphere • Ionosphere is composition of different layers, so that sky waves of different frequencies will
Ionosphere • Ionosphere is composition of different layers, so that sky waves of different frequencies will

• Ionosphere is composition of different layers, so that sky waves of different frequencies will return to earth from different heights.

• The different layers in the ionopshere are due to the fact that different gases in the earth’s atmosphere ionized at different

• The number of layers, their heights and the amount of sky wave that can be bent (refracted) by them will vary from day to day.

• For each such layer there is a critical frequency, above which radio waves will not return to the Earth, but will penetrate it.

• The free electrons in the atmosphere cause radio waves to be refracted and eventually reflected back to Earth.

Ionosphere

Ionosphere
Ionosphere
Ionosphere

Ionosphere

Ionosphere • The layers in the ionosphere during day time are • D layer ( 50
Ionosphere • The layers in the ionosphere during day time are • D layer ( 50
• The layers in the ionosphere during day time are • D layer ( 50
• The layers in the ionosphere during day time are
• D layer
( 50 km – 90 km)
• E layer
( 90 km – 140 km)
• F1 layer ( 140 km – 250 km)
• F2 layer ( 250 km – 400 km)

D - Layer

D - Layer • The D layer is the lowest layer of the ionosphere and is
D - Layer • The D layer is the lowest layer of the ionosphere and is

• The D layer is the lowest layer of the ionosphere and is located approximately between 50 km to 90 km above Earth’s surface.

D layer is present only during the day light hours and disappears at night.

• This is due to the fact degree of ionization depends on the altitude of the sun and absence of ionizing radiations after sunset resulting vanishing of D layer.

• The D layer reflects VLF and LF waves and absorbs MF and HF waves.

D - Layer

D - Layer
D - Layer
D - Layer

E - Layer

E - Layer • The E layer is located approximately between 90 km to 140 km
E - Layer • The E layer is located approximately between 90 km to 140 km

• The E layer is located approximately between 90 km to 140 km above Earth’s surface.

• The E layer

is sometimes called the Kennelly-Heaviside layer after

the two scientists who discovered it.

• The E layer has its maximum density at noon, when the sun is at its highest point.

• The E layer supports MF waves and reflects HF waves partially during day time.

• The E layer disappears at night as like D layer.

F - Layer

F - Layer • The F layer is actually made up of two layers, the F
F - Layer • The F layer is actually made up of two layers, the F

• The F layer is actually made up of two layers, the F 1 and F 2 layers.

• During daytime the F 1 layer is located between 140 to 250 km and F 2 layer is located between 250 km to 400 km above Earth’s surface.

• During the night, the F 1 layer combines with the F 2 layer to form a single layer.

• The F 1 layer absorbs and attenuates some HF waves.

F - Layer

F - Layer • The F2 layer is the most important region for HF propagation because
F - Layer • The F2 layer is the most important region for HF propagation because

• The F2 layer is the most important region for HF propagation because,

• It is present 24 hours of the day

• Its high altitude allows the longest communication paths.

• It usually refracts the highest frequencies in the HF range.

F - Layer

F - Layer • The F2 layer is the most important region for HF propagation because,
F - Layer • The F2 layer is the most important region for HF propagation because,
• The F2 layer is the most important region for HF propagation because, • It
• The F2 layer is the most important region for HF propagation because,
• It is present 24 hours of the day
• Its high altitude allows the longest communication paths.
• It usually refracts the highest frequencies in the HF range.