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Thermodynamics

MTX 220 Definitions

Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is the science that deals with the relationship


of heat and mechanical energy and conversion of one into the
other
System A system is a specifically identified fixed mass of material
separated from its surroundings by a real or imaginary
boundary.
Control Volume A control volume is a region is space separated from its
surroundings by a real or imaginary boundary, the control
surface, across which mass may enter/exit.
Control Mass The control surface is closed to the flow of mass. Therefore a
control mass contains the same amount of matter at all times.
Phase Quantity of matter that is homogeneous throughout.
State A thermodynamic state of a system is defined by the values af
all the system thermodynamic properties.
Properties Defined as a quantifiable macroscopic characteristics of a
system, or
Any quantity that depends on the state of the system, and is
independent of the path by which the system arrived at the
given state.
Intensive property Independent of mass. (pressure, temperature, density)
Extensive property Depends on how much of the substance is present or the size
of the system under consideration. (mass, volume, total
energy)
Thermal Equilibrium Temperature is the same throughout the system.
Mechanical Equilibrium No change in pressure at any point of the system with time.
Phase Equilibrium The amount of substance in any one phase (vapour, liquid and
solid) may not change with time.
Chemical Equilibrium Chemical composition doesn’t change with time, ie no chemical
reactions.
Thermodynamic Thermal, Mechanical, Phase and Chemical equilibrium.
Equilibrium
Process The path of successive states through which system passes
Cycle A thermodynamic cycle consists of a sequence of processes in
which the working fluid returns to its original state
Isothermal Process A constant temperature process.
Isobaric Process A constant pressure process.
Isochoric Process A constant volume process.
Quasi-static/quasi A process that occurs sufficiently slow such that departures
Equilibrium process from thermodynamic equilibrium are nagebly small. All the
states the system passes through may be considered
equilibrium states.
Specific Volume The volume per unit mass.
Density The mass per unit volume.
Pressure Pressure is defined as the normal component of force per unit
area.
Equality of Temperature When two bodies are in thermal communication, and no
change in any observable property occurs.
The Zeroth Law of If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, they
Thermodynamics are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Ice Point A mixture of ice and water that is in equilibrium with air
saturated with vapour at 1 atm.

Chapter 3

Steam point A mixture of liquid water and water vapour (with no air) in
equilibrium at 1 atm.
A Pure Substance A pure substance is identified as one that has a homogeneous
and invariable chemical composition. It may exist in more than
one phase but the chemical composition is the same in all
phases.
Saturation Temperature The temperature at which vaporization takes place at a given
pressure (called the saturation pressure).
Saturated Liquid A liquid about to vaporize.
Substance exist as liquid at the saturation temperature and
pressure.
Saturated Vapour A liquid that is just about to condense.
Substance exist as vapour at the saturation temperature.
Superheated Vapour Vapour that is not about to condense. Substance exists as a
vapour at a temperature higher than the saturated temp.
,
P < Psat @ T T > Tsat @ P
Sub cooled Liquid Temperature of the liquid is lower than the saturation
temperature for the existing pressure.
T < Tsat @ P
Compressed Liquid The pressure is greater than the saturation pressure for a given
temperature.
P > Psat @ T
Quality When a substance exists as part liquid and part vapour. It is
defined as the ratio of the mass of the vapour to the total
mass.
Allotropic A transition from one solid phase to another solid phase.
Transformation
Chapter 4

Work Work is the energy transfer associated with a force acting


through a distance.
Work is done by a system if the sole effect on the surroundings
(everything external to the system) could be the raising of a
weight.
• Work done by a system is positive – Boundary work
output
• Work done on a system is negative – Boundary work
input
• Work is a path function
Heat The form of energy that is transferred across the boundary of a
system at a given temperature to another system (or the
surroundings) at a lower temperature by virtue of the
temperature difference between the two systems.
• Heat transferred to a system is positive
• Heat transferred from a system is negative.
Adiabatic Process A process in which there is no heat transfer (Q=0)
Modes of Heat Transfer
• Conduction Conduction is the transfer of energy from the more energetic
particles of a substance to the adjacent less energetic ones as
a result of interaction between the particles.
• Convection Takes place when a medium is flowing.
• Radiation The transfer of energy due to the emission of electromagnetic
waves/photons.

Chapter 5

First Law of It states that during any cycle a system (control mass)
Thermodynamics undergoes, the cyclic integral of the heat Is proportional to the
cyclic integral of the work.

∫ δQ = Ñ
Ñ ∫ δW
Sensible Energy The portion of the internal energy of a system associated with
the kinetic energies of the molecules.
Latent Energy The portion of internal energy associated with the phase of a
system.
Chemical Energy Internal energy associated with the atomic bonds in a
molecule.
Nuclear Energy Energy associated with the strong bonds within the nucleus of
the atom itself.
Chapter 6
Conservation of Energy The net change of the energy of the control mass is always
equal to the net transfer of energy across the boundary as heat
and work.
Specific Heat The energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of
a substance by one degree.
Steady State A steady-state has no storage effects, with all properties
constant with time, and constitutes the majority of all flow-type
devices.
Assumptions for a 1. The control volume does not move relative to the
Steady-State process coordinate frame.
2. The state of the mass at each point in the control
volume does not vary with time.
3. As for the mass that flows across the control surface, the
mass flux and the state of this mass at each discrete
area of flow on the control surface do not vary with time.
The rate at which heat and work cross the control
surface remain constant.
Examples of Steady-
State Processes
• Heat Exchanger It is a simple fluid flowing through a pipe or system of pipes,
where heat is transferred to or from the fluid.
• Nozzle A nozzle is a steady-stae device whose purpose is to create a
high-velocity fluid stream at the expense of the fluid’s
pressure.
• Diffuser It is a device constructed to decelerate a high-velocity fluid in a
manner that results in an increase in pressure of the fluid.
• Throttle It occurs when a fluid flowing in a line suddenly encounters a
restriction in the flow passage.
• Turbine It is a rotary steady-state machine whose purpose is to produce
shaft work (power, on a rate basis) at the expense of the
pressure of the working fluid.
• Compressor & The purpose of a steady-state compressor (gas) or pump
Pump (liquid) is the same: to increase the pressure of a fluid by
putting in shaft work.
Transient Process Change in mass (storage) such as filling or emptying of a
container.
Assumptions for a 1. The control volume remains constant relative to the
Transient Model coordinate frame.
2. The state of the mass within the control volume may
change with time, but at any instant of time the state is
uniform throughout the entire control volume (or over
several identifiable regions that make up the entire
control volume)
3. The state of the mass crossing each of the areas of flow
on the control surface is constant with time although the
mass flow rates may be time varying.

Chapter 7
Heat Engine Defined as a device that operates in a thermodynamic cycle
and does a certain amount of net positive work through the
transfer of heat from a high-temperature body to a low
temperature body.
The Second Law Of
Thermodynamics
• Kelvin-Planck It is impossible to construct a device that will operate in a cycle
(Heat Engine) and produce no effect other than the raising of a weight and
the exchange of heat with a single reservoir.
• Clausius It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle
(Refrigerator/Hea and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a
t Pump) cooler body to a hotter body.
Reversible Process Defined as a process that once having taken place can be
reversed and in so doing leave no change in either system or
surroundings.
Irreversible Process The initial process because it could not be reversed without
leaving a change in the surroundings.
The Carnot Cycle If every process in the cycle is reversible, the cycle is also
reversible; and if the cycle is reversed, the heat engine
becomes a refrigerator. This is the most efficient cycle that can
operate between two constant-temperature reservoirs.
• 1-2 Isothermal Heat Addition in at
QH TH

• 2-3 Adiabatic Expansion Process goes down


T

• 3-4 Isothermal Heat Rejection out at


QL TL

• 4-1 Adiabatic Compression Process goes up.


T

• Proposition 1 It is impossible to construct an engine that operates between


two given reservoirs and is more efficient than a reversible
engine operating between the two same reservoirs.
• Proposition 1 All engines that operate on the Carnot cycle between two given
constant-temperature reservoirs have the same efficiency.

Chapter 8
Isentropic Process Constant entropy process. Entropy remains constant in a
reversible adiabatic process.
Standard Entropy Integrate the results of the calculations of statistical
thermodynamics from reference temperature to any other
T0
temperature .
T

Chapter 9
Steady State Process No change with time of the entropy per mass unit at any point
within the control volume.
Fluid Incompressible v = constant

Typical Steady-Flow Devices


Device Purpose Given Assumption
Aftercooler Cool a flow after a compressor.
w=0 P = const
Boiler Bring substances to a vapour state
w=0 P = const
Condenser Take q out to bring substance to liquid
state w=0 P = const
Combustor Burn fuel; acts like heat transfer in
w=0 P = const
Compressor Bring a substance to higher pressure
w in q=0
Deaerator Remove gases dissolved in liquids
w=0 P = const
Dehumidifier Remove water from air -
P = const
Desuperheater Add liquid water to superheated vapour
steam to make it saturated vapour w=0 P = const
Diffuser Convert KE energy to higher P
w=0 q=0
Economizer Low-T, low-P heat exchanger
w=0 P = const
Evaporator Bring a substance to a vapour state
w=0 P = const
Expander Similar to a turbine, but may have a q - -
Fan/Blower Move a substance, typically air
w in, KE up q = 0, P = C
Feedwater Heater Heat liquid water with another flow
w=0 P = const
Flash Evaporator Generate vapour by expansion
(throttling) w=0 q=0
Heat Engine A device that converts part of heat into -
work
q in, w out
Heat Exchanger Transfer heat from one medium to
another w=0 P = const
Heat Pump A device moving a Q from to , -
w in
Tlow Thigh
requires a work input, refrigerator
Heater Heat a substance
w=0 P = const
Humidifier Add water to air-mixture
w=0 P = const
Intercooler Heat exchanger between compressor
stages w=0 P = const
Nozzle Create KE; P drops. Measure flow rate
w=0 q=0
Mixing Chamber Mix two or more flows
w=0 q=0
Pump Same as compressor but handles liquid
w in, P up q=0
Reactor Allow reaction between two or more
substances w=0 q = 0, P = C
Regenerator Usually a heat exchanger to recover
energy w=0 P = const
Steam Generator Same as boiler, heat liquid water to
superheated vapour w=0 P = const
Supercharger A compressor driven by engine shaft -
work to drive air into an automotive
w in
engine
Superheater A heat exchange that brings up Tsat over
T
w=0 P = const
Turbine Create shaft work from high P flow
w out q=0
Turbocharger A compressor driven by an exhaust flow -
turbine to charge air into an engine W&turbine = W&C .V .
Valve /Throttle Control flow by restriction; P drops
w=0 q=0