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Home Monitoring Sensor Network

Low Level Design


3/3/2010 Eroding Sines: Kat Engstrom Scott Garvey Dan Myers Mike Padberg

Table of Contents
Table of Contents...............................................................................................................2 Introd ction........................................................................................................................! Problem Statement and Pro"osed Sol tion......................................................................! System Descri"tion and #lock Diagram............................................................................$ System %e& irements........................................................................................................' (verall System %e& irements)......................................................................................' S bsystem %e& irements).............................................................................................' * t re %e& irements)....................................................................................................+ ,o- ,evel Design...............................................................................................................+ SitePlayer.......................................................................................................................+ .ireless Comm nication............................................................................................./0 Sensors......................................................................................................................../2 ,ig1t Sensor................................................................................................................./! Passive Infrared Sensor.............................................................................................../! Po-er %elay................................................................................................................./$ Po-er.........................................................................................................................../' Sc1ematics.................................................................................................................../2 #ill of Materials.................................................................................................................20 Concl sion.......................................................................................................................2/ %eferences.......................................................................................................................2/

Introduction
Tec1nology is a key e3am"le of 1 man evol tion. 4s -e "rogress5 o r tec1nology im"roves to offer more s ""ort in daily life. T1e 1ome is t1e focal "oint of 1 man life. It is int itive to a""ly tec1nology to t1e 1ome as it incor"orates itself more t1oro g1ly into o r lives. 4 6Smart 7ome8 is created t1ro g1 a sensor net-ork t1at connects to a base. Sensor net-orks are able to collect data and organi9e it into an efficient manner for t1e 1ome o-ner to "rocess. Internet monitoring allo-s for easy accessibility. ( r idea is to "rovide some basic information t1ro g1 sensors to t1e internet and allo- control of "o-er relays from any com" ter even in a remote location.

Problem Statement and Proposed Solution


Every year5 cons mers become more and more de"endent "on ne- electrical gadgets. Most of t1ese gadgets 1ave one t1ing in common) standby "o-er. Peo"le find it m c1 easier to kee" t1eir c1argers constantly "l gged in5 regardless of -1et1er t1ey are act ally c1arging. Electronic a""liances t1at are "l gged in5 b t t rned off or in a standby mode5 cons me electric "o-er kno-n as standby "o-er. Standby "o-er is also kno-n as vam"ire "o-er or "1antom load. ( r goal is to monitor "o-er cons m"tion and red ce t1is standby "o-er. T1e more t1at -e are a-are of a "roblem5 t1e more o""ort nity -e 1ave to alleviate it. .it1 real:time monitoring5 a ser can better nderstand -1ere t1eir "o-er goes. T1e PlayStation ! 1as been re"orted to se as m c1 as !;. -1en on idle. * rt1er5 t1ey can se it more efficiently. Standby "o-er -astes energy5 generates nnecessary 1eat5 and increases fire risks. 4 single a""liance does not dra- t1at m c1 "o-er5 b t an 4merican 1ome 1as an average of forty "rod cts constantly dra-ing standby "o-er. / ,ess vam"ire "o-er means less -eig1t on "o-er "lants. ,ess -eig1t on "o-er "lants is better for t1e environment. Efficient energy saves money5 saves lives5 and saves t1e environment. 4not1er se for o r system is to t rn off items in a 1ome t1at 1ave been left on and are cons ming f ll "o-er5 not only t1e relatively smaller amo nt sed by standby "o-er cons m"tion. *or e3am"le a lig1t sensor may set near a lam" -1ic1 -o ld enable t1e ser to determine if a lig1t 1as been left on and c t t1e "o-er to it in order to save energy.
1

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: Standby Power. <http://standby.lbl.gov/> Nov. !" #!!$.

System Description and Block Diagram


Central <ode PI% sensor Po-er %elay ,ig1t Sensor Tem" Sensor

MicroControll er SitePlayer =ig#e e

<ode PI% sensor =ig#e e

<ode =ig#e e PI% sensor MicroControll er

MicroControll er Tem" Sensor ,ig1t Sensor ,ig1t Sensor

Po-er %elay

Po-er %elay Tem" Sensor

Central Node vs. Secondary Nodes> T1ere are several significant differences in t1e role of t1e central node. T1e first of t1ese is t1at t1e central node is t1e only one -1ic1 is act ally connected to t1e internet t1ro g1 t1e SitePlayer. #y sending t1e information to t1e SitePlayer -e -ill dis"lay t1e sensor data on t1e internet for t1e ser to vie- and "ossibly act on. T1e SitePlayer -ill also allo- in" t from t1e internet so t1at t1e ser is able to send a signal to t1e nodes. T1is -ill be sed to t rn on or off t1e "o-er relays attac1ed to t1e nodes. T1e ot1er difference in t1e design of t1e central node is 1o- t1e =ig#ee comm nication -ill o"erate. T1e secondary nodes -ill only need to talk to t1e central node. T1e central node -ill 1ave to se its =ig#ee transceiver to talk to all of t1e secondary nodes relaying information bet-een t1ose nodes and t1e SitePlayer. SitePlayer > T1e central node differs from t1e ot1er nodes "rimarily by t1e addition of a SitePlayer. T1e SitePlayer -ill allo- s to "ost all of o r nodes? sensor data on t1e internet for access from any-1ere -it1 a -eb bro-ser. T1e SitePlayer -ill also allo- a ser to send a signal from t1eir -eb bro-ser to t1e microcontroller telling it to enable or disable t1e "o-er relay. Temperature Sensor : Eac1 of o r nodes -ill be e& i""ed -it1 a tem"erat re sensor. T1is -ill enable eac1 node to determine t1e tem"erat re of t1eir environment and send t1at information to t1e central node to be dis"layed. ig!t Sensor : Eac1 of o r nodes -ill also be e& i""ed -it1 a lig1t sensor. T1is -ill enable eac1 node to determine t1e intensity of lig1t -1ere t1e sensor is "laced and dis"lay it. P"# Sensor > Sensor -ill be sed to c1eck rooms for occ "ancy and give t1is information to central node. $ig%ee > Eac1 node -ill be e& i""ed -it1 a =ig#ee Transceiver in order to send or receive t1e readings of sensors and instr ctions to o"erate its "o-er relay. Po&er #elay> 4 "o-er relay -ill be controlled by eac1 microcontroller and -ill enable t1e ser to t rn on and off a""liances from a remote location. T1is co ld be sef l in many sit ations to save "o-er -1en a""liances are left on or to t rn t1em off f lly to eliminate standby "o-er.

System Requirements
Overall System Requirements:
o Sensor Data is transferred to central node from secondary nodes sing =ig#ee -ireless comm nication. o Central node transmits orders to secondary nodes to control t1e "o-er relays attac1ed to t1em. o Central node dis"lays sensor data from all nodes on a -eb "age. o SitePlayer can receive a command from t1e internet and transmit t1is command to t1e Central node?s microcontroller. o ,o- "o-er sage. @sing a large amo nt of "o-er -o ld defeat t1e " r"ose of t1e "roAect.

Subsystem Requirements:
.ireless transceivers o Central node is able to comm nicate -it1 m lti"le secondary nodes. o Central node m st kno- -1ic1 secondary node is sending sensor data in order to control t1e "ro"er relay. o Transceivers s1o ld be able to transmit data ;0 feet so t1at secondary nodes can be a reasonable distance from t1e central node. Microcontroller o Pins for connecting "rogrammer to microcontroller o Pins for receiving data from sensors o @S4%T for @S# connection o SPI interface for comm nicating -it1 =ig#ee transceivers o Serial interface for comm nication -it1 t1e SitePlayer attac1ed to central node.

Future Requirements:
4llo- secondary nodes to for-ard messages to and from t1e central node in order to e3tend t1e range of t1e sensor net-ork. 4llo- a tomatic "rogramming t1ro g1 -ebsite to t rn a""liances on and off at certain times of t1e day or mont1. 4dditional sensors in order to increase t1e ca"abilities of t1e monitoring as"ect of o r sensor net-ork.

Low Le el Design
SitePlayer
T1e SitePlayer comm nicates -it1 t1e PIC/2,*'+22 microcontroller t1ro g1 a serial interface. T1is comm nication is accom"lis1ed by connecting gro nd5 send and receive lines as s1o-n in *ig re /. (ne t1ing t1at m st be ke"t in mind for t1e "1ysical connection is t1at t1e microcontroller r ns at !.!B -1ile t1e SitePlayer o"erates at ;B. T1e SitePlayer t1res1old voltage is lo- eno g1 t1at it sees a logic / at !.!B. T1is means t1at no modification is needed on t1e line from t1e microcontroller to t1e SitePlayer. T1e ;v o t" t from t1e SitePlayer is too 1ig1 to be allo-ed to directly connect to t1e microcontroller. T1is co ld ca se t1e "in on t1e microcontroller to fail. T1e microcontroller "ins 1ave "rotective diodes to Bdd and Gro nd -1ic1 allo- a ;v connection as long as t1e c rrent is ke"t s fficiently lo-. To "rotect from t1is a 20K resister is "laced bet-een t1e t-o "ins -1ic1 -ill limit t1e c rrent to 2;0 micro am"s at most.

P"C1' ()*22 G<D


C'

Gro nd PIC to SP SP to PIC

Pin '

SitePlayer
Pin + Pin 2

Et1ernet /0:#ase T *ilter

+e,

C+

In o r im"lementation all comm nication bet-een t1e microcontroller and t1e SitePlayer -ill be initiated from t1e central microcontroller5 t1e SitePlayer is " rely res"onsive. Packets sent to t1e SitePlayer are bet-een 2 and /C bytes. T1e first byte of t1e transmission is t1e command byte -1ic1 informs t1e SitePlayer -1at action is to be taken. T1e form of t1e "acket and t1e available commands are s1o-n in *ig re !.

*ig re ! @"on start " 20 bytes of n lls or <(P commands are sent to t1e microcontroller. 4t t1is "oint it can be kno-n t1at t1e SitePlayer is not in t1e middle of any f nction and is ready to acce"t ne- commands. T1e SitePlayer is t1en sent a command -1ic1 -ill "ro"erly set t1e IP address in se. T1is is necessary since a static IP is being sed. T1is command is not act ally listed in t1e soft-are man al b t "c "rogram serial tester 1as t1is f nction -1ic1 -as able to be ada"ted for se on t1e microcontroller. 4ll sensor data acc m lated on t1e central node is sent to t1e SitePlayer sing t1e .rite command at a reg lar interval. .riteD is not needed since 2 bit addressing is s fficient for o r " r"ose. T1is data -ill t1en be read from o r -ebsite in order to be

" t on dis"lay for t1e ser. .1en any data needs to be sent from t1e internet to t1e microcontroller a byte is first c1anged on t1e SitePlayer t1ro g1 t1e -eb interface. T1ere is no interr "t from t1e SitePlayer since t1is is not a time sensitive a""lication. @sing t1e %ead command5 t1e microcontroller -ill "oll a byte on t1e SitePlayer at reg lar intervals t1at contains information on -1at lig1ts s1o ld be on or off. T1is information is t1en sent to t1e relevant node so t1at it can be " t to se. T1e s bsystem 1as been tested on t1e SPK/ develo"ment board incl ded in t1e SitePlayer develo"ment kit. T1e SitePlayer is vie-able over t1e net-ork and it is "ossible to -rite to and read from t1e SitePlayerE-ebsite. T1e first t1ing t1at -ill need to be tested -1en /0:base t Et1ernet filter is ordered is t1at t1e circ it diagram -e 1ave designed -ill allo- t1e SP/ to "ro"erly connect to t1e internet. Comm nication bet-een t1e SitePlayer and microcontroller s1o ld not be affected by removing t1e develo"ment board. T1e SitePlayer does involve some "rogramming o tside of t1e microcontroller. T1e 7TM, for t1e -ebsite to be 1osted is very similar to normal 7MT,. T1ere are some key-ords t1at can be sed -1ic1 -ill dis"lay t1e val e of an obAect in t1e SitePlayer memory as s1o-n belo-. T1e -ebsite -ill consist of t1e readings from t1e vario s sensors on t1e net-ork as -ell as a met1od of c1anging -1et1er t1e lig1t at a certain node s1o ld be lit. 4n obAect can be c1anged on t1e SitePlayer -it1 a b tton form dis"layed on t1e -ebsite. *or e3am"le 6FbGFfont si9eHI$IGFa 1refHISerial.s"iJ obAect+H//2IG Set obAect + to vKdecimal //2L FEaGFEfontG FEbGFbrG8 -ill dis"lay a b tton t1at -ill c1ange obAect + to decimal val e //2 -1en clicked.

Wireless Communication
( r -ireless comm nication -ill be accom"lis1ed sing t1e =ig#ee s"ecification based on t1e IEEE 202./;.$:200! standard for -ireless "ersonal are net-orks. T1e lo- cost5 lo- "o-er and accessibility made t1is t1e s"ecification best s ited to meet o r needs. .e -ill se t1e 4T2'%*2!/ 4tmel =igbee da g1ter card in order to "rovide -ireless ca"ability. T1is c1i" can be "o-ered at t1e same !.! B t1at o r board o"erates at and o"erates at 2.$ G79. T1e transfer rate is limited to 2;0 KbitsEs -1ic1 is -ell above -1at is re& ired for o r scenario. In order to conserve battery life as m c1 as "ossible for secondary nodes t1ey -ill refrain from transmitting and receiving as m c1 as "ossible. T1e central node -ill al-ays be connected to 4C "o-er -1ic1 -ill allo- it to al-ays remain on and ready to receive transmissions from t1e secondary nodes. T1e secondary nodes -ill "eriodically5 ever min te or so5 come online and send t1eir data to t1e central node. T1ese secondary nodes -ill t1en stay in a receive state for a fe- seconds in order to allo- t1e central node to re"ly -it1 -1et1er t1eir relay s1o ld be s ""lying "o-er to any device connected. T1ere is no time sensitive data being transmitted in t1e system -1ic1 allo-s =ig#ee "o-er cons m"tion to remain at a minim m. T1is all means t1at a beacon K"eriodic transmissionL net-ork -ill be tili9ed in order to conserve "o-er as m c1 as "ossible. T1e basic f nctions for o"eration of t1e =ig#ee transceiver 1ave been com"leted. T1ese are listed belo-. (unction Name "nit./ig,ee #eset./ig,ee #ead.spi.reg +rite.spi.reg receive.0rame -escription Initiali9es Microcontroller to "ro"erly comm nicate -it1 t1e =ig#ee transceiver *li"s t1e reset "in connected to t1e transceiver %eads a register on t1e transceiver t1ro g1 t1e SPI interface .rites to a register on t1e transceiver t1ro g1 t1e SPI interface .1en an transmit end interr "t is fo nd5 t1is reads t1e frame t1at 1as been received Creates a frame to be sent carrying sensor

1enerate.0rame

data +rite.0rame .rites t1e generated frame to t1e transceiver to be sent -1en "laced in transmit state * nction sed to c1ange t1e state of t1e =ig#ee TransceiverK*inite State Mac1ine s1o-n belo-L

$ig.state

Sensors
Temperature Sensor: ( r c1osen tem"erat re sensor -ill be an ,M/C5 man fact red by <ational Semicond ctor. 4t !.;B s ""ly voltage5 t1e range of acc rate meas rements is :;;MC to /!0MC5 -1ic1 is greater t1an o r a""lication -ill need5 b t it seems to be t1e range of most tem"erat re sensors o t t1ere. It is most acc rate in t1e middle of t1is range5 N!0MC5 -1ere it -ill be O2.;MC. It follo-s o r obAective of being very lo-er "o-er5 as t1e c rrent dra-n by t1e device is only /0 P45 and being s c1 lo- "o-er5 it 1eats " less t1an 0.02MC.

BQ -ill be connected to t1e s ""ly voltage on t1e board5 G<D -ill be gro nded5 and Bo -ill be connected to an analog to digital "in5 40. C rrently for testing " r"oses5 t1e 4DC o t" ts its data to t1e ,CD in t1e form of 2B H 200 dis"layed5 or /.;B H /;0 dis"layed.

(unction Name ena,le.2-C3204

-escription Sets 40 as an analog5 sets time to -ait ntil "in stabili9esR t rns on t1e 4DC mod le and starts t1e conversionR -aits again ntil conversion 1as com"leted.

display.2-C.temp

*ormats t1e o t" t from enableS4DC into voltage and dis"lays it on t1e ,CD screen into D n mber of 1 ndredt1s of a volt. Event ally t1is -ill be converted to dis"lay t1e tem"erat re t1at voltage corres"onds to.

Light Sensor
4 TEPT;+005 an <P< "1ototransistor5 -as c1osen to be o r ambient lig1t sensor. It is designed to detect lig1t in t1e same range t1at t1e 1 man eye is sensitive to. It is T:/T style "ackaging5 and 1as a very large angle t1at it can detect lig1t from. T1is -ill also be a very lo- "o-er device5 -it1 t1e c rrent being dra-n by it determined by t1e resistor connected bet-een collector and gro nd. 4 /0k o1m resistor -as c1osen5 making t1e ma3im m c rrent dra-n by t1e device to be .!;m4.

T1e emitter of t1e device -ill be connected to o r s ""ly voltage5 t1e base is t1e detector itself5 and t1e collector is connected to t1e /0k resistor. T1e o t" t of t1e circ it is t1e voltage on t1e /0k resistor5 being set by t1e c rrent t1ro g1 it. T1e o t" t -ill be connected to an analog to digital "in5 4$. T1e "rogramming for t1is device -ill be e3actly as t1e same as t1e tem"erat re sensor5 e3ce"t -it1 40 c1anging to 4$5 and 4DCStem" c1anging to 4DCSlig1t5 -it1 t1e correct conversions dis"laying 1o- many l men it is receiving5 or dis"laying -1et1er t1e lig1t in t1e room is on or off.

Passive Infrared Sensor


4 "assive infrared sensor -as also c1osen to be sed to detect motion. 4 Paralla3 PI% ;;;:2202+ -as c1osen beca se it can detect motion " to 20 feet a-ay5 it is fairly small and c1ea"5 and it 1as a !:"in 1eader -1ic1 -ill easily allo- s to mo nt t1e sensor on t1e case and -ire it to t1e board. 4not1er very nice feat re is t1at it is

single "in o t" tU" ts a digital / o t if t1ere is motion5 and " ts a digital 0 if t1ere is none detected.

4s before5 BQ goes to t1e !.;B s ""ly of o r board5 G<D goes to gro nd5 and t1is time5 Bo t -ill go to a digital iEo "in5 %2 Kalso labeled 42L. T1e "rogramming -ill be even sim"ler for t1is one5 A st one f nction to set " %2 as a digital in" t5 and t1e ot1er to o t" t on t1e ,CD -1et1er t1ere is movement or notU%2 H / or 0.

Po er Relay
4n (micron G'C:/ "o-er relay -as c1osen beca se it is basically a single " ll single t1ro- s-itc1. .e only need it to control one device5 so t1is "erfectly meets o r needs5 taking " less s"ace t1an c1oosing a larger one -1ic1 can control m lti"le devices. It takes 2.CB to t rn on t1e relay5 -1ic1 is lo-er t1an o r s ""ly voltage5 b t it does take !0m4 to t rn it on at !.;B. T1is co ld be a "roblem5 b t only o r mod les -1ic1 -ill be "l gged into t1e -all -ill feat re "o-er relays5 so cons ming too m c1 "o-er from t1e battery -ill not be an iss e. .1at co ld 1ave been an iss e is t1at !0m4 is a large "ortion of t1e voltage t1at t1e reg lators on o r board can " t o tR 1o-ever5 t1e relay -orks -it1 an in" t voltage " to 2$B5 so it can be connected directly to t1e "o-er brick5 as s1o-n in t1e circ it belo-. 4lso5 !0m4 is -ay too 1ig1 to be dra-n directly from t1e microcontroller itself5 so a mosfet -ill be connected bet-een t1e relay and t1e microcontroller to "rovide t1e re& ired c rrent. T1e c rrent c1oice of mosfet is MTP!0;;B,R it is designed to -ork " to /245 -1ic1 is a little overkill for o r "roAect5 b t it is designed to -ork directly from logic drivers5 -1ic1 is -1at -e are sing it for. T1e ot1er good t1ing it 1as is an internal so rce:drain diode5 -1ic1 removes o r need for adding in an e3tra diode to block t1e back EM* of t1e relay.

So if Bin is a digital 05 BinH0B5 t1e mosfet D terminal is being 1eld at !.;B by t1e /k resistor. T1is kee"s "in 2 at !.;B5 -1ic1 means t1e relay does not 1ave G!B across "ins / and 25 -1ic1 means t1e s-itc1 bet-een "ins ! and $ is o"en. If Bin is a digital /5 !.;B5 D is no- electrically connected to S5 -1ic1 makes "in 2 0B. T1ere are no- !.;B across "ins / and 2 on t1e relay5 closing t1e s-itc15 t rning on -1atever device is to be controlled. T1e /00k resistor is t1ere to " ll t1e voltage at G do-n to 9ero -1enever t1e device is first t rned on5 and t1e "in controlling Bin 1as not been yet set to a digital o t" t. Pin %4! K4!L is going to be controlling t1e voltage at Bin.

Po er
Po-er can be "rovided by eit1er Cv battery or from 4C "o-er. Eac1 node 1as an 4C "o-er socket -it1 a detac1able "o-er cord so t1at if a battery is sed t1e 4C cord -on?t be in t1e -ay. *rom t1e socket5 4C "o-er is s"lit and sent to an 4CEDC converter KCvL and to a relay to "o-er a lig1t socket. 4 s-itc1 Kon t1e o tside of t1e caseL s-itc1es t1e board?s "o-er so rce from t1e 4CEDC converter to a Cv battery. Po-er can also be "rovided by @S#5 b t t1is is for tro bles1ooting only and -ill not readily accessible. relay Po-er in socket 4CEDC board Po-er o t socket

Po-er s-itc1

Cv battery Po-er sc1ematic.

4C "o-er socket and cord.

(n t1e board itself is a !.!v voltage reg lator and a ;v reg lator. T1e !.!v reg lator ste"s t1e C volts Kfrom t1e 4CEDC converter or batteryL do-n to !.! volts for

t1e board com"onents to se. T1e ;v reg lator ste"s t1e !.! volts " for se by t1e SitePlayer.

Schematics

Main microcontroller circ it.

DIP s-itc1 circ it.

SitePlayer circ it.

,CD circ it. ,CD Pins V =igbee circ it.

; volt reg lator circ it.

Sensor circ its.

Bill of !aterials
Part Description AC/DC converter 10 B !e-T "i#ter! $%45 &5 ' ck( AC '*er cor+ Po*er !ocket !#i+e DPDT !*itc0 300 o03 1.D re!i!tor 10k 1.D re!i!tor 1k !3+ re!i!tor 150k !3+ re!i!tor 100 o03 !3+ re!i!tor 4.)k !3+ re!i!tor .1/" !3+ c ' citor 10/" c ' citor 4.)/" c ' citor re+ #e+ green #e+ +io+e 7errite 8ee+ 8 'o!. D9P !*itc0 5v vo#t ge reg. 3.3v vo#t ge reg. -0.:; cer 3ic re!on tor <1B connector <1B !eri # c0i' 3icrocontro##er .01/" c ' citor 1000'" c ' citor 180'" 'o*er !ocket 7or # 3' A38ient =ig0t 1en!or Te3'er t/re 1en!or 15N1@$ .@T9@N P9$ 56 DC -506 AC $e# y 100k o03 !3+ re!i!tor ;ig8ee connector Source Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key .o/!er Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Digi-key Part Number T980-P5P-ND 380-104)-ND ,348-ND 693-6160.0004 12116-ND P300DACT-ND P104DACT-ND P1.04DACT-ND P1504DACT-ND P100DACT-ND P4.)4DACT-ND 5C%--6B151044 PCC---5CT-ND PCC184-CT-ND 160-14---1-ND 160-14-3-1-ND 1N41482TP.1CT-ND 445---01-1-ND CT-198.1T-ND 49)-1-3)-1-ND 49)-1-35-1-ND 490-4)1)-1-ND 609-3656-ND )68-100)-1-ND P9C18="6)---9/PT-ND PCC1858CT-ND PCC10-BNCT-ND PCC181C>CT-ND ,-81-ND )51-1059-ND =.19C9?-ND 555--80-)-ND ?)15-ND P1004DACT-ND Quantity 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 10 10 30 10 10 10 10 10 -0 10 10 ) ) ) ) ) ) 3 -0 10 10 5 10 5 5 5 10 Cost/piece $6.980 $1.980 $1.)-6 $1.350 $0.810 $0.-04 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $1.0-0 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.000 $0.13$0.0)$0.-40 $0.6-0 $0.5)8 $0.)44 $9.490 $5.6-0 $0.000 Total Cost $34.90 $9.90 $8.63 $6.)5 $4.05 $-.04 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $).14 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $-.64 $0.)$-.40 $3.10 $5.)8 $3.)$4).45 $-8.10 $0.00

Tot #

$16).3-

Conclusion
( r sensor net-ork s1o ld allo- a ne- level of observation and control of 1omes even -1en a-ay from 1ome. ( r "roAect as detailed above s1o ld allo- a red ction in "o-er cons m"tion d e to standby "o-er from sim"ly leaving devices on -1en a-ay at -ork or on vacation. .1ile many "eo"le are all for saving energy it can be very inconvenient to 1ave to n"l g everyt1ing -1en not in se. <ot many "eo"le are going to reac1 be1ind t1eir TB and n"l g -1enever t1ey are not -atc1ing. T rning off devices t1ro g1 a -eb interface -o ld be m c1 easier for t1e average "erson and -o ld likely increase energy savings. Peo"le can also forget to t rn off lig1ts and vario s electronics -1en a-ay from 1ome. ( r system -ill allo- sers to still be able to t rn t1ese off -1enever it crosses t1eir mind and save energy. T1e savings from t1is red ction in "o-er co ld add " s bstantially over t1e co rse of a year as a -att sed to "o-er a device costs a""ro3imately one dollar "er year.

References