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Proto-Indo-European Grammar

Introduction 8 cases, 3 genders, reconstructed language, origins, peoples etc. keep it brief but complete enough o be sufficient for language understanding and use. How to use this grammar. PIE has 8 noun cases. he first four of these cases will be familiar to those who ha!e studied Germanic languages. he last four are merel" e#pansions of some of the first four, and are used to indicate more precise meaning. $nlike %odern English, PIE has different forms for words which occur in different positions of a sentence, these different forms are the 8 cases. .Howe!er, this s"stem is not as intimidating as it first ma" seem. he primar" form of each noun is the nominati!e case, in which the noun is in its &sub'ect( form. In dictionaries and le#icons, nouns appear in the nominati!e form. he accusati!e case is the &ob'ect( form of a noun. )o, in &the dog bites the man,( the &dog( is nominati!e, and the &man( is accusati!e. he 3rd case is geniti!e, which indicates &possession.( In &the man*s bite,( &man( is in a geniti!e form. Prepositional Cases he +th case is dati!e, and is the ,st case which indicates a preposition- the phrase &to the pound( is dati!e. he .ocati!e is the /nd indicates a preposition, but onl" a special kind of preposition. It indicates that something is coming into or going of a specific location, such as &to the sea( or &into the hearth.( he Instrumental case is the 3rd case which indicates a preposition. he specific t"pe of preposition indicated is something that is used as an instrument to accomplish something. 0or e#ample, in &he killed the dog with an a#e( &a#e is in the instrumental. he !ocati!e case is used for &in!ocations,( in other words, when someone is addressed directl". 1hen "ou call out to someone b" their name, the name would be considered to be in the !ocati!e case. he 2blati!e case indicates the origin of something. 0or e#ample English does not ha!e separate noun forms to indicate prepositions, much less distinguishing between different t"pes of prepositions. 3ather Nouns Histerodynamic (HD) nouns, and Proterodynamic nouns (PD) have mobile accent which can fall on either the root or ending depending on the case: nom. has initial accent, acc. and loc. have accent on the stem (the syllable containing the stem, such as r, m, t, us, etc. !en."abl. dat and ins. have accent on the case ending. #he vocative case always has initial accent. $ome stems have variations of this pattern, see charts for these details. %thematic nouns (with mobile stress) with &ero grade in the nominative have initial stress. #he Consonant $tems, are %thematic and have mobile accent. #his means that the accented syllable of any word will either be on the root or on the ending, depending on what case is used. 'or the nom. voc. acc. and loc. cases, the vowels of the root appear in full grade, and the root receives the accent. 'or gen. abl. dat. and ins. cases, the accent is on the ending. #his is because in these cases, the roots become &ero grade, which means that the root vowels disappear in all syllables of the root.

!eneral $ingular, Plural and Dual nom. !oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. Ins. sg. -s, 4 4 -m -5o6s -5o6s8 5e6t -5e6i -i, 4 -e, 7 pl. -es -es -ns -om -"os -mus -su -bhi du. -e -e -e -7s -m9 -9u bh"e

!eneral (euter nom.:!oc.:acc. ( $tems nom. !oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ingular -;n -on -on:en-m -n-os:es -n-os:es -n-ei -en5i6 -n-7 Plural -on-es -on-es -on:en-ns -n-om -n-ios -n-mus -n-su -n-bhi 4, -m -a, 4 -"e

) $tems HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. * $tems HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -9l -<l-m -l-;s -l-5o6s, -5e6t -l-ei -<l-i -l-7 Plural - 9l-es -<l-ns -l-om -l-"os -l-mus -l-su -l-bhi )ing. -7r -<r-m -r-;s -r-5o6s, -5e6t -r-ei -<r-i -r-7 Plural -<r-es -<r-ns -r-om -r-"os -r-mus -r-su -r-bhi

+ $tems HD )ing. Plural

nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins.

-9m 4-<m-m 4-m-;s 4-m-5o6s, -5e6t 4-m-ei -<m-i 4-m-7

- 9m-es -<m-ns -m-om -m-"os -m-mus -m-su -m-bhi

%-)tems differ 5from the other consonant stems, or 'ust from r, l and n=6 in that the accusati!e also has >ero grade of onl" the first !owel of the root. Gen, dat and ins. has the standard 4-grade of both !owels in the root. # $tems HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -9t -;t-m -t-;s -t-5o6s, -5e6t -t-ei -;t-i -t-7 Plural - 9t-es -;t-ns -t-om -t-"os -t-mus -t-su -t-bhi

he t-stems onl" ha!e >ero grade of the second !owel in the root, while the first !owel remains in full grade. 5If there is onl" one !owel in the root, that !owel will become >ero grade6. (# $tems HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -w<nt5s6 -w<nt-m -wnt-;s -wnt-5o6s, -5e6t -wnt-ei -w<nt-i -wnt-7 Plural -w<nt-es -w<nt-ns -wnt-om -wnt-"os -wnt-mus -w<nt-su -wnt-bhi

(# Participles HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -?nt -<nt-m -nt-;s -nt-5o6s, -5e6t -nt-ei -nt-i -nt-7 Plural - ?nt-es -<nt-ns -nt-om -nt-"os -nt-mus -nt-su -nt-bhi

hese ha!e >ero grade in the nom. and full grade in the acc. @ote that the nom. and acc. recei!e the accent in the suffi#. ,$ $tems HD )ing. Plural

nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins.

Aus-9s aus-;s-m aus-s-;s aus-s-5o6s, -5e6t aus-s-ei aus-s-i aus-s-7

Aus-es aus-;s-ns aus-s-om aus-s-"os aus-s-mus aus-s-su aus-s-bhi hese ha!e >ero grade also in the accusati!e.

2us- is a root, not a suffi#.

#he Comparative -nflection HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -?i9s -i<s-m -is-;s -is-5o6s, -5e6t -is-ei -is-i -is-7 Plural - ?ios-es -i<s-ns -is-om -is-"os -is-mus -is-su -is-bhi

#he Perfect Participle HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. - $tems HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -9i, is -oi-m -i-os -i-5o6s, -5e6t -i-ei -i-i -i-7 Plural -9i -es -oi-ns -i-om -i-"os -i-mus -i-su -i-bhi )ing. -w<id-w9s -wid-w;s-m -wid-us-;s -wid-us-5o6s, -5e6t -wid-us-ei -wid-us-i -wid-us-7 Plural - w<id-w9s-es -w<id-w;s-ns -wid-us-om -wid-us-"os -wid-us-mus -wid-us-su -wid-us-bhi

. $tems HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. - 7:9us5s6 -e:ou-m -u-os -u-5o6s, -5e6t -u-ei -u-i -u-7 Plural - 7:9us-es -e:ou-ns -u-om -u-"os -u-mus -u-su -u-bhi

*aryngeal H/ $tems (e) HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -pont-7-s -pont-7-m -pnte-os -pnte-5o6s, -5e6t -pnte-ei -pnte-i -pnte-7 Plural -pont-7-es -pont-7-ns -pnte-om -pnte-"os -pnte-mus -pnte-su -pnte-bhi

*aryngeal H0 $tems (a) HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -a -Bm -os -5o6s, -5e6t -ai -ai -B Plural -Bs -Bns -om -a"os -amus -asu -abhi

*aryngeal iH $tems and uH $tems HD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -iH -ieH-m -iH-os -iH-5o6s, -5e6t -iH-ei -iH-i -iH-7 Plural -iH-es -ieH-ns -iH-om -iH-"os -H-mus -iH-su -iH-bhi

he uH stems are completel" parallel. he onl" difference is that before the lar"ngeal 5H6 there should be a u instead of an i. 0or e#ample, the nom. sing. would be CuH, the acc. pl. would be CiuH-ns, etc. he Proterod"namic Inflection . and - $tems PD nom. !oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -u-s -eu -u-m -ou-s -ou-s -eu-i -7u -u-e Plural -eu-es -eu-es -u-ns -eu-om -eu-"os -u-mus -u-su -u-bhi

he PD i-stems are completel" parallel. $se this same chart but e!er"where "ou see a -u- put an -i-. 0or e#ample, the nom. sing. would be -i-s, the gen. pl. would be -ei-om, etc.

H0 $tems PD & here is onl" one word known with the suffi# -B 5-eh/-6 which has the PD inflection, namel" the word for ?woman*( 5Eeekes ,8F6nom. !oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. gGen-a gGen-a gGen-a-m gGn-B-s gGn-B-s, -t gGn-B-i gG7n-a gGn-B Plural gGen-a-s gGen-a-s gGen-a-ns gGn-B-m gGn-B-"os gGn-B-mus gG7n-a-su gGn-B-bhi

1% $tems ( ih0) PD nom. !oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. $ $tems PD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. ( $tems PD nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -mn -m9n-m -men-s -men-s, -t -men-ei -m7n -men-7 Plural -m9n -m9n-ns -men-om -men-"os -men-mus -m7n-su -men-bhi )ing. -os -os-m -<s-os -<s-5o6s, -5e6t -<s-ei -<s-i -<s-7 Plural -<s-a -<s-ns -<s-om -<s-"os -<s-mus -<s-su -<s-bhi )ing. -"a -"a -"a-m -"B-s -"B-s, -t -"B-i -"a-i -"B-i Plural -"a-s -"a-s -"a-ns gGn-B-m -"B-"os -"B-mus -"B-su -"B-bhi

)"( $tems PD nom.:!oc. )ing. -r Plural -r-es

acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins.

-n-m -<n-s -<n-s, -t -<n-ei -<n-i -<n-7

-n-ns -<n-om -<n-"os -<n-mus -<n-su -<n-bhi

hese are neuters in which the stem has -r in the nom. but -n in the other cases. #he $tatic -nflection nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. mBtr mBtr-m mBtr-s mBtr-s, -t mBtr-ei mBtr-i mBtr-7 Plural mBtr-es mBtr-ns mBtr-om mBtr-"os mBtr-mus mBtr-su mBtr-bhi

)tatic inflection is rare, but has been used for the words for mother, night, water 5which has a special inflection6 and knee. , $tems 2hich are #hematic, $tatic. #his means that the accent on any o stem word will be on the root, not on the ending. $tatic nouns always have full grade of the root. nom. !oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -os -e -om -os -9d -9i -oi -9 Plural -9s -7 -ons -om -o"os -omus -oisu -9is

(euter , $tems nom.:acc. -om8 pl. nom.:acc. -a #he Dual nom. masc./fem. Honsonant )tems $-)tems I-)tems 2- 5eh/6 )tems nom. neuter Honsonant )tems I-)tems gen. loc. -7 -e -e -"e -"e -"e -7:9s -ow

dat. ins. abl. 3erbal (oun

-me:9, bh"e -bh"e -me:9, bh"e

hese are nouns deri!ed from the root of a !erb, for e#ample, &the killing of a man.( he ob'ect must be in the geniti!e. 2 !erbal ad'ecti!e can be formed b" adding a dati!e ending to the root of a !erb. Adjectives +asc. and (eut. Consonant $tem %d4ectives nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. masc. sing. neut. sing. -s, 4 -m, 4 -m -m, 4 -5o6s -5o6s8 5e6t -5e6i -i, 4 -e, 7 masc. pl. -es -ns neut. pl. -a, 4 -a, 4

-om -"os -mus -su -bhi

'em. Consonant $tem %d4ectives (only for . $tems and PD -nflection) nom.:!oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ing. -B, -"B -m-"B -os-"B -5o6s, -5e6t-"B -ei-"B -i-"B -7-"B Plural -es-"B -ns-"B -om-"B -"os-"B -mus-"B -su-"B -bhi-"B

$-)tems ha!e -B added on the the ad'ecti!al suffi#, while the PD inflection has C"B added on. he e#ample here is for the PD inflection8 when decline a $ )tem, onl" add -B. HD inflection and Honsonant )tems other than $ ha!e no separate form from the masc. +asc. and (eut. , $tem %d4ectives nom. !oc. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. masc. sing. -os -e -om -os -9d -9i -oi -9 neut. sing. -om -om -om masc. pl. -9s -7 -ons neut. pl. -a -a -a

-om -o"os -omus -oisu -9is

'em. , $tem %d4ectives nom. !oc. )ing. -B -B Plural -Bs -B

acc. gen. abl. dat. loc.

-Bm -Bs -Bd -Bi -Bi

-Bns -Bm -B"os -Bmus -Bisu

Comparison comparati!e superlati!e masc.:fem. -ies-istoneut. -ios-isto-

Homparati!e and superlati!e forms were added on to the root, and were followed b" the case endings. he" had DH inflection. 3erbal %d4ective his is an ad'ecti!e which is not deri!ed from a tense stem but from a root. )ome e#amples are sewn, stretched, 5nown, arrived. 2dd -to- or -no- onto the root. Pronouns Demonstrati!e Pronouns 5meaning &this,( &that(6 )ingular masc. nom. so acc. t;m gen. 5to6sio abl. dat. loc. ins. Plural nom. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. masc. toi tons tesom toios toimus toisu toibhi fem. sBi tBns tesom tBmus tBsu tBbhi neut. tB tB tosm9d tosm9i tosmi toi fem. sB tBm 5t6esB s tesiBi tesiBi toi neut. tod tod -

-nterrogative Pronouns )ingular nom. kGe, kGid acc. kGim gen. kGeso abl. kGed dat. kGesmei loc. kGesmi kGo, kGod, kGB kGom kGoso kGosm9d kGosm9i kGosmi

ins. Plural nom. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins.

kGei kGei, kGia kGins kGesom kGeies kGeimus kGeisu kGeibhi

kGoi kGoi, kGa, kGBs kGons kGesom kGoios kGoimus kGoisu kGoibhi

here was onl" one form for both masculine and feminine. Personal Pronouns 1st Person nom. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. 2nd Person nom. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. 3rd Person )ing. &he( nom. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins. )ingular &I( 7J59, 9m6 m<, me m<ne, moi med m<Jhio, moi moK moK )ingular &"ou( tu tu< teue, toi tued t<bhio, toi toK toK masc. 7 im Lso 7sm9d 7sm9i 7smi 7i fem. "a "am 7sBs 7siBi 7siBi Plural &we( uei nsm<, n9s ns5er6o-, nos nsmed nsmei, ns nsmi = Plural &"ou all( iu usm<, !9s ius5er6o-, !os usmed usmei usmi = neut. id id -

3rd Person Plural & he"( nom. acc. gen. abl. dat. loc. ins.

masc. 7i ins Lso5m6 7ios 7imus 7isu 7ibhi

fem. "Bs "ans -

neut. "a "a -

)efle6ive Pronouns acc. gen. dat. se seue, sei sebhio, soi

Possessive Pronouns m" "our his our their mos tuos suos nsos usos

Numerals Decline like ad'ecti!es= 5.ook up6 1hile ,,-,M cannot be reconstructed for PIE, there are enough similarities between the number s"stems of )anskrit, IH), .ith. Greek, .atin, Ilr. and Germanic to reconstruct a working s"stem. Cardinal , / 3 + F O P 8 M ,4 34 +4 F4 O4 P4 84 M4 ,44 ,444 ,rdinal ,st /nd 3rd +th Fth Oth Pth praw;antero-= tri;kGtur;pnkG;uks;s5e6ptm;oinos dw9 treies kGetu9r penkGe 5s6u<ks s<ptm oNt9 n<un d<Nmt ,, ,/ ,3 ,+ ,F ,O ,P ,8 ,M /4 oinos-d<Nmt dw9-d<Nmt treies-d<Nmt kGetu9r-d<Nmt penkGe-d<Nmt 5s6u<ks-d<Nmt s<ptm-d<Nmt oNt9-d<Nmt n<un-d<Nmt duidNmti

triadNomta kGeturpenkGeueksseptm oNtoneundNmt;m Jhes-l-

8th Mth ,4th

oNtow;nun;d5e6Nmt;-

Adverbs PIE 2d!erbs are formed b" using regular nouns or ad'ecti!es with specific case endings which render the desired ad!erbial meaning. 2lso, the pre!erbs and prepositions of the later languages were ad!erbs in PIE. Verbs @ew !erbs could be deri!ed from e#isting !erbs or nouns b" adding the -ei-e suffi#, for e#ample, wosn-eie, &to bu", to sell.( his suffi# could also be used to form causati!es from roots which had an -o- or >erograde !owel. -n normal HD type verbs, accent is mobile, and the vowel in the root alternates between full grade and &ero grade. #he $tatic verbs have the accent fi6ed on the root, and full grade in the root vowel unless the root was monosyllabic, in which lengthened grade occurred. +ost verbs are HD type with mobile accent. $tatic verbs include the $ %orist, and the 0nd and 7rd person of the in4unctive. $nlike 2thematic !erbs, thematic !erbs ha!e -e- or -o- before the ending 5&pher-o-men( !s. &phamen(6. %thematic singular (for the present or aorist) has a full grade vowel with accent on the root, while plural has &ero grade of the root with accent on the ending. 0or e#ample, bh<bhermi !s. bhibrm<s. 2thematic Primar" -mi -si -ti -m<s -t< -<nti 2thematic )econdar" -m -s -t -me -te -<nt hematic Primar" -9 -7i -e -omom -ete -o hematic )econdar" -om -es -et -omo:e -ete -ont

,st sing. &I( /nd sing. &"ou( 3rd sing. &he( ,st pl. &we( /nd pl. &"ou all( 3rd pl. &the"(

Present -ndicative indicates what is happening now, and uses the 2thematic and hematic primar" endings. #he %orist indicates an action which took place in the past without indicating whether it was repeated or continued. he 2orist uses the secondar" endings. here are three t"pes of aorist- ,6 the root aorist consisted of the root without suffi#, plus athematic secondar" endings, and has accent on the root in the singular and the ending in the plural. /6 he hematic aorist had the root in >ero-grade and the thematic inflection8 the accent was on the ending. 36 the )-2orist has an &s( before the ending in the ,st person. he )-2orist has lengthened grade in the root of the indicati!e and full grade e!er"where else. #he accent of the $ %orist always remained on the root, and the !owel of the root was lengthened in monos"llables. Past #ense indicates an action which took place in the past. It uses the secondar" endings with the augment prefi#, e-, which too5 the accent. +oods #he -n4unctive describes an action which is neither in the present nor the past, and can therefore be used to indicate intention, and is used with prohibitions. It uses the secondar" endings. #he accent of the 0nd and 7rd person of the in4unctive is static: fi6ed on the root. #he $ub4unctive e#presses will, e#pectation, and indicates what &would be.( It uses the hematic Primar" endings, and alwa"s has full grade in the root- accent is on the root.

#he ,ptative e#presses a desire. It uses 2thematic )econdar" endings. he root has a full grade !owelthe accent is on the root e#cept in the 3rd pl. which had >ero-grade in both the root and suffi#, where the accent is on the ending. he %iddle Iptati!e uses intransiti!e middle endings. 3eduplicated Iptati!es ha!e >ero-grade of the suffi#. #he -mperative 2thematic I 4, -dhi -tu -te -entu 2thematic II -t9d -t9d -t9d = hematic I -e -etu -ete -ontu hematic II -et9d -et9d -et9d =

/ sing. 3rd sing. /nd pl. 3rd pl.

nd

Imparati!e is used with commands. "pe I in both athematic and thematic are the regular forms. "pe II in both athematic and thematic indicate that an action in the near future must take place- &then "ou mustQ( indicating &from then onwards.( %ccent is on the root. hematic -e stem is in the full grade. -mperative +iddle rans. -swe= -to= -dhwe -nto= Intrans. = -o= = -ro= II = -t9d -t9d =

/nd sing. 3rd sing. /nd pl. 3rd pl.

Perfect and +iddle he perfect tense is used to show an action or state of thought as being completed. It has no suffi#, onl" the ending. It often has reduplication of the first consonant, after which an -e- or -o- is added- dork-e reduplicates as de-dork-e. #he perfect has an accented o in the root in the singular, and on the ending in the plural with a &ero grade root in the indicative plural (other plurals have e ). he perfect tense has no middle, and usuall" has intransiti!e meaning. Intransiti!e middle is related to the perfect as the present is to the aorist. he %iddle !oice indicates that the sub'ect is closel" in!ol!ed with the action- for e#ample- &he washed himself.( PIE probabl" used the middle !oice instead of refle#i!e pronouns. he Intransiti!es are !erbs which do not take a direct ob'ect, 5such as &belong,( &go,( &seem,(6 while the transiti!e !erbs take a direct ob'ect 5such as &bring( or &raise(6. he middle forms ha!e >ero grade of the root in the normal 5mobile6 inflection, in which the accent is on the ending. In the static inflection the" ha!e full grade with accent on the root. ,st sing. /nd sing. 3rd sing. ,st pl. /nd pl. 3rd pl. #he Dual &we two( Primar" -wes )econdar" -we %iddle -wedha Perfect w;id-a w;id-ta w;id-e wid-m< wid-< wid-r:7r %iddle Intrans. -a -to -o -medha dhwe -ro %iddle rans. -ma -sto -to -me5s6dha -tdhwe -ntro

&"ou two( &the" two( Participles

-te:os -tes

-tom -tBm

-5e6te= -5e6tB=

PIE would ha!e relied intensi!el" on participles, especiall" if there were no subordinate clauses in PIE. he acti!e present and aorist participle were formed with -ent- and declines as HD or )tatic -@ -)tems. It is the eRui!alent of the %nE &-ing( ending, e#. bharant, &carr"ing.( hematic participles ha!e no ablaut8 the" are alwa"s -ont-. he acti!e perfect participle was formed with the suffi# -wes-, which declined like the substantiati!e. %iddle participles were formed with the suffi# -mno-. #he 3erb 9#o :e; & o be( in PIE is &es-(and con'ugates with the 2thematic Primar" endings. In the singular, accent is on the root, and in the plural, accent is on the ending. I am "ou are 5sing6 he is we are "ou are 5pl6 the" are Suffixes -er- indicates kinship, as in sw<sor, &sister.( -ro- forms primar" ad'ecti!es as in augr9, &strong.( -ter-, -t9r- indicates kinship as in pater, &father( and nomina agentis, as in gent9r, &concei!er.( -tro- used for neuters indicating the instrument, arotrom, &plough.( -en- often used as a secondar" suffi# -no- forms ad'ecti!es as in a"es-n9-, &bron>e.( $sed also for nouns. -na- the same function as -no- but for nouns, kwoi-na- &price.( -en-, -en- indicates a person8 both as a primar" and secondar" suffi#, men-tro-9n &man of mantras, poet.( -ro-, -u- for ad'ecti!es which occur beside a neuter s-stem noun. -5t6mo- used for normal comparati!e purposes. -tero- used with comparati!e ad'ecti!es when comparing a binar" contrast 5e#. masculaine-feminine6. -ies- comparati!e ad'ecti!e suffi#. hese ad'ecti!es ha!e a stem in -i- when the first member of a compound. -isto- superlati!e ad'ecti!e suffi#. hese ad'ecti!es ha!e a stem in -i- when the first member of a compound. -went- &possessing, rich in.( -ei-e- ,. deri!es now !erbs from e#isting !erbs or nouns. /. 0orms causati!es with -o- in the root- wort7ie, &to cause to turn.( 3. o form non-causati!es with >ero grade root- luk7ie, &to shine.( -ie- forms intensi!e !erbs- dei-dik-ie, &to displa".( -e- e#pressed a situation 5to throw, to lie, to go lie down6. -sk- 5alwa"s thematic and >ero grade root6 makes causati!es or indicate the beginning. -mno- makes middle participles -wes- acti!e perfect suffi# -no- -to- -eno- -ono- !erbal ad'ecti!e suffi#es Compounds <s-mi <s-si <s-ti es-m<s es-t< es-<nti

1hen a compound is formed, the last morpheme of the first element is usuall" found in the >ero grade, such as )anskrit nr-hBn- &man-killing.( he /nd element often has -o- in the place of -e- because the second element was often unaccented. here are two broad categories of compoundsEndocentric- the referent is either the first or second element, as in !is-pati, &lord of the clan.( E#ocentric- the referent is outside of the compound, as in ugra-bahu, &with strong arms.( he three t"pes of compounds are,. /. 3. +. Syntax PIE s"nta# is a fairl" e#tensi!e and complicated sub'ect. Here, onl" some basic general rules will be summari>ed. ,. /. 3. +. F. O. P. 8. M. ,4. ,,. ,/. ,3. ,+. ,F. ,O. ,P. ,8. PIE was probabl" an Ib'ect-Uerb 5IU6 language, meaning that the !erb came after the ob'ect of a sentence. Uerbs most often came at the end of the sentence, unless the" were emphasised in speech, in which the" were placed initiall". he sub'ect of a sentence was often omitted altogether unless necessar" for clarit". his was because the sub'ect was taken for granted or assumed whene!er such was possible. 2d'ecti!es preceded nouns. Geniti!e nouns preceded nominati!e nouns. Prepositional phrases 5using dati!e, locati!e and instrumental cases6 preceded the ob'ect of the sentence but came after the sub'ect 5if one was included rather than assumed6. Hon'unctions are placed after their con'oined nouns. Iften a con'unction like kwe &and( was used twice, once after each of the nouns. Pre!erbs, pre-positions and &ad!erbs( either preceded or followed the !erb8 &prepositions( often stand behind the case form the" go!ern and are thus actuall" postpositions. 3elati!e clauses precede nouns and main clauses. &Predicate substanti!es( often omitted the !erb- &the father is good( would 'ust be &father good.( 1hen there are two !erbs &she gi!es to drink( the personal one 5gi!e6 comes last. Homparati!es come before the !erb or before the noun the" modif". ad'ecti!es were preferred to geniti!es 5the @estorian ship o!er @ester*s ship6. in &marked order( 5an emotional or emphatic utterance or one reRuiring supplementation b" another clause6 the !erb is initial. enclitics 5particles, pronouns, !erbs==6 fell in the /nd position of a sentence and were treated as unaccented parts of indi!idual words Particles nu, so and to, were used to introduce clauses but do not agree in gender with the nouns of the sentence. )"ntactic pattern for relati!e clauses was )ub'ect, 53elati!e Ib'ect,3elati!e Uerb6, Primar" Ib'ect, Primar" Uerb. he shared noun ma" occur in either the main or relati!e clauses, but it is more common in the latter. he relati!e particle comesIn marked constructions the ad'ecti!es can be post-posed. &Eahu!rihis(- &ha!ing a lot of rice,( 5e#ocentric6 which indicate that the referent &has( or &is( something. Determinati!e- the referent is identical with the /nd element of the compound 5endocentric6, as in .at. )igni-fer &banner-carrier8( the rerferent is &carrier.( he second element is often a !erbal root which sometimes takes -t-- sacerdo-t-is, &he who la"s SdownT the sacrifice, priest.( Go!erning compounds- the referent is identical with the first element 5endocentric6 trasa-das"u, &bringing fear to the enem".( D!andas- rare co-ordinating compounds, such as indra-!a"u, which indicate the totalit" of the two elements. Each element was in the dual form, each with its own stress.

2n" word in a sentence that was emphasised could be placed at the beginning of the sentence. Relatives

here are two kinds of relati!e clauses,6 Determined 3elati!e Hlause- also known as the &definate,( and as &non-restricti!e.( his t"pe refers to a definate item. 0or e#ample, &D"eus, who is the origin of light,( D"eus is a definate item. he relati!e particle used for this t"pe is Vio- which is inflected the same wa" as Vso, Vto-, and Vkwo-. he clause in which this occurs is placed after the main clause. he relati!e particle is placed at the end of its clause. 5gi!e e#amples in @E and PIE6 /6 @on-Determined 3elati!e Hlause- also known as the &indefinate( and as &restricti!e.( his t"pe refers to an indefinate item, for e#ample, when the relati!e particle refers to a demonstrati!e pronoun, such as WWWWWWWWW in the following e#ample- WWWWWWWW )uch a demonstrati!e will occur when the main clause has no definate item 5such as D"eus, in the pre!ious e#ample6 for the relati!e particle to refer to. Iften, the definate item will not be in the main clause, because it is instead in the relati!e clause. he relati!e particle used for this t"pe is Vkwi- which is inflected the same wa" as Vso, Vto-, and Vkwo-. 5gi!e chart6. he clause in which this occurs is placed before the main clause. he relati!e particle is placed at the beginning of its clause. 5gi!e e#amples in @E and PIE6 aryn!eal Conversion C"art h,Xe- disappears initiall" or between consonants. Is alwa"s o!erpowered b" con'unct !owels h/Xa- turns e or o !owels into a*s, becomes a !owel initiall", finall" or between consonants h3Xo- turns nearb" e !owels into o*s, disappears between consonants

eh,X7 eh/XB eh3X9 oh,X9 oh/X9 oh3X9

h,eXe h/eXa h3eXo h,oXo h/oXo h3oXo

eh/eXB eh/oXao oh/eX9 oh/oX9 eh/iXai h/eiXai

here are some general rules to keep in mind regarding lar"ngeals,. /. 3. +. F. O. e or h, is o!erpowered b" e!er"thing else it comes in contact with. h/ o!erpowers e!er"thing accept o o or h3 o!erpowers e!er"thing. e is weaker than an" lar"ngeal 5H6 h, is weaker than an" !owel !owel Y H alwa"s X long !owel

Accent Summary Compounds he last morpheme of the ,st element had >ero grade, e#. nrhBn. If the ,st element is onl" one s"llable, the accent falls on the second element. Howe!er, the second accent was often unaccented, so if the ,st element has more than one morpheme, the ,st s"llable gets takes accent, and the /nd element recei!es a kind of secondar" accent. In &bahu!rihis( t"pe compounds the accent was not on the final s"llable of the first element, but on the s"llable prior to it. (ouns

Histerod"namic 5HD6 nouns, and Proterod"namic nouns 5PD6 ha!e mobile accent which can fall on either the root or ending depending on the case- nom. has initial accent, acc. and loc. ha!e accent on the stem 5the s"llable containing the stem, such as -r, -m, -t, -us, etc. Gen.:abl. dat and ins. ha!e accent on the case ending. )ome stems ha!e !ariations of this pattern, see charts for these details. 2thematic nouns 5with mobile stress6 with >ero grade in the nominati!e ha!e initial accent. -o- is more often stressed than -e-. Zero grade cannot occur between consonants which cannot be !ocalic, such as p, d, and t, -e- replaces -o-. 0or e#ample, p;dm becomes ped;s. %an" consonant-final suffi#es such as -er, -ter, -on, -ont fa!oured stress mobilit". he !ocati!e case alwa"s has initial accent. )tatic nouns ha!e full grade of the root, which is accented, and >ero grade of the suffi# 5not the ending6. 0or the present and aorist, 2thematic singular !erbs ha!e accent on the root while 2thematic plural !erbs ha!e accent on the the ending. Pronouns Interrogati!e pronouns were stressed and indefinite pronouns were not stressed. 3erbs In normal HD t"pe !erbs, accent is mobile, and the !owel in the root alternates between full grade and >ero grade. he )tatic !erbs ha!e the accent fi#ed on the root, and full grade in the root !owel unless the root was monos"llabic, in which lengthened grade occurred. 2orists with -s- after the root ha!e stress on the root. he !erb augment 5the e- prefi# which indicates past tense6 takes the accent. he middle has a >ero grade of the root in the normal 5mobile6 inflection. )tatic middles ha!e full grade of the root. he middle suffi# -en- is in >ero grade after a !erbal noun ending in Cm. he perfect singular has an accented -o- in the root. root. he plural has an accented ending with a >ero grade

he sub'uncti!e mood alwa"s has full grade of the root. he optati!e root has full grade. 3rd plural has >ero grade in ending and suffi#. Imperati!e normal had >ero grade of the ending8 hematic -e stem is in the full grade.