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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE & Protective Device Evaluation

Users Guide

EDSA MICRO CORPORATION


16870 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 330. San Diego, CA 92127 U.S.A.

Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved

Version 6.50.00

October 2008

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Table of Contents
1 2 Unique Features of Paladin DesignBase Short circuit Program ................................................................1 1.1 Whats new in this release.....................................................................................................................1 Introduction.................................................................................................................................................4 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3 Type of Faults........................................................................................................................................4 Terminology...........................................................................................................................................5 Sources in Fault Analysis ......................................................................................................................7 ANSI/IEEE Multiplying Factors (MF) .....................................................................................................9 Local and Remote Contributions .........................................................................................................10

ANSI/IEEE Standard Based Device Evaluation .......................................................................................11 3.1 Standard Ratings for HV and MV Circuit Breakers (CB).....................................................................11 3.2 Standard Ratings for Low Voltage Circuit Breakers (LV-CBs) ............................................................15 3.3 Standard Ratings for Low/High Voltage Fuses, and Switches............................................................18

DesignBase Short Circuit Calculation Method .........................................................................................21 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Tools ............................................................................21 AC ANSI/IEEE Standard Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Tools:.................................................22 AC Classical Short Circuit Method ......................................................................................................37 AC IEC 60909 Short Circuit Method....................................................................................................39 AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit Method....................................................................................................47 AC SINGLE Phase Short Circuit Method ............................................................................................59 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Cycle ..........................................................................................................59 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 5 Cycle............................................................................................................62 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Steady state ...................................................................................................64 3 Phase Fault, Steady State................................................................................................................66 Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Tool............................................................................................68 Report Manager...................................................................................................................................74 Short Circuit Back Annotation..............................................................................................................79 Managing Schedule in Short Circuit ....................................................................................................82

Managing the Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program ......................................................................59 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8

6 7

Three-phase Faults IEC 61363 Method ...................................................................................................97 Short Circuit Analysis Input Data............................................................................................................101 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Power Grid Input Data .......................................................................................................................101 Synchronous Generator Short Circuit Input Data..............................................................................102 Induction Motor Short Circuit Input Data ...........................................................................................103 Synchronous Motor Short Circuit Input Data.....................................................................................104 High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data....................................................105 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data.....................................................106 Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse Short Circuit Input Data ....................................................................107 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................108 Sample System Data.........................................................................................................................108 How to Perform Equivalent/Reduction Calculations..........................................................................109 Separating the Equivalent Part from the Rest of the System............................................................110 Specifying the Buses for the Equivalent............................................................................................111 Reporting of the Equivalent System ..................................................................................................112

Network Reduction/Equivalent ...............................................................................................................108 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


8.7 Computation of Equivalent System and Inspection of the Result .....................................................115 8.8 Reconstructing the Original System by Using the Equivalent ...........................................................117 8.9 Validation and Verification of the Equivalent .....................................................................................124 9 TUTORIAL: Conducting a Three-phase Short Circuit Study..................................................................127 9.1 The Calculation Tools........................................................................................................................128 9.2 Graphical Selection of Faulted Bus (Annotation) ..............................................................................130 9.3 Short Circuit Annotation Tool.............................................................................................................132 List of Figures Figure 1: Figure 2: Figure 3: Figure 4: Figure 5: Figure 6: Figure 7: Figure 8: Figure 9: Figure 10: Figure 11: Figure 12: Figure 13: Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: Figure 17: Figure 18: Figure 19: Figure 20: ANSI Device Evaluation, Page 1.....................................................................................................19 ANSI Device Evaluation, Page 2.....................................................................................................20 Single Line Diagram of Sample System for Equivalent Computation...........................................108 Part of the System to be Equivalenced (the area inside of red dotted line)..................................109 Selecting Options of the Short Circuit Program ............................................................................110 Selecting Buses where the Equivalent System to be Computed..................................................111 Selecting Report Manager of the Short Circuit Program ..............................................................112 Selecting Output Report (including report of network equivalent) ................................................113 Selecting Network Equivalent Report Option................................................................................114 Performing Short Circuit Analysis (fault current, equivalent, etc.) ................................................115 Sample Network Equivalent Report ..............................................................................................116 Reconstructing System Using the Equivalent Part .......................................................................117 Entering Equivalent Generator At bus BBB138 ............................................................................118 Entering Equivalent Generator At bus GGG138 ...........................................................................119 Entering Equivalent Generator At bus ZZZ69...............................................................................120 Entering Equivalent Feeder Between Buses BBB138 and GGG138............................................121 Entering Equivalent Transformer Between Buses GGG138 and ZZZ69 ......................................122 Entering Equivalent Transformer Between Buses BBB138 and ZZZ69 .......................................123 Fault Current for Buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69 ..............................................................125 Fault Currents for Buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69.............................................................126

List of Tables

Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times .................................................................................................8 Table 2: Default Device X/R Values Using EDSAs Library...............................................15

Note:

You can view this manual on your CD as an Adobe Acrobat PDF file. The file name is: Short Circuit Analysis Program 3_Phase_Short_Circuit.pdf

You will find the Test/Job files used in this tutorial in the following location:

C:\DesignBase\Samples\3PhaseSC

ii

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


Test Files: ANSIYY1, Busfault, EDM5, IEC1-60909, IEC2-60909, IEEE399, IEEEpde, MutualNet, SlidingFault, T123, T123PDE, testma1, Trib, TribNVTAP, UPSexpse, West

Copyright 2008 All Rights Reserved

iii

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


1 Unique Features of Paladin DesignBase Short circuit Program The salient features of the Paladin DesignBase advanced short circuit program:


1.1

Fault analysis of complex power systems having over 50,000 buses Exact short circuit current and contributions computation using Three-Sequence Modeling Simulate sliding and open conductor faults High speed simulation by utilizing the state-of-the-art techniques in matrix operations (sparse matrix and vector methods) Automated reactor sizing for 3 Phase networks Exporting and importing data from and to Excel Import system data from Siemens/PTI format into Paladin DesignBase Customize reports Support of ANSI and IEC standards for PDC (protective device coordination) Fully integrated with ARC flash program Fully integrated with PDC

Whats new in this release

program. The network Equivalent computation is now supported in this release of the short circuit The method of equivalent calculation is an exact method based on the bus impedance
matrix. An equivalent system at several buses (up to 100 buses) may be calculated using the EDSAs short circuit program. The report contains the sequence impedances (positive, negative and zero sequence) for the equivalent generators, lines/feeders, transformers as well as loads.

inspection, Data Export/Import from/to Excel has been implemented that greatly facilitates data validation, and exchange. DesignBase2 Power system data (jobfile) can be Imported from Siemens/PTI into EDSAs advanced generators In this release of the program, the EDSA short circuit program supports two options for the and motors resistances. The first option uses constant X/R ratio (that is defined in the
generator and motor input dialogs). In the second option, i.e, variable X/R (see the lower left part of the figure below), the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE R= X" X /R

The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero, positive). In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences.

one Also, in this release, the EDSA short circuit program supports the options for reactor sizing; based on bus current and the second option based on branch current. In both options the
voltage and existing fault are displayed and user can enter the desired fault value and then the reactor is automatically sized. However, it is recommended to implement the reactor in the system at the desired location and run the short circuit again to verify the impact of the reactor on the short circuit.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

2 1 3 4 5

Where: 1 Bus ID or branch ID 2 Bus L-L voltage, in V 3 3 Phase solid bus AC fault current 4 3 Phase solid bus AC desired fault current 5 Reactor sized automatically.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

INTRODUCTION The short circuit is an accidental electrical contact between two or more conductors. The protective devices such as circuit breakers and fuses are applied to isolate faults and to minimize damage and disruption to the plants operation.

2.1

Type of Faults Types of Faults depend on the power system grounding method. The most common faults are: Three-Phase Fault, with or without ground (3P, or 3P-G); Single line to ground Fault (L-G); Line to Line Fault (L-L); Line to line to ground Fault (L-L-G).

Estimated frequency of occurrence of different kinds of fault in power system is: 3P or 3P-G: L-L: L-L-G: L-G: 8% 12 %; 10 %; 70 %.

Severity of fault:
Normally the three-phase symmetrical short circuit (3P) can be regarded as the most severe condition. There are cases that can lead to single phase fault currents exceeding the three-phase fault currents, however the total energy is less than a three-phase fault. Such cases include faults that are close to the following types of equipment: The wy side of a solidly grounded delta-wy transformer / auto-transformer; The wy-wy solidly grounded side of a three winding transformer with a delta tertiary winding; A synchronous generator solidly connected to ground; The wy side of several wy grounded transformer running in parallel.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Type of Short Circuits:


a):3P three-phase; b):L-L, line-to-line; c):L-L-G, line-to-line-to-ground; and d): L-G, line-to-ground

2.2

Terminology Arcing Time - the interval of time between the instant of the first initiation of the arc in the protective device and the instant of final arc extinction in all phases; Available Short Circuit Current - the maximum short circuit current that the power system could deliver at a given circuit point assuming negligible short circuit fault impedance; Breaking Current - the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation (pole separation). It is also known as Interrupting Current in ANSI Standards. Close and Latch Duty - the maximum rms value of calculated short circuit current for medium and high-voltage circuit breakers, during the first cycle, with any applicable multipliers with regard to fault current X/R ratio. Often, the close and latching duty calculation is simplified by applying a 1.6 factor to the first cycle symmetrical AC r.m.s. short circuit current. Close and latch duty is also called first cycle duty, formerly called momentary duty. Close and Latch Capability - the maximum asymmetrical current capability of a medium or highvoltage circuit breaker to close, and immediately thereafter latch closed, for normal frequency making current. The close and latch asymmetrical rms current capability is 1.6 times the circuit breaker rated maximum symmetrical AC rms interrupting current. Often called first cycle capability. The rms asymmetrical rating was formerly called momentary rating; Contact Parting Time - the interval between the beginning of a specified over current and the instant when the primary arcing contacts have just begun to part in all poles. It is the sum of the relay or release delay and opening time; Crest Current / Peak Current the highest instantaneous current during a period; Fault an abnormal connection , including the arc, of relative low impedance, whether made accidentally or intentionally, between two points of different voltage potentials;

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


Fault Point X/R the calculated fault point reactance to resistance ratio (X/R) ratio. Depending on the Standard, different calculation procedures are used to determine this ratio; First Cycle Duty the maximum value of calculated peak or rms asymmetrical current or symmetrical short circuit current for the first cycle with any applicable multipliers for fault current X/R ratio; First Cycle Rating the maximum specified rms asymmetrical or symmetrical peak current capability of a piece of equipment during the first cycle of a fault; Interrupting Current the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant of arc initiation. Sometime referred to as Breaking Current, I b , IEC60909; Making Current the current in a pole of a switching device at the instant the device closes and latches into a fault; Momentary Current Rating the maximum available first cycle rms asymmetrical current which the device or assembly is required to withstand. It was used on medium and high-voltage circuit breakers manufactured before 1965; present terminology: Close and Latch Capability; Offset Current - an AC current waveform whose baseline is offset from the AC symmetrical current zero axis; Peak Current the maximum possible instantaneous value of a short circuit current during a period; Short circuit current is the current that flows at the short - circuit location during the short circuit period time; Symmetrical short circuit current is the power frequency component of the short circuit current; Branch short circuit currents are the parts of the short circuit current in the various branches of the power network; Initial short circuit current IK" is the rms value of the symmetrical short circuit current at the instant of occurrence of the short circuit, IEC 60909; Maximum asymmetrical short circuit current Is is the highest instantaneous rms value of the short circuit current following the occurrence of the short circuit; Symmetrical breaking current Ia , on the opening of a mechanical switching device under short circuit conditions, is the r.m.s. value of the symmetrical short circuit current flowing through the switching device at the instant of the first contact separation; Rated voltage VR the phase-to-phase voltage, according to which the power system is designated; IEC UR the rated voltage is the maximum phase-to-phase voltage; Nominal Voltage Un (IEC) the nominal operating voltage of the bus. Initial symmetrical short - circuit power S K " is the product of System breaking power S B is the product of

3 *I K "*U N

3 *I a * U N

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


Minimum time delay t min is the shortest possible time interval between the occurrence of the short circuit and the first contact separation of one pole of the switching device; Dynamic stress is the effect of electromechanical forces during the short circuit conditions; Thermal stress is the effect of electrical heating during the short circuit conditions; Direct earthling / effective earthling is the direct earthling of the neutral points of the power transformers; Short circuit earth current is the short circuit current, or part of it, that flows back to the system through the earth; Equivalent generator is a generator that can be considered as equivalent to a number of generators feeding into a given system. DesignBase Short Circuit Analysis Program is based on ANSI/IEEE and IEC Standards and fully complies with the latest ANSI/IEEE/IEC Standards: ANSI/IEEE Std. 141 1993, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution of Industrial Plants (IEEE Red Book); ANSI/IEEE Std. 399 1997, IEEE Recommended Practice for Power Systems Analysis (IEEE Brown Book); ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.010 1979, IEEE Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis; ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.5-1979, IEEE Application Guide for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Total Current Basis; ANSI/IEEE Standard C37.13-1990, IEEE Standard for Low-Voltage AC Power Circuit Breakers Used in Enclosures; IEC-909 1988, International Electro technical Commission, Short Circuit Current Calculation in Three-Phase Ac Systems; UL 489_9 1996, Standard for Safety for Molded-Case Circuit Breaker, Molded-Case Switches, and Circuit-Breaker Enclosures A Practical Guide to Short-Circuit Calculations, by Conrad St. Pierre

2.3

Sources in Fault Analysis Power utilities, all rotating electric machinery and regenerative drives are sources in fault calculation.

Cycle Network Duty


The decay of short circuit current is due to the decay of stored magnetic energy in the equipment. The main impedances for the first cylce is the sub-transient impedance. It is generally used for the first cycles up to a few cycles; The cycle network is also referred to as the sub transient network, because all rotating machines are represented by their sub transient reactance. cycle short circuit currents are used to evaluate the interrupting duties for low-voltage power breakers, low voltage molded-case breakers, high and low voltage fuses and withstand currents for switches and high-voltage breakers.

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


The following table shows the type of device and its associated duties using the cycle network. Type of Device High voltage circuit breaker Low voltage circuit breaker Fuse Switchgear and MCC Relay Duty Closing and latching capability Interrupting capability Bus bracing Instantaneous settings

Table 1: Recommended ANSI Source Impedance Multipliers for 1st Cycle and Interrupting Times Source Type 1/2-Cycle Calculations
" s

Interrupting Time calculations


(1.5 to 4 cycles cpt)

Reference

Remote Utility (equivalent) Local Generator Synchronous Motor Large Induction Motors: > 1000 HP or 250 HP and 2 poles Medium Induction Motors 50 to 249 HP or 250 to 1000 HP <2poles Small Induction Motors < 50 HP Harmonic Filters

Zs

ANSI C37.010 ANSI C37.010


" dv

Z Z

" dv " dv

" dv

1.5* Z

ANSI C37.010

Z"

1.5* Z

"

ANSI C37.010

1.2* Z

"

3* Z

"

ANSI C37.010 ANSI C37.13 For Induction Motors

1.67* Z

"

Z% =

100 Tuned _ harmonic

Xd =

1 LRC

1.5-4 Cycle Network


This network is used to calculate the interrupting short circuit current and protective device duties (1.5 4) cycles after the fault. Type of Device High voltage circuit breaker (>1.0 kV) Unfused Low Voltage PCB without instantaneous All Other Low voltage circuit breaker Fuse Switchgear and MCC bus Duty Interrupting capability Interrupting capability N/A N/A N/A

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Steady State or 30-Cycle Network


This network is used to calculate the steady state short circuit current and duties for some of the protective devices 30 cycles after the fault occurs (delayed protective devices). The type of power system component and its representation in the 30-cycle network is shown in the following table. Note that the induction machines, synchronous motors, and condensers are not considered in the 30-cycle fault calculation. Source Type
Power Utility /Grid Generators Induction Motors Synchronous Motors

30 Cycle Calculation Impedance

Z s"
' Z dv

Infinite impedance

Xd

2.4

ANSI/IEEE Multiplying Factors (MF) The short circuit waveform for a balanced three-phase fault at the terminal bus of a machine is generally asymmetrical and is composed of a unidirectional DC component and a symmetrical AC component. The DC component decays to zero, and the amplitude of the symmetrical AC component decays to constant amplitude in the steady-state If the envelops of the positive and negative peaks of the current waveform are symmetrical around zero axis, they are called Symmetrical. If the envelops of the positive and negative peaks current are not symmetrical around the zero axis, they are called Asymmetrical. If the DC fault component is not considered in the fault current, the fault current has the AC component only, and it is symmetrical; if DC fault component is considered, then the fault current is asymmetrical and is called asymmetrical or total fault current. The multiplying factors MF converts the r.m.s. value of the symmetrical AC component into asymmetrical r.m.s. current or short circuit current duty. The MF is calculated based on the X/R ratio and the instant of time that the fault current happens. The X/R ratio for ANSI breaker duties is calculated from separate R and X networks.

First Cycle (Asymmetrical) Total Short Circuit Current MF (Circuit Duty): Is defined as:

MFm = 1 + 2e
For: X/R = 25, the MF is equal to 1.6.

2 X R

Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to calculate MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.6

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Peak Multiplying Factor Is defined as:


2 X /R

MFPeak = 2 (1 + e

where is the instant of time when fault occurs, X/R for ANSI breaker duties are calculated from separate R and X network. For:

= Cycle, and X/R = 25 to one decimal place is

MFPeak = 2.7 .

Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to calculate MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak= 2.7

2.5

Local and Remote Contributions The magnitude of the symmetrical current (AC component) from remote sources remain essentially constant No AC Decay (NACD) at its initial value or it may reduce with time toward a residual AC current magnitude (ACD). If the fault is close to generator, then the AC component decays (ACD). In other words, when generator is local or close to the faulted point the short circuit current decays faster. If the generator is remote from the faulted point, the ac short circuit current decay will be slow and a conservative simplification is to assume that there is no AC decay (NACD) in the symmetrical AC component. Per ANSI Standards: A generator is a LOCAL SOURCE of the short circuit current if: The per unit reactance external to the generator is less than 1.5 times the generator per-unit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA. Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes will be greater than 0.4 * where the bus. A generator is a REMOTE SOURCE of a short circuit current if: The per unit reactance external to the generator is equal to or exceeds 1.5 times the generator per unit sub transient reactance on a common system base MVA.

EG , " Xd

EG is the generator short circuit current for a three-phase fault at its terminal " Xd

10

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

The generator short circuit contribution may be written as:


IG = EG
" ( XExternal + X d )

Its location from the fault is two or more transformations or Its contribution to the total symmetrical rms Amperes is less than or equal to 0.4 *

EG , " Xd

where the

EG is the generator short circuit current for a three-phase fault at its terminal bus. " Xd

The ANSI Standards provide multiplying factors (MF) based X/R ratio for three-phase faults and line-to-ground faults fed predominantly from generators and MF for faults fed predominantly from remote sources. No AC decay (NACD) Ratio The Total Short circuit Current is equal to:

I Total = I Local + I Re mote


and:

NACD =

I Re mote I Total

When all contributions are remote, or when there is no generator, then NACD = 1 When all contributions are local, then NACD = 0

3 3.1

ANSI/IEEE Standard Based Device Evaluation Standard Ratings for HV and MV Circuit Breakers (CB) The ANSI/IEEE Standards define the CB total interrupting time in cycles. However, the Contact Parting Time (CPT) needs to be known for application of breakers. The typical total rated interrupting time for Medium-Voltage Circuit Breakers is 5 cycles (ANSI C37.06 1987). However, the MV CBs interrupting time correspond to 3 cycle contact parting time for the short circuit current, in the 2 -8 cycle network.

Circuit Breaker Rated Interrupting Time, in Cycles 2 3 5 8

CPT, in Cycles 1.5 2 3 4

S 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.0

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


S is the breakers asymmetrical capability factor and is determined based on the rating structure to which the breaker was manufactured. Most breakers manufactured after 1964 are breakers rated on a symmetrical current basis. Those manufactured before 1965 were rated on a total current basis. Both the symmetrical and total current rated breakers have some DC interrupting capability included in their ratings and it is a matter of how it is accounted for in the total interrupting current. Note: For circuit breakers rated on Total Current S=1.0 Medium voltage breakers duty is based on: 1. Momentary rating (C&L) 2. Peak (Crest) 3. Interrupting The Momentary and Peak formulae apply to both breakers symmetrical and total current rated breakers. The interrupting rating is calculated differently based on the formulae shown in the next sections.

Momentary Duty Calculation (C & L): The CB Closing and Latching Capability defines the CB ability to withstand (close and immediately latch) the maximum value of the first-cycle short circuit current. The closing and latching capability of a symmetrical current-rated CB is expressed in terms of Asymmetrical, Total rms current, or peak current. EDSA uses the following steps to calculate the circuit breaker momentary duty: 1. 2. Calculate the cycle symmetrical short circuit (Isym,rms). Calculate asymmetrical current value using the following formula: Imom,rms,asym = MFm*Isym,rms, where:

MFm =

-2 X 1 + 2e / R

(EQ 1)

Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to calculate MFm based on X/R or use MFm=1.6 3. Compare Imom,rms,asym against the medium voltage circuit breaker (C&L,rms ) value: If Device C&L,rms rating Imom,rms,asym, then the device Pass or otherwise it fails 4. Calculate the % Rating = (Imom,rms,asym*100)/Device C&L,rms rating

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Peak Duty calculation (Crest): 1. Calculate the cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms). 2. Calculate the peak value of momentary SC using the following formula: Imom,peak = MFp*Isym,rms where:
MFp = (1 + e
-2 X /R

) 2

( EQ 2)

and

= 0.49 - 0.1* e

-X/R 3

Note: In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has the option to calculate MFpeak based on X/R or use MFpeak= 2.7 3. Compare Imom,peak against the medium voltage circuit breaker (Creat,peak ) value. If Device Creast,peak rating Imom,peak, then the device pass, or otherwise it fails 4. Calculate The % rating = (Imom,peak*100)/Device Crest,peak rating

Interrupting Duty Calculation The Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability for a Symmetrical Current-Rated CB is the maximum rms current of the symmetrical AC and DC component, which the CB can interrupt regardless of how low the operating voltage is. The interrupting fault currents for the MV & HV circuit breakers is equal to 1.5-4 cycles short circuit current. For a system other than of 60 Hz adjust the calculated X/R as follows:

( X / R) mod =

(X/R) * 60 System Frequency (Hz)

The following steps are used to calculate the circuit breaker interrupting. There are three options: 1. 2. 3. All Remote i.e. NACD =1.0. This is the most conservative solution; All Local; i.e. NACD =0 Adjusted, this is based on actual calculations.

Determine if the generator is Local or Remote; Calculate total remote contribution, total local contribution, then the NACD (the current is obtained by using the (1.5-4) cycle network impedance Calculate NACD (No AC Decrement) ratio
NACD = Iremote (Itotal - Ilocal) Itotal (Iremote + Ilocal) (EQ - 3)

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


4. Calculate the Multiplying factor based on the fault location (MFr, or MFl) Remote If Generator current contribution to fault is less than 40% of a generator terminal fault then this generator is Remote, or equivalent impedance to generation terminals is > 1.5 times the Generator Zdv. For remote fault the multiplying factor is MFr:
-4 C

MFr =

1 + 2e X / R S

( EQ 4)

Where C = CB Contact Parting Time in Cyc. Local For any local fault the multiplying factor MFl is calculated using the following formula within EDSA or look up tables. The equations are not given in ANSI C37.101, but are empirical equations to match the curves within the ANSI breaker standard.
-4

MFl =
where: CPT 1.5 2 3 4

K 2 + 2e X / R S

( EQ 5)

K= 1.0278 - 0.004288(X/R) + 0.00002945(X/R)2 - 0.000000068368(X/R)3 1.0604 - 0.007473(X/R) + 0.00006253(X/R)2 - 0.0000002427(X/R)3 1.0494 - 0.00833(X/R) + 0.00006919(X/R)2 - 0.000000075638(X/R)3 1.0370 - 0.008148(X/R) + 0.0000611(X/R)2 - 0.0000002248(X/R)3 The Adjusted Multiplying Factor (AMFi) is equal to: AMFi = MFl +NACD (MFr-MFl) If AMFi is less than 1.0 then the program uses 1.0 (EQ-6)

5.

Calculate Iint, All Remote: All Local: Mixed local and remote: Iint = MFr*Iint,rms,sym Iint = MFl*Iint,rms,sym Iint = AMFi*Iint,rms,sym

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


6. Calculate 3 phase Device Duty by adjusting the device interrupting duty based on rated voltage using the following formula:
3P Device Duty = Min ( Device Int Rating * Rated Max kV * Device Max Int Rating) Operating Voltage kV (EQ - 6a)

Compare Iint against the CB 3P Device Duty. If 3P Device Duty Iint, then the device Passes, otherwise it Fails. Calculate % rating = (Iint *100)/ (3P Device Duty)

3.2

Standard Ratings for Low Voltage Circuit Breakers (LV-CBs) For Low-Voltage CBs (LV-CBs) the time of short circuit current interruption occurs within the sub transient time interval. However, the interrupting capabilities of unfused LV-CBs are sensitive to the maximum peak magnitude of the total /asymmetrical fault current. If the device library does not have a value for X/R then the following default values are used as default by the EDSA program:

Table 2: Default Device X/R Values Using EDSAs Library Breaker Type Unfused Power Circuit (PCB) Breaker Fused Power Circuit Breaker, MCCB, ICCB (Insulated Case CB) Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated 10,000A Molded Case MCCB), ICCB rated 10,001-20,000 A Molded Case (MCCB), ICCB rated > 20,000 A Test %PF 15 20 50 30 20 Test X/R 6.59 4.9 1.73 3.18 4.90

The following steps are used to calculate the low voltage circuit breaker interrupting: 1. Calculate the cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms). 2. Calculate Low Voltage Multiplying Factor (LVF) PCB: Power Circuit Breaker ICCB: Insulated Case Circuit Breaker Fused PCB / MCCB / ICCB
(1 + 2e (1 + 2e
2 Calc X/R 2 Test X/R

LVFasym =

) )

( EQ 7)

15

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Unfused PCB / MCCB / ICCB with Instantaneous setting


LVFp= (1 + e
2 X/Rcalc ) 2T X/Rtest )

(EQ 8)

(1 + e

Where

= 0.49 - 0.1e
and

-X/Rcalc 3

T = 0.49 - 0.1e

- X/Rtest 3

In Options of the short circuit Tab Control for ANSI/IEEE , the user can select to use

=T = 0.5 instead of using the empirical formula by selecting Applies 0.5 Cycles.

Unfused PCB without Instantaneous setting If the breaker does not have an instantaneous setting then the breaker has two interrupting rating (peak and asymmetrical). Therefore the LVFp and LVFasym are calculated.
(1 + 2e
4t X/Rcalc

LVFasym =

) )

4t X/Rtest (1 + 2e

( EQ 9)

Where t is the breaker minimum short time trip in cycles at interrupting duty. The default value used by EDSA is 3 cycles. The peak interrupting rating is calculated as follows:
LVFp= (1 + e
-

2 X/Rcalc ) 2T X/Rtest )

(EQ 8)

(1 + e

Where

-X/Rcalc = 0.49 - 0.1e 3

and T=
- X/Rtest 0.49 - 0.1e 3

3. If any of the LVF is less than 1.0 then uses 1.0

16

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

4. Calculate adjusted Interrupting factor Fused Breakers Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 3-8 cycle interrupting short circuit) Unfused Breakers With Inst Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the cycle interrupting short circuit) Unfused Breakers Without Inst Iint,adj = LVFasym* Isym,rms (the 3-8 cycle interrupting short circuit) Iint,adj = LVFp* Isym,rms (the cycle interrupting short circuit) 5. Compare Iint,adj against the CB symmetrical interrupting rating. If Device Symmetrical rating Iint,adj, then the device passes, or otherwise it fails 6. Calculate The % rating = (Iint,adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating

17

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

3.3

Standard Ratings for Low/High Voltage Fuses, and Switches The LVFs interrupting capability is the maximum symmetrical rms current which the fuse can interrupt and still remain intact. While the fuse has a symmetrical current rating it can also interrupt the DC component up to a value based on its test X/R ratio. The interrupting capabilities of LV-Fs are classified by the UL according to symmetrical current ratings in rms Amperes. In some rare cases the fuse asymmetrical rating is provided. Evaluation procedure: 3. Calculate the cycle interrupting short circuit (Isym,rms). 4. Calculate Iasym: Iasym,adj = MFasym*Isym(1/2 Cyc)

If the fuse is symmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:
MFasym = (1 + 2e
2 X/R

(EQ 1)

If the fuse is asymmetrical rated, then MFasym is calculated using the following formula:
(1 + 2e (1 + 2e
2 Calc X/R 2 Test X/R

MFasym =

) )

( EQ 10)

5. Compare Iasym,adj against the fuse symmetrical interrupting rating. If Device Symmetrical rating Iasym,adj, then the device Pass otherwise it Fails 6. Calculate The % rating = (Iasym,adj*100)/Device Symmetrical rating. For standard switches the same formulae are used

Note:

18

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


ANSI DEVICE EVALUATION
Perform Short-Circuit Study & Update Answer File. For frequency other than 60 Hz, then adjust the X/R where, (X/R)mod=(X/R)*60/(System Hz) For LVCB, MVCB & Fuses Calculate the cycle short-circuit current (Isym,rms). For MVCB calculate the Iint,rms,sym. Run the PDE analysis

Fuses/ Switches

LVCB

Fuse / Switch Symmetrical Rating, selected: Calculate MF based on EQ-1 Fuse / Switch Asymmetrical Rating selected: Calculate MF based on EQ-10

MVCB NO Fused? YES

CB X/R is known?

CB X/R is known?

NO Yes The X/R is equal to:

NO

The X/R is equal to: PCB, ICCB = 6.59 MCCB, ICCB rated <=10,000 A MCCB, ICCB rated 10,001-20,000A MCCB, ICCB rated > 20,000 A = 1.73 = 3.18 = 4.9 PCB, MCCB, ICCB = 4.9

YES

Calculate LVF based on EQ-8 for PCB breaker with Instantaneous Setting, MCCB and ICCB. For PCB without instantaneous use EQ-8 & EQ-9

Calculate LVF based on EQ-7

Go to Page 2

IF LVF < 1, then LVF =1

Is Device rating greater or Equal to Iasym,adj?

NO

Yes

MCCB/ICCB/PCBWith Instantaneous : Iint,adj =LVF*Isym,rms PCB Without Instantaneous: Iint,adj =LVFp*Isym,rms( Cyc) int,adj =LVFasym*Isym,rms(3-8 Cyc)

NO

Is Device Symmetrical rating greater or Equal to Iint,adj?

Yes

Fail

Pass

Fail

Pass

Calculate %rating=Isym,adj*100/ Device rating

Calculate %rating=Iint,adj*100/ Device rating

Figure 1: ANSI Device Evaluation, Page 1

19

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


ANSI DEVICE EVALUATION Page 2
In the short circuit option tab Control for ANSI/IEEE the user has selected the fixed MF factor YES YES NO

MVCB From Page 1

Calculation Based on Generation: All Remote All Local NACD

Interrupting Duty

NO

Calculate: Total Remote Contribution Total Local contribution Total Contribution (Iint,rms,sym) NACD using (EQ-3) If NACD=0 then all contribution are Local If NACD=1 then all contribution are Remote

Peak Duty (Crest)

Peak Duty (Crest)

Momentary Duty (C&L)

Momentary Duty (C&L)

MFp = 2.7

MFm = 1.6

ALL Remote

Calculate MFp using EQ-2

Calculate MFm using EQ-1

All Local

Calculate MFr using EQ-4 Iint=MFr*Iint,rms,sym

Calculate Imom,peak=MFp*Isym,rms

Calculate Imom,asym=MFm*Isym,rms

Calculate MFl using EQ-5 Iint=MFl*Iint,rms,sym NACD

Is Device peak (crest) rating greater or Equal to Imom,peak? NO Yes

Calculate: NACD using EQ-3 MFr using EQ-4 MFl using EQ-5 AMFi = using EQ-6. If AMFl less than 1 use 1.0 Iint = AMFi*Iint,rms,sym/S

Fail

Pass

Calculate 3 phase device duty using EQ-6a

Calculate %rating=Imom,peak*100/ device peak (crest) rating

NO

Is Device Int rating greater or Equal to calculated Iint?

Yes

NO

Is Device C&L,rms rating greater or Equal to Imom,rms,asym?

Yes

Fail

Pass

Fail

Pass

Calculate %rating=Iint*100/ 3P device Int rating

Calculate %rating=Imom,rms,asym*100/ device C&L,rms rating

Figure 2: ANSI Device Evaluation, Page 2

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

4 4.1

DesignBase Short Circuit Calculation Method Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Tools In order to launch DesignBase Short Circuit program, click the short circuit icon as presented below:

While in Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program, both the short circuit analysis method and the corresponding short circuit tools are displayed as indicated below:

Paladin DesignBase provides several short circuit calculation methods based on the ANSI/IEEE Standards and the IEC Standards, for both AC three-phase and single-phase networks. The following short circuit calculation methods are implemented:

AC ANSI/IEEE (separate R and X, as per ANSI/IEEE Standard); AC Classical, (Z complex method, X/R from the complex Z); AC IEC 60909; AC IEC 61363; AC 1 Phase; DC Classical; DC IEC 61660.

21

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

4.2

AC ANSI/IEEE Standard Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Tools:

Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program: Short Circuit Tools The Short Circuit tools are presented in the Figure above, and are listed below:

AC Short Circuit Options;


Report Manager;

Short Circuit Back Annotation;

Analyze;

Reactor Sizing.

22

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

The Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option Icon: Short Circuit Analysis Option has two tabs:

Calculation Tab, with the same fields for: AC ANSI/IEEE, AC Classical, AC IEC 60909, AC IEC 61363 and AC Single Phase calculation. AC Single Phase, faults can be performed only at all buses in this release, Control Tab: this tab depends on the short circuit method that user selects.

to launch the Short Circuit Analysis Options. The Short Circuit Option Click on this icon Dialog Window is opened and presented in the Figure below. It has two tabs: Calculation and Control for ANSI/IEEE:

Note: For L-G fault, phase A; for L-L and L-L-G fault phase B and C For L-G fault, phase B; for L-L and L-L-G fault phase A and C For L-G fault, phase C; for L-L and L-L-G fault phase A and B

Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option

23

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


Calculation Tab allows the user to select the followings:

Base voltage: Adjusted by tap/turn ratio if power transformer is run on off nominal taps; System voltage; Prefault voltage represents the bus voltage at the instant the fault is applied at that bus. It can be: system voltage, load flow calculated bus voltage or actual/name plate voltage; Default output: Annotation or report; Contribution level: levels away from the fault location for the output results. The calculated results are displayed either on the one-line diagram (if Default Output: Annotation is selected by the user) or printed in the output report (if Default Output: Report is selected by the user); Fault impedance. This option is applied if the fault is calculated at one bus only; Fault location: selected buses, all buses, sliding fault or series fault; (Sliding and series fault does not apply to IEC61363 or AC Single phase calculation) Miscellaneous options: use only X to calculate the faults, and apply phase shift; Duty type for PDE based on: maximum branch fault flow or total bus fault current.

Fault Location

Fault at one or more buses in the same run; Fault at all system buses, when the buses are faulted individually, not simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a three-phase, line-toground, line-to-line, and line-to-line-to-ground fault at each bus which is faulted for short circuit studies. The bus faults are displayed at all buses simultaneously.

Selection of One Bus: The Bus can be selected:

Graphically on the one line diagram, by a simple click on the desired bus, or; Highlight the bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the Add button; the selected bus will be transferred to the Selected Buses list. To remove a bus from the Selected Buses list highlight the bus ID and click on Remove button. The highlighted bus will be transferred to the All Buseslist.

If One Bus is selected, then any fault type at that bus is calculated, branch contribution to that fault, bus post-fault voltage and fault summary are generated. Selecting More Than One Bus:

Graphically on the drawing space: click onto the desired first bus, then hold down the shift key; while the shift key is being held down, select each bus individually; Menu Driven: highlight the desired bus ID in the Short Circuit Option and then click on the Add; the selected buses will be transferred to the Selected Buses list. To remove a bus or several buses from the Selected Buses List highlight the bus ID and click on Remove button. The highlighted bus/buses will be transferred to the All Buses List.

Notes: Faults at more than one bus, are faulted individually in turn, not simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a three-phase, line-to-

24

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


ground, line-to-line, and line-to-line-to-ground fault at each selected bus which is faulted for short circuit studies; On the drawing are displayed only the bus fault current value: Symmetrical rms, DC rms, Asymmetrical rms, IPeak instantaneous value, as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation.

Selecting All Buses: Fault at all buses can be selected from the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option only, by selecting All Buses option.

Faults at All Buses, are faulted individually, not simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a three-phase, line-to-ground, line-to-line, and line-to-line-to-ground fault at all buses which are faulted for short circuit studies; On the drawing are displayed: Symmetrical rms, DC rms, Asymmetrical rms, IPeak instantaneous value, as per user selection in the Short Circuit Back Annotation. All buses are colored in Red.

The Short Circuit Report will provide:

Bus Fault Current (3P, L-L, L-L-G, L-G, depending on the user selection); Branch currents (3P, L-L, L-L-G, L-G, depending on the user selection); Short Circuit multiplying Factors; Fault Summary;

25

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Sliding Fault: The Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program can simulate a fault along a feeder/cable/transmission line. Using this option eliminates the need to create a dummy bus at a location along the feeder. The figure below shows examples of evenly spaced sliding faults (F1, F2, F3, and F4) and single point sliding fault and a specific location (F).

From Bus F1 F F2 F3 F4

To Bus

Click on this button to open the Short Circuit Option dialog window. In the Calculation Tab, select Sliding Fault.

26

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Sliding Fault

27

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Selecting a Feeder / Branch: Highlight the desired Feeder/Cable in the All Feeders and Cables Box and then click on the Add button; the selected Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the Selected Feeders and Cables Box. To remove a Feeder/Cable from the Selected Feeders and Cables box, highlight the Feeder/Cable and click on Remove button. The highlighted Feeder/Cable will be transferred to the All Feeders / and Cables Box / List. In this release, only one Feeder/Cable can be selected for Sliding fault calculation at a time. Select a feeder 3C 12, and then press on the OK button; the Sliding Fault Report Manager is displayed as presented below: Note: Sliding fault does not apply to IEC61363 and AC Single Phase calculation.

Sliding Fault: Report Manager

28

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


The program allows the user to introduce the Fault position on the selected Feeder: Any Position away From Bus or select the Number of Fault Spots evenly spaced alongside the selected feeder. The program automatically divides the feeder/line into as many equidistant segments and fault currents are calculated for each intermediate points. Contributions from both ends of the feeder/line for each fault location as well as the voltages at the faulted location and at both ends are also reported. In case only one fault location is selected, then the exact fault location (i.e. 300 Feet down from sending end) should be specified. Fault type:


Units:

3-Phase Fault; Line-to-line fault; Line-to-ground fault; Double-Line-to-Ground fault. For fault Current: Amps or KiloAmps, with the user defined decimal places; For Capacity: KVA or MVA, with the user defined decimal places; For Bus Voltages: Volts or Kilo Volts, with the user-defined decimal places. Per Unit MF, %X/R: with the user-defined decimal places.

29

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


Sliding Fault Report: 300 Feet away from From Bus. A partial Report is presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit Project No. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : 01:14:44 am Drawing No. : Company : Revision No.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123 Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE ------------------------------------------------------------Fault Spot Report for Sliding Fault Bus Results: 0.5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults -------------------------------------------------------------

Fault Feeder From Bus To Bus Fault Spot

: : : :

3C 12 3C 150

->12

Fault R(Ohms) : Fault X(Ohms) : Length(Feet) :

0 0 300

Feet away from 'From Bus'

Thevenin Imped. Complex Pre-Flt 3P Flt. LL Flt. LG Flt. LLG Flt --------------- -----Bus Name V A A A A Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R ------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -------Fault Spot--480 31748 27494 29176 31828 3.7886 4.8206 3.0819 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Branch Report for Sliding Fault Branch Results: 0.5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LG Faults ---------------------------------------------------------------Fault Feeder From Bus To Bus Fault Spot System Volt: Fault Type Spot RMS( Spot X/R : : : : 480 : ): : 3C 3C 12 150 V 3-phase 31748 3.08 ->12 Fault R(Ohms) : Fault X(Ohms) : Length(Feet) : 0 0 300

Feet away from 'From Bus' Base Volt: 480 L-G 29176 V L-L-G 31828 Prefault Volt: 480 V

L-L 27494

* Stands for the Low or Mid. voltage side of a transformer or To Bus --> Fault Spot for Sliding Fault Feeder. 3-Phase Fault Line-Ground Fault Thevenin --------------- ------------------------------- --------------From Bus (A) From Bus (A) Impedance Branch Name V Ia Va Vb Ia 3Io Z+(pu) Zo(pu) ------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------3B ->11 0 0 0 3C ->12 28.8 29373 38.6 98.2 27050 27163 2.9297 2.5561 3C ->12 * 2.4 2426 3.1 100.4 2194 2135 3.7253 4.6677

30

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Series Fault: Series fault types (one phase open, two phases open, and unequal series impedances) with or without neutral unbalance are supported in the Paladin DesignBases short circuit program. The series fault types are shown in the below figure. It should be noted that series faults are meaningful only if pre-fault load has been taken into account (i.e. load flow solution is considered). For series faults, the equivalent voltage at the opening point is computed from the pre-fault system current at the unbalance point. The default fault impedances Za, Zb, and Zn are:

For one phase open (phase A), Default values: Zb=Zn=0.0 +j0.0 For two phases open (phases B and C) Default values: Za=Zn=0.0+j0.0 For Series Unbalance (phases A, B, and C) Default values: Za=Zb=Zn=0.0+j0.0

31

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


In Paladin DesignBase short circuit Analysis Option, select Series Fault field to perform open phase study.

32

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Select the feeder / branch: Highlight the desired feeder / cable in the All feeders and Cables box and then Click on the Add button. The selected feeder / cable will be transferred to the Selected feeders box as is presented below: To remove a feeder / cable from the Selected feeders highlight the feeder/cable and click Remove button. The highlighted feeder/cable will be transferred to the All feeders and Cables box. For series fault, only one feeder can be selected at a time. Click OK.

1 2 3

33

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


Series Fault Report Manager:

The program allows the user to select:

one phase (one phase open); two phases open; unbalanced series fault.

At the fault (opening location) the user can select the fault impedance in ohms. Units: For current: Amps or KiloAmps; For capacity: KVA or MVA; For voltages: volts or Kilo Volts.

Output File: to CSV or text file.

34

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Report is listed below:


EDSA 3-Phase Short Circuit Project No. : Page : 1 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : Drawing No. : Company : Revision No.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123 Check by: .. Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date :.. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

Base MVA System Frequence(Hz) # of Total Buses # of Active Buses # of Total Branches # of Active Sources # of Active Motors # of Active Shunts # of Transformers Reference Temperature(C) Impedance Displaying Temperature(C)

: : : : : : : : : : :

100.000 60 48 48 47 3 4 0 5 20.0 20.0

Calculating Series Fault Classical Calculation Complex Z for X/R and Fault Current Transformer Phase Shift is not considered. Base Voltages : Use System Voltages Prefault Voltages : Use Load Flow Results -----------------------------------Feeder/Cable Series Fault Report -----------------------------------Fault Feeder : 3C ->12

Prefault Voltage System Base -------------------------Bus Bus Name kV kV kV % Degree ----- ------------------------ -------- -------- -------- -------- -------From 04 0.48 0.48 0.48 100.03 0.00 To 12 0.48 0.48 0.48 99.94 -0.0 Fault Impedance(Ohms) : Za = Zb = Zc = Zn = Fault Current Direction : 0 +j 0 +j 0 +j 0 0 0

From Bus --> To Bus A , Angle in Degree)

Phase Sym Fault Current at 1/2 Cycle (Magnitude in

---- One Phase Open -----Item Phase A Phase B Phase C ----- -------- -------- -------Magn. 0 95 94 Angle 0 -122 109.4 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

35

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Control Tab: AC ANSI/IEEE Standard: The AC ANSI/IEEE method is based on a separate R and X matrix method:

Fault current multiplying factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault calculations are performed. The tab provides also information on ANSI Standard impedances first cycle and interrupting cycles: 2-8 cycles as per ANSI/IEEE Std. For calculating the MF the user can select: Based on X/R using the equations in section 2.0 Or regardless of the X/R value, the MF is fixed In calculating the MF the user can also select to use: Empirical value for ; Or = T = 0.5.

36

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. The first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). In the second option, the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:

X" R= X /R
The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero, positive).

4.3

AC Classical Short Circuit Method The AC Classical is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio is extracted from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.

Fault Current Multiplying Factors allow the user to set up a marginal coefficient while fault calculations are performed. The user can also select the Machine Current Decay, in cycles. The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. The first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs).

37

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


In the second option, i.e, variable X/R (see the lower left part of the above figure), the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:

R=

X" X /R

The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero, positive). In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences.

38

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

4.4

AC IEC 60909 Short Circuit Method

The AC IEC 909 Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit program tools are shown below.

Options;

Report Manager;

Back Annotation;

Analyze;

Reactor sizing;

39

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


The method is based on IEC60909 Standard. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options. The user can select the calculation based on: 1988 Version or 2001 Version

The short circuit program supports two options for the generators and motors resistances. The first option uses constant X/R ratio (which is defined in the generator and motor input dialogs). In the second option (variable X/R, see the lower left part of the above figure), the generator/motor resistance is computed from the X/R ratio as follows:

R=

X" X /R

The above resistance is maintained constant for all time bands and sequences (negative, zero, positive). In this case the X/R ratio will be variable for different time bands and sequences. While in the IEC 60909 standard, the control tab allows the user to select: Fault Current Multiplying Factors; The method which is employed in calculating the Peak Current (method A, B, C or EDSA Thevenin).

40

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


Also, as per IEC 60909 standard, the user can select:

System Voltage; IEC maximum Voltage; IEC minimum Voltage.

Peak current method:

Method A: uniform ratio R/X. The smallest X/R ratio determines the k factor; Method B: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks X=1.15 multiplied by the Xb. Xb from Fig.8 page 47 IEC 60909 Std.; Method C: applies to the calculation of peak current in mesh networks; The value of X is calculated from Fig. 8, IEC 60909 and depends on X/R ratio of the network; EDSA Thevenin: X is calculated from the Thevenin equivalent.

Impedance correction factors: 1. Apply K g factor to Generator Z g impedance:

This field should be selected by the user when calculating the initial short circuit current in systems fed directly from generators without unit transformers. This is the situation when the user calculates the short circuit current at generator terminal.

41

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

The K g factor is given by formula (18) IEC Std.:

KG =
Where:

Un cmax (18, IEC Std.) " U rG 1 + X d sin G

U n - is the system rated voltage; U rG - the generator rated voltage;


" Xd - generator sub transient reactance referred to generator rated impedance; sin G - generator phase angle between current and terminal voltage.

42

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

2.

Apply

K t factor to network transformer Z t :

The Paladin DesignBase user should check the above field if the short circuit occurs from a network transformer. A network transformer (see the figure capture below) is when a transformer is connecting two or more networks at different voltages (IEC Std.). For two-winding transformers with and without on-load tap-changer, an impedance correction factor KT is to be introduced in addition to the impedance evaluated according to IEC (equation (7) to (9)).

K T = 0.95
Where:

cmax 1 + 0.6 X T

(IEC eq. 12a)

X T is the relative reactance of the transformer and cmax is from table 1 is related to the nominal
voltage of the network connected to the low-voltage side of the network transformer. This correction factor shall not be introduced for unit transformers of power station units (IEC, see 3.7). This factor is active only if the user selects the filed Network Transformer (used in IEC 60909 method) in the transformer editor, as presented below:

43

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

44

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Z t factor by using actual tap: If the user selects this field, then EDSA adjusts Z T by using actual transformer tap. In this situation the
3. Apply Adjust program consider the transformer impedance as a function of the transformer tap position. If the user select the 1988 IEC 60909 version then the c factor values are provided by the program, as follows:

45

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

cmax
Standard: Above 1000 V: Low Voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P3W Other voltage levels, 3P3W Low voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P4W Other voltage levels, 3P4W 1.1 1.05 1.05 1 1.05

cmin
1 1 1 0.95 1

User Defined: Above 1000 V: Low voltage networks: 230/400V, 3P3W/4W Other voltage levels 3P3W/4W

Per user selection per user selection per user selection

per user selection per user selection per user selection

If the user select the 2001 IEC 60909 version then the c factor values are provided by the program, as follows:

cmax
Standard: Above 1000 V: A Other User Defined: Above 1000 V: Other 1.1 1.05

cmin
1 0.95

Per user selection per user selection

per user selection per user selection

46

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

4.5

AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit Method IEC 61363 Standard calculates the short circuit instantaneous current as a function of time and displays its instantaneous values. The method provides an accurate evaluation of the short circuit current for sizing protective devices and coordinating relays for isolated systems (off-shore platforms and ships electrical design). The machines sub transient reactance and time constants are used by this method. The Calculation Tab is similar to the AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.

EDSA AC IEC 363 Short Circuit program tools are shown below:

Options;

Report Manager;

Back Annotation;

Analyze;

47

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Options: The Options features are similar to ANSI Method.

48

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Report Manager:

As can be seen from the window dialog above, the Short Circuit Report can be:

Fast; User Defined; Curve with Time.

49

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Fast Report: If Fast Report is launched, the following dialog window is displayed:

Select the items be displayed in the Report.

50

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

User Defined Fault Report displays:

Time Bands: 0 cycle; - cycle; 1 cycle; 3 cycle; 5 - cycle; 8 cycle; 30 cycle. User defined output options: Td DC Time constant, in seconds; Iac Short circuit AC symmetrical component, rms value; Idc Short circuit DC component; Ienv- Short circuit envelope;

Input Report & Abbreviations; Input Data and Abbreviation. Report Style, Units & Log. Print Layout, Unit, View Log File.

51

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


The AC IEC 61363 Short Circuit program Abbreviations are displayed below:

The work is identical with that presented for AC ANSI standards. In order to display the Report of Short Circuit Results varying with time, the following steps need to follow: Step1: select the bus: bus 18; Step2: launch the short Circuit program, by clicking the program icon ; Step3: click the Report Manager icon The following window is displayed: : Select Graph Output and then click OK button:

52

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Step4: click

icon. The following graphs are displayed:

The displayed graph components are user defined. However, the user can select the Short Circuit Current components to be displayed such as:

Idc dc component of SC Current; iac instantaneous ac component; Ienv Upper Envelop of Sc current; i - Instantaneous total short circuit current; Im magnitude of ac component.

53

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Idc dc component of the Short Circuit Current:

54

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

iac instantaneous ac component of the Short Circuit Current:

55

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Ienv Upper Envelop of the Short Circuit Current:

56

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

i Instantaneous - Total Short Circuit Current:

57

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Im magnitude of the ac component of the Short Circuit Current:

58

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

4.6

AC SINGLE Phase Short Circuit Method The AC Single Phase Method is based on the Complex E/Z calculation method and the X/R ratio is extracted from the complex impedance matrix (X/R). The Calculation Tab is the same as in AC ANSI/IEEE Standard and provides the same options.

5 5.1

Managing the Paladin DesignBase Short Circuit Program 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Cycle In the Short Circuit Option feature select the output results: Annotation or Report; From the Report Manager, the user can select:

Fast or User Defined Report:

59

Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE


In the SC Report Manager select Fast option, then the user can select the Fault Types as shown below: 3-P, L-G, L-L, LL-G. Time Bands cycle.

Click OK and then launch the program by clicking the Analyze

icon.

The rms short circuit currents values at 1/2 Cycle are calculated at a selected bus/buses or at all buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing). The positive, negative, and zero sequence sub-transient reactance X are used in modeling both the generators and motors. Motors are normally not grounded and therefore the grounding option should be none. Notes: In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration while building up the system positive, negative, and zero sequence networks.

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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit Project No. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time :. Drawing No. : Company : Revision No.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

------------------------------------------------------------Bus Results: 0.5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults -------------------------------------------------------------

Thevenin Imped. ANSI Pre-Flt 3P Flt. LL Flt. LG Flt. LLG Flt --------------- -----Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R ------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -----MAINBUS 0.48 31.82 27.55 34.47 33.53 3.7805 2.9070 5.6944 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

5.2

3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, 5 Cycle In the SC Report Manager select 5 cycle and the type of faults: 3-P, L-g, L-L, LL-G. Select 5 cycle, then Click OK. Launch the short circuit program by clicking Analyze icon .

The rms short circuit currents values at 5 Cycle are calculated at a selected Bus/Buses or at All Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing). Follow the steps presented above at 3P, LL, LG, LLG fault at Cycle. Notes:

The positive, negative, and zero sequence sub-transient reactance is used for modeling both the Generators and motors; In all the unbalanced fault calculations it is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance. Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration while building up the system positive, negative, and zero sequence networks.

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The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit Project No. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : Drawing No. : Company : Revision No.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

------------------------------------------------------------Bus Results: 5 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults -------------------------------------------------------------

Thevenin Imped. ANSI Pre-Flt 3P Flt. LL Flt. LG Flt. LLG Flt --------------- -----Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R ------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -----MAINBUS 0.48 30.03 26.01 33.05 31.99 4.0055 2.9070 5.6944 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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5.3 3P, LL, LG, LLG Fault, Steady state In the Report Manager select Steady and the type of faults: 3-P, L-g, L-L, LL-G. Click OK button. Launch the program by clicking Analyze icon .

The rms short circuit currents values at Steady State/ 30 Cycle are calculated at a selected Bus/Buses or at All Buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly onto the drawing). Notes:

It is assumed that the negative sequence impedance of a machine is equal to its positive sequence impedance in all the unbalanced fault calculations. Generators are modeled by their positive, negative, and zero sequence reactance; Short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored. Generator, motor, and transformer grounding types and winding connections are taken into consideration while building up the system positive, negative, and zero sequence networks.

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit Project No. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time : Drawing No. : Company :. Revision No.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

------------------------------------------------------------Bus Results: 30 Cycle--Symmetrical--3P/LL/LG/LLG Faults -------------------------------------------------------------

Thevenin Imped. ANSI Pre-Flt 3P Flt. LL Flt. LG Flt. LLG Flt --------------- -----Bus Name kV KA KA KA KA Z+(pu) Zo(pu) 3P X/R ------------------------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- -----MAINBUS 0.48 28.78 24.93 32.03 30.93 4.1790 2.9070 5.6944 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

5.4

3 Phase Fault, Steady State In the Report Manager select fault type 3-P and Time Bands Steady.Click OK and then launch the program by clicking Analyze icon .

The rms short circuit currents values after 30 cycles are calculated (as per ANSI/IEEE Standards or IEC 60909 Standard as per user selected fault calculation) at a selected bus/buses or at all buses as per user bus selection (on the short circuit options dialog or directly on the drawing). The short circuit current contributions from motors are ignored, and the generators are modeled by their positive sequence transient reactance X.

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

The Results are listed in the Partial Text Report, as presented below:

3-Phase Short Circuit Project No. : Page : 2 Project Name: Date : Title : Time :04:23:01 am Drawing No. : Company : Revision No.: Engineer: Jobfile Name: T123PDE Check by: Scenario : 1 : mode1 Date : -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

------------------------------------------Bus Results: 30 Cycle -- 3 Phase Faults -------------------------------------------

Pre-Flt Isym X/R Thevenin Bus Name kV KA Ratio Z+(pu) ------------------------ ------- --------- --------- --------MAINBUS 0.48 28.78 5.6944 4.1790 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

5.5

Protective Device Evaluation (PDE) Tool Paladin DesignBase PDE is a fast and accurate tool, which evaluates the protective switching devices such as: LV, MV and HV CBs, fuses, and switches.

A number of enhancements have been implemented in this version of the program. The salient features added to the PDE program are:

The equipment operating voltage is selected by the user, and it can be: o Load Flow calculated Voltage; o Actual Voltage; o System voltage.

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The user can introduce from the keyboard the multiplying factors for calculating the peak and asymmetrical short circuit current as per the standard employed:

The PDE program includes the CB impedance and CBs X/R ratio; The PDE Output Text Report has been reorganized. The output results are organized as per: o Equipment Input Rated Data; o PDE Calculated Data; o Circuit Duty calculated data.

The PDE output results are either graphically displayed onto the one line diagram (in green if the switching equipment passes or in red if they fail), or as a Text Report, based on the user selection. The fault study is per the Standard selected by the user: IEEE/ANSI C37 Standard. The program calculates momentary symmetrical and asymmetrical rms, momentary asymmetrical crest, interrupting symmetrical rms, and interrupting adjusted symmetrical rms short circuit currents at faulted buses. The circuit duties are checked against equipment interrupting capabilities, and if:

I Circuit _ Duty I Equip. _ Intrr


Then equipment passes, otherwise it fails.

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The Protective Device Evaluation List is displayed, as presented below:

One bus selected by the user:

All buses selected by the user:

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The program lists all the equipment connected to the selected bus and displays: equipment code, type, location, description and equipment status: pass or fail. Partial Summary Report
Protective Device Evaluation Project No.: Page : 1 Project Name: Date :. Title : Time :.M Drawing No.: Company : Revision No.: Engineer : JobFile Name: ANSI-YY Check by : Scenario : 1: CheckDate: Base MVA : 10.00 Cyc/Sec : 60 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ANSI - Summary PDE Report Based On Bus Duty (* Used by Program) -------------------------------------------------- Device Rating ----------- -----Short Circuit Duty -----Branch -----Location----- Std ------0.5Cy(KA)-------- Int -------0.5Cy(KA)------Int Name Bus kV Categ. Sym Asym Peak KA Sym Asym Peak KA Status -------------- ---------- ------- ------ ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- --------A1 BUS 1 13.80 8 Tot. 40.00 20.92 31.91 21.05* Int -Fail T1P 31.91 21.05 A10 Bus 2 13.80 3 Sym. 40.00 20.98 31.04 20.47* A10P 31.03 20.47 A10F A10P 13.80 Fuse 25.00 20.39 * T7_PRI 20.39 A2 BUS 1 13.80 8 Tot. 40.00 20.92 31.91 21.05* Int -Fail G1 31.91 21.05 A3 BUS 1 13.80 8 Tot. 40.00 20.92 31.91 21.05* Int -Fail A3P 31.91 21.05 A4 BUS 1 13.80 8 Tot. 40.00 20.92 31.91 21.05* Int Fail A4P 31.91 21.05 A4F A4P 13.80 Fuse 25.00 20.97 * T3_PRI 20.97 A5 BUS 1 13.80 8 Tot. 40.00 20.92 31.91 21.05* Int -Fail A5P 31.91 21.05 A6 Bus 2 13.80 3 Sym. 40.00 20.98 31.04 20.47* T2P 31.03 20.48 A7 Bus 2 13.80 3 Sym. 40.00 20.98 31.04 20.47*

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Partial Detail Report

Protective Device Evaluation Project No.: Page : 1 Project Name: Date : Title : Time :. Drawing No.: Company : Revision No.: Engineer : JobFile Name: ANSI-YY Check by : Scenario : 1: CheckDate: Base MVA : 10.00 Cyc/Sec : 60 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Medium/High Voltage Circuit Breakers ANSI - Protective Device Evaluation Report Based On Bus Duty ------------------------------------------

-------------------Branch Name -------------------Manufacturer Device Type Operating Voltage(kV) Max. Voltage (kV) Fused ? Test Standard Interrupt.Time(Cyc.) Max. Rated Int (kA) Rated Int@Max kV(kA) Rated C&L Asym (kA) Rated C&L Peak (kA) 3P Int @ Oper kV(kA) Test X/R Calc. X/R Calc. Sym (kA) Calc. Int (kA) Momentary Factor Peak Factor Remote Factor local Factor NACD Ratio Adjusted Factor Duty Duty Duty Asym Peak Int (kA) (kA) (kA)

-----------A1 -----------GE AM-13.8-500 13.80 15.00 N Tot. 8 25.00 19.25 40.00 20.92 15.0000 25.6112 19.92 19.49 1.6015 1.1318 1.0142 0.5600 1.0800 31.91 21.05 79.7750 100.6188

-----------A10 -----------ABB 15-HKSA-500 13.80 15.00 N Sym. 3 25.00 19.30 40.00 20.98 15.0000 26.7706 19.32 18.85 1.6067 1.1125 1.0518 0.5600 1.0858 31.04 20.47 77.5892 97.5758

-----------A2 -----------GE AM-13.8-500 13.80 15.00 N Tot. 8 25.00 19.25 40.00 20.92 15.0000 25.6112 19.92 19.49 1.6015 1.1318 1.0142 0.5600 1.0800 31.91 21.05 79.7750 100.6188

-----------A3 -----------GE AM-13.8-500 13.80 15.00 N Tot. 8 25.00 19.25 40.00 20.92 15.0000 25.6112 19.92 19.49 1.6015 1.1318 1.0142 0.5600 1.0800 31.91 21.05 79.7750 100.6188

Duty /Rated Asym( %) Duty /Rated Peak( %) Duty /3P Int ( %)

Margin ( %) -0.6188 2.4242 -0.6188 -0.6188 Status ? Int -Fail Pass Int -Fail Int -Fail --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

PDE Graphical Display Results: Click Close button. The program returns back to the one line diagram. The connected equipment to the selected bus are displayed in green color (Pass) and in red color (Fail).

PDE: Graphical Display Results

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5.6

Report Manager Click on this button to launch the Report Manager. The Report Manager provides: Output Reports: Fast, User Defined, PDE, Misc; Output Destination: output to CSV or output to Text File. Fast Report: The user can select the Fault Type, Time Bands, Input Data, Abbreviation, Report Style, Unit & Log. If the fault is at one bus, the user can also select the Branch Contribution option.

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Unit Settings

Print Layout

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User Defined Reports: It is similar to Fast Report, but the user can also select the Phase Bus/Branch Components: X/R, AC, DC, Asym, Angle.

If User Defined Reports is selected then the above report screen is displayed. The user can select the Fault Type, Time Bands, User Defined Options, Phase Bus/Branch Components, Print Layout, Units, Output to CSV or Text File.

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In order to get the Tabulated Output Reports on short circuit current calculation, proceed as follows:

Select Output to CSV or Text File; Click on Browse icon and assign the path and the file title; Click OK icon; Click Analyze icon.

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Short Circuit Detailed Report:

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5.7

Short Circuit Back Annotation Click on this button to launch the Short Circuit Back Annotation tool. The Short Circuit Back Annotation tool opens. The Short Circuit Back Annotation Dialog Window as presented below: Number of decimals for the results inserted onto the drawing.

Display Fault Results

Fault Phase or Sequence Fault Type Results

Fault Components

Fault Units

These selections allow the user to select the displaying form.

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Select this option to display the bus Pre-Fault Voltage

Select the color and font size Select this option to display the Fault Branch Current

Select this option to display the Bus Symm.-Fault Voltage/ Residual Voltage Fault Current to be displayed

Select the unit

Select the displaying form Select this option to display the current flow arrows Select the Fault Type, Displayed Results: Bus Current, Bus Prefault Voltage, Bus Post-fault Voltage, Branch Current, Phase or Sequence Components, Fault Components, Units, display or not the Fault Current Flow Arrows. The back annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the study network drawing. Back Annotation is an Executive Short Circuit Report inserted onto the drawing, with the inserted components as per user selection.

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On/Off Button allows you to select "ON" or "OFF" the back annotation tool.

Select the back annotation ON or OFF, Auto-refresh, Font, Font Style, size and font color.

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5.8

MANAGING SCHEDULE IN SHORT CIRCUIT Schedule is a Paladin DesignBase feature that allows the user to combine several motors and loads in the same symbols. It is a very good practice to save nodes in modeling and in the mean time to represent all the nodes of a plant in the plant model. One considers the following network: a) Model with each motor individually represented; b) Same motors are represented inside the MCC schedule

c)

Motor Representation: Individual Representation; b) Schedule Representation

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The motors representation inside the schedule:

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Motors inside the schedule

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Motor Feeder representation inside the schedule

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Motor Status inside the schedule

Motor Loading / Usage inside the schedule Inside the Schedule each motor is in detail represented together with the motor feeder as can be seen in the capture Figures above.

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Short Circuit Calculation: The short circuit procedure was described so far. However, the short circuit results can be displayed either onto the drawing or as a Text Output Results: Step 1: Select MCC bus:

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Step 2: Select the Short Circuit Basic Option:

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Step 3: In the Report Manager select the Fast, Fault Type and Time Bands as shown below:

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Step 4: Click Analyze icon. The Short Circuit Results are displayed onto the drawing:

Short Circuit at MCC bus and branch contribution MCC fault current 10767.8 A and branch contribution via the Main_CB2 7975.5 A

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In order to provide the each motor contribution while the motors are represented inside the Schedule, proceed as follows: Step 1: Select Report Manager. Select Misc, MCC/Schedule.

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Step 2: Click Analyze icon:

The results are displayed either on the drawing or in the Text Output Report as per user selection.

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The fault results displayed as a Text output Report follows;

-------------------Calculation Options -------------------Calculating Single Bus Fault with Fault Z = 0.00000 + j 0.00000 Ohms

Fault Phases: Phase A for Line-Ground Fault Phase B,C for Line-Line or Line-Line-Ground Fault ANSI/IEEE Calculation: Using ANSI Std. C37.010-1979 or above. Separate R and X for X/R, Complex Z for Fault Current The Multiplying Factors to calculate Asym and Peak are Based on Actual X/R Peak Time Applies ATPC Equation Transformer Phase Shift is not considered. Generator and Motor X/R is constant. Base Voltages : Use System Voltages Prefault Voltages : Use System Voltages

Jobfile Name: SC_MCC_SCHEDULE Page : 2

--------------------------------------------------Bus Schedule Results: 0.5 Cycle -- 3 Phase Faults ---------------------------------------------------

MCC/Schedule Bus Name :

MCC

Prefault Voltage:

480.0

Motor Bus fault Motor Data Rating --------------------- ---------------------X/R Sym Asym X/R X Item Cd Device Name Status KVA HP Ratio kA kA Ratio (%) ---- -- ---------------- ----- ------ ------ ----- ------- ------- ----- ----1 MI 1 200.00 218.60 5.28 9682 12278 9.00 17.00 2 MI 2 200.00 218.60 5.28 9682 12278 9.00 17.00 3 MI 3 100.00 104.59 6.60 10095 13438 9.00 20.00

Cable Data -----------------Length R X (Feet) Ohms/K Ohms/K ------ ------ -----100 0.0433 0.0338 100 0.0433 0.0338 50 0.0433 0.0338

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Results Validation: Two networks are considered: a) A model with each motor individually represented; b) A model with the same motors which are represented inside the MCC schedule

Motor Representation: a) Individual Representation; b) Schedule Representation Perform short circuit calculation at bus Motor Bus: Select this bus and launch Short Circuit program. Follow the steps listed below:

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Short Circuit Analysis Program ANSI/IEC/IEEE

Step 1: Select the faulted bus: Motor Bus and perform the fault at this bus: Fault Results:

Individual Motor Representation:

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Comparative Fault Results:

The fault results match in the both motor representation.

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Three-phase Faults IEC 61363 Method From the Short Circuit Analysis program pick-up list, select AC IEC 61363 to perform a three-phase fault study per IEC61363 Standard. This option calculates the instantaneous values of the AC, DC and total short circuit current and TDC time constant as well for short circuit at all system buses. The results are tabulated as a function of T/2. Generators are modeled by their positive sequence sub transient reactance, and motors are modeled by their locked-rotor impedance. Theirs subtransient and transient time constants and dc time constants are also considered in the calculations. The user can display the results using the standard report format, annotate results on the one line diagram, and plot the short circuit results varying with time. In order to display the short circuit results varying with time, only one bus can be faulted at a time. Graphical Display Select AC IEC 61363 Analysis Method:

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From the SC report Manager select Curve with Time option and then click OK button:

Click on Analyze icon:

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When the graph is displayed the user can select to view all items, or the values the user selects.

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Report Format Display Partial results are tabulated below:

IEC 363 Short Circuit Project No.: Page : 2 Project Name: Date ..: Title : Time:. Drawing No.: Company : Revision No.: Engineer : JobFile Name: T123PDE Check by : Scenario : 1:mode1 CheckDate: Base kVA : 100000 Cyc/Sec : 60 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------Electrical One-Line 3-Phase Network for ANSI PDE

--------------------------------Bus Detailed Short Circuit Report ---------------------------------

SC Current( kA ), Time Constant(ms) at the following Times Pre-Flt Tdc 0T 0T Tdc T/2 T/2 Tdc 2T 2T Bus Name kV Idc Iac @T/2 Idc Iac @ 2 T Idc Iac ------------------------ ------- ----- ------- ------- ----- ------- ------- ----- ------- ------04 0.48 0.91 8.69 6.14 0.92 0.00 6.14 0.94 0.00 6.14 07 0.21 1.67 2.32 1.64 1.67 0.02 1.64 1.69 0.00 1.64 10 0.21 1.28 12.09 8.55 1.29 0.02 8.55 1.31 0.00 8.55 12 0.48 21.0 29.66 20.97 6.10 7.57 20.18 6.56 0.18 19.06 12BB 0.48 25.7 26.05 18.42 5.82 6.23 17.78 6.16 0.12 16.80 15 0.21 2.13 2.89 2.04 2.13 0.06 2.04 2.15 0.00 2.04 16 0.48 25.4 25.32 17.91 5.68 5.84 17.32 5.99 0.10 16.41 17 0.48 11.5 23.42 16.56 4.48 3.64 15.88 6.23 0.11 14.90 18 0.48 16.0 26.34 18.62 5.17 5.25 17.90 5.49 0.06 16.86 19 0.48 2.62 14.39 10.17 3.05 0.94 9.54 6.77 0.10 8.74 2 0.48 1.33 7.00 4.95 1.33 0.01 4.95 1.35 0.00 4.95 20 0.48 20.7 24.62 17.41 5.29 5.10 16.77 5.58 0.06 15.80 21 0.48 9.02 34.08 24.10 4.75 5.90 23.41 4.85 0.04 22.42 GEN 0.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 MAINBUS 0.48 12.7 45.14 31.92 14.1 24.76 30.65 14.5 4.51 29.30 UTILITY1 4.80 32.3 8.23 5.82 13.6 4.46 5.78 13.8 0.74 5.72 UTILITY2 4.80 33.1 8.21 5.81 13.7 4.46 5.78 13.9 0.74 5.72

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7 7.1

Short Circuit Analysis Input Data Power Grid Input Data

Power Grid Required data for short circuit calculations Note: If the fault level L-G is zero, the system is considered with the neutral point isolated.

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7.2 Synchronous Generator Short Circuit Input Data

Synchronous Generator required data for short circuit calculations

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7.3 Induction Motor Short Circuit Input Data

Induction Motor required data for short circuit calculations

Whenever there is a schedule, you will see the composition rating on this screen. The HP is the average value of the motor in schedules.

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7.4

Synchronous Motor Short Circuit Input Data

Synchronous Motor required data for short circuit calculations

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7.5

High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data

High Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations

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7.6

Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker Short Circuit Input Data

Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Circuit Breaker required data for short circuit calculations

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7.7

Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse Short Circuit Input Data

Low Voltage ANSI/IEEE Fuse required data for short circuit calculations

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8 8.1

Network Reduction/Equivalent Introduction

In a interconnected power system, often power system engineers are required to exchange their system models to their neighboring utilities or vice versa in order to study the entire system. However when, for example, utility A wishes to study their system, it is not necessary to model the entire system if exact equivalent representation of the neighboring systems can obtained and utilized rather than resorting to a detailed model of the outside world. For the convenience of the Paladin DesignBase users, a network equivalent module is developed within the Paladin DesignBase short circuit program whereby exact system equivalent is computed. The equivalent computed is primarily used in the fault analysis. A power flow reduction is also under development that should become available in the near future. This document illustrates step-by-step instructions as how to compute power system equivalents at given buses. Also, V&V is performed for the equivalents system by showing the details of the system with equivalent model and system intact (complete representation).

8.2

Sample System Data

The single line diagram of the system to be used for equivalent computation is shown below:

Figure 3: Single Line Diagram of Sample System for Equivalent Computation

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8.3

How to Perform Equivalent/Reduction Calculations

To perform the equivalent calculation for a power system, first we should decide which part of the system should be equivalenced. In the example system shown above, lets assume that we would like to replace the right part of the system by equivalent at buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69 as shown below (the area inside of the reddotted-line will be equivalenced at these buses):

Figure 4: Part of the System to be Equivalenced (the area inside of red dotted line)

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8.4

Separating the Equivalent Part from the Rest of the System

Since the right part of the above network is required to be replaced by equivalent system, feeders ZZZ69>JJJ69, ZZZ69->AAA69, HHH138->GGG138, and BBB138->AAA138 in the original system SHOULD be placed out of service in order for the program to compute equivalent system seen from buses BBB138, ZZZ69, and GGG138 without the right side of the network. After outaging the above feeders we proceed as follows. Select the Options icon of the short circuit program as shown in Error! Reference source not found.7.3.

Figure 5: Selecting Options of the Short Circuit Program

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8.5

Specifying the Buses for the Equivalent

To specify the where the equivalent should be computed, the Options of the short circuit program should be used as shown above. Now the buses for the equivalent can be specified in the dialog shown below. It can be seen that we have selected buses GGG139, BBB138, and ZZZ69 (see Error! Reference source not found.7.4).

Figure 6: Selecting Buses where the Equivalent System to be Computed

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8.6

Reporting of the Equivalent System

To obtain a report of the equivalent system at the selected buses, the Report Manager of the short circuit program should be selected as shown in Error! Reference source not found..5.

Figure 7: Selecting Report Manager of the Short Circuit Program

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To select the equivalent system report, choose the Misc option as shown below:

Figure 8: Selecting Output Report (including report of network equivalent)

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Then, select the Equivalent Sys. Shown in Error! Reference source not found.7.7. Now all the information regarding the equivalent computations is complete.

Figure 9: Selecting Network Equivalent Report Option

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8.7

Computation of Equivalent System and Inspection of the Result

At this point, buses where the equivalent to be placed and report options are specified, we can proceed to the equivalent computations by selecting the Analyze option as seen in Error! Reference source not found.

Figure 10: Performing Short Circuit Analysis (fault current, equivalent, etc.) Once the computations are completed, the report of the equivalent system is displayed. A sample of such report is shown in Error! Reference source not found.7.9. The following report contains a set of Equivalent Generators that should be placed at the equivalent buses (see column marked as Type in the below report toward bottom of the figure). Also, there are equivalent branches (feeder/transformer) that should be connecting the equivalent buses. Again, the column marked as Type shows some the links between the equivalent buses are feeder/line and some transformers (TRSF). In this example connection between BBB138 and ZZZ69 is a transformer. Important Note: Since the equivalent links (feeders/transformers, generators) are just equivalent element representing a complex part of the system the following situation is common to occur: 1) The impedances may have negative resistances and/or reactances 2) Since positive and negative sequence values of the links (feeders/transformers) may not be equal. In this case, just assume that the negative sequence is the same as positive 3) If the value of impedance of a link between two buses are extremely high (i.e. no coupling between buses), then, it is safe to ignore the link

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Figure 11: Sample Network Equivalent Report

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8.8

Reconstructing the Original System by Using the Equivalent

As described above, the equivalent system contains equivalent elements (generators, feeders and transformers). In order to reconstruct the original system using the equivalent, we need to join the part of the system which was not equivalenced (in our example, the right side of the network) to the equivalent part. below shows the reconstructed system. Based on the report shown above, the data for each of the equivalent elements, in this example, are entered in the reconstructed network as shown in Error! Reference source not found. through Error! Reference source not found.

Figure 12: Reconstructing System Using the Equivalent Part

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Figure 13: Entering Equivalent Generator At bus BBB138

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Figure 14: Entering Equivalent Generator At bus GGG138

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Figure 15: Entering Equivalent Generator At bus ZZZ69

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Figure 16: Entering Equivalent Feeder Between Buses BBB138 and GGG138

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Figure 17: Entering Equivalent Transformer Between Buses GGG138 and ZZZ69

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Figure 18:Entering Equivalent Transformer Between Buses BBB138 and ZZZ69

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8.9

Validation and Verification of the Equivalent

To verify and validate the function of the network equivalent option, the following is performed: 1) In the original system (without reduction as shown in Error! Reference source not found.7.1) compute the three-phase and single line to ground fault at buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69; 2) In the reconstructed system (remaining system joined with the equivalent system shown in Figure 7.10 compute the three-phase and single line to ground fault at buses BBB138-EQUI, GGG138-EQUI, and ZZZ69-EQUI; 3) The result obtained in step 1 should agree well with the result obtained in step 2 above Result of short circuit calculation for the original system is shown Error! Reference source not found.. The result for the reconstructed network using the equivalent system is shown in Figure 20 Comparison of these results show that the equivalent system is computed accurately and can be used reliably in the short circuit studies.

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Figure 19: Fault Current for Buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69 in the Original Network (Intact System)

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Figure 20: Fault Currents for Buses BBB138, GGG138, and ZZZ69 in the Reconstructed System (equivalent)

Comparative Short Circuit Results and errors in %: 3 P Flt, in A Original Net. 1272 1464 2644 Equivalent Net 1273 1465 2645 Error, in % 0.08 0.07 0.04 Original Net 1726 1957 3240 L- G Flt, in A Equivalent Net 1728 1959 3242 Error, in % 0.12 0.10 0.06

Bus Name BBB138 GGG138 ZZZ69

Pre_Flt Voltage, in V 138000 138000 69000

The above results demonstrate the accuracy of the system equivalent. The errors are less than 0.3%.

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TUTORIAL: Conducting a Three-phase Short Circuit Study Go to DesignBase\Samples\3PhaseSC and open the file T123.axd:

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9.1

The Calculation Tools To activate the Short Circuit program, click on the Short Circuit Icon .

The Menu displays the following short circuit calculation methods:

AC ANSI/IEEE (separate R and X, as per ANSI/IEEE Standard); AC Classical, (Z complex method); AC IEC 60909; AC IEC 61363; AC 1 Phase; DC Classical; DC IEC 61660.

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DesignBase Short Circuit Program: Calculation Methods and the Corresponding Program Tools

DesignBase Short Circuit Program has the following calculation capabilities:

Fault at one or more buses in the same run; Fault at all system buses. In this case, the buses are faulted individually, not simultaneously. Depending on the specified fault type, the program will place a three-phase, line-to-ground, line-to-line, and line-to-line-to-ground fault at each bus which is faulted for short circuit studies.

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A bus can be selected in two ways:


9.2 9.2.1

Directly from the drawing - click on the desired bus By selecting the bus in the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option

Graphical Selection of Faulted Bus (Annotation) AC-ANSI/IEEE Method Select the Short Circuit Method: AC ANSI/IEEE.

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In the Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option dialog window select Default Output: Annotation. Other selection is listed below:

Select Base Voltage: System Voltage Select Prefault Voltage: System Voltage; Contribution Level from fault location: 3; Default Output: Annotation; Report Bus Type to select: All Buses; Fault location: Selected Buses.

Short Circuit Analysis Basic Option Calculation Tab

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9.3

Short Circuit Annotation Tool The Annotation allows the user to insert any data related to the Short Circuit Analysis onto the drawing. Step 1: Select "Auto-Refresh" to automatically refresh the results displayed onto the drawing.

Step 2: Select "Display Fault Result Selection."

Step 3: Select "Displaying Form" and "Phase"

Step 4: Select "Components" and "Units"

Step 5: Select "Display Flow Arrows"

Step 6: Select "OK"

Select the Short Circuit result components to be inserted into the drawing.

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9.3.1

3-Phase Fault, 30 Cycles at Bus 18 1. Select the bus MAINBUS by clicking onto the busMAINBUS; In the Report Manager select Fault Type: 3-P, and in the Time Bands select Steady. Click OK button and then Click Analyze icon:

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The bus Fault Current is displayed onto the drawing:

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9.3.2

3-Phase Fault Current, Cycle Fault at Bus MAINBUS: 1. Select the bus MAINBUS by clicking onto the bus; 2. In the Report Manager select Fault Type: 3-P, and in the Time Bands select 1/2 Cycle. Click OK button and then Click Analyze icon:

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The Fault Currents are displayed onto the drawing.

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9.3.3

3-Phase Fault Current, 5 Cycle Fault at Bus MAINBUS: 1. Select the bus MAINBBUS by clicking onto the bus; 2. In the Report Manager select Fault Type: 3-P, and in the Time Bands select 5 Cycle. Click OK button and then Click Analyze icon:

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The Fault Current are displayed onto the drawing.

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9.3.4

Change the Fault Type displayed onto the drawing. 1-Phase fault, Cycle, Phase A, Fault at Bus ,AINBUS: 1. Select the bus MAINBUS by clicking onto the bus: 2. In the Report Manager select Fast, Fault Type L-G, Time Bands Cycle and enable /click Branch Annotation field.

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2. In EDSA Annotation select Line-Ground, Phase A:

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Change the Fault Type displayed onto the drawing. Line-Line, B Phase, Fault at Bus MAINBUS: 1. In the SC Report Manager/ Fast select L-L fault type, Time Bands cycle:

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2. In EDSA Annotation select phase B:

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The fault current displayed on the drawing:

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Change the Fault Current Component displayed onto the drawing: 3-Phase Fault, A Phase, Asymmetrical Current, Fault at Bus MAINBUS: In the back annotation, select the fault type and phase to be displayed onto the drawing: 3- Phase, A Phase. Select Fault Component: Asymmetrical:

Select the Fault Component Asymmetrical

Select the Fault Type and Phase to be displayed onto the drawing: "3Phase, APhase"

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