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Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: "pen". We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:

dog, cat, animal, man, person bottle, box, litre coin, note, dollar cup, plate, fork table, chair, suitcase, bag

Countable nouns can be singular or plural:

My dog is playing. My dogs are hungry.

We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:

A dog is an animal.

When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it:

I want an orange. (not I want orange.) Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)

When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:

I like oranges. Bottles can break.

We can use some and any with countable nouns:

I've got some dollars. Have you got any pens?

We can use a few and many with countable nouns:

I've got a few dollars. I haven't got many pens.

"People" is countable. "People" is the plural of "person". We can count people:

There is one person here. There are three people here.

Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts etc that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns:

music, art, love, happiness advice, information, news furniture, luggage rice, sugar, butter, water electricity, gas, power money, currency

We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:

This news is very important. Your luggage looks heavy.

We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". But we can say a something of:

a piece of news a bottle of water a grain of rice

We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:

I've got some money. Have you got any rice?

We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:

I've got a little money. I haven't got much rice.


Present Continuous
FORM [am/is/are + present participle] Examples:
You are watching TV. Are you watching TV? You are not watching TV.

Complete List of Present Continuous Forms

USE 1 Now

Use the Present Continuous with Normal Verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now. Examples:
You are learning English now.

You are not swimming now.

Are you sleeping? I am sitting. I am not standing. Is he sitting or standing? They are reading their books. They are not watching television. What are you doing? Why aren't you doing your homework?

Write sentences with each child.



What is a set? Well, simply put, it's a collection. First you specify a common property among "things" (this word will be defined later) and then you gather up all the "things" that have this common property.

For example, the items you wear: these would include shoes, socks, hat, shirt, pants, and so on. I'm sure you could come up with at least a hundred. This is known as a set.

Or another example would be types of fingers. This set would include index, middle, ring, and pinky.

So it is just things grouped together with a certain property in common.

There is a fairly simple notation for sets. You simply list each element, separated by a comma, and then put some curly brackets around the whole thing.

This is the notation for the two previous examples: {socks, shoes, watches, shirts, ...} {index, middle, ring, pinky} Notice how the first example has the "..." (three dots together).

The three dots

... are called an ellipsis, and mean "continue on".

So that means the first example continues on ... for infinity.

When we define a set, if we take pieces of that set, we can form what is called a subset. So for example, we have the set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. A subset of this is {1, 2, 3}. Another subset is {3, 4} or even another, {1}. However, {1, 6} is not a subset, since it contains an element (6) which is not in the parent set. In general:

A is a subset of B if and only if every element of A is in B.

So let's use this definition in some examples.

Is A a subset of B, where A = {1, 3, 4} and B = {1, 4, 3, 2}? 1 is in A, and 1 is in B as well. So far so good. 3 is in A and 3 is also in B. 4 is in A, and 4 is in B. That's all the elements of A, and every single one is in B, so we're done.

Yes, A is a subset of B
Note that 2 is in B, but 2 is not in A. But remember, that doesn't matter, we only look at the elements in A.

Union This is read as ' A union in A or inB or both.

B ' and is the set of all elements that are

If T is the set of students who travel by train, train or bus, then P is the union of sets

students who travel by bus and P is the set of students who travel by

B is the set of

T and B.

If A is the set

{ a, b, c, d } and B is the set { b, d, e, f } then:

INTERSECT This is read as ' A intersect B ' and is the set of all elements that are in both Aand B.

If R is the set of students who play rugby, T is the set of students who play tennis and B is the set of students who play rugby and tennis, then B is the intersection of sets

R and T.

If A is the set

{ a, b, c, d } and B is the set { b, d, e, f } then:

The main purpose of this brief introduction to set theory is to enable us to refer to various sets of numbers using the following standard notation and terminology.


Cells are the Starting Point

All living organisms on Earth are divided in pieces called cells. There are smaller pieces to cells that include proteins andorganell es. There are also larger pieces called tissues andsystems. Cells are small compartments that hold all of the biological equipment necessary to keep an organism alive and successful on Earth. A main purpose of a cell is to organize. Cells hold a variety of pieces and each cell has a different set of functions. It is easier for an organism to grow and survive when cells are present. If you were only made of one cell, you would only be able to grow to a certain size. You don't find single cells that are as large as a cow. Also, if you were only one cell you couldn't have a nervous system, no muscles for movement, and using the internet would be out of the question. The trillions of cells in your body make your life possible.

One Name, Many Types

There are many types of cells. In biology class, you will usually work with plant-likecells and animal-like cells. We say animal-like because an animal type of cell could be anything from a tiny microorganism to a nerve cell in your brain. Plant cells are easier to identify because they have a protective structure called a cell wall made of cellulose. Plants have the wall; animals do not. Plants also have organelles like the chloroplast(the things that make them green) or large waterfilled vacuoles.

We said that there are many types of cells. Cells are unique to each type of organism.Humans may have hundreds of types of cells. Some cells are used to carry oxygen (O2) through the blood (red blood cells) and others might be specific to the heart. If you look at very simple organisms, you will discover cells that have no defined nucleus (prokaryotes) and other cells that have hundreds of nuclei (multinucleated). The thing they all have in common is that they are compartments surrounded by some type ofmembrane.

Prokaryotic Cells - The prokaryotic cell is a simple, small cell with no nucleus. Most bacteria are prokaryotic. There are three main parts to the prokaryotic cell: 1) the outside of the cell called the cell wall 2) the flagella which is like an appendage and can

help the cell to move 3) the inside of the cell called the cytoplasm. Eukaryotic Cells - these cells are a lot bigger and have a cell nucleus which houses the cell's DNA. These are the types of cells we find in plants and animals.

Parts of the Cell There are a lot of parts and functions to some cells. Here are some of the main components many cells have:

Membrane - This is the outer boundary of the cell. Sort of like the skin. It allows some substances in and keeps others out. Mitochondria - This is where the cell gets its energy. In the human body, food we have digested reacts with oxygen in the mitochondria to make energy for the cell. Ribosomes - Ribosomes are like tiny factories that make different things the cell needs to function, like proteins. Nucleus - The nucleus is the brains of the cell. It uses chromosomes to instruct the rest of the cell what to do next. Cytoplasm - This is the stuff that fills up the rest of the cell. The other components of the cell float around in the cytoplasm. It's mostly water. Lysosomes - These guys clean up the place getting rid of waste and other unwanted substances that may get into the cell.

The machines inside the cell like the nucleus, ribosomes, and lysosomes are called organelles. Fun Facts About Cells

They were discovered by the scientist Robert Hooke. The largest known cells are ostrich eggs. They can weigh over three pounds. When many cells of the same kind are together in a group, it's call tissue. The word cell comes from the Latin word cellula, which means small room.

Humans actually carry more bacteria cells than human cells. Yuck!

COLOMBIA Official Name: Repblica de Colombia. Capital: Bogot. Independence Day: July 20, 1810. NATURAL FEATURES Climate: Tropical. Major Rivers: Magdalena, Cauca, Meta, Guaviare, Caqueta, Putumayo, Atrato, Vaupes, Vichada. Mountain Ranges: Occidental, Central, Oriental.

PEOPLE Major Cities: Bogot, Medellin, Cali, Barranquilla, Cartagena, Cucuta, Bucaramanga Religions: Roman Catholicism, 95.4%. Language: Spanish (official).

GOVERNMENT President: Juan Manuel Santos Voting Qualification: Age 18. Political Divisions: 32 departments since July 1991, 1 capital district.

LIMITS East: Venezuela and Brazil South: Ecuador and Peru North: Atlantic Ocean, through the Caribbean Sea North-west: Panama West: Pacific Ocean.

ECONOMY A coffee farmer meticulously sorts Colombian coffee beans near Armenia, Quindo. Coffee is the main agricultural export of Colombia Main Agricultural Products: Crops; sugarcane, potatoes, plantains, rice, bananas, cassavas, corn, coffee, flowers. Livestock; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens. Main Mined Products: Petroleum, natural gas, gold, coal, iron ore. Main Manufactured Products: Foods, textiles, chemicals, machinery, electrical apparatus, transport equipment, metal products. Main Exports: Coffee, petroleum and petroleum products, fruits, flowers, iron and steel, textile and apparel. Monetary Unit: Peso.

Colombia, country in South America, situated in the northwestern part of the

continent. Colombia is blessed with natural resources, including beautiful beaches, dramatic mountains, and lush rain forests, but it is notorious for political unrest and the violent influence of powerful drug cartels. And despite a long history of democratic government, Colombia has one of the most rigidly stratified class systems in Latin America. Colombia is the only country in South America with coasts on both the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Its neighbors on the east are Venezuela and Brazil; on the south, Ecuador and Peru; and to the northwest, Panama. The capital and largest city is Bogot.


The Natural Regions of Colombia are six natural regions comprised by primarily the Colombian Andes mountain range pertaining to the Andes, the Caribbean region pertaining to the area contiguous to the Caribbean sea, the Pacific region contiguous to the Pacific Ocean, the Insular region, comprehending islands both in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, the Amazon region part of the Amazon rainforest and the Orinoqua region part of the

Llanos plains mainly in the Orinoco river basin.

Departments of Colombia
Colombia is a unitary republic formed by thirty-two departments and a Capital District. Each department has a Governor (gobernador) and a Department Assembly (Asamblea Departamental), elected by popular vote for a four-year period. The governor cannot be re-elected in consecutive periods. Departments are country subdivisions and are granted a certain degree of autonomy. Departments are formed by a grouping of municipalities (municipios, sing. municipio). Municipal government is headed by mayor (alcalde) and administered by a Municipal Council (concejo municipal), both of which are elected for four-year periods. The Capital District is the country's capital, Bogot. Bogot is partially dependent on the Cundinamarca Department that surrounds it.


A - B

Juan Pablo Angel soccer player Andres Pastrana Arango politician Julio Arboleda poet German Arciniegas historian Moises Arias actor Stella Arroyave actress Faustino Asprilla Noel Avila musician Simon Bolivar former president Fernando Botero artist C

Cabas musician Orlando Cabrera baseball player

Ryan Cabrera musician Francisco Jose de Caldas botanist Francisco Santos Calderon politician Leslie Camacho film director Alex Campos artist Baldomero Sanin Cano literary critic Manolo Cardona actor Jose Eusebio Caro poet Miguel Antonio Caro philologist, humanist Jaime Castro Castro politician, lawyer Gregorio Vazquez Arce y Ceballos artist Jorge Celebon musician Jane Chaplin author Jose Rozo Contreras composer Ivan Cordoba footballer Jose Maria Cordoba soldier Julio Sanchez Cristo journalist Rufino Jose Cuervo philologist, humanist D - E

Nicolas Gomez Davila author Diomedes Diaz musician Eric Durham journalist Pablo Escobar entrepeneur German Espinosa author, poet Miguel de la Espriella artist I - G

Sergio Fajardo politician Fonseca musician Margarita Rosa de Francisco actor Martin de Francisco actor Paula Garces actor Nina Garcia fashion editor Radamel Falcao Garcia footballer Rodrigo Garcia film director Luis Eduardo Garzon politician

Scott Gomez hockey player Fernando Gonzalez author Gregorio Guitierrez Gonzales poet Leon de Greiff poet Pepita Inez artist Jorge Isaacs author

J - L

Julio Jimenez author Juanes musician John Leguizamo actor Rodolfo Llinas neuroscientist Hola Lola journalist M - P

Gabriel Garcia Marquez nobel laureate Antanas Mockus politician Juan Pablo Montoya race car driver Catalina Sandino Moreno actor Santiago Moure actor Alvaro Mutis author Manuel Elkin Patarroyo pathologist Enrique Penalosa politician Rafael Pombo poet R - S

Omar Rayo artist Edgar Renteria baseball player Jose Eustacio Rivera author Hugo Rodallega footballer Francisco de Paula Santander army general, first president of independent Colombia Santy musician Mauricio Serna footballer

Shakira musician Jose Maria Sierra "Don Pepe" entrepreneur, philanthropist Jose Asuncion Silva poet T - Z

Luis Castellanos Tapias author Alvaro Uribe former president Richardo Uribe artist Guillermo Uribe-Holguin composer Carlos Valderrama footballer Guillermo Valencia author, poet Fabian Andres Vargas footballer Sofia Vergara actor Carmen Villalobos actor Camilo Villegas golfer Carlos Vives musician Charlie Zaa musician


Ajiaco: Chicken soup like mom used to make it. It includes chicken, two (preferably three) kinds of potatoes, corn, sour cream, capers, avocado and guasca. Guasca is a special herb that grown throughout the Americas and gives the soup its distinct flavour. Ants: Ok, so it isn't a common food in the average Colombian's diet, but it is still a large enough phenomenon to consider. During the raining season the ants are harvested, and the queen ants are used with their large legs and wings being removed. The ants are then soaked in salty water and roasted in a ceramic pot. The tradition dates back to pre Colombian times and the harvest is done mainly by peasants living in the North-eastern corner of Colombia. The ants are often given as a wedding gift, because they are believed to be an aphrodisiac. Research shows that the ants are actually excellent sources of protein, however as popularity is growing internationally the ants are being harvested to extinction. In Colombian Spanish they are called "Hormigas Culonas" (literally translated as big-ass ants). Check out how these ants are prepared with photos.

Arepa: The basic side to any Colombian meal. It is a bread made from cornmeal, similar to a thick pancake. It is normally eaten with an adornment of butter, although sometimes corn is added. (See our recipe of how to make Venezuelan Arepas) Arroz con Coco: It is a common side dish of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. White rice is cooked in coconut milk with water, salt and sugar.

Bandeja Paisa: A huge mixture of food on more of a platter than a plate, it consists of grilled steak, fried pork rind, chorizo sausages, on a bed of rice and red beans that is then topped with a fried egg and a side of sliced avocado and sweet banana (chips). It is arguably the national dish of Colombia. See more information and make comments about this dish on our blog: Bandeja Paisa Recipe from Colombia Buuelos: Are popular ball shaped fritters and eaten as a snack in many South American countries. The Colombian version is made with dough of curd of white cheese that get fried until golden brown. It is a typical Christmas dish in Colombia. Changua: Breakfast in the Andean Mountains normally consists of this creamy soup made with milk, water, eggs, and scallions. The eggs are dropped into the mixture without breaking the yolks. It is served with cilantro and a piece of (stale) bread that soaks in the mixture. Empanadas: It is a stuffed pastry that can either be sweet or savory. The savory Colombian empanadas are filled with beef, chicken and/or cheese as

well as with rice and coriander. Compared to the Chilean or Argentinean empanadas they are not baked but fried. Frijoles con Garra: Is a dish from the region of Antioquia and contains red beans thickened with pigs' trotter. Fritanga: It is a plate full of grilled meat like beef, chicken, ribs and sausages and fried cow intestines (chunchullo) which get served with little potatoes and arepas or with manioc and fried bananas. Fruit: The diverse offer of fresh fruit in Colombia is immense and many of the different types have probably not been tried or seen by most of the people outside the tropics. You can find just in the supermarket 5 different types of mangos or 6 types of bananas. Just some of the tropical fruit you can try are: lulo, curuba, mamoncillo, uchuva, chontaduro, boroj, zapote, anon, carambolo, corozo Enjoy! Hogao: This typical Colombian side dish is widely used for meats, arepas, rice and other dishes. It is a sauce made with onions and tomatoes partially fried. Lechona: Is a typical dish from the Tolima area and consist of a whole roasted pig, stuffed with rice, yellow peas, green onions and spices which is cooked for ten hours in a clay oven. It is served with arepa. This dish is often served at parties and other large gatherings. Pandebono:A type of bread made from corn flour, cheese and eggs. It is most often eaten warm as soon as it come out of the oven. They are very common in and around Cali.

Patacones: Green plantains (a type of banana that isn't so sweet) squashed into thick pancakes that are deep fried in vegetable oil until golden brown.

Sancocho: It is a common dish although ingredients do vary by region. In Colombia it includes chicken, plantains, yucca, cilantro, corn, and potatoes. Sometimes fish is used instead of chicken in the Caribbean though you may find meat or pork instead too. Sobrebarriga Bogotana: Is basically a flank steak Bogot Style. Tamales: Cooked corn dough filled with meat, chicken and vegetable wrapped in banana leaves. The Tamales Tolimenses which are famous in the Tolima region are filled with chicken, pork, rice, potatoes, carrots, peas and spices. Viudo de Pescado: Is another dish from the Tolima area. It is a soup of river fish served with green bananas and manioc. Desserts Arroz con Coco: Coconut rice pudding, it can be served as a side dish or a dessert. It is made with lemon zest and cinnamon.

Manjar Blanco: Similar to dulce de leche (of Argentina) or manjar (of Chile), manjar blanco is a creamy dessert. The cooking process is more difficult than regular manjar, as you do not want to burn it, so it must be stirred and watched carefully as it cooks in a double boiler. Generally the milk and sugar mixture is also given a little extra flavour with either vanilla bean, cinnamon, or citrus juices. Natilla: Custard-like pudding of sweet maizena (corn starch) instead of eggs. Postre de Natas: Milk and condensed milk cooked with sugar, cinnamon and raisins.