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Chapter #31: American Life in the "Roaring Twenties" Big Picture Themes 1.

. A red scare struck America in the 20s. Fear of communism resonated through society and was fueled by mail bombings and illustrated by the Sacco and Vanzetti executions. 2. Anti-immigration ran high as well. Laws were passed to limit immigration, and specifically, to limit New Immigrants from Italy and Poland. 3. The Scopes Monkey Trial illustrated the new controversy of evolution vs. creation. 4. Businesses had a good run in the 20s and consumers bought products wildly, often on credit or with an installment plan. 5. Three Republican presidents were pro-business. The economy and consumers got to running too fast, and coupled with over-buying in the stock market, initiated the Stock Crash and Great Depression. Chapter #31 Identifications A. Mitchell Palmer Attorney General in 1920s; earned the title of the Fighting Quaker by his excess of zeal in rounding up suspects of Red Scare. Ultimately totaled about 6000 and this drive to root out radicals was redoubled in June 1919, when a bomb shattered his home. John T. Scopes A high school biology teacher who was indicted for teaching evolution in the Monkey Trial of 1925. He was defended by nationally known attorneys. The clash between theology and biology proved inconclusive but he was found guilty and fined $100 by the Tennessee Supreme Court that set the fine aside on a technicality. Clarence Darrow Famed criminal lawyer who worked in the Monkey Trial. He made William Jennings Bryan appear foolish in court. Andrew Mellon Secretary of Treasury whose tax policies favored the rapid expansion of capital investment. He thought that the taxes from the war were distasteful and felt that they forced the rich to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in the factories that provide payrolls. Frederick W. Taylor A prominent inventor, engineer, and tennis player who sought to eliminate wasted motion. He created the stopwatch efficiency techniques that the motorcar industry needed. Margaret Sanger A fiery feminist who led the organized birth-control movement and openly championed the use of contraceptives. H. L. Mencken A patron saint of many young authors. He had an acidic wit and wrote a monthly American Mercury where he assailed marriage, patriotism, democracy, prohibition, Rotarians, and the middle-class Americans. He dismissed the South as the Sahara of the Bozart and attacked the Puritans.

F. Scott Fitzgerald A novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. His wife and he were the couple of the decade but hit bottom during the great depression. He wrote The Great Gatsby. Ernest Hemingway Was the most affected by the war among the many writers. He responded to propaganda and the appeal to patriotism by devising his own word-sparing style. He wrote The Sun Also Rises (1926) and A Farewell to Arms (1929). Sinclair Lewis Disparaged small-town America in his Main Street and Babbitt. Buying on Margin Allowed people to borrow most of the cost of the stock, making down payments as low as 10%. Red Scare A period of general fear that Communism would spread to America. Sacco and Vanzetti Case Italians who were convicted in 1921 for the murder of a Massachusetts paymaster and his guard. They were electrocuted although the evidence was unfounded and not enough for a death sentence. Emergency Quota Act 1921 European immigrants were restricted to a quota set at 3% of people of their nation living in the US in 1910. Immigration Quota Act 1924 Cut the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890 when few southeastern Europeans lived in America. Volstead Act Implemented Prohibition when passed by Congress in 1919. Fundamentalism A Protestant religious movement grounded in the belief that all the stories and details in the Bible are literally true. Modernists They liked to think that God was a good guy and that the universe was a nice place, as opposed to the traditional view that man was born sinner and in need of forgiveness through Christ.

Chapter #31 Guided Reading Questions Seeing Red Know: Billy Sunday, Red Scare, A. Mitchell Palmer, Sacco and Vanzetti 1. Cite examples of actions taken in reaction to the perceived threat of radicals and communists during the red scare. Many foreigners were deported, arrested, and jailed due to the fear of the threat of radicals and communists during the red scare. Hooded Hoodlums of the KKK 2. Compare and contrast the new and old Ku Klux Klansmen. They were not different in that they were still against all who were different. They were pro-White Anglo-Saxon Protestant and anti-everything else.

Stemming the Foreign Flood Know: Emergency Quota Act, Immigration Act 3. Describe the immigration laws passed in the 1920's. The immigration laws passed in the 1920s limited the amount of people that could enter America. These included the Emergency Quota Act of 1921. The Prohibition "Experiment" Know: Eighteenth Amendment, Volstead Act, Wet and Dry, Speakeasies, Home Brew, Bathtub Gin, Noble Experiment 4. How and why was the eighteenth amendment broken so frequently? The 18th amendment was broken so frequently because there was no way for the government to effectively enforce it if everyone violated it. Many illegal trades appeared, and many underground clubs were formed. The Golden Age of Gangsterism Know: Al Capone, St. Valentine's Day Massacre, Lindbergh Law 5. What was Gangsterism? A period of time in America when prohibition caused gangs to flourish. They brewed their own liquor and then sold it and made territories where they made their speakeasies bars and brothels and other shady business dealer places. Chicago was the gang capital in America, and big gangsters such as Al Capone arose from there. Monkey Business in Tennessee Know: John Dewey, John T. Scopes, William Jennings Bryan, Clarence Darrow 6. Describe the clash of cultures that took place in schools in the 1920's. The Clash of cultures that took place in the schools was known as the Scope trials in which fundamentalism has taken over most of America. New things were taught in schools including evolution. The Mass-Consumption Economy Know: Andrew Mellon, The Man Nobody Knows, Babe Ruth, Jack Dempsey 7. Give evidence to prove that America became a mass-consumption economy in the 20's. Americans began to creep into a mass-consumption economy when Henry Ford created the first assembly line, allowing him to mass produce cars. Everyone began to have the same things and people started using advertisements to get rid of products so they could sell new ones. Putting America on Rubber Tires Know: Henry Ford, Frederick W. Taylor, Model T 8. What methods made it possible to mass-produce automobiles? It was possible to mass-produce automobiles when Americans took the engine designs from Europe and improved them with better gasoline powered engines that were much more efficient. After this, people such as Henry Ford and Ransom E. Old began to mass produce cars. The Ford Model T was very complicated to operate and was the first car to be produced in an assembly line.

The Advent of the Gasoline Age 9. What were the effects of the widespread adoption of the automobile? The widespread adoption of the automobile created many jobs and many things were designed with cars in mind. Cities became suburbs, theatres were created to be drive in, and many markets were associated with cars. Although many good things came into being, cars also brought about the existence of car accidents, killing millions of Americans. Humans Develop Wings Know: Orville and Wilbur Wright, Charles Lindbergh 10. What effects did the early airplane have on America? The early airplane gave the people the ability to fly around the world. War planes became commercialized and sent mail from continent to continent. The Radio Revolution 11. How did America change as the result of the radio? Americans were now truly united and all heard the news at the same time all over the nation. It gathered Americans together and revolutionized how advertisements worked. Hollywood's Filmland Fantasies Know: The Great Train Robbery, The Birth of a Nation, The Jazz Singer 12. What were some milestones in the history of motion pictures? The first film ever made was The Great Train Robbery and the first full featured film was The Birth of a Nation. The Dynamic Decade Know: Margaret Sanger, Flappers, Sigmund Freud, Jelly Roll Morton, Langston Hughes, Marcus Garvey 13. "Far-reaching changes in lifestyles and values paralleled the dramatic upsurge in the economy." Explain. American life was slowly changing into an urban lifestyle. The census of 1920 came to the conclusion that for the first time ever, more Americans lived an urban life rather than a rural life. Society began to adapt to the ways of the jazz and the city folk and many things were being invented. Cultural Liberation Know: H. L. Mencken, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, William Faulkner, Ezra Pound, T. S. Eliot, e.e. cummings, Eugene O'Neill, Louis Armstrong, Frank Lloyd Wright 14. How did the arts of the 1920's reflect the times? The arts of 1920 reflected the times in literature, art, music, and architecture. Menchken wrote and criticized about America in his American Monthly. Fitzgerald reflected the partying life of the newly wealthy after the economic boom. Hemingway also reflected the life of young people and the rich. There was also the Harlem Renaissance which featured jazz music by Louis Armstrong and architecture by Frank Lloyd Wright.

Wall Street's Big Bull Market Know: Margin, Andrew Mellon 15. Was government economic policy successful in the 20's? Government economic policy after the 20s was very unstable and seemed to be very fragile since it depended so much on credit. The stock market was a game that either caused one to get rich quick or get in debt even quicker. Taxes were lowered because they were deemed unwanted and useless after the war. Chapter #32: The Politics of Boom and Bust Big Picture Themes 1. President Harding had several scandals underneath him, notably the Teapot Dome Scandal over oil. 2. America entered into policies of isolationism whereby the US just wanted to look after herself and leave Europe alone. 3. Coolidge was very pro-business, following a hands-off approach by government. 4. Hoover held the same ideas with his rugged individualism phrase. When the Stock Crash hit and Great Depression started, Hoover was very reluctant and slow to take government action.

Chapter #32: IDENTIFICATIONS Andrew Mellon The secretary of the treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in the trickle-down economics and that the economy would heal itself. He reduced spending and gave tax cuts to the wealthy. Herbert Hoover Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community. Albert B. Fall Senator of New Mexico, a scheming anti-conservationist, became secretary of the interior. Robert LaFollette Governor of Wisconsin. He was the most militant of progressive leaders. He helpted break the power of the Wisconsin political machine and persuaded legislatures to levy heavier taxes on railroads and other public utilities. Alfred E. Smith He ran for president in the 1928 election for the Democrat Party. He was known for his drinking and he lost the election to Herbert Hoover. Prohibition was one of the issues of the campaign. He was the first Roman Catholic to run for president, and it was during a time many people were prejudiced toward Catholics. Ohio Gang Poker playing cronies from Hardings native state who contributed to the morally loose

atmosphere in his administration. Washington Conference The Washington Naval Conference was a diplomatic conference held in Washington, DC from November 1921 to February 1922. It was held outside the auspices of the League of Nations, and was attended by nine nations having interests in the Pacific Ocean and East Asia. Soviet Russia was not invited to the conference. It was the 1st international conference held in the US and the 1st disarmament conference in history. Kellogg-Briand Pact 1929. Created by Frank B. Kellogg and Aristide Briand, this pact promised to never make war again and settle all disputes peacefully. 62 nations signed this pact. The treaty was hard to enforce and had no provisions for the use of economic or military force against a nation that may break the treaty. Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law 1922. Reflected US isolationist inclinations following WWI. Congress adopted a laissez-faire attitude toward regulating business and pro-business attitude in passing the tariff and in promoting foreign trade through providing huge loans to the postwar Allied governments who returned the favor by buying US goods and by cracking down on strikes. Teapot Dome Scandal One of the many scandals under Harding. It involved priceless naval oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming. Albert B. Fall got Secretary of Navy, Denby to transfer valuable goods to Interior Department secretly. Harry Sinclair and Edward L. Dohney released the lands after paying a large bribe. Dawes Plan Proposed by the Dawes Committee which was chaired by Charles G. Dawes. It was an attempt following WWI for the Allies to collect war reparations debt from defeated post-WWI Germany. The amount of these payments proved to be too great and in 1923 Germany defaulted and French and Belgian troops occupied the Ruhr in response.

Hawley-Smoot Tariff Sky high tariff bill in 1930 that deepened the depression and caused international financial chaos. Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC) Hoover sponsored federal agency that provided loans to hard pressed banks and businesses after 1932. Bonus Army Encampment of unemployed veterans who were driven out of Washington by General Douglas MacArthurs forces in 1932. Hoover-Stimson doctrine The 1932 foreign policy position of the US which stated that we would not recognize territorial acquisitions taken by force. Chapter #32 Identifications The Republican "Old Guard" Returns Know: Warren Harding, Ohio Gang

1. What flaws did Warren Harding possess? Harding had a mediocre mind and did not like to hurt others feelings. He also couldnt detect corruption within his own administration. GOP Reaction at the Throttle 2. What pro-business policies were taken by the government during the Harding administration. During the Harding administration, the government took up pro-business policies by setting up the nation for a McKinley-style old order. The Aftermath of War Know: Railway Labor Board, American Legion, Adjusted Compensation Act 3. What effects did the war have on the post-war economy? The war caused an increase in production rates which caused problems in the post-war economy as the production rate was faster than the consumer rates. America Seeks Benefits Without Burdens Know: Unofficial Observers, Charles Evans Hughes, Five-Power Naval Treaty, Four-Power Treaty, Nine-Power Treaty, Kellogg-Briand Pact 4. How did the U.S. take the lead in disarmament in the 20's? In the 20s, US called for the Washington Conference of 1921-22 which resulted in a plan that kept a 5:5:3 ratio of ships that could be held by the US, Britain, and Japan. Hiking the Tariff Higher Know: Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law 5. What effects were produced by high American tariffs? The high American tariffs caused a decrease in American products being bought overseas and Europe also could not sell goods to US in order to repay its debts. The Stench of Scandal Know: Charles R. Forbes, Albert B. Fall, Teapot Dome, Harry M. Daugherty 6. "Such was his [Harding's] weakness that he tolerated people and conditions that subjected the Republic to its worst disgrace since the days of President Grant." Explain Hardings administration was full of scandals including the one of Charles Forbes and the Teapot Dome Scandal. Silent Cal Coolidge Know: Calvin Coolidge 7. Do the nicknames, "Silent Cal" and "Cautious Cal" accurately describe the Coolidge presidency? Coolidge was serious, calm, and never spoke more than he needed to. He was a morally clean person and was untouched by the Harding scandals. He also proved to be a bright figure in the Republican Party. Frustrated Farmers Know: McNary-Haugen Bill 8. What had changed for the farmer since 1890? What had remained the same? In 1890, farmers had new technology such as the gasoline engine tractor which increased farm production, but the high production rates created an abundant amount of products that werent needed after the war.

Foreign-Policy Flounderings 9. What are the arguments for America canceling the WWI debt of European countries? European countries claimed that they did not need to pay the debt to America because they had also lost men in the war. Unraveling the Debt Knot Know: Dawes Plan 10. What were the world-wide repercussions of Americas insistence on debt repayment? The two nations, Britain and France demanded payments from Germany which printed out paper money, causing inflation. The Triumph of Herbert Hoover, 1928 Know: Al Smith, "Rum, Romanism, and Ruin" 11. Why was Herbert Hoover so much more popular with voters than Al Smith? Herbert Hoover was so much more popular because he believed in Rugged Individualism which many Americans also believed. Hoover also used the radio to his advantage while Smith did not have his charm. President Hoover's First Moves Know: Farm Board, Hawley-Smoot Tariff 12. Did Hoovers attempts to help farmers produce positive results? Explain. Hoovers attempts to help farmers produced some positive results in that the Agricultural Act of 1929 helped farmers help themselves. It also set up a Federal Farm Board and the Grain Stabilization Corporation and the Cotton Stabilization Corporation. The Great Crash Ends the Golden Twenties Know: Black Tuesday, "Brother Can You Spare a Dime?" 13. What were the immediate effects of the stock market crash? The stock market crash caused a loss of over $40 million in paper values and many people became jobless and homeless. Hooked on the Horn of Plenty Know: Hoover Blankets, Hoovervilles 14. What causes contributed to the Great Depression? There was an overabundance of farm products and factory products, an over-expansion of credit, the debt from Britain and France, the drought in the Mississippi Valley , and the loss of many farms. Rugged Times for Rugged Individualists Know: Rugged Individualism, The Great Humanitarian 15. How did President Hoovers beliefs affect the way he handled the Depression? Hoover did not pass measures that could have made the depression less severe than it was because he did not believe in the government tampering with the economic machine and that depressions were natural in the economic process. Hoover Battles the Great Depression Know: Muscle Shoals Bill, Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Pump-Priming, Yellow Dog Contracts 16. Is Hoovers reputation as ultra-conservative well deserved? Explain. His actions, although good in some aspects, still did not help with the depression.

Routing the Bonus Army in Washington Know: Bonus Expeditionary Force, Douglas MacArthur 17. What happened to the Bonus Army? Why? The Bonus Army marched to Washington, DC because they had not been paid for their compensation for WWI. Japanese Militarists Attack China Know: Manchuria, Stimson Doctrine 18. How did the Japanese attack on Manchuria demonstrate the weakness of the League of Nations? The attack showed that the League of Nations did not have the power to take action against the attack. Hoover Pioneers the Good Neighbor Policy 19. What was President Hoovers policy toward Latin America

Hoovers policy toward Latin America was to have better relations with them and the Caribbean, but US did not have money to spend so it was unable to dominate Latin America.

Chapter #33: The Great Depression and the New Deal Big Picture Themes 1. FDR quickly got many New Deal programs passed. The general philosophy was: the government will start massive projects and spend huge quantities of money, and this will jump-start the economy. 2. These programs hit on all walks of life. Emphasis was placed on creating jobs, housing, construction projects, and restoring confidence in banks. 3. Though FDR was popular, there were critics to the New Dealsome saying it did too much, others that it did too little. 4. FDR pretty much had his way with Congress, until he asked for more Supreme Court judges and was finally told, No. 5. All told, though the New Deal may have helped the economy a bit, it did not boost the U.S. from the Depression.

Chapter #33: Identifications Eleanor Roosevelt The wife of FDR and was the most active first lady in politics up to her time. Harry Hopkins An advisor of FDR who was one of the biggest architects behind the New Deal and shaped many of the policies that carried along with it.

Frances Perkins The first ever female cabinet member who served under FDR as his Secretary of Labor. Father Coughlin A Catholic priest who had a radio show called Social Justice and he would rant about FDR Huey Long A senator from Louisiana who ranted about sharing the wealth of all the people, and his plan was to give $5000 to every poor family. Francis Townshend A man who also came up with a wild idea of giving $200 a month to the old retired people. Harold Ickes Secretary of Interior, he started about 34000 projects for the Public Works Administration which helped create jobs and also public services. Alfred M. Landon A man who ran against FDR and lost by a wide margin because he couldnt run a campaign. Brain Trust(s) Trusts that were containing thought and intelligence behind them so that they were considered fine. The three R's Relief, recovery, and reform, which were the three goals of FDR. National Labor Relation Board A board of national labor unions that met together and decided on many issues regarding labor. Congress of Industrial Organizations The group that first began to take in unskilled workers and won many cases against huge companies. Liberty League The league of people in the Republican party that were anti-communist and went against many of the programs that FDR created. Court-packing scheme The scheme that FDR was accused of when he tried to increase the size of the Supreme Court so that he could get his initiatives passed. Chapter #33 Guided Reading Questions FDR: A Politician in a Wheelchair Know: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Eleanor Roosevelt 1 What kind of man was FDR? FDR was a tall, athletic, and charismatic, but was confined to a wheelchair after he caught polio. He also knew how to speak and convey his thoughts to his people. Presidential Hopefuls of 1932 2. What was Roosevelt's campaign message in the 1932 election? Roosevelts campaign in the 1932 election was about optimism and hope and confidence. Unlike his opponent Hoover, who ran in the election with the slogan saying how the worst times were over, Roosevelt used the slogan Happy Days are Here Again.

The Humiliation of Hoover in 1932 3. What were the immediate results of Roosevelt's victory? Roosevelt passed many legislations and acts in his first 100 days that helped the poor get back on their feet, and started to introduce new money into the banks. FDR and the Three R's: Relief, Recovery, Reform Know: New Deal, Banking Holiday, Hundred Days, Three R's, 4. Describe the New Deal. The New Deal was to help the country become stable again, to provide food and shelter for the people, to cure the depression, and to reform. Roosevelt Manages the Money Know: Fireside Chats, Glass-Steagall Banking Reform Act, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Managed Currency 5. What were the key aspects of FDR's monetary policy? He had the banks close for a week and open again only if they had enough in the system. He also insured that the deposits would be repaid if they were lost, and he also wanted to get rid of the gold standard. Creating Jobs for the Jobless Know: Pump Priming, CCC, FERA, Harry Hopkins, AAA, HOLC, CWA 6. Explain the difference between New Deal agencies and what radical critics wanted the government to do. Radical critics criticized the new jobs as created not to accomplish anything, but as a way for people to get money. A Day for Every Demagogue Know: Father Charles Coughlin, Huey Long, Dr. Francis E. Townsend, WPA 7. List other historical demagogues. Coughlin was a Catholic priest who voiced much about Social Justice. Huey Long wanted to take money from the rich and give it to the poor, and Townsend believed that money should be given to senior citizens in large amounts. New Visibility for Women Know: Frances Perkins, Mary McLeod Bethune, Ruth Benedict, Margaret Mead, Pearl Buck 8. Explain the factors that made it possible for these women to gain fame. They were now able to vote and make exponential progress through other accomplishments. Eleanor Roosevelt was known for being the most active first lady, Frances Perkins was known for being the first female cabinet member, and Bethune was the highest ranked African American in FDRs administration and later founded a college.

Helping Industry and Labor Know: NRA, Sick Chicken Decision, PWA, Harold Ickes

9. How did the NRA attempt to restore industry? It created a fair playing game for all companies. Although it was shot down later in the Schechtner case, it still attempted to limit the power of businesses. It created a maximum day shift and a minimum wage. It also curbed child labor so that more adults could work. Paying Farmers Not to Farm 10. How did the federal government attempt to help farmers? They synthesized a shortage of crops so that they could sell for better prices, and so farmers were paid not to farm too much. Dust Bowls and Black Blizzards Know: Dust Bowl, Okies and Arkies, The Grapes of Wrath, Indian Reorganization Act 11. How did nature cause problems for some farmers on the plains? A drought passed through the area, and many farms were reduced to desert land and the area was nicknamed the Dust Bowl. Battling Bankers and Big Business Know: Federal Securities Act, SEC 12. "Reformist New Dealers were determined from the outset to curb the `money changers....'" Explain. Reformists saw that many people lost their investments in the stock exchange because the numbers given were fake. The Federal Securities Act was created and required companies to report honest numbers and stats so that investors know what they were doing. The Securities Exchange Commission was created to watch all the transactions. The TVA Harnesses the Tennessee River Know: TVA, Creeping Socialism 13. What arguments were used for and against the TVA project? Many people claimed that government sponsored electricity was a form of socialism although it did help many families and provided jobs for many people. Housing Reform and Social Security Know: FHA, Social Security 14. How did the FHA and Social Security attempt to help some of society's least fortunate? They helped fund project housings to remove the slums in cities and also to create low-rent homes for the poor. It also created jobs for the people. A New Deal for Labor Know: Wagner Act, National Labor Relations Board, CIO, John L. Lewis, Sit-down Strike 15. How did labor respond to the improvement of conditions brought about by the New Deal? Unions began to strengthen under the FDR administration after the Wagner Act, which made it legal for labor unions to form and strike. After the Wagner Act, the Committee for Industrial Organization was created and was one of the first major unions to accept the unskilled workers. Landon Challenges "the Champ Know: Alfred Landon, American Liberty League

16. What was the significance of the 1936 election? Someone dared to challenge FDR in the election even though he had such immense success. Landon criticized FDRs spending, and was losing votes because of these criticisms. Nine Old Men on the Supreme Bench 17. Why did Roosevelt ask Congress for a bill that would allow him to add justices to the Supreme Court? Although he had the Congress on his side, the Supreme Court was too conservative for his tastes. He wanted to increase it to 15 members, so that he could raise a majority but congress quickly shut him down, seeing as that gave him too much power. He already passed the 20th amendment, which allowed him to be sworn in 6 weeks early. The Court Changes Course Know: Court Packing, Hugo Black 18. What were the consequences of FDR's attempt to pack the Court? Some of the consequences of FDRs attempt to pack the court were that he was now viewed as a man who tried to become a dictator, although he had good intentions behind his motives. However, it did change the mind of one judge Owen J. Roberts, who became more liberal. After this court packing scheme, even though he was able to pass many of his things through the court, the New Deal programs and he were viewed with suspicions. The Twilight of the New Deal Know: Roosevelt Recession, John Maynard Keynes, Hatch Act 19. Assess the successfulness of FDR in his second term. The success of the FDRs second term was pretty well done because although the recession wasnt fixed within his first term, he was still able to curb most of it. Then, there was the Roosevelt Recession which was caused by the massive gov. spending, and FDR agreed to cut back on the it, however he still returned to his high spending self because of Keynesian economy policies which said it was okay for a government to spend more than they have. The Reorganization Act also made it illegal for federal officials to only be political campaigners. New Deal or Raw Deal? 20. What criticism of the New Deal seems most fair to you? Least fair? Much of the criticisms on the New Deal seem to say that it was spending too much money and didnt get enough done, and that FDR wasnt the fixer of the depression, WWII was. This was fair because although he attempted to fix the problems in the US, he increased the national debt to $40 billion dollars. The least fair was that he was accused of bringing communism into the US, although all he really did was help out the poor.