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Biyani's Think Tank


Concept based notes

Leadership Skills and Change Management


(MBA)

Ms. Meera Sharma Ms. Ankita Nyati


Dr. Tripti Vijaywargia

Assistant Professor
Deptt. of Commerce & Management Biyani Institute of Science and Management Jaipur

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Leadership skills and Change Management

Published by :ss

Think Tanks Biyani Group of Colleges

Concept & Copyright :

Biyani Shikshan Samiti


Sector-3, Vidhyadhar Nagar, Jaipur-302 023 (Rajasthan) Ph : 0141-2338371, 2338591-95 Fax : 0141-2338007 E-mail : acad@biyanicolleges.org Website :www.gurukpo.com; www.biyanicolleges.org ISBN: 978-93-82801-17-7

Edition : 2012 Price :

While every effort is taken to avoid errors or omissions in this Publication, any mistake or omission that may have crept in is not intentional. It may be taken note of that neither the publisher nor the author will be responsible for any damage or loss of any kind arising to anyone in any manner on account of such errors and omissions.

Leaser Type Setted by : Biyani College Printing Department

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Preface

am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of the

students. The book has been written keeping in mind the genera l weakness in understanding the fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is self-explanatory and adopts the Teach Yourself style. It is based on question-answer pattern. The language of book is quite easy and understandable based on scientific approach. Any further improvement in the contents of the book by making corrections, omission and inclusion is keen to be achieved based on suggestions from the readers for which the author shall be obliged. I acknowledge special thanks to Mr. Rajeev Biyani, Chairman & Dr. Sanjay Biyani, Director (Acad.) Biyani Group of Colleges, who are the backbones and main concept provider and also have been constant source of motivation throughout this Endeavour. They played an active role in coordinating the various stages of this Endeavour and spearheaded the publishing work. I look forward to receiving valuable suggestions from professors of various educational institutions, other faculty members and students for improvement of the quality of the book. The reader may feel free to se nd in their comments and suggestions to the under mentioned address. Author

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Leadership skills and Change Management

Syllabus
Section A The nature and importance of leadership: The meaning of leadership leadership as a partnership leadership vs. management the Impact of leadership on organizational performance leadership roles the satisfactions and frustrations of being a leader. Traits, Motives, and characteristics of leaders: Personality traits of effective leaders leadership motives-cognitive factors and leadership. Effective leadership behavior and attitudes: task-related attitudes and behaviors relationship-oriented attitudes and behaviors super leadership: leading others to lead themselves 360-degree feedback for fine-tuning leadership approach. Leadership styles: the leadership continuum: classical leadership styles the bosscentered vs. employee-centered leadership continuum the autocratic participative free rein continuum- the leadership grid styles the entrepreneurial leadership style gender differences in leadership style selecting the best leadership style. Developing teamwork: team leadership vs. solo leadership advantages and disadvantages of group work and team work the leaders role in the team-based organization-leader behavior and attitude the foster teamwork. Leadership development, succession and the future: development through self-awareness and self-discipline leadership development programs. Understanding change: Nature of change forces of change perspective on change: contingency perspective population ecology perspective institutional perspective resource-dependence perspective. Types of change: Continuous change discontinuous change participative change directive change. Implementing change: assemble a change management team establish a new direction for change prepare the organization for change set up change teams to implement change align structure, systems and resources to support change identify and to remove road blocks to change absorb change into the culture of the organization.
Section B Case & Problem

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Content
Unit No.
1

Title of Unit

No. of Questions
05 7 - 19

Page No.

The Nature And Importance Of Leadership

Effective Leadership Behavior 03 And Attitudes Leadership Styles Developing Teamwork Understanding Change Types Of Change
Annexure Multiple Choice Questions Key Terms Case Study Bibliography
58 42 03 05 06 03

20 - 22

3 4 5 6 7

23 - 26 27 - 31 32- 34 35 - 39

40- 51 52 62 63 65 66

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Leadership skills and Change Management

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Unit 1

The Nature and Importance of Leadership


Q1. Briefly explain the concept leadership and differentiate between leadership and management. Ans: The Concept of Leadership : Leadership is the kind of responsibility, which aims at achieving particular ends, by utilizing available resources (human and material), to make organization cohesive and coherent. Leadership is "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal". The leader may or may not have any formal authority. The process, by which a person exerts influence over others and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve group or organizational goals. Leadership as a Partnership A current perspective on leadership is that it constitutes a partnership, being connected to another in such a way that the power between the two is approximately balanced. Partnership occurs when control shifts from the leader to the group member. According to Peter Block, a partnership involves (a) an exchange of purpose, (b) the right to say no, (c) joint accountability, and (d) absolute accountability. A closely related idea is stewardship theory that depicts group members (or followers) as being collectivists, reorganizational, and trustworthy. The Impact of leadership on organizational performance An important justification for studying leadership is that leaders affect organizational performance. Many faltering business firms and athletic teams bring in a new top leader to spearhead a turnaround.

A. Research and Opinion: Leadership Does Make a Difference A smattering of evidence supports the contention that leadership affects organizational performance. A team of researchers investigated the impact of

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Leadership skills and Change Management

transactional (routine) and charismatic (inspirational) leadership on financial performance, as measured by net profit margin. They found that transactional leadership was not related to performance, and that charismatic leadership was most strongly related to performance in an uncertain environment. B. Research and Opinion: Formal Leadership Does Not Make a Difference According to the anti leadership argument, leadership has a smaller impact on organizational outcomes than do situational forces. 1. Substitutes for Leadership: One viewpoint is that many organizations contain substitutes for leadership, factors in the work environment that provide guidance and incentives to perform, making the leaders role almost superfluous. These substitutes for the leader and the leadership function include closely knit teams of highly trained individuals, intrinsic satisfaction, computer technology (monitoring of work by computer), and professional norms. 2. Leader Irrelevance. Pfeffer argues that leadership is irrelevant to most organizational outcomes because factors outside the leaders control are important. Part of the argument is that leaders have limited control over resources, and that top leaders whose values are compatible with those of the firm are chosen. 3. Complexity Theory. This theory holds that organizations are complex systems that cannot be explained by the usual rules of nature. Leaders and managers can do little to alter the course of the complex organizational system. Leadership vs. Management Managers have subordinates By definition, managers have subordinates - unless their title is honorary and given as a mark of seniority, in which case the title is a misnomer and their power over others is other than formal authority.

Authoritarian, transactional style Managers have a position of authority vested in them by the company, and their subordinates work for them and largely do as they are told. Management style is transactional, in that the manager tells the subordinate what to do, and the subordinate does this not because they are a blind robot, but because they have been promised a reward (at minimum their salary) for doing so.

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Work focus Managers are paid to get things done (they are subordinates too), often within tight constraints of time and money. They thus naturally pass on this work focus to their subordinates. Seek comfort An interesting research finding about managers is that they tend to come from stable home backgrounds and led relatively normal and comfortable lives. This leads them to be relatively risk-averse and they will seek to avoid conflict where possible. In terms of people, they generally like to run a 'happy ship'. Leaders have followers Leaders do not have subordinates - at least not when they are leading. Many organizational leaders do have subordinates, but only because they are also managers. But whe n they want to lead, they have to give up formal authoritarian control, because to lead is to have followers, and following is always a voluntary activity. Charismatic, transformational style Telling people what to do does not inspire them to follow you. You have to appeal to them, showing how following them will lead to their hearts' desire. They must want to follow you enough to stop what they are doing and perhaps walk into danger and situations that they would not normally consider risking. Leaders with a stronger charisma find it easier to attract people to their cause. As a part of their persuasion they typically promise transformational benefits, such that their followers will not just receive extrinsic rewards but will somehow become better people. People focus Although many leaders have a charismatic style to some extent, this does not require a loud personality. They are always good with people, and adopt styles that give credit to others (and takes blame on themselves) are very effective at creating the loyalty that great leaders engender. Seek risk In the same study that showed managers as risk-averse, leaders appeared as risk-seeking, although they are not blind thrill-seekers. When pursuing their vision, they consider it natural to encounter problems and hurdles that must be overcome along the way. They are thus comfortable with risk and will see routes that others avoid as potential opportunities for advantage and will happily break rules in order to get things done.

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Basis Of Difference Objective Focus Team Members Horizon Seeks Approach Decision Power Appeal to Energy Culture Dynamic Persuasion Style Exchange Likes Wants Risk Rules Conflict Direction Truth Concern Credit Blame

Leader Change Leading people Followers Long-term Vision Sets direction Facilitates Personal charisma Heart Passion Shapes Proactive Sell Transformational Excitement for work Striving Achievement Takes Breaks Uses New roads Seeks What is right Gives Takes

Manager Stability Managing work Subordinates Short-term Objectives Plans detail Makes Formal authority Head Control Enacts Reactive Tell Transactional Money for work Action Results Minimizes Makes Avoids Existing roads Establishes Being right Takes Blames

Q: 2 . "Traits plus motivation equals leadership. Comment. Ans: Successful leaders come in a wide variety of personal characteristics such as their ability to make speeches in public or to relate to people in groups or individually. We have all met successful leaders that we wondered what enabled them to be effective. Some are smooth and some are rough. Some are charming and some. It is impossible to find any one characteristic that all of them have and many non-leaders do not have.
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Motivation is the most important characteristic (it can be called a trait) of any leader. Even the shyest person may become a hard charger if something near and dear to them is threatened. After the threat or need passes, some of these people return to their non-public roles, but others find that they have some previously unknown or newly developed skills that can be used in other leadership activities. These will become the community and organizational leaders of the future. Communications Skills are the second most important. If you cannot communicate effectively, you cannot be an effective leader. There are certain qualities that a leader needs to exhibit. Certain general personality traits distinguish a leader from the follower. These same traits are related to success and satisfaction in both, work and personal life. Self-Confidence It is important for a leader to be self-confident. In addition, the leader must project self-confidence among the group. It is not only a personality trait but it also refers to the behavior a person exhibits in a number of situations. Honesty, Integrity and Credibility A leader needs to arouse a feeling of trust. This includes competence, caring, reliability, predictability and integrity. Dominance A dominant person is able to impose his or her will on others. Though being a dominant leader is a traditional characteristic, its use is necessary. Every leader needs to be dominant at certain point of time to get work done through others. Extrovertness Extrovertness has been recognized as a tool for leadership effectiveness, because it is helpful for leaders in most situations to be gregarious and outgoing. Also, extroverts are more likely to assume a leadership role and participate in group activities. Assertiveness Assertiveness means being frank in expressing opinions, feelings and attitudes. It helps leaders perform many achieve goals. It is about asking group members about their demanding higher performance, setting high targets and making demands on higher management. dem ands, tasks and mistakes, legitimate

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Emotional Stability Emotional stability is an important leadership trait. It refers to the ability to control emotions to the point that ones emotional responses are reciprocal to the occasion. Emotions associated with low emotional stability include anxiety, depression, anger, embarrassment and worry. Enthusiasm It is desirable of a leader to be enthusiastic. Group members tend to respond positively to enthusiasm, partly because it may be perceived as a reward for constructive behavior. It is a trait that helps build good relationships with and among team members. Sense of Humor Effective use of humor plays an important part on the role of a leader. It relieves tension and boredom and defuses hostility in the workplace. Self-effacing and intelligent humor is the choice of comedians and organizational leaders alike. Warmth Being a warm person and projecting warmth reflects true leadership qualities in several ways. Firstly, warmth facilitates the establishment of rapport with and within group members. Secondly, the projection of warmth is a key component of charisma. Thirdly, warmth is a trait that facilitates in providing emotional support to group members ensuring proper synergy. High Tolerance for Frustration High tolerance for frustration means the ability to cope with the blocking of goal attainment. A leader encounters many frustrations. He has to deal with lot of people in varied situations and hence, should be in a position to soak up all frustration and stress like a sponge. Self-Awareness and Self-Objectivity Effective leaders are aware of their strengths and limitations. This awareness enables them to capitalize upon their strengths and eliminate their weaknesses. Initiative Being a self-starter or go-getter, taking action without support and stimulation from others are the basic characteristics needed in a leader. Initiative is also related to problem-finding and solving ability one need to exercise initiative to search for worthwhile problems. Sensitivity To others and Empathy To influence others, a leader should understand group members, their interests and attitudes. Understanding and displaying sensitivity towards others requires empathy, the ability to place

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oneself in the other persons shoes. Sensitivity to others is an important leadership trait, because it enhances negotiating ability. Flexibility and Adaptability A leader is a person who adopts change every easily. It therefore follows that a leader must be flexible and adaptable enough to cope with change. Flexible leaders are able to adjust to the demands of the situation Internal Locus of Control People with an internal locus of control believe themselves to be the prime movers behind every event. Leaders like to take challenges because they rely on their innate capacity and self-confidence. People with internal locus are perceived as more powerful than the ones having external locus because they assume full responsibility for events and their consequences. Courage Leaders need courage to face the challenges of taking prudent risks and initiatives in general. They must also face up to responsibility and be willing to put their reputations on the test. It takes for a leader, courage to start a new venture because if the undertaking fails, the leader is often seen as failed. Resilience An important observation about effective leaders, is their resilience. They bounce back quickly from setbacks such as budget cuts, demotions and being fired. They rarely use the word "failure". A leader sets an example for team members by not buckling under pressure when something goes wrong. Instead, he tries to conduct business undeterred.

Q: 3. What are the roles and responsibilities of an effective leader? Ans: Leadership is considered as one of the most essential aspects of the corporate process. Every leader, depending on his position in the company hierarchy has a set of business leadership roles and responsibilities. However, there are some very general responsibilities that a leader has to consider. Few of such roles and responsibilities are providing motivation to the employee, resolving conflicts and employment discrimination, and similar others. Following is a general explanation of leadership roles and management functions practiced in the corporate environment.

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Leadership Development Leadership development is a crucial function that a top-level executive has to follow. This includes setting up leadership down in the hierarchy line of the company. The top-level executive has to strategically plan and set line managers for different processes. And the same responsibility goes for the line managers as well.

Planning and Implementation Planning and implementation should also be carried out by leaders of the company or a process. For example, the company director should plan the standard processes in individual practices of the company. In addition, he should also meet with other top-level officials and prepare policies for the smooth running of the firm. Employee and Process Assessment Employee management is one of the typical corporate leadership roles and responsibilities of a line manager. For example, a project manager is responsible for how his members perform. On the other hand, a director may be responsible for managing the departments, and making sure they are working fine. Employee Motivation It is a fact that a leader without employee motivation skills is not a leader at all. A leader should obligatory motivate employees to overcome their weak points. He should encourage them by all means possible such as appreciation mails, financial incentives, employee recognition awards, and similar other methods. Decision Making Be it any leader, he certainly needs to have the decision-making skills. These skills are very important, as he is the one on whom the final decision rests. However, decision making should be supported by strategic planning and thinking. A leader can always consult with his peers before taking a suitable decision. Conflict Resolution: There may be times when a leader might be required to address to a complaint by an employee against another employee. In such situations, the leader's conflict resolution skills show their significance. The leader should consider

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resolving the conflict with a professional attitude, impartial thinking, and total understanding of the situation. Problem solving The need for problem solving usually arises in daily work of the managers. A problem can relate to a hurdle in the project deliverables or any other process matter. Here again the leader has to think professionally, obtain complete understanding of the problem, sort out and compare probable solutions, and finally reach one.

These are the most essential leadership roles and responsibilities required for managing a company and employees. There are even other minor roles that a leader has to play such as being a liaison between the top management and employees, a good communicator, a good listener, and most importantly a good guide. Q:4. Discuss the positive and negative connotations of being a leader. Ans: The term leader has a positive connotation for most people Leadership jobs, like many other professions, offer personal satisfactions and also undesirable frustrations. Positive connotations reflect the satisfaction where as negative connotations reflect the frustration in a leader. The term "Leader" has a positive connotation, as the opposite of either being a follower or a subordinate. Yet, being a leader does not always bring personal Satisfaction. The leader of a high-performing group has more fun than the leader of a low performing one. The satisfactions and frustrations of being a leader are high respectively. Satisfaction: A feeling of power and prestige : Leadership automatically bestows power. Prestige follows power as people are thought of in very high esteem as leaders. As a person moves up in the hierarchy of management, the power to control increases correspondingly. Successful management of events enhances the repute and responsibilities of a leader.

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High income Leaders in general, receive higher monetary rewards than other team members. Executive leaders in major business organizations are highly paid. Besides, the perks given to leaders are more as compared to the others in the organization. Status and respect A leader is respected for the type of work he does. Team members look-up on him for his decisional ability and uniting power. Successful completion of task not only invites and attracts the top managements praise. At the same time, staff also starts associating themselves with the leader. Besides, status is also accorded on being appointed as a leader on or off the job. Good opportunities for advancement The career advancement opportunities of leader are very high. Obtaining a leadership position is a vital first step for future career advancement. It opens new horizons and paves the path for successful future. A feeling of being in on things : An attendant benefit of being a leader is that you have access to inside information. For instance, as a manager one is invited to attend management meetings. This gives an exposure to such information, which does not pass in the down line of hierarchy. An opportunity to control resources : A leader prepares departmental budgets, authorizes expenses and allocates resources. Even though the leader does not spend these resources personally, it provides a sense of satisfaction knowing that your judgment is valued and trusted. Besides, it also adds to the sense of responsibility.

Frustration:
Too much uncompensated overtime : People in leadership position are usually expected to work longer hours than other employees. Such unpaid hours are called casual overtime. People in organizational leadership position typically spend about 50% more time than the ones working at product level.

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Too many "Headaches" : It would take several pages to list all the potential problems the leader faces. A leader is subject to a bunch of problems involving people and things. Many people find that a leadership position is a source of stress and many managers experience burnout situations. Not enough authority to carry out responsibility : People in managerial positions complain repeatedly that they are held responsible for things over which they have little or no control at all. Leaders sometimes are expected to work with under-performing team members, yet they lack the power to hire and fire them. Loneliness: The higher one rises as a leader, the more isolated and lonely he becomes in a certain sense. Leadership limits the number of people in whom one can confide. It is awkward to confide negative feelings about the employer to a team member. It is equally awkward to complain about one group member to another. Some people in leadership positions feel lonely because they miss being "one of the gang". Too many problems involving people : A major frustration facing a leader is the number of human resources problem requiring action. The lower the leadership position, the more one is beseeched with problems. Too much of paper work and electronic mail : As work organizations have become more formalized, an abundance of forms have been generated. A common complaint of leaders and managers at all levels is that paperwork and electronic mail take up too much of their work time. Too much organi zational politics : People at all levels of an organization, from the office assistant to the chairperson of the board, are all aware of political factors. As a leader, one has to inevitably engage in political byplay from three directions: below, sideways and upwards. Political tactics such as forming alliances and coalitions are a necessary part of a leader's role.
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Q:5. Ans

Briefly explain the different roles a leader has to play. Leadership is a multi-dimensional function, requiring knowledge and understanding of many organizational needs. As a leader, one must master various roles that are required to handle different people and different situations with skill and efficiency. A leader at one point of time has to perform four different types of roles.

(1) As an administrator: Carrying on the day-to-day administration is the key role of a leader. The modern administrator is expected to be creative, devising processes and streamlining activities in order to ensure the smooth running of procedures and also to increase efficiency. A leader has to keep in mind the long-term objectives with the short-term goals. To Liase with other departments in order to ensure that everyone knows what is expected of them by keeping an open team diary for instant checks on current tasks and deadlines to be met during the work routine. (2) As a strategist: As a leader, focus on wider issues that affects the performance of the team effectiveness is of vital importance and concern. The goals have to be broken down into attainable plans. The fixation of the responsibility is a major task and unexpected problems are always on a close call. A leader is expected to make predictions and draw conclusions to maximize the benefits to the organization. (3) As a good communicator: The most obvious quality of a leader is his communication ability. Versatility of speech, making people perform and getting the orders through, is what is expected of a leader. All this demands an impressive persona and an aura that distinguishes a leader from the rest. (4) As an agent of change: Change is vital for ensuring future successes. By seeking change organizations maintain leadership with competitive edge and growth. A leader has to recognize the change and also initiate it. Resistance to change in the team

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members is natural. It is the duty of a manager to create favorable environment for change in the organization.

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Unit2

Effective Leadership Behavior and Attitudes


Q:1. What kind of behavior and attitude a leader needs to express? Ans: A person's observable behavior is an indication of her character. This behavior can be strong or weak, good or bad. A person with strong character shows drive, energy, determination, self-discipline, willpower, and nerve. She sees what she wants and goes after it. She attracts followers. On the other hand, a person with weak character shows none of these traits. She does not know what she wants. Her traits are disorganized, she vacillates and is inconsistent. She will attract no followers. A strong person can be good or bad. A gang leader is an example of a strong person with a bad character, while an outstanding community leader is one with both strong and good characteristics. An organization needs leaders with both strong and good characteristics, people who will guide them to the future and show that they can be trusted. Task-related attitudes and behaviors (1) Adaptability to the situation

(2) Direction setting (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) High performance standards Risk taking and bias for action Ability to interpret conditions Frequent feedback Stability of performance Strong customer oriented

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Relationship-oriented attitudes and behaviors (1) Alignment of people (2) Mobilization (3) Concern building (4) Inspiration (5) Satisfaction of human need (6) Formulation of vision and strategy (7) Emotional support Super leadership: leading others to lead themselves (1) Identification and replacement of destructive beliefs and assumptions (2) Positive and constructive self- talk (3) Visualization of methods for effective performance (4) Gender differences in leadership style power, politics, and leadership

Q:2. In what way a leader can improve his leadership skills. Discuss. Ans: 360-Degree Feedback For Fine-Tuning A Leadership Approach Many leaders solicit systematic feedback to improve their leadership behavior and attitudes. 360-degree feedback is a formal evaluation of superiors based on input from people who work for and with them, sometimes including customers and suppliers. 360-degree feedback is more frequently used for leadership and management development than for performance evaluation. Such feedback can help detect barriers to success, such as a leaders being perceived as using an inappropriate leadership style. 360-degree feedback is a key component of the leadership training program called Benchmarks. Approaches to implementing 360-degree feedback for performance evaluation and development continue to emerge. One variation of the method is to build a 360-degree survey accessed via the Internet and the companys intranet. A review of over 600 studies of 360-degree feedback found that only one-third reported performance improvement, and one-third reported performance decreases. To make better use of 360-degree surveys focus on business goals

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and strategy, deal with important aspects of leadership, train for giving and receiving feedback, and create action plans.

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Unit-3

Leadership styles
Q:1. What are the different leadership styles? Explain each in brief. Ans: A leaders combination of atti tudes and behaviors leads to a certain regularity and predictability in dealing with group members. Leadership style is the relatively consistent pattern of behavior that characterizes a leader. Most classifications of leadership style are based on the dimensions of initiating structure and consideration. Participative Leadership Style Sharing decision making with group members, and working with them side by side, has become the generally accepted leadership approach. Participative leaders share decision making with group members. The style encompasses three subtypes: (1) Consultative leaders confer with group members before making a decision, but retain the final authority; Consensus leaders strive for consensus; and Democratic leaders confer final authority on the group. The participative style has also been referred to as trickle-up leadership because the leader accepts suggestions for managing the operation group members.

(2) (3)

Leadership Grid Styles The Leadership Grid is a framework for simultaneously specifying concern for production and concern for the people dimensions of leadership. Grid styles are based on the extent of a persons concern for production and people: Authority Compliance (9,1); Country Club Management (1,9); Impoverished Management (1,1); Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5); and Team Management (9,9). The ideal position is the 9,9 orientation, which integrates

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concern for production and concern for people. This team management style usually results in improved performance, low absenteeism and turnover, and high employee satisfaction. The manager should use principles of human behavior to size up the situation.

Entrepreneurial Leadership Many entrepreneurs use a similar leadership style that stems from their key personality characteristics and circumstances. A general picture emerges of a task-oriented and charismatic leader. Even if it is not a true leadership style, at least there are some traits and behaviors characteristic of entrepreneurs : 1. Strong achievement drive and sensible risk taking. 2. High degree of enthusiasm and creativity. 3. Tendency to act quickly when opportunity arises. 4. Constant hurry combined with impatience. 5. Visionary perspective. 6. Dislike of hierarchy and bureaucracy. 7. Preference for dealing with external customers. 8. Eye on the future. Classical Leadership Styles(Rensis Likert) Rensis Likert identified four main styles of leadership, in particular around 0decision-making and the degree to which people are involved in the decision.
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Exploitive authoritative In this style, the leader has a low concern for people and uses such methods as threats and other fear-based methods to achieve conformance. Communication is almost entirely downwards and the psychologically distant concerns of people are ignored. Benevolent authoritative When the leader adds concern for people to an authoritative position, a benevolent dictatorship' is formed. The leader now uses rewards to encourage appropriate performance and listens more to concerns lower down the organization, although what they hear is often rose-tinted, being limited to what their subordinates think that the boss wants to hear. Although there may be some delegation of decisions, almost all major decisions are still made centrally. Consultative The upward flow of information here is still cautious and rose-tinted to some degree, although the leader is making genuine efforts to listen carefully to ideas. Nevertheless, major decisions are still largely centrally made. Participative At this level, the leader makes maximum use of participative methods, engaging people lower down the organization in decision-making. People across the organization are psychologically closer together and work well together at all levels. Q:2 Crtically examine the gender differences in leadership style . Ans: Gender Differences in Leadership Style Several researchers and observers argue that women have certain acquired traits and behaviors that suit them for relations-oriented leadership. Consequently, women leaders frequently exhibit a cooperative, empowering style that includes the nurturing of team members. The other facet of this stereotype is that men are inclined toward a command-and-control, militaristic leadership style. The Argument for Male-Female Differences in Leadership Style Men tend towards a command-and-control style. In contrast, women tend towards a transformational style, relying heavily on interpersonal skills.

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Women are less likely to practice management-by-exception and are slightly more likely to be described as charismatic. Another perspective on gender differences in leadership is whether men or women are more effective leaders. In combined studies of 425 executives, each by approximately twenty-five people, women leaders achieved higher ratings on forty-two of the fifty-two skills measured. Most of the gender differences were small. One interpretation of these findings is that the women had to be outstanding performers to hold the executive positions, so it was a biased sample. This study could make for emotional, yet thoughtful, class discussion. The Argument against Gender Differences in Leadership Style Based on a literature review, Grant concluded that there are apparently few, if any, personality differences between men and women managers. As women move up the corporate ladder, they identify more with the male model of managerial success. An important point is that both men and women differ among themselves in leadership style. As the research studies put it, .The within-group variance is greater than the across-group variance..Also of importance, many women believe that women managers can be more hostile and vindictive than male managers.

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Unit 4

Developing Teamwork
Q:1. Quote the difference between team and solo leadership. Ans Leader vs. Team Leader There is a significant difference between team leaders and solo leaders. Solo leaders by nature have a great need to "be in charge" and to be acknowledged. They are autocratic by style and ensure that they receive credit for their team's performance whether they deserve it or not. They do not share power or information and most often assume a leadership position for the positional power that it affords. Solo Leader and Team Leader Comparison Solo Leader Team Leader

1. Plays unlimited (interferes)

role

1. Chooses to limit role (delegates)

2. Strives for conformity 3. Collects acolytes 4. Directs subordinates 5. Projects objectives

2. Builds on diversity 3. Seeks talent 4. Develops colleagues 5. Creates mission

Team Leaders An effective team leader, on the other hand, is not threatened and is very comfortable sharing power. They understand that true power comes from the
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people that they lead and that the sharing of power actually increases their own. They surround themselves with very capable people and create environments that bring out the best in people. They affirm team members and increase their self confidence to act, to make decisions and to make things happen rather than simply perform assigned tasks. Q2. What are the pros and cons of working in a team & Group? Ans All teams are groups of individuals but not all groups of individuals necessarily demonstrate the cohesiveness of a team. Teams outperform individuals because teams generate a special energy. This energy develops as team members work together fusing their personal energies and talents to deliver tangible performance results. There are a number of advantages for teamwork, among them are: Distributing the workload Reinforcing individual capabilities Creating participation and involvement Making better decisions Feeling like we play a part in the work being done Generating a diversity of ideas, etc. Disadvantages: Many employers are eager to develop teamwork in the workplace; however, this cooperative task completion may not be all it seems. While there are some definite advantages to teamwork, there are also some disadvantages: Some Workers Struggle with Teams Decrease in creativity. Conflict Social loafing, or shirking i ndividual responsibility Too many meetings and striving for consensus Q3. Briefly describe the role of a leader in team based organi zation. Ans: Instead of the leaders job disappearing, leaders learn to lead in new ways. The new leaders need to understand team processes. Leaders are often facilitators who lead two or three teams. Teams need effective leadership to stay on course, especially when they are forming. Some of the key roles of a leader in a team-based organization include: Building trust and inspiring teamwork
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Coaching toward higher levels of performance Anticipating and influencing change Enabling and empowering group members to accomplish their work Encouraging team members to eliminate low-value work Q4. What actions a leader can take to foster teamwork? Ans: Defining the Teams Mission. Developing a Norm of Teamwork and Emotional Intelligence Emphasizing Pride in Being Outstanding Serving as a Model of Teamwork Establishing Urgency, Demanding Performance Standards, and Providing Direction. Encouraging Competition with Another Group Feedback on Team Effectiveness Emphasizing Group Recognition and Rewards Selecting Team-Oriented Members Q:5 Ans Briefly explain the leadership development techniques. Development Through Self-Awareness And Self-Discipline Self-help contributes heavily to developing leadership capabilities. Two major components of leadership self-development are self-awareness and selfdiscipline.

A. Leadership Development Through Self-Awareness An important mechanism underlying self-development is self-awareness, insightfully processing feedback about oneself to improve personal effectiveness. Selfawareness occurs at two levels. Single-loop learning occurs when learners seek minimum feedback that might substantially confront their basic ideas or actions. Single-loop learners think defensively. Double-loop learning is an in-depth type of learning that occurs when people use feedback to confront the validity of the goal or the values implicit in the situation. Double-loop learning enables the leader to learn and profit from setbacks. By interpreting the reason a setback occurred, the leader might do better the next time.

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B.

Leadership Development through Self-Discipline Leadership development requires considerable self-discipline, mobilizing Ones effort and energy to stay focused on attaining an important goal. Self discipline plays an important role in the continuous monitoring of ones behavior to ensure that needed self-development Occurs. Development Through Education, Experience, And Mentoring Much of leadership development takes place through means other than selfawareness and self-discipline or leadership development programs. Almost any life activity can help people prepare for a leadership role.

A.

Education Education generally refers to acquiring knowledge without concern about immediate application. The extent of formal education is positively correlated with achieving managerial and leadership positions and with the level of leadership position attained. Experience Without experience, knowledge cannot readily be converted into skills. Leadership experience also helps build skills and insights that a person may not have formally studied. What are the different leadership development plans? LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Leadership development programs typically focus on topics such as personal growth, leadership style, strategy formulation, influence, motivation, and persuasive communication. Management development programs include many more topics than do those programs focused on leadership. Corporate university is a term to cover company activities geared toward leadership and management development, as well as other forms of high-level training.

B.

Q:6 Ans

1. Feedback-Intensive Programs. A feedback-intensive development program helps leaders develop by seeing more clearly their patterns of behavior, the reasons for such behaviors, and the impact of these behaviors and attitudes on their effectiveness. 2. Skill-Based Programs.

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Skill training in leadership development involves acquiring abilities and techniques that can be converted into action. The emphasis is on learning how to apply knowledge. Five different methods are often used in skill-based leadership training: lecture, case study, role-play, behavioral role modeling, and simulations. 3. Conceptual Knowledge Programs. A standard approach to leadership development is to learn useful concepts about leadership. Conceptual knowledge is very important because it alerts the leader to information that will make a difference in leadership. 4. Personal Growth Programs. Leadership through personal growth involves getting in touch with one.s inner desires and fulfilling them. The tacit assumption is that leadership is almost a calling. Learning who you need to be is one approach to leadership development through personal growth. 5. Socialization Programs. From the company standpoint, an essential type of leadership development program emphasizes socializing (becoming acclimated to and accepting) the company vision and values. Frequently, the chief executive makes a presentation of the company vision and values. 6. Action Learning Programs. In action learning, leaders and potential leaders work together in groups to solve organization problems outside of their usual sphere of influence.

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Unit 5

Understanding Change
Q:1 Ans What are the factors/forces affecting change? Change management is a systematic approach to dealing with change, both from the perspective of an organization and on the individual level. Change management has at least three different aspects, including: adapting to change, controlling change, and effecting change. A proactive approach to dealing with change is at the core of all three aspects. For an organization, change management means defining and implementing procedures and/or technologies to deal with changes in the business environment and to profit from changing opportunities\Factors: Internal Change Factors: Technical Production Processes Production New Technologies Quality Political Processes New Organizational Goals Conflict New Leadership Organi zational Culture Values Norms New Member Socialization External Change Factors:

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Immediate Environment Domestic Competition Population Trends Social Trends Government Actions General Environment Foreign Competition Social Movements Political-Economic Movements Technology Professionalization Culture Contact

Q2 Briefly explain the different perspective/approaches of change? Ans:

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1. Contingency perspective: Contingency approaches challenge the view that there is one best way The style of change or the path of change will vary, depending upon the circumstances, including: the scale of the change the receptivity to change of organizational members the style of change management the time period the performance of the organization 2. Population ecology perspective: The implication of this perspective is that managerial abilities and talents in the initial stages of organizational development have very little to do with organizational success. Rather, success is more dependent on the environment and the various changes that are going on in the environment. As such, the perspective offers important insight into the relationships of organizations to a changing environment and how organizations eit her adapt to that change or experience failure. 3. Resource dependence Perspective: The resource dependence perspective developed a framework to explain why organizations are often forced to establish linkages with other organizations in their environment. As resources become scarce, managers must expand the number of suppliers and receivers of goods in order to maintain stable operations and profits. However, these linkages place constraints on the decisions managers can make to guide the organization toward specific goals. That is, as the organization's activities become dependent on other organizations, there are fewer opportunities to guide the organization in different and novel directions.

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Unit 6

Types of Change
Q 1: Briefly explain the concept of continuous and discontinuous change. Ans Continuous Change: Minor changes made in strategies, structures, people and processes Include refining policies, procedures; improving selection, training and appraisal procedures, introducing new machinery. Discontinuous change: Occur due to critical environmental changes: e.g. Product life cycle shifts Internal company dynamics Q2 Ans Explain different approaches to implement change. PARTICIPATIVE APPROACH RationaleInformation, better ideas Reduces resistance to change Involvement increases stake and hence reduces opposition DIRECTIVE APPROACH RationaleDiscontinuous change needs to be implemented swiftly; participation consumes time , may lead to consolidation of resistance E.g., downsizing, delayering, re-structuring

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Q3 Explain Kotlers 8 step model of change. Ans:

Step 1: Create a sense of urgency For the change to happen, it needs the whole organization behind it believing in it: Identify potential threats and develop potential scenarios showing what could happen in the future Examine the opportunities that should be exploited Start discussions, giving people convincing reasons to start thinking and talking and thinking about the change Rally support from your customers and outside investors to reinforce your argument Step 2: Form a change coalition To help convince people that change needs to happen, find and fuel effective leaders in your organization: Identify true leaders in your organization

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Ask for emotional commitment from these people Check your team for weaknesses and make sure you have a good mix of people from different areas and levels Step 3: Create a vision for change You need a clear vision so people can understand the purpose of what youre asking them to do: Determine the values that are central to the change Develop a short summary that captures what you see as the future of the organization Create a strategy to execute the vision Practice your vision speech often

Step 4: Communicate the vision What you do with your vision will determine whether you are successful or not and youll find many other run of the day company communications competing against yours: At every opportunity, talk about your change vision Address peoples concerns and there will be concerns Tie your vision to operations- training, reviews, hiring process Lead by example Step 5: Remove obstacles You need to remove obstacles to empower people to execute your vision: Identify change leaders Recognize and reward people for making change happen Identify those resisting change and help them see the need Remove barriers human and other Create short-term wins Success motivates give your team a taste for success: Pick a simple project you can implement with help from the die hard critics Choose inexpensive projects where you can justify the spend Reward the people the help you meet the goals Build on the change Real change runs deep keep looking for improvements: After every win, analyze what went right and what went wrong
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Step 6:

Step 7:

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Set goals to continue building on what youve achieved Step 8: Anchor the changes in corporate culture Make the change stick! Talk about progress every chance you get Tell success stories Include values when hiring or traini ng staff As key leaders of the change move on, be sure to replace them

Q4 Ans

What is Kurt Lewins model of change? The Kurt Lewin change theory model is based around a 3-step process (Unfreeze-Change-Freeze) that provides a high-level approach to change. It gives a manager or other change agent a framework to implement a change effort, which is always very sensitive and must be made as seamless as possible.

The Kurt Lewin model can help a leader do the following three steps: Make a radical change Minimize the disruption of the structures operations Make sure that the change is adopted permanently

Lewin change model Unfreeze ready to change When a structure has been in place for a while, habits and routine have naturally settled in. The organization as a whole is going in the right direction, but people or processes may have strayed off course. For example, tasks that are not relevant or useful anymore are still being performed by force of habit, without anyone questioning their legitimacy. Similarly, people might have learned to do things one way, without considering other, more efficient methods. Unfreezing means getting people to gain perspective on their day-today activities, unlearn their bad habits, and open up to new ways of reaching their objectives. Basically, the current practices and processes have to be reassessed in order for the wheels of change to be set in motion.

Lewin change model Change implementation Once team members have opened up their minds, change can start. The change process can be a very dynamic one and, if it is to be effective, it will probably take some time and involve a transition period. In order to gain efficiency, people will have to take on new tasks and responsibilities, which entails a
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learning curve that will at first slow the organization down. A change process has to be viewed as an investment, both in terms of time and the allocation of resources: after the new organization and processes have been rolled out, a certain chaos might ensue, but that is the price to pay in order to attain enhanced effectiveness within the structure.

Lewin change model Freeze (sometimes called refreeze)- making it stick Change will only reach its full effect if its made permanent. Once the organizational changes have been made and the structure has regained its effectiveness, every effort must be made to cement them and make sure the new organization becomes the standard. Further changes will be made down the line, but once the structure has found a way to improve the way it conducts its operations, re -freezing will give the people the opportunity to thrive in the new organization and take full advantage of the change.

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Multiple-Choice Questions
For each of the following choose the answer that most completely answers the question.
FORCES FOR CHANGE

1. Being a manager, with no environmental uncertainty or threat of competitors new products, would be relatively simple without ______________. a. government regulations b. diversity c. cultural differences d. organizational change (d) 2. Managing change is an integral part of ______________. a. top managements job b. middle- level managements job c. the first- line managers job d. every managers job (d) 3. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is an example of which of the following forms of environmental change? a. internal b. technology c. government laws and regulations d. labor markets (c) 4. Assembly- line technology is changing dramatically as organizations _______________. a. develop new products for the market b. replace human labor with robots c. replace old manually controlled machines with newer machines d. find new markets for their products (b) 5. Changing human resource management activities to attract and retain health care specialists due to increased needs for those workers is an example of what kind of environmental change factor? a. marketplace b. technology c. labor markets d. economic

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(c) 6. Global economic pressures force organizations to become more _____________. a. price competitive b. quality conscious c. cost efficient d. conservative with raw materials (c) 7. Falling interest rates are an example of what external force? a. marketplace b. government laws and regulations c. labor markets d. economic changes (d) 8. Which of the following is not an internal force of change? a. technology b. strategy c. workforce d. employee attitudes (a) 9. Which of the following is not an external force of change? a. marketplace b. government laws and regulations c. economic changes d. workforce (d) 10. Internal forces that stimulate the need for change tend to originate primarily from the impact of external forces or from ___________. a. the forces of competition b. change in technology c. customer demand for the products the company produces d. the internal operations of the organization (d) 11. What change factor did Steve Bennett address in his turnaround of Intuit, Inc? a. technology b. workforce c. equipment d. strategy (d)

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12. Increasing the numbers of employed women and minorities forces managers to pay attention to what change factor? a. strategy b. workforce c. equipment d. technology (b) 13. Labor strikes are an example of what change factor that may encourage a change in management thinking and practices? a. workforce b. equipment c. employee attitudes d. strategy (c)
TWO VIEWS OF THE CHANGE PROCESS

14. One of the primary views of the change process is ______________, while the other view is ______________. a. problematic; encouraged b. occasional; continuous c. costly; conservative d. optimistic; pessimistic (b) 15. Lewins theory is consistent with which view of organizational change? a. continuous b. contemporary c. Mayos d. calm waters (d) 16. According to Kurt Lewin, which of the following is not a stage in the change process? a. unfreezing b. changing c. refreezing d. restraining (d) 17. According to Kurt Lewin, increasing the driving forces, which direct behavior away from the status quo, is a means of doing which of the following? a. unfreezing b. changing c. restraining forces

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d. refreezing (a) 18. The unfreezing step of the change process can be thought of as ______________. a. thawing the organization loose from the current status to the new status b. making the move to the new organizational condition c. loosening the organization from the old condition and moving it to the new condition d. preparing for the needed change (d) 19. According to Lewin, which of the following is the objective of refreezing? a. directs behavior away from the status quo b. hinders movement away from existing equilibrium c. eliminates the need for future change d. stabilizes the new situation (d)

20. The ______________ is consistent with uncertain and dynamic environments. a. calm waters metaphor b. white-water rapids metaphor c. contemporary metaphor d. continuous metaphor (b) 21. In the white-water rapids metaphor, change is a natural state, and managing change is _____________. a. an accepted practice b. an expected practice c. a continual process d. a maintenance process (c)
MANAGING ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE

22. What is an emerging and evolving consumer trend that Hallma rk identified? a. future perfect b. careiness c. new and novel now d. happening (c) 23. In organizations, people who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing the change process are called ______________. a. change masters

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b. change agents c. operations managers d. charismatic leaders (b) 24. In spurring organizational change, outside consultants are usually ______________, whereas internal managers may be more ______________. a. drastic; thoughtful b. highly paid; risky c. resistant; bold d. cautious; friendly (a) more

25. As change agents, managers should be motivated to initiate change because they are committed to __________. a. promoting the welfare of their employees b. managing and want to do the best they can for everyone c. improving their organizations performance d. meeting the competition head-on in the market (c) 26. Initiating change involves identifying what organizational areas might need to be changed and _____________. a. discussing it with the board of directors b. hiring a consultant to confirm that the change is needed c. forming a committee to determine that the need for change is real d. putting the change process in motion (d) 27. Managers options for change essentially fall into what three categories? a. environment, technology, and mission b. structure, technology, and people c. mission, structure, and people d. mission, environment, and process (b) 28. What category of change involves work processes, methods, and equipment? a. technology b. people c. competitors d. structure (a) 29. A company that decides to decentralize its sales procedures is managing what change category? For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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a. b. c. d. (d)

technology people competitors structure

30. What type of change might include a shift from a functional to a product structure? a. a structural design change b. a structural component change c. automation d. computerization (a)

1. Competitive factors or new innovations within an industry often require managers to introduce all of the following except new _____________. a. equipment b. tools c. operating methods d. employees (d) 31. When grocery stores installed scanners to read the product price, this was an example of managing what change category? a. technology b. people c. competitors d. structure (a) 32. Techniques to change people and the quality of interpersonal work relationships are termed _______________. a. operations b. organizational development c. downsizing d. robotics (b) 33. If Kraft Foods hired a consultant to decrease group friction and enhance cooperative work relationships, this would be an example of managing what change category? a. technology b. people c. competitors d. structure (b) For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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34. What organizational development (OD) technique is a technique for assessing attitudes and perceptions, identifying discrepancies in these, and resolving the differences by using survey information in feedback groups? a. team building b. intergroup development c. survey feedback d. sensitivity training (c) 35. What OD technique involves changing the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that work groups have about each other? a. team building b. intergroup development c. survey feedback d. sensitivity training (b) 36. Before using the same OD techniques to implement behavioral changes, espec ially across different countries, managers need to be sure that theyve taken into account _______________. a. cultural characteristics b. organizational differences c. employee attitudes d. societal differences (a) 37. An individual is likely to resist change because of all of the following reasons except _____________. a. uncertainty b. increased productivity c. concern over personal loss d. belief that the change is not in the organizations best interest (b) 38. To cope with the complexity of life, individuals rely on habits or _______________. a. programmed responses b. the status quo c. beliefs d. certainties (a) 39. Which of the reasons for resistance to change expressed by an employee may be beneficial to the organization? a. uncertainty For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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b. freezing c. change is incompatible with the interests of the organization d. refreezing (c) 40. All of the following are mentioned as actions that managers can use to deal with resistance to change except ______________. a. education and communication b. diversification c. participation d. facilitation and support (b) 41. For ________ to be effective, there must be mutual trust and credibility between managers and employees. a. education b. coercion c. negotiation d. participation (a) 42. __________ may be necessary when resistance comes from a powerful source. a. Education and communication b. Coercion c. Facilitation and support d. Negotiation (d) 43. ______________ is using direct threats or force on those who resist change. a. Negotiation b. Coercion c. Cooptation d. Education and communication (b)
CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN MANAGING CHANGE

44. Which of the following represents the relationship between organizational culture and change? a. Culture and change are naturally compatible. b. Culture tends to be very resistant to change. c. Culture can change in months but not weeks. d. Culture can never be purposely changed. (b)

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45. Which of the following is not a favorable situational condition that may facilitate change in an organizational culture? a. a dramatic crisis occurs b. the culture is weak c. stock prices remain constant d. the organization is young and small (c) 46. Cultural change is most likely to take place when _______________. a. the organization is old b. the organization is large c. the culture is strong d. there is a leadership change (d)

47. What is a strategy for managing cultural change? a. Support employees who remain devoted to the old values. b. Redesign socialization processes to align with the new values. c. Keep the reward system the same. d. Terminate top managers who are positive role models. (b) 48. A dynamic and uncertain organizational environment has created a large number of employees who are ______________. a. old e nough to retire, but cant afford to retire b. young and energetic about the next days work c. overworked and stressed out d. overworked, but paid very well (c) 49. ______________ is the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressure placed on them from extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities. a. Stereotyping b. Stress c. A halo effect d. Creativity (b) 50. Stress, in and of itself, is _____________. a. not necessarily bad b. healthy in most cases c. harmful, especially if not managed by exercise d. beneficial to those who use it (a) For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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51. ________ prevent you from doing what you desire; __________ refer to the loss of something desired. a. Constraints; demands b. Demands; constraints c. Fears; stressors d. Stressors; fears (a) 52. Which of the following is true concerning stress? a. Stress is a static condition. b. Stress is a negative reaction to an outside force. c. Stress can be caused by change of any kind. d. Stress limits performance. (c) 53. __________ there must be uncertainty over the outcome, and the outcome must be important. a. For uncertainty to become fear, b. For anxiety to become stress, c. For potential stress to become actual stress, d. For anxiety to become fear, (c) 54. Stress symptoms can be grouped under any of the following three general categories except ______________. a. physiological b. cultural c. psychological d. behavioral (b) 55. Which of the following is an example of a psychological symptom of stress? a. changes in metabolism b. increased heart and breathing rate c. irritability d. changes in productivity (c) 56. Changes in eating habits are a ____________ symptom of stress. a. physical b. psychological c. behavioral d. inertial (c) For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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57. Managers need to make sure that employees abilities _______________. a. match the job requirements b. are being maximized c. are not being affected by their stress d. are not causing them stress (a) 58. _______________ that increase opportunities for employees to participate in decisions and to gain social support have been found to lessen stress. a. Improved organizational communications b. Time management programs c. Wellness programs d. Job redesigns (d) 59. Stress from an employees personal life _______________. a. is difficult for the manager to control directly b. should never concern the manager c. indicates that the employee needs counseling d. always affects work behavior, so the manager should always intervene (a) 60. Managers might want to offer _______________ to employees who want to talk to someone about their problems. a. wellness programs b. time management programs c. employee counseling d. performance planning programs (c) 61. How can managers increase the likelihood of making change happen succes sfully? a. focus on how they want to change the organization b. understand the difficult task at hand c. increase the role of individual employees d. observe how competitors are changing (c) 62. What is a characteristic of a change-capable organization? a. separates the present and the future b. makes controlling a way of life c. discourages mavericks d. shelters breakthroughs (d)

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63. A study of organizational change found that __________ percent of changes at the workgroup level were reactions to a specific, current problem or to a suggestion from someone outside the work group; and __________ percent of those changes occurred in the course of employees day-to-day work. a. 77; 68 b. 35; 90 c. 90; 35 d. 68; 77 (a)

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Key Terms
Ability The word ability (as opposed to talent or traits) imp lies that leadership is a learned skill. Certainly some people are born with more natural talent or reared in a more nurturing environment so that leadership comes easier for them. But leadership the attitudes, skills and behaviors that make one a successful leader can be learned. Influence All motivation is self-motivation. Leadership is about getting people to do what you want them to do, what they should do, and what they must do. Short of doing their jobs yourself, your responsibility is to influence them to do it on their own. And influence is primarily an emotional transaction. Its not telling and demanding, its explaining and convincing. Willingly Because of self-motivation, people have to want to do something. That want may come from loyalty, duty, embarrassment, conscience, friendship, or a number of other motivators, but regardless of the source it causes them to act in a way that gets the job done. Accomplish Accomplish means the work gets done: on time, under budget, an d beyond the quality standard. Goals Just as leadership is about getting specific things done, those things are most often measurable. And just as you (the leader) have your goals to meet, its a foolish leader who doesnt give specific goals to his or h er people, the accomplishment of which achieves your team goal. Accountable Accountability is one of those dirty little facts that make leadership necessary. There is no need for leadership if theres no destination in mind, when any destination is as good as any other. Real life doesnt work that way; work is about doing certain things in specific ways to achieve a particular goal.

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Affirmative action A hiring policy that requires employers to analyze the work force for underrepresentation of protected classes. It involves recruiting minorities and members of protected classes, changing management attitudes or prejudices towards them, removing discriminatory employment practices, and giving preferred treatment to protected classes. After Action Reviews An assessment conducted after a project or major activity that allows employees and leaders to discover (learn) what happened and why. It may be thought of as a professional discussion of an event that enable employees to understand why things happened during the progression of the process and to learn from that experience. Assessing The process of conducting In Process Reviews (IPRs) and After Action Reviews (AARs). IPRs help to determine initial expectations, ascertain strengths and weakness of both employees and the organization, and identify key issues and organizations whose willing support is needed to accomplish the mission. AARs determine how well the goals are being accomplished, usually by identifying areas to sustain and improve. Attributes Characteristics or qualities or properties. Attributes of the leader fall into three categories: mental, physical, and emotional. Authoritarian leadership A style of leadership in which the leader tells the employees what needs to be done and how to perform it without getting their advice or ideas. Beliefs Assumptions and convictions that a person holds to be true regarding people, concepts, or things. Benchmarking The process of measuring the organization's products, services, cost, procedures, etc. against competitors or other organizations that display a "best in class" record. Building An activity focused on sustaining and renewing the organization. It involves actions that indicate commitment to the achievement of group or organizational goals: For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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timely and effective discharge of operational and organizational duties and obligations; working effectively with others; compliance with and active support of organizational goals, rules, and policies. Brainstorming A technique for teams that is used to generate ideas on a subject. Each person on the team is asked to think creatively and write down as many ideas as possible. After the writing session, the ideas are discussed by the team. Capacity The capability of a worker, system, or organization to produce output per time period. It can be classified as budgeted, dedicated, demonstrated, productive, protective, rated, safety, or theoretical. Character The sum total of an individual's personality traits and the link between a person's values and her behavior. Climate The short-term phenomenon created by the current junior or senior leaders. Organizational climate is a system of the perception of people about the organization and its leaders, directly attributed to the leadership and management style of the leaders, based on the skills, knowledge and attitude and priorities of the leaders. The personality and behavior of the leaders creates a climate that influences everyone in the organization. Communicating Comprises the ability to express oneself effectively in individual and group situations, either orally or in writing. It involves a sender transmitting an idea to a receiver. Command & Control command is the forming and imparting of visions; while control is ensuring that resources go where they are supposed to go. Conflict of Interest Any business activity, personal or company related, that interferes with the company's goals or that entails unethical or illegal actions. Constraint Any element or factor that prevents a person from reaching a higher lever of performance with respect to her goal. For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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Corporate Culture The set of important assumptions that members of the company share. It is a system of shared values about what is important and beliefs about how the company works. These common assumptions influence the ways the company operates. Corrective Action It is the implementation of solutions, such as confrontation counseling, resulting in the reduction or elimination of an identified problem. Counseling Talking with a person in a way that helps that person solve a problem or helps to create conditions that will cause the person to improve his behavior, character, or values. Providing basic, technical, and sometimes professional assistance to employees in order to help them with personal and work related problems. Courage The virtue that enables us to conquer fear, danger, or adversity, no matter what the context happens to be (physical or moral). Courage includes the notion of taking responsibility for decisions and actions. Additionally, the idea involves the ability to perform critical self-assessment, to confront new ideas, and to change. Culture The long-term complex phenomenon that can be affected by strategic leaders. Culture represents the shared expectations and self-image of the organization. The mature values that create "tradition", the play out of "climate" or "the feel of the organization" over time, and the deep, unwritten code that frames "how we do things around here" contribute to the culture. Organizational cultu re is a system of shared values, assumptions, beliefs, and norms that unite the members of the organization. Individual leaders cannot easily create or change culture. Decision Making The process of reaching logical conclusions, solving problems, analyzi ng factual information, and taking appropriate actions based on the conclusions. Decision Matrix A matrix used by teams to evaluate possible solutions to problems. Each solution is listed. Criteria are selected and listed on the top row to rate the poss ible solutions. Each possible solution is rated on a scale from 1 to 5 for each criterion and the rating recorded in the corresponding grid. The ratings of all the criteria for each possible

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solution are added to determine each solution's score. The scores are then used to help decide which solution deserves the most attention. Developing The art of developing the competence and confidence of subordinate leaders through role modeling and training and development activities related to their current or future duties. Diversity Committing to establish an environment where the full potential of all employees can be tapped by paying attention to, and taking into account their differences i n work background, experience, age, gender, race, ethic origin, physical abilities, religious belief, sexual orientation, and other perceived differences. Diversity differs from affirmative action, which is more about following laws. Efficiency It is a measure (as a percentage) of the actual output to the standard output expected. Efficiency measures how well someone is performing relative to expectations. Empowerment It is a condition whereby employees have the authority to make decisions and take action in their work areas, jobs, or tasks without prior approval. It allows the employees the responsibility normally associated with staffs. Examples are scheduling, quality, or purchasing decisions. Environment 1. The political, strategic, or operational context within the organization. 2. The external environment is the environment outside the organization. Esprit It is the spirit, soul, and state of mind of an organization. It is the overall consciousness of the organization that a person identifies with and feels a part of. Ethical Climate The "feel of the organization" about the activities that have ethical content or those aspects of the work environment that constitute ethical behavior. The ethical climate is the feel about whether we do things right; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. Ethos

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It is the spirit (esprit d' corps), moral nature, or guiding beliefs of a community or individual. Evaluation It says about Judging the worth, quality, or significance of people, ideas, or things. Executing It is the ability to complete individual and organizational assigned tasks according to specified standards and within certain time criteria or event criteria. Feedback The flow of information back to the learner so that actual performance can be compared with planned performance. Evaluation It is judging the worth, quality, or significance of people, ideas, or things. Executing It is the ability to complete individual and organizational assigned tasks according to specified standards and within certain time criteria or event criteria. Feedback The flow of information back to the learner so that actual performance can be compared with planned performance. Flexibility It is the ability of a system to respond quickly, in terms of range and time, to external or internal changes. Flextime It is an arrangement in which employees are allowed to choose work hours as long as the standard number of work hours are met. Also, some flextime systems require that the hours fall within a certain range, e.g. 5:00 A.M. to 9:00 P.M. Follow-Up It is monitoring of job, task, or project progress to see that operations are performed on schedule. Honor A state of being or state of character, that people possess by living up to the complex set of all the values that make up the public moral code. Honor includes: integrity, For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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courage, loyalty, respect, selfless-service, and duty. Honor demands adherence to a public moral code, not protection of a reputation. Horizontal Leadership It is about viewing leadership as a system so that information becomes networked. Information now flows horizontally. Differs from tradition leadership in which we view information running vertically or in a hierarchical manner. Job Enlargement It is an increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs. It is associated with the design of jobs to reduce employee dissatisfaction. Job Enrichment It is an increase in the number of tasks that an employee performs and an increase in the control over those tasks. It is associated with the design of jobs and is an extension of job enlargement. Management by Objectives (MBO) It is a participative goal-setting process that enables the manager or supervisor to construct and communicate the goals of the department to each subordinate. At the same time, the subordinate is able to formulate personal goals and influence the department's goals. Mentoring A process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, and the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development; mentoring entails informal communication, usually face to-face and during a sustained period of time, between a person who is perceived to have greater relevant knowledge, wisdom, or experience (the mentor) and a person who is perceived to have less (the protg). Model (1) A person that serves as a target subject for a learner to emulate. (2) A representation of a process or system that show the most important variables in the system in such a way that analysis of the model leads to insights into the system. Morale It is the mental, emotional, and spiritual state of an individual. Motivation It is about using an individuals wants and needs to influence how the person thinks and what does. Motivating embodies using appropriate incentives and methods in

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reinforcing individuals or groups as they effectively work toward task accomplishment and resolution of conflicts / disagreements. Coupled with influence, motivating actively involves empowering junior leaders and workers to achieve organizational goals and properly rewarding their efforts as they achieve the goals. Organizational Behavior It is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. Performance Efficiency It is a ratio (percentage) of the actual output of a person as compared to the desired or planned output. Performance rating Observation of a person's performance to rate productivity in terms of the performance standard Performance standard A criterion or benchmark against which actual performance is measured. Planning A course of action for oneself and others to accomplish goals; establishing priorities and planning appropriate allocation of time and resources and proper assignment of people to achieve feasible, acceptable, and suitable goals. Plan-do-check-action (PDCA) Sometimes referred to as the Shewhart Cycle, for the inventor - Walter A. Shewhart. A four step process for quality improvement: Plan - A plan to effect improvement is developed Do - The plan is carried out, first, on a small scale if possible Check - The effects of the plan are observed Action - The results are studied and observed to determine what was learned and what can be predicted Process improvement Activities designed to identify and eliminate causes of poor quality, process variation, and non-value added activities. Productivity An overall measure of the ability to produce a product or service. It is the actual output of production compared to the actual input of resources. For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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Quality Conformance to the requirements of a stated product or service attribute. Respect The regard and recognition of the absolute dignity that every human being possesses. Respect is treating people as they should be treated. Specifically, respect is indicative of compassion and consideration of others, which includes a sensitivity to and regard for the feelings and needs of others and an awareness of the effect of one's own behavior on them. Respect also involves the notion of treating people justly. Selfless service the proper ordering of priorities. Think of it as service before self. The welfare of the organization come before the individual. This does not mean that the individual neglects to take care of family or self. Also, it does not preclude the lead er from having a healthy ego or self esteem, nor does it preclude the leader from having a healthy sense of ambition. It does, however, preclude selfish careerism. Skills (competencies) Those abilities that people develop and use with people, with ideas, and with things, hence, the division of interpersonal, cognitive, and technical skills. Standard An established norm against which measurements are compared. The time allowed to perform a task including the quality and quantity of work to be produced. Standard time The length of time that should be required to perform a task through one complete cycle. It assumes an average worker follows prescribed procedures and allows time for rest to overcome fatigue. Strategy The creation of a unique and valuable market position supported by a system of activities that fit together in a complementary way. It is about making choices, tradeoffs, and deliberately choosing to be different. Stress

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The real or perceived demand on the mind, emotions, spirit, or body. Too much stress puts an undo amount of pressure upon us and drives us into a state of tension. Controlled stress (arousal) is good as it is what motivates us. Supervising The ability to establish procedures for monitoring and regulating processes, tasks, or activities of employees and one's own job, taking actions to monitor the results of delegated tasks or projects. Tactics A conceptual action for attaining a particular goal. While strategies are forwardlooking, tactical is more or less present or now-orientated. It is about present performance gaps and how you are going to overcome them in order to support the strategies. Theory of constraints (TOC) A management philosophy developed by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt that is broken down into three interrelated areas - logistics, performance measurement, and logical thinking. Logistics include drum-buffer-rope scheduling, buffer management, and VAT analysis. Performance measurement includes throughput, inventory and operating expense, and the five focusing steps. Logical thinking includes identifying the root problem (current reality tree), identifying and expanding win-win solutions (evaporating cloud and future reality tree), and developing implementation plans (prerequisite tree and transition tree). Total employee involvement An empowerment technique where employees participate in actions and decision making that were traditionally reserved for management. Total quality management (TQM) Describes Japanese style management approaches to quality improvement. It includes the long term success of the organization through customer satisfaction and is based on participation of all members of the organization in improving process, products, service, culture, etc. Trait A distinguishing quality or characteristic of a person. For a trait to be developed in a person, that person must first believe in and value that trait. Values Ideas about the worth or importance of things, concepts, and people. For free study notes log on: www.gurukpo.com

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Visioning Providing a sense of direction for the long term by articulating and defining what has previously remained implicit or unsaid. Visioning often uses images, metaphors, and models that provide a focus for new attention. Worker efficiency A measure (usually computed as a percentage) of worker performance that compares the standard time allowed to complete a task to the actual worker time to complete it.

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Case Study #1
A president was newly appointed as head of an entertainment company. The company owned similar venues at multiple national and international sites and he was charged with bringing together these businesses under one global, strategic and cultural umbrella. The key challenge was to instill a sense of urgency in a company which was number one in its industry and resting on its laurels. He quickly needed to position his businesses for exponential growth in response to competitors on the horizon who were quickly gaining in popularity and market share. During the engagement we worked with the President and the executive team and achieved the following results: Developed a long term and sustainable global roll-out plan for change. Coached the top ninety executives to define a clear strong and motivating vision, strategy, and culture. Designed and led strategic alignment and change management retreats for key executives at multiple sites to facilitate the buy-in process. Defined leadership traits and behaviors required to lead strategic change and developed an executive development and performance management process to reinforce these. Implemented a 360-degree leadership assessment process and development program for the top 800 leaders in the company that was cascaded down through the organization. Created a dialogue and feedback-rich culture by implementing issues forums, team-building opportunities for problem solving, goal setting, and leadership effectiveness team sessions. Utilized inclusive, collaborative methodologies involving employees at all levels to identify, address, and resolve key issues pertaining to productivity and growth, as well as guest and employee satisfaction.

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Case Study #2
The senior vice president of operations at a major resort company was frustrated by the behaviors and performance of managers and employees who dealt directly with guests. He thought he clearly articulated his expectations to his direct reports but little was changing in their individual areas of the business. There were few managers acting as role models to provide on-the-job training. Because of this, he personally walked his food service businesses and gave feedback and coaching wherever and whenever he saw the need. He realized that this was an inefficient way to use his time. His vice presidents began receiving distressing feedback from their managers complaining of employees confused about the chain of command. Should they listen to their managers or the senior vice president? As the employees spoke with each other they sometimes learned that they were receiving conflicting directions. This created turmoil in the organization. Although his intentions were good, the senior vice president clearly needed to find more effective solutions to his service challenges. We partnered with the client to: Clarify his role and focus, as well as those of his vice presidents. Refocused his efforts on developing his direct reports to deliver extraordinary customer service. Helped him use his great talent as speaker and motivator to address large groups of employees on the key success factors relevant to great customer service. Created Great Leaders Strategies process and tools which clearly defined the roles of leaders in the organization. These included clear, demonstrable, applicable and measurable behaviors and checklists which were used as a basis for coaching, education and assessment. Assembled an internal training team who redoubled efforts to refine the approach to training front line managers and employees on customer service based on Great Leader Strategies.

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Case Study #3
A highly talented and accomplished leader was brought in from another company to head up a large division. Her cavalier abrasive style and lack of poli tical savvy in her new in environment was quickly eroding her credibility with internal partners and the respect and trust of her team. Her boss was aware of the issue and was determined to do what he could to keep her in her position if possible. After gi ving her feedback about the situation, it was clear she needed more help than he could provide. We partnered with her boss and worked to clarify, calm and resolve the dysfunctional dynamics by: Gathering leadership and personal style feedback from key partners and team members. Facilitating a new leader transition meeting to set the tone for increasing mutual understanding and sharing of important experience and knowledge between the new leader and her team. Developing a relationship-building plan to use with each peer partner to rebuild connection and trust. Mediating conflict resolution conversations between the leader and others where needed. Providing on-going coaching to her boss, leader, partners and team members to assure the trust building process remained on track. Providing process consultation at team meetings to guide the leader and her team in using inclusive collaborative behaviors. Working with Human Resources to develop leadership coaching capability in their area.

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Bibliography
1. The Leadership Development Handbook, Center for Creative Leadership and Organizational Behavior, 4th ed, by Stephen Robbins , Bruce Millet & Terry WatersMarsh, published by Prentice Hall 2. Best Practices in Leadership Development and Organization Change, Best Practice Institute, by Louis L. Carter, Marshall Goldsmith, and David Ulrich by Jossey Bass Pfeiffer. 3. The Leadership Development Guide Australian Leadership Development Centre 4. S. Cromwell & J. Kolb 2004, An examination of work-environment support factors affecting transfer of supervisory skills training to the work place, Human Resource Development Quarterly, Vol. 15 No. 4, pp. 449-71. 5. Baldwin, T. & Ford, K. (1988), "Transfer Of Training: A Review And Directions For Future Research', Personnel Psychology, Spring, Vol. 41 Issue 1, p63-105 6. Organizational Behavior, 4th ed, by Stephen Robbins, Bruce Millet & Terry WatersMarsh, published by Prentice Hall

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