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EGR 236 Properties and Mechanics of Materials Lecture 17: Bending Stress

Spring 2013

oda!" ## $o%e&or' (uestions" ## )e& opics" ## So%e %ore Shear#Mo%ent *iagra%s ## Stress in Bea%s su+,ected to Bending ## Mo%ent of -nertia ## $o%e&or'" Read Section 6"3#. /or' Pro+le%s fro% 0hap 6" 371 731 721 30 4ollo&ing toda!5s class !ou should +e a+le to" -- State where the maximum stresses will be found in a beam subjected to bending loads. -- Be able to calculate the maximum stress in a beam caused by a bending load -- Understand the difference between compressive and tensile bending stress. Bea%s" Whenever there is an internal +ending %o%ent M acting on the cross section of a beam this will set up nor%al stresses in the beam.
% #' x & & $-x #B

!he stress set up by such a bending moment tends to be maximum as you reach the outer fibers of the beam. !here is also a location in the cross section where the stress drops to "ero along what is called the neutral a6is. (comp
)eutral 'xis

% % & &

(ten

!he neutral axis runs through the centroid of the area of the cross section. !he stress increases linearly with the distance from the neutral axis. So the farther away a portion of the cross section is from the centroid the larger will be the normal stress due to bending.

% % & &

(comp
)eutral 'xis

(ten *n one side of the neutral axis the stresses will be tensile. *n the other side the stresses will be compressive. !he magnitude of these normal stresses are given by a formula +nown as the flexure formula

Mc I

where % is the resultant internal bending moment c is the distance from the neutral axis , is the moment inertia of the cross section about the neutral axis )ote that the negative sign is an indication of whether the stress is tensile or compressive. )egative means a compressive stress. Procedure for anal!sis of +ea%s su+,ected to +ending7 -. /etermine the internal reactions. #ind the distribution of & and % along the length of beam. !his is usually done by drawing the Shear and %oment diagrams. 0. /etermine the Section 1roperties. !his may include needing to a. locate the neutral axis through the centroid of the area b. determine the moment of inertia about the centroid 2. /etermine the maximum normal compressive and tensile stresses by use of the flexure formula

E6a%ple 1" ' !-shaped beam built from two wooden boards has the loading shown below. /etermine the maximum compressive and tensile stress in the beam.
78 -8 98 ' B w 4 5 lb6ft

-8

7 ft

Solution: Step -: #ind the internal bending moment by drawing the shear and moment diagrams: w 4 5 lb6ft

B ' 7 ft w 4 5 lb6ft $oad /iagram -3 lb


:-3 lb

-3 lb

Shear /iagram

-3 lb-ft

--3 lb

%oment /iagram

%aximum internal bending moment is -3 lb-ft at the middle of the span.

Step 0: /etermine the section properties: a. find the centroidal axis: ycentoid

78 -8 98

ycent = ycent =

Arect1 ycent1 + Arect2 ycent2 Arect1 + Arect2

ycent -8

;-8<78.;9.58.:;-8<98.;78. = 5.58 ;-8<78.:;-8<98.

b. find the moment of inertia about the centroid. =ecall that moment of inertia of a body can be found by adding the centroidal inertia to the parallel axis theorem component.

I = I cent + Ad 2
#or this cross section ;which has two rectangular shapes.

78

dd0 -8 98

-8

I rect1 = I cent1 + A1d12 I rect1 = I rect1


and

1 3 b1h1 + ( b1h1 )d12 12 = ;7.;-.2 :;7<-.;9.5-5.5. 0 = 2>.22 in 4 -0

I rect2 = I cent2 + A2d22 I rect2 = I rect2 1 3 b2 h2 + ( b2 h2 )d22 12 = ;-.;9.2 :;9<-.;7-5.5. 0 = >3.>? in 4 -0

78 -8 )eutral 'xis 98

(comp

!otal inertia

I = I rect1 + I rect2 = @? in 4
2. #ind the maximum bending stresses: Use %max 4 -3 lb-ft

-8

(ten

top =

Mc ;-3 lb ft.;2.5in. -0in = 4 -7.22 psi I @?in 7 -ft Mc ;-3 lb ft.;-5.5in. -0in = 4 :>.93 psi I @?in 7 -ft

(compression of 7.22 psi (tension of >.9 psi

bottom =

E6a%ple 2" ' beam is built from a hollow circular tube ;outside diameter 78 and inside diameter 28. that supports the loading shown below. /etermine the stress along at points ' B and A at the location of the span with the maximum bending stress. Solution: a. #ind the support loads then draw the Shear and %oment /iagram.
$oad /iagram Shear /iagram ' 28 -58 08 - +ip 0 +ip B

%oment /iagram

b. #ind Section 1roperties


B 28 B ' A B 78

cross section c. #ind Bending Stresses

Solution" a. #ind the support loads then draw the Shear and %oment /iagram.

- +ip

0 +ip B

' 28 -58 08

M = 3

3 = 2in;-kip . + -9in;0kip . + ;03in. FB $oad /iagram FB = -.@5 kip


y

-.35 +ip 3.35 +ip 2.@ +ip-in

-.@5+ip

=3

3 = FA -kip 0kip + FB FA = -kip + 0kip -.@5 = -.35kip

Shear /iagram

-.35 +ip

2.-5 +ip-in %oment /iagram

--.@5 +ip

)ote: %aximum stress occurs at the point of the maximum moment: !he point where the 0 +ip load is applied. Mmax 4 2.@ +ip in b. #ind Section 1roperties
B 28 B ' A B 78 I=

D 7 d 7 ) = ( 7in 7 2in 7 ) = 9.5@in 7 ( >7 20


cB = 0in cB = -.5in

cA = 3

cross section c. #ind Bending Stresses


=
Mc I

for point ': for point B: for point A:

A =

McA =3 I McB ;2.@kip in.;0in. = = 3.@39kip 6 in 0 7 I 9.5@in McC ;2.@kip in.;-.5in. = = 3.>9-kip 6 in 0 7 I 9.5@in

B =

C =

Wor+ *ut 1roblem 2.

Wor+ *ut 1roblem 7.

Wor+ *ut 1roblem 5.

2 lb6ft

-3 lb6ft

-5 lb6ft

'

2 ft C - ft each

- ft 23 lb

- ft

'

0 ft