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lndiun Standard

METHODSOFTESTFORVULCANIZEDRUBBERS
PART2 ( HARDNESS

Second Revision J
First Reprint APRIL 1998 CIDC 678*43 : 620*178-l

8 BIS 1995

RUREAU
MANAK

OF
BHAVAN,

INDIAN

STANDARDS
ZAFAR MARG

9 RAHADUR SHAH NEW DELHI 110002

March

1995

Price Group 4

Kuhbcr

Products Sectional Committee,

PCD 13

FOREWORI) This Indian Standard ( Part 2 ) ( Second Revision ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Staudards, after the draft finalized by the Rubber Products Sectional Committee had been approved by the Petroleum, Coal and Related Products Division Council. This standard was first published in 1965 and revised in 1980 to include mainly the testing of thin pieces of rubber by a scaled-down version ( micro-test ) of the normal test to align it with IS0 48:1979 Vulcanized rubbers - Determination of hardness ( hardness between 30 and 85 JRHD ) published by the International Organization for Standardization. There was one more IS0 Specification IS0 1818 : 1975 Vulcanized rubbers of low hardness ( 10 to 35 IRHD ) - Determination of hardness. Revision of IS0 48 : 1979 was made in 1987 for determination of hardness of vulcanized rubbers ( hardness between 10 and 100 LRHD ). Consequently this Indian Standard has been revised to align it kvith ISO/DIS 48 ( under print ). The hardness test specified in this second revision is intended to provide a rapid measurement of rubber stiffness, unlike hardness test on other materials which measure resistance to permanent deformation or to abrasion. Hardness is measured from the depth of indentation of a spherical indentor under a specified load into a rubber test piece. The measured indentation is converted into international rubber hardness degree, the scale of degrees being so chosen that zero represents the hardness of a material having an elastic modulus of zero and 100 represents the hardness of a material of infinite elasticity modulus and so that the following conditions are fulfilled over most of the normal range of hardness: one International rubber hardness degree always represents approximately the same proportionate difference in Youngs Modulus, and b) for highly elastic rubbers, the scale of international rubber hardness degrees and the Shore A durometer are comparable. For substantially elastic isotropic materials like well vulcanized natural rubbers, the hardness in interto Youngs Modulus, although for national rubber hardness degrees bears a known relation markedly plastic or anisotropic rubbers, the relationship will be less precisely known. In reporting the result of a test-or analysis, made in accordance with this standard, if the final value, observed or calculated, is to be rounded off, it shall be done in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised ). a)

IS34OO(Part2):1995

Indian Standard

METHODSOFTESTFORVULCANIZEDRUBBERS
PART 2 HARDNESS ( 1 SCOPE This standard prescribes four tnethods for the detertnirtatiou of hardttess of vulcattized rubbers ott flat surfaces: Met/t&N: Detertnittatiott of hardness (Nortnal test) Merlwd H: Detertttinatiott of hardttess (High ltardttess test) Metlwd L: Detertnittation of hardness (Low hardttess test) Method M: Deterntittatiott of hardttess (Micro-test) and four tnethods for the detertninatiott of apparettt hardttess of curved surfaces usittg Methods N, H, Lattd M respectiv,ely: Methods ( CN, CH, CL attd CM ). The methods differ pritttarily in the diattteter of the ittdetttittg ball attd the tnagttihtde of the ittdetttittg force, these being chosen b suit the particular application. The rattge of applicability of each is detailed below:
The ttormal test for hardttess is the tttethod for test pieces of thickness 4 mtn attd is preferably usedfor rubbers of 35 to 85 IRHD but may be used for range 30 to 95 IRHD. Merlwd H: The appropriate method for test pieces of thickness greater than 4 mm and of hardness itt the rattge 85 to 100 IRHD. MelCwd L: The appropriate tnethod for test pieces of thickness greater thatt 6 tnm attd hardttess in the rattge of 10 to 35 W-ID. Method N:

Second Revision )
the rubber surface tested is curve. Two cases depettdettt on whether 4 the test piece or article tested is large cuottgh for the hardttess ittstrutttettt to rest upott it, or stttall enough for both the test piece and the ittstrub) tttettt lo rest upott a cottttttott support are accottttttodated. A variattt of(b) would be where the test piece rests ou tht, specitttett table ofthe ittstrutnettt. The procedures described cattttot provide for all possible shapes attd ditttettsiotts of test pieces but cover sotne of the cottttttottest types such as 0 rittgs. Cottsequetttly this method is ttot suitable for testittg of tttaterials ordittarily classified as ebonite, latex film, spottge attd cellular rubber. 2 TERMINOLOGY 2.1 stress The average cross-sectiott. 2.2 Strain The alteratiott of the shape or ditttettsiott rcsttltittg tiottt stress, this alteratiott beittg expressed as it fraction 01 the original shape. or ditnettsiott. 2.3 Youngs Modulus The ratio of either littear cotttpressivc stress to littrar cotttpressive straitt, or tettsile stress to tensile straitt, whett the straitt is very stnall. 2.4 Hardness The resistattce to the indentation. 2.5 Standard Hardness (Denoted IBY the Letter S) The hardttess .reporled to the ttearest whole ttutttbcr itt ittterttatiottal rubber hardness degree obtained usittg the procedures described in Mehtods N, H, L attd M ott lest pieces of the stattdard Ihickttess and ttot less than the tttittitttuttt lateral ditttettsiotts specified. 2.6 Apparent Hardness The hardttess reported to the nearest whole ttutnbrr in ittterttatiottal rubber hardttess degrees obtaitted ttsittg the procedures described itt Methods N, H, Lattd M on test pieces of non-standard ditttettsiotts attd using Methods CN, CH, CL attd CM. NOTE - Values obtained by Methods <N, (II, <I. and
CM arc ;IIW;IYS given as apparent hardness since tcsk are commonly made on the complctc articles whcrc the

load

per unit

area

of the

origittal

appropriate greater thatt in the rattge those in the

NOTE - The value of hardness obtained by the Method N within the ranges 85 to 95 IRHD and 30 to 35 IRHD may not agree precisely with that obtained using Method N or Method Lrespectively. The difference is not normally significant for technical purposes.

MethodM:

The micro-test for hardttess is essetttially a scaled-down versiott of the ttortnal test Method N pertttittittg testittg of thitttter attd stttaller test pieces. It is the appropriate tnethod for test pieces of thickttess less thatt 4 mnt attd is preferably tised for rubbers itt the rattge 35 to 85 IRHD but tttay be used for those in the rattge 30 to 95 IRHD. NOTE - Because of various surface. effects in the rubber
and of any slight surface roughness (produced for example, by huffing), the micro-test will not always give results agreeing with those obtained by the normal test.

Methods CN, CH, CL and CM: Apparettf hardttess

tests ott curved surface. These methods are tnoditicatiotts of the tttethods givett itt Methods N, H, L attd M for cases where

IS 3400 ( Part 2 ) : 1995


thickness of the rubbers will vary and in many cases the lateral dimensions will not provide the minimum distance between the indentor and the edge necessary to eliminate edge effects. The readings obtained, therefore, do not in general coincide with readings on standard test pieces as defined in Methods N, H, L or M or on a tlat parallel-face slab of the same thickness as the article. Moreover, the readings may depend appreciably on the methods of support of the articles and whether or not a pressure foot has been used. It should, therefore, be recognized that test results on curved surfaces are arbitrary values applicable only to the test pieces or articles of one particular shape and dimension supported in one particular way, and which in extreme cases may differ from the standard hardness by as much as 10 IRHD. Furthermore, surfaces that have been buffed or otherwise prepared to remove cloth-marking, etc, will giveslightly different hardness values from those with a smooth, moulded finish.

where. F = the indenting force, expressed in Newtons; attd R = the radius of the ball, expressed itt tnillimetre; and

b)

3 PRINCIPLE 3.1 The bardttess test consists in nteasttrig the difference betweeu the depths of ittdentation of a ball into the rubber under a small contact force and a large total force. Fro111 this ditterettce, tttultiplied when using the t&o-test by the scale factor 6, the hardness in ittterttatiottal rubber harduess degree is obtained by using Tables 3 to 5 or on graphs based ott these tables, or a scale reading directly in IRHD and calculated from the tables, fitted to the indentation-measurittg instrutttettt. These tables and curves are derived frottt the empirical relationship between ittdetttatiott depth and hardness. 3.2 The relatiott betweett the difference of ittdetttatiott and the hardttess expressed in intentatiottal rubber hardness degree is based ott: a) the kttown relation, for a perfectly elastic isotropic material, betweett ittdetttation P, expressed in huttdredtlts of a millitttetre and Yottttgs Modulus M, expressed in tttegayascals, ttatttel y

the use of a probit (integrated normal error) curve to relate log&4 to the hardness in interttatiottal rubber hardttess degrees, as showtt in Fig. 1, 2 attd 3. This curve is defitted as 1) the value of logl& corresponding to the mid-point of the curve = 0.364 (M being expressed in megapascals per square tnetre); 2) the maxintutn slope = 57 international rubber hardttess degree per uttit increase in loglo M.

4 APPARATIJS 4.1 For Methods N, H, Land M The essetttial parts of the apparatus are as follows, the appropriate dintettsions and forces being shown in Table 1. 4.1.1 Vertical Plunger Havittg a rigid ball or spherical surface on the lower end attd means for supporfittg the plunger so that the spherical tip is kept slightly above the surface of the atutular foot prior to applying the cotttact force. 4.1.2 Means for Applying a Contact Force and an Additional Indenting Force to the Plunger Making allowance for the mass of plttttger including any fittittgs attached to it attd for the force of any sprittg acting on it, so that the forces actually transmitted through the spherical end of the plunger shall be as specified.

97.8

100
90 80 70

A0 Iv, ob

51.7 40.0

60 50 40 20 30 10 1.0 1.4 1.8 0.2 0.6

z% sg g=

29.8 20.9 8.0 3.1

1.0

1.4

1.8

LOGloE

(E EXPRESSED IN MEGAPASCALS)

FIG. 1

&3.,UlON OF hc;,,

E n, HARDNESS IN IRHD

FROM 0 TO 100

ISMOO(Part2):1995 4.1.3 Means for Measuring the Increase in Depth of Indentation of the Plunger It is caused by the indenting force, either in metric units or reading directly in RI-ID. The means employed may be mechanical, optical or electrical. ....
40.6
40

measuring device, so that a measurement is made of the movement of the plunger relative to the foot (that IS, the top surface of the test piece, not relative to the surface supporting the test piece).

30

20

67.6

l/i

i i i i

10

ul l.2 1.4 l.6 l.6 0 0.2


LOG,oE :E;PEMED, IN FIG. 3 RELA~ON OFLCX+~ E TDHARDNESS LN

IRHD FROM 80 TO 100 4.1.5 Means for Gently Virating t/w Apparatus

FIG.2

RELATION

E TOHARDNESS IN IRHDFROM3?D40
OF Loq,,

4.1.4 Flat Annular Foot Normal to the axis of the plunger and having a central hole for the passage of the plunger. The foot rests on the test pieces and exerts a pressure on it of 30 * 5 kPa (30 f 5 KN/m*), provided that total load on the foot does not fall outside the values given in Table 1. The foot shall be rigidly connected to the indentation-

For example,an electrically operated buzzer, to overcome any slight friction. (This may be omitted in instruments where friction is completely eliminated). 4.1.6 Chamber for the Test Piece Wheel tests are made at temperatures other than a standard laboratory temperature. This chamber shall be equipped with means of maintaining the temperature within 2C of the desired value. The foot and vertical plunger shall extend through the top of the chamber,

Table 1 Forces and Dimensions of Apparatus ( Clauses 4.1 and 4.1.4 ) Test
Diameters Force on Ball Force on Foot Total N (5) 5.70 f 0.03 5.70 * 0.03 5.70 * 0.03 mN 153.3 f 1.0 N (6) 8.3 zt 1.5 8.3 zt 1.5

cbntact mm
N

Indenting N (4) 5.40 * 0.01 5.40 f 0.01 5.40 * 0.01 mN 145 * 0.5

(1)
Method N (Normal test) Method H (High hardness)

(2)
p&l2io5~fi0.01 Hole 6 * 1 p&it l$*$O.Ol Hole 6 2 2 Ball 5.00 * 0.01 Foot 22 i 2 Hole 10 z 2 mm

(3)
0.30 f 0.02 0.30 f 0.02

(Low hardness)

Method L

0.30 * 0.02 mN 8.3 f 0.5

8.3 ztz1.5

mN 235 * 30

Method M (Micro-test)

Ball 0.95 f 0.005 Foot 3.35 zt 0.15 Hole 1.00 * 0.15

IS34OO(Part2):1995

aud the portion passing through the top shall be coustrutted from a material having a low thennal couductivity. A sensing device shall be located withiu the chamber, near or at the locatiou of the test piece, for measuring the temperature. In the micro-test using instruments iu which the test piece table is pressed upwards by a spring, the values of foot pressure aud force ou foot are those acting during the period of applicatiou of the total force. Before the indeuting force of 145 mN is applied, the force on the foot is greater by this amount, and hence equals 380 k 30 mN.
NOTE - Not all possible combinations of dimensions and forces in Table 1 will meet the pressure requirements of 4.1.4. 4.2 For Methods CN, CH, CL and CM

5 TEST PIECES 5.1 For Methods N, II, Land M - General

The test pieces shall have its upper and lower surfaces flat, smooth and parallel to oue another.

Tests intended to be comparable pieces of the same thickuess.

shall be made ou test

To obtaiu thickness greater thau 4 mm, it is permissible

to superimpose hvo pieces of rubber (but not more thau two), provided that these have flat parallel surfaces.
5.1.1 Thickness 5.1.1.1 For Methods N and H

The staudard test piece shall be 8 to 10 mm thick. Non-standard test pieces may be either thicker or thinuer but uot less thau 4 mm thick.
5.1.1.2 For Method L

The apparatus used shall be essentially that described in 4.1 but differing in the following respects. 4.2.1 Cylindrical Surface of Radius Greater than SOmm The base of the instrumeut shall have a hole below the plunger allowing free passage of the aunular foot such that measurement may be made above or below the base. The lower surface of the base shall be in the form of two cylinders parallel to each other aud the plaue of the base. The diameter of the cylinders aud their distauce apart shall be such as to locate and support the iustrumeut ou the curved surface to be tested. Alteruatively, the modified base may be fitted with feet movable in uuiversal joiuts so that they adopt themselves to the curved surface. 4.2.2 Surfaces withDouble Curvature ofLarge Radius Greater than 50 mm The instrumeut be used. of 4.2.1 haviug adjustable feet should

The staudard test piece shall be 10 to 15 mm thick. Non-standard test pieces may be either thicker or thiuuer but not less than 6 mm thick. 5.1.1.3 For Method M The staudard test piece shall have a thickuess of 2 2 0.5 mm. Because of the variable effects of surface hardeuing of the rubber aud of auy slight surface roughuess (produced, for example, by buffing), uo standard thickness of test piece will always give results agreeing with &hose of the normal test using its standard test piece. A thickness in the rauge 1.6 to 2 mm will most often give such agreemeut, but this will uot always be exact. Thicker or thiuuer teSt pieces may be used, but in no case less thau 1 mm thick. On such test pieces, the readiugs will uot in geueral agree with those giveu by the uormal test. 5.1.2 Lateral Dimensions 5.1.2.1 For Methods N, Hand L The lateral dimensions ofboth staudard aud nou-staudard test pieces shall be such that no test is made at a distance from the edge of the test piece less thau the appropriate distauce showu iu Table 2.
Table 2 Minimum Distance of Point of Contact from Test Piece Edge Total Thickness of the Test Piece mm (1) 4 6 8 10 1.5 25 4 Minimum Distance from the Point of Contact to Edge of Test Piece mm (2) 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0

4.2.3 Cylindrical Surfaces of Radius 4 to SO nun or Small Test Pieces with Double Curvature On surfaces, too small to support the instrument, the
test piece or article shall be supported by means of special jigs or V blocks so that the indentor is vertically above the test surface. Wax may be used to fix small items to the specimen table. NOTES 1 In general, an instrument as described for Method M should be used only where the thickness of the rubber tested is less than 4 mm. 2 lnstruments for Method M in which the test piece table is pressed upwards hy a spring are not suitable for use on large test pieces or articles of large radius of curvature.

4.2.4 Small 0 Rings and Articles of Radius of Curvature Less thfln 4 mm These shall be held iu suitable jigs or blocks or secured by wax to the instrument table. Measuremeuts shall be made using the instrumeut for Method M. No test shall be made if the smallest radius is less than 0.8 mm.

11.5
13.0

IS34oo(Part2):1995 5.1.2.2 For Method M The lateral dimensions shall be such that no test is made at a distnace from the edge of less than 2 mm. When test pieces thicker than 4 mm are tested on the micro-test instrument because lateral dimensions or area of flatness do not permit testing on a normal instrument, the test shall be made at a distance from the edge as great as possible. 5.2 For Methods CN, CH, CL and CM The test piece shall be either a complete article or a piece cut therefrom. The underside of a cut piece shall be such that it can be well supported during the hardness test. If the surface on which the test is to be made is cloth-marked, it shall be buffed prior to testing. Test pieces shall be allowed to recover at rootn temperature for at least 16 h after buffig and shall be conditioned in accordance with 5.3. The conditioning period may form part of the recovery period. 5.3 Conditioning 8.1 Expression of Results Tests shall not be carried out less than 16 h after vulcanization and, for arbitration, not less than 72 h after vulcanization. When a test is made at a standard laboratory temperature, the test pieces shall be maintained at the conditions of test for at least 3 h immediately before testing. When tests are made at higher or lower temperatures, the test pieces shall be maintained at the conditions of test for a period of time sufficient to reach temperature equilibrium with the testing environment, or for the period of time required by the specification covering the material or product being tested. 6 TEMPERAITJRE OF TEST Hardness shall be reported to the nearest whole number as the median of the three or five measurements in international rubber hardness degrees (indicated by the degree sign ) followed by: Either the letter S for the standard test piece a> thickness or the thickness and smallest lateral ditnension (in millimetres) for tests on nonstandard test pieces (the result then being apparent hardness). The code letter for the method, for example, N for normal test, H for high, L for low and M for micro-test. For tests on curved surfaces, the prefix letter C. seconds, when a direct reading of the hardness in international rubber hardness degrees is obtained. 7.1.2 If the gauge is graduated in metric units, the difference in indentations (expressed in hundredths of a millimetre) of the plunger caused by the additional indenting force, applied for 30 seconds, shall be noted. This (after tnultiplying by the scale factor of 6 when using the apparatus for the micro-test), shall be converted into international rubber hardness degrees by using Tables 3 to 5 or a graph constructed therefrom. During the loading periods, the apparatus may be gently vibrated to overcome any friction. 7.2 Number of Readings One measurement shall be made at either three or five different points distributed over the test piece and the median of the results shall be taken; that is, the middle value when these are arranged in increasing order. 8 TEST RESULTS

b) Cl

The test shall normally be carried out at 27 2 2C, the same tetnperature shall be used throughout any one test or series of tests intended to be comparable. 7 PROCEDlJRE 7.1 The test piece shall be first conditioned as specified in 5.3. The upper and lower surface of the test piece shall be lightly dusted with talcum powder, and the test piece supported on a horizontal rigid surface. The foot shall first be brought into contact with the surface of the test piece. The plunger and indenting ball Vshall be pressed for 5 seconds onto the rubber, the force on the . ball being the contact force. 7.1.1 If the gauge is graduated in international rubber hardness degrees, it shall be adjusted to read 100 at the end of the 5 seconds period. The additional indenting force shall thett be applied and tnaintained for 30

8.2 Test Report The test particulars: report shall include the following

a) 4

4 4 e) 9

Hardness expressed as in 8.1; Dimensions of test piece and whether made up of one or two pieces. In the case of curved or irregularly shaped specimens, specimen description, method of mounting and method of applying test; Temperature of test; Type of surface tested (moulded, buffed or otherwise); Type of apparatus used; and Any deviation from the procedure specified.

IS34oo(Part2):1995 Table 3 Conversion of Values of D to International Rubber Hardness Depes fl = differential


D
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 1.5 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 3s 36 37 38 39 10 I1 12 13 14 15 indentation in hundredths

(IRIID) for IJse in Method N nun indentor


D
138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 16X 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 1X0

of a millimetre, (Clauses 3.1 and 7.1.2)

with 2.5

IRHD 100.0 100.0 99.9 99.8 99.6 99.3 99.0 98.6 98.1 97.7 97.1 96.5 95.9 95.3 94.7 94.0 93.4 92.7 92.0 91.3 90.6 89.8 89.2 88.5 87.8 87.1 86.4 85.7 85.0 84.3 83.0 82.9 82.2 81.5 80.9 80.2 80.0 78.9 78.2 77.6 77.0 76.4 75.8 75.9 74.5 73.9

D
46 47

IRHD 73.3 72.7 72.2 71.6 71.0 70.4 69.8 69.3 68.7 68.2 67.6 67.1 66.6 66.0 65.5 65.0 64.5 64.0 63.5 63.0 62.5 62.0 61.5 61.1 60.6 60.1 59.7 59.2 58.8 58.3 57.9 57.5 57.0 56.6 56.2 55.8 55.4 55.0 54.6 54.2 53.8 53.4 53.0 52.7 52.3 52.0

D
92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137

IRHD 51.6 51.2 50.9 50.5 50.2 49.8 49.5 49.1 48.8 4X.5 48.1 47.8 47.5 47.1 46.8, 46.5 46.2 45.X 45.6 45.3 45.0 44.7 44.4 44.1 43.8 43.5 43.3 43.0 42.7 42.5 42.2 41.9 41.7 41.4 41.1 40.9 40.6 40.4 40.1 39.9 39.6 39.4 39.1 38.9 38.7 38.4

IRHD 38.2 38.0 37.8 37.5 37.3 37.1 36.6 36.7 36.5 36.2 36.0 35.8 35.6 35.4 35.2 35.0 34.8 34.6 34.4 34.2 34.0 33.8 33.6 33.4 33.2 33.0 32.X 32.6 32.4 32.3 32.1 31.9 31.7 31.6 31.4 31.2 31.1 30.9 30.7 30.5 30.4 30.2 30.0

~ I I

48
49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91

IS34w(lart2): Table 4 (Joaversion of Values ofD into International Rubber Hardness Degrees (IRHD) for Use in Method H D = differential

1995

indentation,

in hundredths of a millimetrr,
(C/trrrses 3.1 and 7.1.2)

with 1 IWII ideutor

D
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

IRHD 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.9 99.9 99.8 99.6 99.5 99.3 99.1 98.8 98.6 98.3 98.0 97.6

D
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

IRHD 97.3 97.0 96.6 96.2 95.8 95.4 95.0 94.6 94.2 93.6 93.4 92.9 92.5 92.0 91.6

D
30 31 32 33 34 3.5 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

IRHD 91.1 90.7 90.2 89.7 89.3 88.8 88.4 87.9 87.5 87.0 86.6 86.1 85.7 85.3 84.8

IS 3400 ( Part 2 ) : 1995 Table 5 Conversion of Values of D into International Rubber Hardness Degrees (IRHD) for Use in Method L

D = differeutial indentation, in hundredths of a millirnetre, with 5 mn indentor


(clfluses

3.1

and

7.1.2) D
250 252 254 256 258 260 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 3(K) 302 304 306 30s 310 312 313 316 318

D
.lO 112 114 116 118 120 122 124 126 128 L30 132 L34 136 138 L40 142 144 146 148 150 152 1.54 156 158 160 162 164 166 168 170 172 174 176 178

IRHD
34.9 34.4 33.9 33.4 32.9 32.4 31.9 31.4 30.9 30.4 30.0 29.6 29.2 28.8 28.4 28.0 27.6 27.2 26.8 26.4 26.1 25.7 25.4 25.0 24.7 24.4 24.1 23.8 23.5 23.1 22.8 22.5 22.2 21.9 21.6

D
180 182 184 186 188 190 192 194 196 198 200 202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 230 232 234 236 238 240 242 244 246 248

IRHD
21.3 21.1 20.8 20.6 20.3 20.1 19.8 19.6 19.4 19.2 18.9 18.7 18.5 18.3 18.0 17.8 17.6 17.4 17.2 17.0 16.8 16.6 16.4 16.2 16.0 15.8 15.6 15.4 15.3 15.1 14.9 1J.X 14.6 14.4 14.3

IRHD
14.1 14.0 13.8 13.7 13.5 13.4 13.3 13.1 13.0 12.8 12.7 12.6 12.5 12.3 12.2 12.1 12.0 11.8 11.7 11.6 11.5 11.4 11.3 11.2 11.1 11.o 10.9 10.8 10.6 10.5 10.4 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.9

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