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www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2008/

Dr. Sam C. M. Hui

Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Hong Kong E-mail: cmhui@hku.hk

Jan 2012

Contents

Basic Concepts Outdoor and Indoor Design Conditions Cooling Load Components Cooling Load Principles Heating Load Load & Energy Calculations Transfer Function Method Energy Estimation

Basic Concepts

Heat transfer mechanism

Conduction Convection Radiation

Overall thermal transmittance (U-value) Thermal conductivity Thermal capacity (specific heat)

Q = U A (t)

CONVECTION

Basic Concepts

Heat transfer basic relationships (for air at sea level) (SI units)

Sensible heat transfer rate:

qsensible = 1.23 (Flow rate, L/s) (t)

qlatent = 3010 (Flow rate, L/s) (w)

qtotal = 1.2 (Flow rate, L/s) (h)

Basic Concepts

Thermal load

The amount of heat that must be added or removed from the space to maintain the proper temperature in the space

When thermal loads push conditions outside of the comfort range, HVAC systems are used to bring the thermal conditions back to comfort conditions

Basic Concepts

Purpose of HVAC load estimation

Calculate peak design loads (cooling/heating) Estimate likely plant/equipment capacity or size Specify the required airflow to individual spaces Provide info for HVAC design e.g. load profiles Form the basis for building energy analysis

Important for warm climates & summer design Affect building performance & its first cost

Basic Concepts

General procedure for cooling load calculations

1. Obtain the characteristics of the building, building materials, components, etc. from building plans and specifications 2. Determine the building location, orientation, external shading (like adjacent buildings) 3. Obtain appropriate weather data and select outdoor design conditions 4. Select indoor design conditions (include permissible variations and control limits)

Basic Concepts

General procedure for cooling load calculations (contd)

5. Obtain a proposed schedule of lighting, occupants, internal equipment appliances and processes that would contribute to internal thermal load 6. Select the time of day and month for the cooling load calculation 7. Calculate the space cooling load at design conditions 8. Assess the cooling loads at several different time or a design day to find out the peak design load

Basic Concepts

A building survey will help us achieve a realistic estimate of thermal loads

Orientation of the building Use of spaces Physical dimensions of spaces Ceiling height Columns and beams Construction materials Surrounding conditions Windows, doors, stairways

Basic Concepts

Key info for load estimation

People (number or density, duration of occupancy, nature of activity) Lighting (W/m2, type) Appliances (wattage, location, usage) Ventilation (criteria, requirements) Thermal storage (if any) Continuous or intermittent operation

Basic Concepts

Typical HVAC load design process

1. Rough estimates of design loads & energy use

Such as by rules of thumb & floor areas See Cooling Load Check Figures See references for some examples of databooks

2. Develop & assess more info (design criteria, building info, system info)

Building layouts & plans are developed

They are used to calculate design space loads Climatic design information

General info: e.g. latitude, longitude, altitude, atmospheric pressure Outdoor design conditions include

Derived from statistical analysis of weather data Typical data can be found in handbooks/databooks, such as ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook

Climatic design info from ASHRAE

Previous data & method (before 1997)

For Summer (Jun to Sep) & Winter (Dec, Jan, Feb) Based on 1%, 2.5% & 5% nos. hours of occurrence

Based on annual percentiles and cumulative frequency of occurrence, e.g. 0.4%, 1%, 2% (of whole year) More info on coincident conditions Findings obtained from ASHRAE research projects

Data can be found on a relevant CD-ROM

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):

Annual heating & humidif. design conditions

Coldest month Heating dry-bulb (DB) temp. Humidification dew point (DP)/ mean coincident drybulb temp. (MCDB) and humidity ratio (HR) Coldest month wind speed (WS)/mean coincident drybulb temp. (MCDB) Mean coincident wind speed (MCWS) & prevailing coincident wind direction (PCWD) to 99.6% DB

(Latest information from ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2009)

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):

Cooling and dehumidification design conditions

Hottest month and DB range Cooling DB/MCWB: Dry-bulb temp. (DB) + Mean coincident wet-bulb temp. (MCWB) Evaporation WB/MCDB: Web-bulb temp. (WB) + Mean coincident dry-bulb temp. (MCDB) MCWS/PCWD to 0.4% DB Dehumidification DP/MCDB and HR: Dew-point temp. (DP) + MDB + Humidity ratio (HR) Enthalpy/MCDB

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):

Extreme annual design conditions Monthly climatic design conditions

Temperature, degree-days and degree-hours Monthly design DB and mean coincident WB Monthly design WB and mean coincident DB Mean daily temperature range Clear sky solar irradiance

Other sources of climatic info:

Joint frequency tables of psychrometric conditions

Annual, monthly and hourly data

To classify climate characteristics

For energy calculations & analysis

Location Weather station Summer months Winter months Design temperatures: Hong Kong (latitude 22 18 N, longitude 114 10 E, elevation 33 m) Royal Observatory Hong Kong June to September (four hottest months), total 2928 hours December, January & February (three coldest months), total 2160 hours For comfort HVAC (based on summer 2.5% or annualised 1% and winter 97.5% or annualised 99.3%) Summer DDB / CWB CDB / DWB 32.0 oC / 26.9 oC 31.0 oC / 27.5 oC Winter 9.5 oC / 6.7 oC 10.4 oC / 6.2 oC For critical processes (based on summer 1% or annualised 0.4% and winter 99% or annualised 99.6%) Summer 32.6 oC / 27.0 oC 31.3 oC / 27.8 oC Winter 8.2 oC / 6.0 oC 9.1 oC / 5.0 oC

Note:

1. DDB is the design dry-bulb and CWB is the coincident wet-bulb temperature with it; DWB is the design wet-bulb and CDB is the coincident dry-bulb with it. 2. The design temperatures and daily ranges were determined based on hourly data for the 35-year period from 1960 to 1994; extreme temperatures were determined based on extreme values between 1884-1939 and 1947-1994.

Extreme temperatures: Hottest month: July mean DBT = 28.6 oC absolute max. DBT = 36.1 oC mean daily max. DBT = 25.7 oC Diurnal range: - Mean DBT - Daily range Wind data: - Wind direction - Wind speed Summer 28.2 4.95 Summer 090 (East) 5.7 m/s Winter 16.4 5.01 Winter 070 (N 70 E) 6.8 m/s Coldest month: January mean DBT = 15.7 oC absolute min. DBT = 0.0 oC mean daily min. DBT = 20.9 oC Whole year 22.8 5.0 Whole year 080 (N 80 E) 6.3 m/s

Note:

3. Wind data are the prevailing wind data based on the weather summary for the 30year period 1960-1990. Wind direction is the prevailing wind direction in degrees clockwise from north and the wind speed is the mean prevailing wind speed.

Basic design parameters: (for thermal comfort)

Air temp. & air movement

Typical: summer 24-26 oC; winter 21-23 oC Air velocity: summer < 0.25 m/s; winter < 0.15 m/s

Relative humidity

Summer: 40-50% (preferred), 30-65 (tolerable) Winter: 25-30% (with humidifier); not specified (w/o humidifier)

ASHRAE comfort zone

Indoor air quality: (for health & well-being)

Air contaminants

e.g. particulates, VOC, radon, bioeffluents

ASHRAE Standard 62.1

Sound level (noise criteria) Pressure differential between the space & surroundings (e.g. +ve to prevent infiltration)

* Remark: buildings in HK often have higher NC, say add 5-10 dB (more noisy).

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

External

1. Heat gain through exterior walls and roofs 2. Solar heat gain through fenestrations (windows) 3. Conductive heat gain through fenestrations 4. Heat gain through partitions & interior doors

Internal

1. People 2. Electric lights 3. Equipment and appliances

Infiltration

Air leakage and moisture migration, e.g. flow of outdoor air into a building through cracks, unintentional openings, normal use of exterior doors for entrance

System (HVAC)

Outdoor ventilation air System heat gain: duct leakage & heat gain, reheat, fan & pump energy, energy recovery

External loads

Internal loads

Total cooling load

Sensible cooling load + Latent cooling load

= (sensible items) + (latent items)

Which components have latent loads? Which only have sensible load? Why? Three major parts for load calculation

External cooling load Internal cooling load Ventilation and infiltration air

Cooling load calculation method

Example: CLTD/SCL/CLF method

It is a one-step, simple calculation procedure developed by ASHRAE CLTD = cooling load temperature difference SCL = solar cooling load CLF = cooling load factor

Tables for CLTD, SCL and CLF

External

Roofs, walls, and glass conduction

q = U A (CLTD) q = A (SC) (SCL) U = U-value; A = area SC = shading coefficient

For unshaded area and shaded area

q = U A (tadjacent - tinside)

Internal

People

qsensible = N (Sensible heat gain) (CLF) qlatent = N (Latent heat gain)

Lights

q = Watt x Ful x Fsa (CLF)

Ful = lighting use factor; Fsa = special allowance factor

Appliances

qsensible = qinput x usage factors (CLF) qlatent = qinput x load factor (CLF)

Ventilation and infiltration air

qsensible = 1.23 Q (toutside - tinside) qlatent = 3010 Q (woutside - winside) qtotal = 1.2 Q (houtside - hinside)

Fan heat gain Duct heat gain and leakage Ceiling return air plenum

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Terminology:

Space a volume w/o a partition, or a partitioned room, or group of rooms Room an enclosed space (a single load) Zone a space, or several rooms, or units of space having some sort of coincident loads or similar operating characteristics

Thermal zoning

Definitions

Space heat gain: instantaneous rate of heat gain that enters into or is generated within a space Space cooling load: the rate at which heat must be removed from the space to maintain a constant space air temperature Space heat extraction rate: the actual rate of heat removal when the space air temp. may swing Cooling coil load: the rate at which energy is removed at a cooling coil serving the space

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Instantaneous heat gain vs space cooling loads

They are NOT the same

Night shutdown period

HVAC is switched off. What happens to the space?

When HVAC system begins to operate Need to cool or warm the building fabric

Conditioning period

Space air temperature within the limits

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Space load and equipment load

Space heat gain (sensible, latent, total) Space cooling / heating load [at building] Space heat extraction rate Cooling / heating coil load [at air-side system] Refrigeration load [at the chiller plant]

Convective heat Radiative heat (heat absorption)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

Cooling load profiles

Shows the variation of space cooling load Such as 24-hr cycle Useful for building operation & energy analysis What factors will affect load profiles?

Peak load = max. cooling load Block load = sum of zone loads at a specific time

North

West

East

Cooling coil load consists of:

Space cooling load (sensible & latent) Supply system heat gain (fan + air duct) Return system heat gain (plenum + fan + air duct) Load due to outdoor ventilation rates (or ventilation load)

Do you know how to construct a summer air conditioning cycle on a psychrometric chart?

See also notes in Psychrometrics

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

Space cooling load

Sensible load (kW) Supply airflow (L/s) 1.2 t

To determine supply air flow rate & size of air system, ducts, terminals, diffusers It is a component of cooling coil load Infiltration heat gain is an instant. cooling load

To determine the size of cooling coil & refrigeration system Remember, ventilation load is a coil load

Heating Load

Design heating load

Max. heat energy required to maintain winter indoor design temp.

Usually occurs before sunrise on the coldest days Include transmission losses & infiltration/ventilation

Assumptions:

All heating losses are instantaneous heating loads Credit for solar & internal heat gains is not included Latent heat often not considered (unless w/ humidifier) Thermal storage effect of building structure is ignored

Heating Load

A simplified approach to evaluate worst-case conditions based on

Design interior and exterior conditions Including infiltration and/or ventilation No solar effect (at night or on cloudy winter days) Before the presence of people, light, and appliances has an offsetting effect

From load estimation to energy calculations

Only determine peak design loads is not enough Need to evaluate HVAC and building energy consumption

To support design decisions (e.g. evaluate design options) To enhance system design and operation To compile with building energy code

Energy calculations

More complicated than design load estimation Form the basis of building energy and economic analysis

Load estimation and energy calculations

Based on the same principles But, with different purposes & approaches

Focus on maximum load or worst conditions For a particular hour or period (e.g. peak summer day)

Energy calculations

Focus on average or typical conditions On whole year (annual) performance or multiple years consumption May involve analysis of energy costs & life cycle costs

Tasks at different building design stages

Conceptual design stage:

Rules of thumb + check figures (rough estimation)

Outline/Scheme design:

Load estimation (approximation) Design evaluations (e.g. using simplified tools/models)

Detailed design:

Load calculations (complete) Energy calculations + building energy simulation

Basic considerations

1. Peak load calculations

Evaluate max. load to size/select equipment

2. Energy analysis

Calculate energy use and compare design options

To calculate supply air volume flow rate (V) and size the air system, ducts, terminals

To size cooling coil and refrigeration system

Basic considerations (contd)

Assumptions:

Heat transfer equations are linear within a time interval (superposition principle holds)

Total load = sum of individual ones

Convective heat, latent heat & sensible heat gains from infiltration are all equal to cooling load instantaneously

How to convert space radiative heat gains into space cooling loads

Different methods have different ways to convert space radiative heat gains into space cooling loads

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Thermal Load

Heat Gains/Losses

Heat storage

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

qko = convective flux into the wall, W/m2 qki = convective flux through the wall, W/m2 Tso = wall surface temperature outside, C Tsi = wall surface temperature outside, C

Possible ways to model this process: 1. Numerical finite difference 2. Numerical finite element 3. Transform methods 4. Time series methods Wall conduction process

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Common methods:

Transfer function method (TFM) Cooling load temperature difference/cooling load factor (CLTD/CLF) method Total equivalent temp. differential/time averaging (TETD/TA) method

Finite difference method (FDM) CIBSE method (based on admittance)

Transfer Function Method (TFM)

Laplace transform and z-transform of time series

CLTD/CLF method

A one-step simplification of TFM

TETD/TA method

Heat gains calculated from Fourier series solution of 1-dimensional transient heat conduction Average heat gains to current and successive hours according to thermal mass & experience

Other methods:

Heat balance (HB) method

The rigorous approach (mainly for research use) Requires solving of partial differential equations and often involves iteration

A simplified method derived from HB procedure

Solve transient simultaneous heat & moisture transfer

Heat Balance (HB) Method

Use heat balance equations to calculate:

Surface-by-surface conductive, convective & radiative heat balance for each room surface Convective heat balance for the room air

Calculation process

Find the inside surface temperatures of building structures due to heat balance Calculate the sum of heat transfer from these surfaces and from internal loads

Transfer Function Method (TFM)

Most commonly adopted for energy calculations Three components:

Conduction transfer function (CTF) Room transfer function (RTF) Space air transfer function (SATF)

Transfer function coefficients, to weight the importance of current & historical values of heat gain & cooling load on currently calculated loads

Input

Transfer function (K)

Transfer Function

Output

Polynominals of z-transform

Y = Laplace transform of the output G = Laplace transform of the input or driving force

When a continuous function f(t) is represented at regular intervals t and its magnitude are f(0), f(), f(2),, f(n), the Laplace transform is given by a polynominal called z-transform: (z) = f(0) + f() z-1 + f(2) z-2 ++ f(n) z-n where = time interval, hour z = et v0, v1, v2, & w1, w2, are weighting factors for the calculations

Sol-air temperature (te)

A fictitious outdoor air temperature that gives the rate of heat entering the outer surface of walls and roofs due to the combined effect of incident solar radiation, radiative heat exchange with the sky vault and surroundings, and convective heat exchange with the outdoor air

Surface absorptance

Surface emittance

q Et ho (t o t s ) R A

Assume the heat flux can be expressed in terms of sol-air temp. (te)

External walls and roofs:

Sol-air temperature

aj = adjacent r = room

Window glass

Solar heat gain:

Shading coefficient (SC) Solar heat gain factor (SHGF)

Sunlit Shaded

Sunlit

Shaded

Internal heat gains

People (sensible + latent) Lights Machine & appliances

If positive pressure is maintained in conditioned space, infiltration is normally assumed zero

Convert heat gain into cooling load

Space sensible cooling load (from radiative):

v0, v1, v2, & w1, w2, are weighting factors

Convert heat gain into cooling load (contd)

Heat extraction rate & space air temperature

Air mixture & air leaving the cooling coil Ventilation load

Energy Estimation

Two categories

Steady-state methods

Degree-day method Variable base degree-day method Bin and modified bin methods

Dynamic methods

Using computer-based building energy simulation Try to capture dynamic response of the building Can be developed based on transfer function, heat balance or other methods

Energy Estimation

Degree-day method

A degree-day is the sum of the number of degrees that the average daily temperature (technically the average of the daily maximum and minimum) is above (for cooling) or below (for heating) a base temperature times the duration in days

Heating degree-days (HDD) Cooling degree-days (CDD)

Summed over a period or a year for indicating climate severity (effect of outdoor air on a building)

Heating degree-day:

Cooling degree-day:

tbal = base temperature (or balance point temperature) (e.g. 18.3 oC or 65 oF); Qload = Qgain + Qloss = 0 to = outdoor temperature (e.g. average daily max./min.) * Degree-hours if summing over 24-hourly intervals Degree-day = (degree-hours)+ / 24

Energy Estimation

Variable base degree-day (VBDD) method

Degree-day with variable reference temperatures

To account for different building conditions and variation between daytime and nighttime First calculate the balance point temperature of a building and then the heating and cooling degree hours at that base temperature Require tedious calculations and detailed processing of hourly weather data at a complexity similar to hourly simulations. Therefore, does not seem warranted nowadays (why not just go for hourly simulation)

Energy Estimation

Bin and modified bin methods

Evolve from VBDD method Derive building annual heating/cooling loads by calculating its loads for a set of temperature bins Multiplying the calculated loads by nos. of hours represented by each bin (e.g. 18-20, 20-22, 22-24 oC) Totaling the sums to obtain the loads (cooling/heating energy) Original bin method: not account of solar/wind effects Modified bin method: account for solar/wind effects

Energy Estimation

Dynamic simulation methods

Usually hour-by-hour, for 8,760 hours (24 x 365) Energy calculation sequence:

Space or building load [LOAD] Secondary equipment load (airside system) [SYSTEMS] Primary equipment energy requirement (e.g. chiller) [PLANT]

Computer software

Building energy simulation programs, e.g. Energy-10, DOE-2, TRACE 700, Carrier HAP

Weather data

Building description

- physical data - design parameters

Simulation outputs

Energy Estimation

Building energy simulation

Analysis of energy performance of building using computer modelling and simulation techniques

Thermal performance (e.g. bldg. fabric, glazing) Comfort and indoor environment Ventilation and infiltration Daylighting and overshadowing Energy consumption of building systems

HVAC air systems Energy storage HVAC water systems

Thermal Zone

Systems (air-side)

Software Applications

Examples of load calculation software:

Carmel Loadsoft 6.0 [AV 697.00028553 L79]

Commercial and industrial HVAC load calculation software based on ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals radiant time series (RTS) method

Residential and light commercial HVAC load calculation software based on ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals residential algorithms

Software Applications

Examples of load/energy calculation software:

TRACE 700

TRACE = Trane Air Conditioning Economics Commercial programs from Trane http://www.trane.com/commercial/ Most widely used by engineers in USA Building load and energy analysis software

http://www.commercial.carrier.com/commercial/hvac/general/0,,C LI1_DIV12_ETI495,00.html

Software Applications

Examples of energy simulation software:

Energy-10

A software tool that helps architects and engineers quickly identify the most cost-effective, energy-saving measures to take in designing a low-energy building Suitable for small commercial and residential buildings that are characterized by one, or two thermal zones (less than 10,000 ft2 or 1,000 m2) http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/energy10.html MIT Design Advisor (online tool) http://designadvisor.mit.edu/design/

Example: Energy-10

Activity Phase Develop Brief

Develop reference case Develop low-energy case Rank order strategies Initial strategy selection

ENERGY-10

Tool

ENERGY-10

Review goals Review strategies Set criteria, priorities Develop schemes Evaluate schemes

Schematic Design

Select scheme

Design Development

EnergyPlus

or other HVAC simulation and tools

Construction Documents

Example: Energy-10

ENERGY-10

Creates two building descriptions based on five inputs and user-defined defaults.

Location Building Use Floor area Number of stories HVAC system

For example:

apply

Reference Case

R-8.9 walls (4" steel stud) R-19 roof No perimeter insulation Conventional double windows Conventional lighting Conventional HVAC Conventional air-tightness Uniform window orientation Conventional HVAC controls Conventional duct placement

R-19.6 Walls (6" steel stud with 2" foam) R-38 roof R-10 perimeter insulation Best low-e double windows Efficient lights with daylight dimming High efficiency HVAC Leakage reduced 75% Passive solar orientation Improved HVAC controls Ducts located inside, tightened

Example: Energy-10

2,000 m2 office building

ANNUAL ENERGY USE

100 Reference Case 80 Low-Energy Case

96.5

ENERGY-10

kWh / m

60

47.3

40

27.4 22.7

35.1

20

6.7 1.5 4.1

15.1 6.9

Heating

Cooling

Lights

Other

Total

Example: Energy-10

RANKING OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT STRATEGIES

ENERGY-10

Duct Le akage Gla zing Insula tion Ene rgy Efficie nt Lights HVAC Controls Air Lea ka ge Control Sha ding Da ylighting High Efficiency HVAC Economizer Cycle The rma l Ma ss Passive Solar Hea ting -100

115.04 72.49 57.33 56.56 48.43 45.92 45.24 38.84 37.82 -4.02 -6.23 -57.14

-50

50

100

150

Example: Energy-10

Sample - Lower-Energy Case

ENERGY-10

0 0

-50 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average Hourly HVAC Energy Use by Month Heating Cooling Inside T

-20

Outside T

References

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering (Wang and Norton, 2000)

Chapter 6 Load Calculations

Chapter 14 Climatic Design Information Chapter 15 Fenestration Chapter 17 Residential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations Chapter 18 Nonresidential Cooling and Heating Load Calculations

References

Remarks:

Load & Energy Calculations in ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals The following previous cooling load calculations are described in earlier editions of the ASHRAE Handbook (1997 and 2001 versions)

CLTD/SCL/CLF method TETD/TA method TFM method

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