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# BBSE2008 Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering

www.hku.hk/bse/bbse2008/

Dr. Sam C. M. Hui
Department of Mechanical Engineering The University of Hong Kong E-mail: cmhui@hku.hk
Jan 2012

Contents
Basic Concepts Outdoor and Indoor Design Conditions Cooling Load Components Cooling Load Principles Heating Load Load & Energy Calculations Transfer Function Method Energy Estimation

Basic Concepts
Heat transfer mechanism

## Thermal properties of building materials

Overall thermal transmittance (U-value) Thermal conductivity Thermal capacity (specific heat)

Q = U A (t)

CONVECTION

## (Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, www.fao.org)

Basic Concepts
Heat transfer basic relationships (for air at sea level) (SI units)
Sensible heat transfer rate:
qsensible = 1.23 (Flow rate, L/s) (t)

## Latent heat transfer rate:

qlatent = 3010 (Flow rate, L/s) (w)

## Total heat transfer rate:

qtotal = 1.2 (Flow rate, L/s) (h)

## qtotal = qsensible + qlatent

Basic Concepts
The amount of heat that must be added or removed from the space to maintain the proper temperature in the space

When thermal loads push conditions outside of the comfort range, HVAC systems are used to bring the thermal conditions back to comfort conditions

Basic Concepts
Calculate peak design loads (cooling/heating) Estimate likely plant/equipment capacity or size Specify the required airflow to individual spaces Provide info for HVAC design e.g. load profiles Form the basis for building energy analysis

## Cooling load is our main target

Important for warm climates & summer design Affect building performance & its first cost

Basic Concepts
General procedure for cooling load calculations
1. Obtain the characteristics of the building, building materials, components, etc. from building plans and specifications 2. Determine the building location, orientation, external shading (like adjacent buildings) 3. Obtain appropriate weather data and select outdoor design conditions 4. Select indoor design conditions (include permissible variations and control limits)

Basic Concepts
General procedure for cooling load calculations (contd)
5. Obtain a proposed schedule of lighting, occupants, internal equipment appliances and processes that would contribute to internal thermal load 6. Select the time of day and month for the cooling load calculation 7. Calculate the space cooling load at design conditions 8. Assess the cooling loads at several different time or a design day to find out the peak design load

Basic Concepts
A building survey will help us achieve a realistic estimate of thermal loads
Orientation of the building Use of spaces Physical dimensions of spaces Ceiling height Columns and beams Construction materials Surrounding conditions Windows, doors, stairways

## (Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Basic Concepts
People (number or density, duration of occupancy, nature of activity) Lighting (W/m2, type) Appliances (wattage, location, usage) Ventilation (criteria, requirements) Thermal storage (if any) Continuous or intermittent operation

Basic Concepts
1. Rough estimates of design loads & energy use
Such as by rules of thumb & floor areas See Cooling Load Check Figures See references for some examples of databooks

2. Develop & assess more info (design criteria, building info, system info)
Building layouts & plans are developed

## Outdoor Design Conditions

General info: e.g. latitude, longitude, altitude, atmospheric pressure Outdoor design conditions include
Derived from statistical analysis of weather data Typical data can be found in handbooks/databooks, such as ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook

## Outdoor Design Conditions

Previous data & method (before 1997)
For Summer (Jun to Sep) & Winter (Dec, Jan, Feb) Based on 1%, 2.5% & 5% nos. hours of occurrence

## New method (ASHRAE Fundamentals 2001+):

Based on annual percentiles and cumulative frequency of occurrence, e.g. 0.4%, 1%, 2% (of whole year) More info on coincident conditions Findings obtained from ASHRAE research projects
Data can be found on a relevant CD-ROM

## Outdoor Design Conditions

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):
Annual heating & humidif. design conditions
Coldest month Heating dry-bulb (DB) temp. Humidification dew point (DP)/ mean coincident drybulb temp. (MCDB) and humidity ratio (HR) Coldest month wind speed (WS)/mean coincident drybulb temp. (MCDB) Mean coincident wind speed (MCWS) & prevailing coincident wind direction (PCWD) to 99.6% DB
(Latest information from ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2009)

## Outdoor Design Conditions

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):
Cooling and dehumidification design conditions
Hottest month and DB range Cooling DB/MCWB: Dry-bulb temp. (DB) + Mean coincident wet-bulb temp. (MCWB) Evaporation WB/MCDB: Web-bulb temp. (WB) + Mean coincident dry-bulb temp. (MCDB) MCWS/PCWD to 0.4% DB Dehumidification DP/MCDB and HR: Dew-point temp. (DP) + MDB + Humidity ratio (HR) Enthalpy/MCDB

## Outdoor Design Conditions

Climatic design conditions (ASHRAE, 2009):
Extreme annual design conditions Monthly climatic design conditions
Temperature, degree-days and degree-hours Monthly design DB and mean coincident WB Monthly design WB and mean coincident DB Mean daily temperature range Clear sky solar irradiance

## Outdoor Design Conditions

Other sources of climatic info:
Joint frequency tables of psychrometric conditions
Annual, monthly and hourly data

## Degree-days (cooling/heating) & climatic normals

To classify climate characteristics

## Typical year data sets (1 year: 8,760 hours)

For energy calculations & analysis

## Recommended Outdoor Design Conditions for Hong Kong

Location Weather station Summer months Winter months Design temperatures: Hong Kong (latitude 22 18 N, longitude 114 10 E, elevation 33 m) Royal Observatory Hong Kong June to September (four hottest months), total 2928 hours December, January & February (three coldest months), total 2160 hours For comfort HVAC (based on summer 2.5% or annualised 1% and winter 97.5% or annualised 99.3%) Summer DDB / CWB CDB / DWB 32.0 oC / 26.9 oC 31.0 oC / 27.5 oC Winter 9.5 oC / 6.7 oC 10.4 oC / 6.2 oC For critical processes (based on summer 1% or annualised 0.4% and winter 99% or annualised 99.6%) Summer 32.6 oC / 27.0 oC 31.3 oC / 27.8 oC Winter 8.2 oC / 6.0 oC 9.1 oC / 5.0 oC

Note:

1. DDB is the design dry-bulb and CWB is the coincident wet-bulb temperature with it; DWB is the design wet-bulb and CDB is the coincident dry-bulb with it. 2. The design temperatures and daily ranges were determined based on hourly data for the 35-year period from 1960 to 1994; extreme temperatures were determined based on extreme values between 1884-1939 and 1947-1994.

## Recommended Outdoor Design Conditions for Hong Kong (contd)

Extreme temperatures: Hottest month: July mean DBT = 28.6 oC absolute max. DBT = 36.1 oC mean daily max. DBT = 25.7 oC Diurnal range: - Mean DBT - Daily range Wind data: - Wind direction - Wind speed Summer 28.2 4.95 Summer 090 (East) 5.7 m/s Winter 16.4 5.01 Winter 070 (N 70 E) 6.8 m/s Coldest month: January mean DBT = 15.7 oC absolute min. DBT = 0.0 oC mean daily min. DBT = 20.9 oC Whole year 22.8 5.0 Whole year 080 (N 80 E) 6.3 m/s

Note:

3. Wind data are the prevailing wind data based on the weather summary for the 30year period 1960-1990. Wind direction is the prevailing wind direction in degrees clockwise from north and the wind speed is the mean prevailing wind speed.

## Indoor Design Conditions

Basic design parameters: (for thermal comfort)
Air temp. & air movement
Typical: summer 24-26 oC; winter 21-23 oC Air velocity: summer < 0.25 m/s; winter < 0.15 m/s

Relative humidity
Summer: 40-50% (preferred), 30-65 (tolerable) Winter: 25-30% (with humidifier); not specified (w/o humidifier)

ASHRAE comfort zone

## Indoor Design Conditions

Indoor air quality: (for health & well-being)
Air contaminants

## Outdoor ventilation rate provided

ASHRAE Standard 62.1

## Other design parameters:

Sound level (noise criteria) Pressure differential between the space & surroundings (e.g. +ve to prevent infiltration)

## (NC = noise critera; RC = room criteria)

* Remark: buildings in HK often have higher NC, say add 5-10 dB (more noisy).
(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

External
1. Heat gain through exterior walls and roofs 2. Solar heat gain through fenestrations (windows) 3. Conductive heat gain through fenestrations 4. Heat gain through partitions & interior doors

Internal
1. People 2. Electric lights 3. Equipment and appliances

Infiltration
Air leakage and moisture migration, e.g. flow of outdoor air into a building through cracks, unintentional openings, normal use of exterior doors for entrance

System (HVAC)
Outdoor ventilation air System heat gain: duct leakage & heat gain, reheat, fan & pump energy, energy recovery

## + Ventilation load & system heat gains

= (sensible items) + (latent items)

Which components have latent loads? Which only have sensible load? Why? Three major parts for load calculation

Example: CLTD/SCL/CLF method
It is a one-step, simple calculation procedure developed by ASHRAE CLTD = cooling load temperature difference SCL = solar cooling load CLF = cooling load factor

## See ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals for details

Tables for CLTD, SCL and CLF

External
Roofs, walls, and glass conduction
q = U A (CLTD) q = A (SC) (SCL) U = U-value; A = area SC = shading coefficient

## Partitions, ceilings, floors

q = U A (tadjacent - tinside)

Internal
People
qsensible = N (Sensible heat gain) (CLF) qlatent = N (Latent heat gain)

Lights
q = Watt x Ful x Fsa (CLF)
Ful = lighting use factor; Fsa = special allowance factor

Appliances
qsensible = qinput x usage factors (CLF) qlatent = qinput x load factor (CLF)

Ventilation and infiltration air
qsensible = 1.23 Q (toutside - tinside) qlatent = 3010 Q (woutside - winside) qtotal = 1.2 Q (houtside - hinside)

## System heat gain

Fan heat gain Duct heat gain and leakage Ceiling return air plenum

## Schematic diagram of typical return air plenum

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Terminology:
Space a volume w/o a partition, or a partitioned room, or group of rooms Room an enclosed space (a single load) Zone a space, or several rooms, or units of space having some sort of coincident loads or similar operating characteristics
Thermal zoning

Definitions
Space heat gain: instantaneous rate of heat gain that enters into or is generated within a space Space cooling load: the rate at which heat must be removed from the space to maintain a constant space air temperature Space heat extraction rate: the actual rate of heat removal when the space air temp. may swing Cooling coil load: the rate at which energy is removed at a cooling coil serving the space

## Conversion of heat gain into cooling load

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Instantaneous heat gain vs space cooling loads
They are NOT the same

## Effect of heat storage

Night shutdown period
HVAC is switched off. What happens to the space?

## Cool-down or warm-up period

When HVAC system begins to operate Need to cool or warm the building fabric

Conditioning period
Space air temperature within the limits

## Thermal Storage Effect in Cooling Load from Lights

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Space heat gain (sensible, latent, total) Space cooling / heating load [at building] Space heat extraction rate Cooling / heating coil load [at air-side system] Refrigeration load [at the chiller plant]

## Instantaneous heat gain

Convective heat Radiative heat (heat absorption)

## Convective and radiative heat in a conditioned space

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

Shows the variation of space cooling load Such as 24-hr cycle Useful for building operation & energy analysis What factors will affect load profiles?

North

West

East

## (Source: D.G. Stephenson, 1968)

Space cooling load (sensible & latent) Supply system heat gain (fan + air duct) Return system heat gain (plenum + fan + air duct) Load due to outdoor ventilation rates (or ventilation load)

Do you know how to construct a summer air conditioning cycle on a psychrometric chart?

## Space cooling load Supply system heat gain

(Source: Wang, S. K., 2001. Handbook of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, 2nd ed.)

Sensible load (kW) Supply airflow (L/s) 1.2 t

To determine supply air flow rate & size of air system, ducts, terminals, diffusers It is a component of cooling coil load Infiltration heat gain is an instant. cooling load

To determine the size of cooling coil & refrigeration system Remember, ventilation load is a coil load

Max. heat energy required to maintain winter indoor design temp.
Usually occurs before sunrise on the coldest days Include transmission losses & infiltration/ventilation

Assumptions:
All heating losses are instantaneous heating loads Credit for solar & internal heat gains is not included Latent heat often not considered (unless w/ humidifier) Thermal storage effect of building structure is ignored

A simplified approach to evaluate worst-case conditions based on
Design interior and exterior conditions Including infiltration and/or ventilation No solar effect (at night or on cloudy winter days) Before the presence of people, light, and appliances has an offsetting effect

## (Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

From load estimation to energy calculations
Only determine peak design loads is not enough Need to evaluate HVAC and building energy consumption
To support design decisions (e.g. evaluate design options) To enhance system design and operation To compile with building energy code

Energy calculations
More complicated than design load estimation Form the basis of building energy and economic analysis

Based on the same principles But, with different purposes & approaches

Focus on maximum load or worst conditions For a particular hour or period (e.g. peak summer day)

Energy calculations
Focus on average or typical conditions On whole year (annual) performance or multiple years consumption May involve analysis of energy costs & life cycle costs

Tasks at different building design stages
Conceptual design stage:
Rules of thumb + check figures (rough estimation)

Outline/Scheme design:
Load estimation (approximation) Design evaluations (e.g. using simplified tools/models)

Detailed design:
Load calculations (complete) Energy calculations + building energy simulation

Basic considerations
Evaluate max. load to size/select equipment

2. Energy analysis
Calculate energy use and compare design options

## 3. Space cooling load Q = V cp (tr ts)

To calculate supply air volume flow rate (V) and size the air system, ducts, terminals

To size cooling coil and refrigeration system

Basic considerations (contd)
Assumptions:
Heat transfer equations are linear within a time interval (superposition principle holds)
Total load = sum of individual ones

Convective heat, latent heat & sensible heat gains from infiltration are all equal to cooling load instantaneously

## Main difference in various methods

Different methods have different ways to convert space radiative heat gains into space cooling loads

## Conversion of heat gain into cooling load

(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Heat Gains/Losses

Heat storage
(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

qko = convective flux into the wall, W/m2 qki = convective flux through the wall, W/m2 Tso = wall surface temperature outside, C Tsi = wall surface temperature outside, C

Possible ways to model this process: 1. Numerical finite difference 2. Numerical finite element 3. Transform methods 4. Time series methods Wall conduction process
(Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Common methods:
Transfer function method (TFM) Cooling load temperature difference/cooling load factor (CLTD/CLF) method Total equivalent temp. differential/time averaging (TETD/TA) method

## Other existing methods:

Finite difference method (FDM) CIBSE method (based on admittance)

Transfer Function Method (TFM)
Laplace transform and z-transform of time series

CLTD/CLF method
A one-step simplification of TFM

TETD/TA method
Heat gains calculated from Fourier series solution of 1-dimensional transient heat conduction Average heat gains to current and successive hours according to thermal mass & experience

## (Source: ASHRAE Handbook Fundamentals 2005)

Other methods:
Heat balance (HB) method
The rigorous approach (mainly for research use) Requires solving of partial differential equations and often involves iteration

## Radiant time series (RTS) method

A simplified method derived from HB procedure

## Finite difference/element method (FDM or FEM)

Solve transient simultaneous heat & moisture transfer

Heat Balance (HB) Method
Use heat balance equations to calculate:
Surface-by-surface conductive, convective & radiative heat balance for each room surface Convective heat balance for the room air

Calculation process
Find the inside surface temperatures of building structures due to heat balance Calculate the sum of heat transfer from these surfaces and from internal loads

## Transfer Function Method

Transfer Function Method (TFM)
Most commonly adopted for energy calculations Three components:
Conduction transfer function (CTF) Room transfer function (RTF) Space air transfer function (SATF)

## Implemented numerically using weighting factors

Transfer function coefficients, to weight the importance of current & historical values of heat gain & cooling load on currently calculated loads

Input
Transfer function (K)

Transfer Function

Output
Polynominals of z-transform

Y = Laplace transform of the output G = Laplace transform of the input or driving force

When a continuous function f(t) is represented at regular intervals t and its magnitude are f(0), f(), f(2),, f(n), the Laplace transform is given by a polynominal called z-transform: (z) = f(0) + f() z-1 + f(2) z-2 ++ f(n) z-n where = time interval, hour z = et v0, v1, v2, & w1, w2, are weighting factors for the calculations

## Transfer Function Method

Sol-air temperature (te)
A fictitious outdoor air temperature that gives the rate of heat entering the outer surface of walls and roofs due to the combined effect of incident solar radiation, radiative heat exchange with the sky vault and surroundings, and convective heat exchange with the outdoor air

## Outdoor air temp

Surface absorptance

Surface emittance

## Heat balance at a sunlit surface, heat flux is equal to:

q Et ho (t o t s ) R A

Assume the heat flux can be expressed in terms of sol-air temp. (te)

## Transfer Function Method

External walls and roofs:
Sol-air temperature

## Ceiling, floors & partition wall:

aj = adjacent r = room

## Transfer Function Method

Window glass
Solar heat gain:
Shading coefficient (SC) Solar heat gain factor (SHGF)

Sunlit

## Transfer Function Method

Internal heat gains
People (sensible + latent) Lights Machine & appliances

## Infiltration (uncontrolled, via cracks/opening)

If positive pressure is maintained in conditioned space, infiltration is normally assumed zero

## Transfer Function Method

Convert heat gain into cooling load
v0, v1, v2, & w1, w2, are weighting factors

## Transfer Function Method

Convert heat gain into cooling load (contd)
Heat extraction rate & space air temperature

## Cooling coil load (sensible & latent)

Air mixture & air leaving the cooling coil Ventilation load

Energy Estimation
Two categories
Degree-day method Variable base degree-day method Bin and modified bin methods

Dynamic methods
Using computer-based building energy simulation Try to capture dynamic response of the building Can be developed based on transfer function, heat balance or other methods

Energy Estimation
Degree-day method
A degree-day is the sum of the number of degrees that the average daily temperature (technically the average of the daily maximum and minimum) is above (for cooling) or below (for heating) a base temperature times the duration in days
Heating degree-days (HDD) Cooling degree-days (CDD)

Summed over a period or a year for indicating climate severity (effect of outdoor air on a building)

Heating degree-day:

Cooling degree-day:

## Only take the positive values

tbal = base temperature (or balance point temperature) (e.g. 18.3 oC or 65 oF); Qload = Qgain + Qloss = 0 to = outdoor temperature (e.g. average daily max./min.) * Degree-hours if summing over 24-hourly intervals Degree-day = (degree-hours)+ / 24

## Correlation between energy consumption and degree days

Energy Estimation
Variable base degree-day (VBDD) method
Degree-day with variable reference temperatures
To account for different building conditions and variation between daytime and nighttime First calculate the balance point temperature of a building and then the heating and cooling degree hours at that base temperature Require tedious calculations and detailed processing of hourly weather data at a complexity similar to hourly simulations. Therefore, does not seem warranted nowadays (why not just go for hourly simulation)

Energy Estimation
Bin and modified bin methods
Evolve from VBDD method Derive building annual heating/cooling loads by calculating its loads for a set of temperature bins Multiplying the calculated loads by nos. of hours represented by each bin (e.g. 18-20, 20-22, 22-24 oC) Totaling the sums to obtain the loads (cooling/heating energy) Original bin method: not account of solar/wind effects Modified bin method: account for solar/wind effects

Energy Estimation
Dynamic simulation methods
Usually hour-by-hour, for 8,760 hours (24 x 365) Energy calculation sequence:
Space or building load [LOAD] Secondary equipment load (airside system) [SYSTEMS] Primary equipment energy requirement (e.g. chiller) [PLANT]

Computer software
Building energy simulation programs, e.g. Energy-10, DOE-2, TRACE 700, Carrier HAP

Weather data

Building description
- physical data - design parameters

## Simulation tool (computer program)

Simulation outputs

## - energy consumption (MWh) - energy demands (kW) - environmental conditions

Energy Estimation
Building energy simulation
Analysis of energy performance of building using computer modelling and simulation techniques

## Many issues can be studied, such as:

Thermal performance (e.g. bldg. fabric, glazing) Comfort and indoor environment Ventilation and infiltration Daylighting and overshadowing Energy consumption of building systems

## Building energy simulation process

HVAC air systems Energy storage HVAC water systems

Thermal Zone

Systems (air-side)

## Energy input by HVAC plant

Software Applications
Carmel Loadsoft 6.0 [AV 697.00028553 L79]
Commercial and industrial HVAC load calculation software based on ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals radiant time series (RTS) method

## Carmel Residential 5.0 [AV 697.00028553 R43]

Residential and light commercial HVAC load calculation software based on ASHRAE 2001 Fundamentals residential algorithms

Software Applications
TRACE 700
TRACE = Trane Air Conditioning Economics Commercial programs from Trane http://www.trane.com/commercial/ Most widely used by engineers in USA Building load and energy analysis software

## Carrier E20-II HAP (hourly analysis program)

http://www.commercial.carrier.com/commercial/hvac/general/0,,C LI1_DIV12_ETI495,00.html

Software Applications
Examples of energy simulation software:
Energy-10
A software tool that helps architects and engineers quickly identify the most cost-effective, energy-saving measures to take in designing a low-energy building Suitable for small commercial and residential buildings that are characterized by one, or two thermal zones (less than 10,000 ft2 or 1,000 m2) http://www.nrel.gov/buildings/energy10.html MIT Design Advisor (online tool) http://designadvisor.mit.edu/design/

## ENERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10
Activity Phase Develop Brief
Develop reference case Develop low-energy case Rank order strategies Initial strategy selection

ENERGY-10

Tool
ENERGY-10

## Set performance goals Pre-design

Review goals Review strategies Set criteria, priorities Develop schemes Evaluate schemes

## Preliminary team meetings ENERGY-10

Schematic Design

Select scheme

Design Development

## Confirm that component performances are as assumed

EnergyPlus
or other HVAC simulation and tools

Construction Documents

## ENERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10

ENERGY-10

Creates two building descriptions based on five inputs and user-defined defaults.
Location Building Use Floor area Number of stories HVAC system

For example:
apply

Reference Case
R-8.9 walls (4" steel stud) R-19 roof No perimeter insulation Conventional double windows Conventional lighting Conventional HVAC Conventional air-tightness Uniform window orientation Conventional HVAC controls Conventional duct placement

## Low Energy Case

R-19.6 Walls (6" steel stud with 2" foam) R-38 roof R-10 perimeter insulation Best low-e double windows Efficient lights with daylight dimming High efficiency HVAC Leakage reduced 75% Passive solar orientation Improved HVAC controls Ducts located inside, tightened

## ENERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10
2,000 m2 office building
ANNUAL ENERGY USE
100 Reference Case 80 Low-Energy Case
96.5

ENERGY-10

kWh / m

60
47.3

40
27.4 22.7

35.1

20
6.7 1.5 4.1

15.1 6.9

Heating

Cooling

Lights

Other

Total

## ENERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10
RANKING OF ENERGY-EFFICIENT STRATEGIES

ENERGY-10

Duct Le akage Gla zing Insula tion Ene rgy Efficie nt Lights HVAC Controls Air Lea ka ge Control Sha ding Da ylighting High Efficiency HVAC Economizer Cycle The rma l Ma ss Passive Solar Hea ting -100

115.04 72.49 57.33 56.56 48.43 45.92 45.24 38.84 37.82 -4.02 -6.23 -57.14

-50

50

100

150

## ENERGY-10 Design Tool

Example: Energy-10
Sample - Lower-Energy Case

ENERGY-10

## 40 50 20 Temperature, ? Energy, kWh

0 0

-50 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Average Hourly HVAC Energy Use by Month Heating Cooling Inside T

-20

Outside T

References
Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering (Wang and Norton, 2000)