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JANUARY – APRIL VOL. 12, N0.

1, 2006 Target 2015,


Global Prosperity and Agriculture
IN THIS ISSUE
Agriculture and food security are inextricably linked to …global challenges and target 2015
the universal goal of equitable human development. Spiraling population growth, more frequent and severe
Caribbean countries have have signed on to several of natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods and human/animal
global, hemispheric and regional mandates, agreeing to diseases (e.g., mad cow, avian influenza), and a global spread of
take actions to achieve the gaols hunger and poverty very daunting socio-political issues (such as, poverty, child
reduction and rural prosperity. To achieve this, they are obesity, unemployment, crime, terrorism, and HIV/AIDS), are
realigning their agricultural policies to enhance sector’s among the most important and pre-eminent political, economic
contributions to these objectives. This issue features the and social challenges facing the world.
major global mandates for agricultural development that
need to be well known and understood as follows:
Target 2015, Global Prosperity and Agriculture 1
Target 2015 – the MDGS 3
Target 2015 – the WFS 4
Target 2015 – the Agro Plan 5
Given the significance of agriculture to these global
mandates, this issue also features a new systemic and
sustainable approach for conceptualizing, developing
and monitoring progress in actions aimed at agriculture
and rural development.
A new systemic and sustainable development
concept of agriculture and rural life 6
In adopting this new concept of agriculture and rural life These issues plague human development in all countries,
farmers should be assured that actions aimed at regardless of their geographic size, location and the state of
improving their livelihoods will be more economic development. Indeed, the IFPRI 2020 Vision warned
comprehensively thought out, taking fully into that “as we enter the 21st century, humanity faces a glaring
consideration their development needs outside of the contradiction: the persistence of desperate hunger and environmental
farm and beyond just the economic (production and degradation amidst plenty. If the world remains on its current path,
trade) aspects of agriculture. hundreds of millions of people will remain food insecure, millions of
children will die each year from malnutrition, and environmental
degradation will continue unchecked.” These global challenges have
AgriView continues by showing the response at the
elicited unprecedented responses, at the global, hemispheric,
regional and sub-regional levels to the need to revitalize
regional and national levels, towards a universal aim of a
agriculture and the situation of agriculture in the
peaceful, prosperous and equitable world.
Caribbean in 2005 through the articles that focus on:
The world has set the year 2015 as the target to achieve
Target 2015 – the Community Agricultural Policy 8
“global peace, prosperity and fairness”. This is the objective of the
Target 2015 – the OECS Agricultural Policy 9 2000 Millennium Development Goals (MDG), described as the
Target 2015 – the Jagdeo Initiative 10 most broadly supported, comprehensive and specific poverty-
Agriculture in the Caribbean in 2005 11 reduction targets the world has ever established. The MDG
encompass all aspects of human development in a global
AgriView ends by paying tribute to one of the region’s
partnership to combat the causes and effects of poverty. The
lost champions for agriculture in:
MDG are universal and embraced by all other thematic global,
Remembering Hon. Satyadeow Sawh 12 hemispheric, regional and national human and economic
development objectives.
2
. .Agriculture and Human development Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the Biosafety
Agriculture and food security are xtricably linked to Protocol, seek to halt biodiversity decline by 2010.
equitable human development. Economic theory and However, the Cartagena Convention (Convention for the
development experiences of developed and some larger Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of
developing countries provide conclusive evidence that no the Wider Caribbean Region; 1983) and its protocols on oil
country has achieved its development with a stagnant and spills (Oilspills Protocol), specially protected areas and
uncompetitive agriculture sector. This fact is explicitly wildlife (SPAW Protocol) and the recently developed land-
recognised in the major global movements, hence the call for based sources of marine pollution (LBSMP) is the only
developed countries to provide more and genuine support to environmental convention covering the entire Caribbean
agricultural development in small developing economies and among the over 100 environmental conventions that
economies in transition. Caribbean countries are party to. Although they are not
However, decades of misled and inappropriate legally binding agreements, as is the World Trade
agricultural policies have reduced the strategic and pivotal Organization (WTO) Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), all
significance of agriculture’s role and contributions to signatories to these global mandates agree to implement
achieving sustainable development in all its dimensions actions to meet the goals, objectives and targets, in a
(economic prosperity, social equity, good governance and manner that takes into consideration their resources,
environmental management). This has compromised the goal capacities and situations.
of achieving the universal aim of a peaceful, prosperous and
equitable world and contributed to today’s global challenges. . . .the Country is ultimately responsible
Most Caribbean countries have signed on to several of
The under-development of agriculture, caused by a these mandates and commitments, agreeing to take actions
traditional concept which limits the sector to farm activity, to reduce the incidence, spread and devastating impacts of
primary raw materials and food production, has contributed the existing global challenges. However, far too many
to this situation. Consequently, agriculture now features regional citizens, know far too little about these initiatives
prominently in the most important and pre-eminent political, and the implications for them when their countries sign on
economic and social agendas of the world, including the to these agreements. CARICOM countries have tried to
MDGs. However, those that focus explicitly on agriculture ‘internalize’ and incorporate these global and hemispheric
include: agricultural mandates into their national and regional
▫ 1996 United Nations Food and Agriculture policy and programming efforts. For example:
Organization‘s (FAO) World Food Summit (WFS) ▫ the 1996 Regional Transformation Programme (RTP) for
promoting sustainable food security for all. agriculture.
▫ Agro 2003-2015 Plan (Agro 2015) to improve agriculture ▫ the 2003 OECS Agricultural Policy and Strategy.
and rural life in the Americas.
However, since then, the rate of change in the world
environment has increased substantially. This level of
universal dynamism has complicated the global challenges
and increased the level of difficulties experienced by
developing countries in their efforts at global integration
and competitiveness. This is especially so for agriculture
that plays a major multifunctional role in employment,
incomes, trade, food and nutrition security, health and
productivity, social stability and environmental
management in Caribbean countries. Consequently, given
the new world order, renewed efforts are underway to
reposition agriculture under the auspices of the recent 2004
Jagdeo Initiative.
Although these initiatives are conceptualized through
A sample of some of the Region’s Agricultural Mandates
painstaking consultations processes, at all levels, and
These ‘partnerships’ represent just a small sample of ‘managed’ through global, hemispheric and regional
what exists and what many Caribbean countries have cooperation mechanisms and supra-institutions, all actions
signed on to. Other thematic mandates include the must be undertaken at the level of the country. The country
environmental targets, such as, the United Nations is ultimately responsible.

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


3

Target 2015: The Millennium Development Goals


. . . . . . a global partnership for a “peaceful, prosperous and just world”.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the most broadly supported, comprehensive and
specific poverty-reduction targets the world has ever established. They synthesize, in a single package,
many of the most important commitments made separately at the international conferences and summits
of the 1990s. They recognize explicitly the interdependence of growth, poverty reduction and sustainable
development and acknowledge that development rests on the foundations of democratic governance, the
rule of law, respect for human rights and peace and security. The driving force of this global partnership
lies in combating the causes and effects of poverty.
The eight MDG, to be achieved by 2015 are based on time-bound and measurable targets accompanied by
indicators for monitoring progress. They are drawn from the actions and targets contained in the
Millennium Declaration, adopted by 189 nations and signed by 147 Heads of state and Governments.
Goal 1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger (by Goal 7 Ensure environmental sustainability
50% between 1990 and 2015). (reverse loss of environmental resources,
Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education increase access to safe drinking water and basic
(children everywhere will be able to complete a sanitation, and achieve significant
full course of primary schooling) improvement in the lives of at least 100 million
Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower slum dwellers)
women (in all levels of education). Goal 8 Develop a global partnership for
Goal 4 Reduce child mortality (reduce by two development (brings together developing and
thirds, between the under-5 mortality rate) developed countries’ responsibilities, founded
Goal 5 Improve maternal health (reduce the on a global partnership endorsed at the 2002
maternal mortality ratio). International Conference on Financing and
Development in Monterrey, Mexico, and again
Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, other diseases
(reduce spread and incidence of major diseases).
at the 2003 Johannesburg World Summit on
Sustainable Development).
Agriculture and food security is inextricably linked to efforts to reduce poverty and hunger. Its
significance in achieving equitable human development is clearly reflected in 3 of the 8 MDGs, as shown
below.
MDG 1: Poverty is highest in MDG 3: Ne w livelihood MDG 7: Poverty is behind the
rural areas of developing opportunities for smallholder devastating effects of natural
countries. The majority of the farmers and landless wage calamities in developing
rural poor depend on Agriculture labourers, particularly women, countries. Poor people are the
and related small industries and are being created in the “New most vulnerable. Investment in
services for their livelihoods. Agriculture”. Agriculture agricultural and rural
Fighting poverty means first provides a platform to promote development is imperative to
transforming rural lives. gender equality and empower make people more resilient to
Agricultural development has the women, who are responsible for disasters and enhance
greatest impact on inclusive 60-80 % of food production in biodiversity reverse and
growth, overall poverty reduction developing countries. environmental degradation.
and food security.
Monitoring and Evaluating Progress
The year, 2005, was critical in that there were only ten years left to achieve these goals. UN agencies, the
OECD Development Assistance Committee and, in many cases, the World Bank and the International
Monetary Fund, are working to support MDG efforts in all developing countries. The reports of these
efforfts, which are in a growing number of cases the product of collaboration between a country’s
government, the private sector and civil society, highlight where countries are on track to meet the Goals,
where urgent efforts are needed, and the expenditures incurred.
More at http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


4

Target 2015: The World Food Summit


. . . . . . working together to eradicate hunger and improve food security
In 1996, 180 nations met at FAO headquarters for the World Food Summit (WFS) to discuss ways to end
hunger. A growing world population and the urgency of eradicating hunger and malnutrition call for
determined policies and effective actions. Nations pledged to eradicate hunger and committed
themselves to a basic target of reducing the number of undernourished people by half by 2015. The
Summit spawned two documents, the Rome Declaration on World Food Security and the World Food
Summit Plan of Action. The 2002 Summit Declaration called for the creation of an International Alliance
Against Hunger to join forces in efforts to eradicate hunger and to accelerate actions to reduce world
hunger. Working together means joining forces as a nation, region, hemisphere and world and agreeing
on strategies, policies and programmes to combat this universal plague. All Caribbean countries have
pledged commitment to this universal target 2015.
World Food Summit Plan of Action
Coordinated efforts and shared responsibilities Seasonal instability of food supplies
Countries must adopt strategies consistent with Targeted efforts should include minimizing the
their resources and capacities to achieve vulnerability to, and impact of, climate
individual goals and cooperate regionally and fluctuations and pests and diseases.
internationally towards collective solutions.
Addressing the multifaceted underlying causes
Poverty eradication to improve access to food of food insecurity.
Equitable access to stable food supplies should Ongoing efforts to eradicate hunger in all
be ensured at all times, nationally, regionally countries in keeping with the MDG targets.
and internationally, including maintaining an
The Role of the International Community
adequate capacity in the international
Supporting the adoption of appropriate
community to provide food aid, when
national policies and where appropriate,
required, in response to emergencies.
providing technical and financial assistance to
Peaceful and stable environment
assist developing countries and transition
Governments’ must create an enabling economies in fostering food security.
environment to channel private, group and
Follow-up to the World Food Summit
society’s efforts, resources, cooperation and
The UN system, agencies and bodies, have
investment towards the common goal of food
important contributions to the implementation
for all.
of the World Food Summit Plan of Action.
Poverty, hunger and malnutrition
The people and areas suffering most from hunger Reaching sustainable world food security
and malnutrition must be targeted to identify This includes achieving social, economic,
causes and take remedial action. environmental and human development.

Availability of enough food The implementation of the Plan


Increased production of traditional and non- It is the sovereign right and responsibility of
traditional crops and their products, in efficient each State to formulate national laws, policies,
combination with food imports can strengthen strategies and programmes to achieve the
food security and address regional disparities. objective of food security for all.

FAO has the mandate to monitor progress in hunger reduction based on accurate, reliable and timely
methods that measure the prevalence of hunger, food insecurity and vulnerability and that also illustrate
changes over time. FAO helps countries to make progress toward the WFS goal of reducing the number of
hungry people by half by 2015. Amongst the many initiatives is the Special Programme for Food Security
(SPFS) which is the flagship initiative for reaching the goal. In the Caribbean, the FAO is spearheading the
Caribbean Regional SPFS, which has adopted a two-pronged approach towards achieving year round
production of vegetables and root crops using micro-irrigation systems in the 14 CARICOM Member States.
More at: http://www.fao.org/monitoringprogress

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


5

Target 2015: The Agro 2003 – 2015 Plan


. . . a hemispheric partnership to “improve agriculture and rural life in the Americas”

The 2001 3rd Summit of the Americas marked a turning point for agriculture and rural development in the
Hemisphere. It made the sectors and the Ministers of Agriculture important to the socio-economic
development of the Hemisphere. They reaffirmed this commitment at subsequent Summits in Monterrey
(Mexico 2004) and Mar de Plata (Argentina 2005). In 2003, Ministers of Agriculture in Panama City
adopted and agreed to the Agriculture and Rural Life in the Americas 2003-2015 Plan (Agro 2015).
Subsequently, in 2005, they agreed on the major aspects of its implementation in the Ministerial
Agreement of Guayaquil. All Caribbean countries, represented by their respective Ministers of
Agriculture, are signatories to the Agro 2015 Plan.

The AGRO 2003-2015 Plan represents a framework to guide and inform domestic policy strategies aimed at
agricultural restructuring, diversification, promotion of competitive clusters and raising growth and incomes
in the sector and the prosperity of the rural communities. The significance of the Agro 2015 Plan is the
commitment received at the highest political level among 34 countries of the Americas and its consistency
with global strategic objectives, such as, those of the MDGs. AGRO 2015 Plan visualizes that by 2015:
Rural Territories Agricultural Value-Consumption The National and International
will:- Chain will: environment for Agriculture
will:-
 provide both agriculture and  be well integrated with links that  foster enabling macro-
non-agriculture economic are efficient, competitive and economic policies to
activities, led by smart public- add value to local raw materials. facilitate competitive
private sector partnerships.  consistently supply safe, healthy agriculture, improved rural
 be using environmentally and high-quality products. life and provision of efficient
friendly practices and  be using systems and services;
technologies for sustainable technologies that mitigate the  agricultural trade occurs
natural resource management. effects of natural disasters and with significantly less
 make substantial progress in SPS emergencies. distortions (subsidies and
reducing rural poverty  have information systems that barriers).
 have mechanisms to integrate enhance knowledge and learning  it is strategically positioned
different stakeholder groups in processes to facilitate risk within health and food
policy dialogue, definition and management and contribute to security systems and
implementation of actions. efficient food security systems. economic development.

Monitoring and Evaluating Progress


The Heads of State of Government saw the need ECLAC to continue to develop this information
for an information system to monitor and evaluate system and the support of other International
the Agro 2015 in order to provide a means to Organizations and Ministerial Delegates of the Joint
measure/analyze the progress of the approved Summit Working group to define goals and indicators
mandate relative to agriculture and rural life in the for the mandates of the Summit of the Americas.
ministerial summit. They called on IICA and

In 2005, the 3rd Ministerial Meeting reviewed the progress of AGRO 2015, updated its Hemispheric Agenda
for 2006-2007 period, and approved a process to consolidate an enabling environment for the sustainable
improvement of agriculture and rural life. This process reiterated the need for mechanisms to facilitate
increased cooperation, measuring progress in implementation and sharing of experiences among
signatories. IICA, with the assistance of the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA)
recently introduced a project, Building a Caribbean Agricultural Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)
Information System for the Agro 2015 and Jagdeo Initiative, as its response to the Summit mandates.

More at: http://www.iica.int/cumbres/

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


6
Promoting a New Systemic and Sustainable Approach to Agriculture and Rural Development

A traditional concept of agriculture, that limited its activity to the farm, primary raw materials and food
production, has contributed to the under-development of the sector and to the situation of growing poverty,
hunger and environmental degradation, particularly in rural areas. In the 21st Century, the old, restrictive concept
of agriculture can no longer be used as the basis for defining actions to achieve sustainable development of
agriculture, improve the lives of rural peoples, secure food supplies and safeguard the environment.

A fundamentally new conceptual framework is needed. In this regard, 2001 marked a turning point when
Member States engaged in extensive consultations aimed at redefining a conceptual framework within which
actions to improve agriculture and rural life could be the developed and agriculture and rural life positioned in the
Summit of the Americas process. At the hemispheric level, this nationally-driven process evolved into the Agro
2003-2015 Plan for the Improvement of Agriculture and Rural Life in the Americas (hereafter Agro 2015). It is
fully consistent with the framework of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

The new Agro 2015 has been adopted by Ministers of Agriculture and endorsed by Heads of State and
Government of the Americas conceptualize agricultural and rural development, at the national, regional and
hemispheric levels, develop interventions aimed at addressing specific issues and promote linkages among the
inter-related elements of the system. IICA has adopted that framework in defining its support in keeping with
Member States development priorities. This section describes the thinking, elements, interactions and objectives of
the Agro 2015 using the Agro Matrix.

THE AGRO 2015 MATRIX


A NEW SYSTEMIC AND SUSTAINABLE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL LIFE

3 CATEGORIES Agricultural
National and 4 STRATEGIC
Rural Territories Production-Trade
International Context OBJECTIVES
4 DIMENSIONS Chains
I. II. III.
Economic
Promoting Integrating chains and Promoting an 
(Production –
competitive rural strengthening their environment conducive Competitiveness
Trade)
enterprises competitiveness to competitive agriculture
IV. V. VI.
Being environmentally From farm to table: Participating in building
Ecological – 
responsible in the promoting integrated an institutional
Environmental Sustainability
rural areas environmental environmental framework
management
VII. VIII. IX.
Quality of life in rural Advancing learning Promoting policies to
Sociocultural -
communities: creating and expertise in the create capabilities and  Equity
human
know-how and chain opportunities for the rural
opportunity communities
X. XI. XII.
Strengthening public Strengthening Promoting state policies
Political - and private sector dialogue and and regional and
 Governance
institutional participation and commitments among hemispheric cooperation
coordinated action actors in the chain

SUSTAINABLE
3 STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT
OBJECTIVES Rural Prosperity + Food Security + International Positioning of AGRICULTURE
and RURAL LIFE

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


7
AgroMatrix defines 3 CATEGORIES in the Systemic Concept (Column Headers). These establish the specific Levels
within which activity to improve agriculture and rural life can take place. These are two categories of stakeholders:
1. Rural Territories or the Rural System, which is first level where productive activities take place. These activities are
both agricultural and non-agricultural and are influenced by both the national and international environments.
2. Agricultural-Production-Trade Chains or the ‘Agri-Food System’:: which is the second level of activities that add
value to primary production from rural territories. The AgroMatrix recognises that (a) agricultural activities span the
range of food and non-food goods and services and (b) actions occur within well integrated, agricultural chains that
add value to the output of the Rural System. The scope and nature of the activities by these stakeholders are very
heavily determined by both the national and international environments.
These first two categories – Rural System and Agri-Food System – encompass all stakeholders in agriculture and rural life
and define where the nature and scope of their productive activities.
And their policy environment, defined at two levels:
3. National and International Context - which provides the regulatory framework within which all activities occur
and contains a set of elements that affect the development actions and operations of the stakeholders, particularly the
integrated chains.
The combined actions and results of all stakeholders, operating within their national and international environments, and
integrating the dimensions of sustainable development in all their actions will contribute to achieving the three
objectves of Rural Prosperity, Food Security, and International Positioning.

AgroMatrix defines 4 DIMENSIONS of Sustainable Development – (Row AgroMatrix defines 12


Headers), which define the Thematic Focus for agricultural and rural development Purposes (4x3 reasons or
objectives and actions based on: rationale that make up the
1. Economic - represents the productive sectors of an economy and is driven by the Inner cells of the Matrix)
need to achieve Competitiveness. of the new concept and
2. Ecological - Environmental dimension - which contains the available natural the goal of sustainable
resources that support economic activity, community building and maintenance of development of agriculture
biodiversity, relate more directly to the sustainability of the natural resource base, and rural life. These
to achieve the objective of Sustainability; Purposes/Rationale can be
3. Sociocultural-Human dimension, which considers the socio-cultural aspects and used as the base to define,
social interactions among members of a society, including the social interaction in implement and monitor
the rural territories which are host to agriculture, and seek to achieve the objective interventions and actions
Equity; (policies, programmes and
4. Political-Institutional dimension, which defines the governance and regulatory projects) towards the
framework, both at the national and international levels, within which all achievement of the
economic activity and social interactions occur. This also governs the conditions objectives of sustainable
under which natural resources are used and managed and the resulting wealth development of agriculture
generated is distributed. The objective of this dimension is Governance and rural life.
All activity in agriculture and rural life can ‘fit’ into these four dimensions.

What does this new conecpt mean on the ground?


Using the AgroMatrix, the old way of agriculture generally focussed the bulk of development actions in Cell 1
– dealing mostly with farm productivity and efficiency issues, including some actions as necessary in Cell VII –
training to improve skill levels. Actions to forge and sustain links from the farm into the value chain -Cell II -
were either generally ad-hoc and/or left up to another Ministry or Agency. This situation was even ad hoc
when it involved empowering the farming community to participate in the policy process -Cell III. It was
only over the past 5 years, that elements of Cell IV – through GAP (eg. EurepGap), and Cell V, through
GMP and HACCP - were included, albeit slowly, as a must for sustainable agricultural development. The
focus on training anad retraining Also, with the more active promotion of establising farmer and agribusiness
associations and linkin them to the policy dialgue process at the national and regional levels, the full systemic
concept has been taking root.

In adopting this new framework for improving agriculture and rural life, the farmers should be assured that
actions aimed at improving their livelihoods will be more comprehensively thought out, taking fully into
consideration their development needs outside of the farm and beyond just the economic (production)
aspect.

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


8

The Community Agricultural Policy


… regional commitment for agricultural transformation, growth and development
In July 5 2001 the ‘Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas Establishing the Caribbean Community and the
th

CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME), sets out in Chapter Four, Part 2 - Article 56, the
objectives of the agriculture sector referred to as the Community Agriculture Policy. Article 56 adapted the
goals of the Regional Transformation Program for Agriculture (RTP) which had been endorsed during the
Caricom Conference of Heads of Government in 1996. Article 56 now, therefore constitutes the framework
the Community Agricultural Policy which is underpinned by multiple goals of agricultural productivity,
competitiveness, improving incomes and sustainable management of the natural resources. The recently
launched "Jagdeo Initiative" is the main vehicle for the implementation of the policy, with an initial focus
on addressing, on a consensus basis, 10 Key Binding Constraints to the development of the sector.
Defining the Goals and Implementation of the CARICOM Community Agricultural Policy (CAP)
Article 56 - CAP articulated the Regional Article 57 - Policy Implementation through a
Agricultural/Agri-business Policy Goals to: Regional Strategic Framework for Agricultural/
a) transform agriculture towards market-oriented, Agri-business Development that:
internationally competitive and environmentally (a) defined a set of 13 strategic areas that span
sound production of agricultural products; the entire agri-product value chain (see
b) improved income, employment opportunities, below);
food and nutrition security and poverty (b) outlined specific effective support measures
alleviation; to be established to implement the policy,
c) efficient production of traditional and non- including support to national governments
traditional primary agricultural products; and private organisations;
d) increased production and diversification of (c) specified the need for national, regional and
processed agricultural products; international collaboration in priority areas
e) enlarged share of world market for primary and of provision of appropriate inputs and
processed agricultural products; and development of physical infrastructure (port
f) efficient management and exploitation of the facilities, drainage, irrigation, roads, post-
Region's natural resources (forests & fisheries). harvest and marketing facilities).
The 13 Strategic Areas for Implementing the CARICOM CAP:
1. Production, diversification, processing and 7. Effective information and market intelligence
marketing 8. Research and Development
2. Effective financing systems 9. Rural enterprise development
3. Linkages among Member States 10. Public education on agriculture
4. Development of appropriate Human resources 11. Establish Effective SPS regime
and delivery systems 12. Policy environment to attract investment
5. Development of appropriate use of land and 13. Technical cooperation and dissemination of
marine space to increase production knowledge on agriculture.
6. Appropriate land tenure (security) systems
The Agricultural Policy provided further elaboration of strategies in the following priority areas:
Article 58 - Natural Resources Management Article 61 - Forestry Management & Development
Article 59 - Marketing of Agricultural Products Article 62 – which recognizes Member States
Article 60- Fisheries Management and Development obligations under international agreements

The CARICOM CAP is therefore basis for elaborating national and regional strategic policy and plans to
accelerate agricultural transformation, growth and development. As recognised by President Jagdeo, given
the new and rapidly changing 21st century international environment, it is not enough for the full
development of our agricultural sector to be considered solely from a production perspective. Member
States should seize the opportunity to reinforce and/or realign national policy objectives, policy instruments
and implementation mechanisms to the Community Agricultural Policy’s goals to strengthen the
repositioning effort.

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


9

Target 2015: The OECS Agricultural Policy and Strategic Plan


…sub-regional commitment to diversify, expand and transform agriculture

In late 2001, the OECS began a process to revitalize agriculture in the sub-region. The process resulted
in the preparation of an Agricultural Policy Framework and Strategic Plan in 2002 (OECS Agricultural
Policy and Strategy), which was endorsed by the OECS Heads of Government in 2004. Its goal is to
foster the conduct of agricultural activities on a competitive, market-oriented, internationally
integrated and environmentally sustainable sound basis. Emphasis is placed on diversification of
production and exports, market-led agro-industrial development, institutional reform and expanding
agricultural business and management in efforts to transform the agricultural sector of the OECS
Me m b e r S t a t e s .

The OECS Agricultural Policy and Strategy is agriculture has a major and multi-functional role
based on the premise that issues and problems, to play in the socio-economic development of
common to the countries of the sub-region, are countries of the sub-region. Thus, it promotes
best addressed collectively. This will be done actions aimed at rural development, enhancing
through actions that focus on ‘commercial food security and sustainable management of the
agriculture’. It fully subscribes to the view that natural resources and the environment.

Strategic Areas and Programmes Led by Current Actions


1. Policy, Legal and Institutional Reform
1. Fostering the Best Linkages between IICA Supported by IICA/CTA/CDE, OAS/CIDA;
Agriculture and Tourism IICA/CTO and IICA/CHA supported agro-
tourism projects
2. Encouraging Improved Cooperation CABA IDB Multi-Lateral Investment Funds project to
and Collaboration of the Farming strengthen the capacity of small and medium
Community and Other Agribusiness sized enterprises in the region.
Concerns in Agricultural Development
2. Natural Resource Management
3. Improving the Availability, Quality FAO A water management proposal developed to
and Management Systems for Water in improve the supply and quality of water in
Agriculture the Member States.
4. Assisting in the Development of Land FAO OECS land use (including agriculture land
use Planning and Agricultural zoning) and diversification policy under
Diversification development
5. Mitigating the Long Term Effects of IICA Proposal for disaster management and the
Natural and Man Made Hazards on development of some protocols to guide the
Agriculture Production response mechanism.
3. Financial Options, Incentive Regimes and Insurance
6. Facilitating the Flow of Investment IICA Participation in the Financing and Investment
(credit) to the Agriculture Sector Conference (Guyana 06/05), Food Needs
study and FAO Bankable projects
7. Developing an Appropriate Incentives FAO Incentive programmes and support systems
Regime for Efficient and Effective in OECS region being reviewed.
Production and Marketing
4. Production, Product Development and Marketing
8. Developing an Effective and Efficient OECS Marketing Plan for OECS under development
Marketing System for the OECS Sec. with CARDI support.
9. Strengthening Agricultural Health and IICA Modernization of national and regional AHFS
Food Safety Systems Capacity systems and services

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


10

Target 2015: The Jagdeo Initiative


. . . a Caribbean partnership to “alleviate major Key Binding Constraints to Agriculture”

At the 25th CARICOM Conference of Heads of Government (CHG) (June 2004), the Heads agreed on the
need for a new agricultural development strategy and endorsed a process that would allow for its
development. President Bharrat Jagdeo of Guyana, CARICOM Head with Lead responsibility for
agriculture enlisted IICA and the FAO to continue to assist the CARICOM Secretariat in the
development of a framework towards improving the production and productivity of the agricultural and
rural sectors, and hence their contribution to sustainable agriculture. This was the genesis of the Jagdeo
Initiative (The Initiative).

The Initiative visualizes that by 2015, agriculture: The Initiative will give effect to the goals of the
 will make substantial contributions to economic Revised Treaty’s Article 56 Community Agricultural
development and economic, social and Policy, by defining and implementing interventions
environmental sustainability; to alleviate ten Key Major Binding Constraints to
 will have a transparent regulatory framework at agriculture. It will integrate and consolidate
national and regional levels, that promotes, individual efforts and resources and build on all
attracts and facilitates capital and investments; relevant previous and ongoing national and regional
 will have significantly transformed its processes actions to maximize the benefits of cooperation. It
and products and stimulates innovation and emphasizes national actions and initiatives. In
entrepreneurship; January 2006, President Jagdeo recommended that a
 will enable the region to achieve an acceptable Minister of Agriculture assume lead responsibility
and stable level of food security. for a Key Constraint, supported by a Lead Agency.

Constraint Lead Minister/ Current Actions


Agency
1. Limited financing and Inadequate Barbados/CDB/IICA Developing requirements for Agricultural
New Investments Modernization Fund, Food Needs Study.
2. Outdated/Inefficient Agricultural Trinidad & Tobago/ In final stages of establishing Caribbean
Health & Food Safety (AHFS) CARICOM Sec. AHFS Agency, to be located in CARDI and
systems strengthening national systems.
3. Inadequate Research and Guyana/ In process of defining Regional R&D needs
Development CARDI towards development of a Strategy and
strengthening of national R&D capacities.
4. Fragmented and Disorganized St. Vincent & the CABA engaged in process of widening
Private Sector Grenadines/ CABA membership and strengthening national
agribusiness associations.
5. Inefficient land & water St. Lucia/FAO National and regional water information
distribution & management systems systems, hydrology and irrigation studies.
6. Deficient and uncoordinated risk Antigua & Barbuda Efforts ongoing to consolidate national and
management measures /IICA regional initiatives for agricultural disaster
management and mitigation
7. Inadequate transportation St. Kitts & Nevis/ Regional Transportation study in progress.
(especially for perishables) CARICOM Sec.
8. Weak and Non-integrated Countries in process of strengthening
Information/ Intelligence systems national systems. Development of CAMID
Jamaica/CARDI
9. Weak Linkages/Participation in ongoing. IICA initiated project on Building
Markets an Agricultural M&E Information system.
10.Lack of Skilled Human Resources Dominica/ UWI Ongoing assessment of specific academic
and skills requirements for agriculture.
More at: www.carapn.net

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


11

A Snapshot of Agriculture in the Caribbean 2005

The year 2005 was challenging for agriculture as traditional The region came slowly to the acceptance that the era of a
export industries continued to cope with preferential access “new’ agriculture has dawned. As the prospects for the
erosion in Europe. In the Dominican Republic (DR), that banana and sugar export industries diminish substantially,
largest Caribbean producer after Cuba, sugar production, the search for niche markets, particularly, organic and fair
geared largely for the United States, has been declining since trade markets, was accelerated. Three-quarters of all bananas
1992. For the other Caribbean producers, St. Kitts and Nevis exported from the DR are now certified organic. Six years
ceased sugar production, while all others defined ‘Sugar ago, there were none. One in five bananas from the
Adaptation Strategies” to qualify for their share of the EUR Windwards carries the FAIRTRADE Mark, with Jamaica
40 million in transitional assistance to African, Caribbean developing its capacities to market ‘Caribbean smalls’.
and Pacific (ACP) producers for 2006. The long-standing Among sugar producers, active consideration was given to
dispute over the EU tariff-only import system kept ethanol production from cane, mainly in Jamaica and
confidence low in the banana industry producing countries. Barbados and Guyana developed the ‘branded’ sugar. Other
In spite of deepened industry rehabilitation efforts, ‘alternative crops’ included golf courses, hotels and sugar
Windward Island banana production continued its decline museums on closed estates. The thrust to define regional
in 2005. The Jamaica banana industry spent the second half policies, strategies and joint actions in key areas of Agro-
of 2005 recovering from the effects of Hurricane Dennis (July Biotechnology and Agro-Tourism continued. The
2005). appropriate application of agro-biotechnology will be critical
to manage the shift into the ‘new’ agriculture. Agro-tourism
Diversification took on added meaning. This was driven by
continued to be abuzz in the Caribbean. For example, the
the need to foster resilience in agricultural production and
Sandals St. Lucia Resort sustained and increased its local
particularly, in the context of international unrest, to address
purchases of fruit and vegetable throughout the year. In
food security concerns through relaible domestic/regional
some other countries, major hotels began to show a
food supplies. The results of the food security focus,
heightened interest towards local purchasing and
particualrly for the hurricane-ravaged countries of the DR,
participation in ‘Food Festivals”.
Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica and The Bahamas, were notable.
This was evidenced by the abundance of locally produced The 2006 horizon for agriculture in the Caribbean will see, in
vegetables, fruit and root crops on the domestic market at addition to food security, priority placed on natural resource
year end. Haiti also reported positive growth in staples, management (land, water, air), food safety, natural disaster
mainly corn, rice paddy and sorghum, despite the adverse management, renewable energy (biofuels) and conservation
weather conditions. For Guyana, diversification facilitated agriculture. The issues over land availability and use will
increased exports of non-traditional crops to extra-regional escalate as increasingly, sugar estate lands are being
markets and to Antigua, Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) and St. aggressively targeted for the development of golf courses.
Lucia, the latter boosted by the signing of a new agreement Global water wars have been predicted since before the turn
for increased exports of agricultural products. of this century and nations of the world, including the
Caribbean, will pay more attention to water use, availability,
During 2005, the debilitating impact of natural disasters was
management and quality issues. Agricultural activity,
well appreciated and publicised. For example, widespread
particularly livestock and processing will come under closer
flooding in Guyana in the beginning of the year, hurricanes
scrutiny in terms of their contribution to air, land and water
(Dennis in Jamaica, Emily in Grenada and Jamaica and
pollution and food safety. Nutrition and obesity will
Wilma in Haiti) on the heels of Ivan in 2004, disease
dominate food quality standards and marketing. Natural
outbreaks (citrus canker in The Bahamas and leaf spot in St.
disasters are predicted to be more frequent and severe,
Lucia), classical swine fever (DR & Haiti) and the possibility
further stressing the inadequate response capacities of the
of the introduction of the Avian Influenza. An elevated level
region. Renewable energy and conservation agriculture will
of risks was further exacerbated by increasing fuel costs as
feature in regional dialogue as the prospects of
the major energy supplier for the food industry, topped a
biotechnology applications in agriculture become more real.
record US$70 a barrel in November. These developments
These changes and challenges will come seemingly faster
have increased energy, transportation and shipping costs
than ever and actions taken now will influence how
and for net-energy importing countries, increased the costs
agriculture will go beyond mere survival and flourish.
of food and beverage processing, impacting on profitability
in the second half of the year.

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1


12

Remembering Honourable Satyadeow Sawh


Minister of Fisheries, Crops and Livestock and Acting Minister of Agriculture, Guyana
From the Director General of the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA), Dr.
Chelston W.D. Brathwaite
The Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on His leadership capabilities in the areas of Agriculture
Agriculture (IICA) is deeply shocked and saddened by the and Rural Development were well noted by his
tragic and untimely death of the Honourable Satyadeow ministerial colleagues in the wider Caribbean and the
Sawh, other members of his family and Hemisphere. His able chairmanship of the
his security staff. On behalf of the entire most recent session of the Special
IICA Family, on my own behalf and that Agriculture COTED resulted in several
of my family I would like to express critical decisions being taken, including
sincere condolences to the sorrowing the adoption of measures for the
widow, Satie, sons, Roger and David implementation of the ‘Jagdeo Initiative’
and other family members; as well as to for the repositioning of Caribbean
His Excellency, President Bharrat agriculture. The late Minister will also be
Jagdeo, and Members of the remembered as a very active member of
government, members of the the Inter-American Board of Agriculture.
Honourable Minister’s staff at the His incisive and forthright interventions
Ministries for Agriculture and Fisheries, won the admiration of counterparts
Crops and Livestock, other friends and throughout the Americas.
associates of the late Minister.
The Honourable Minister will be sorely missed in the
We recognize his capable management of the Ministries
IICA family. We pledge to continue our support to the
under his portfolio which saw significant achievements in
Government and people of Guyana to ensure that his
Guyana’s Agricultural Diversification thrust, resulting in
vision for the development of the agriculture and rural
increased production and export of non-traditional
sectors will continue and the objectives therein be
commodities to Europe, the United States of America and
ultimately achieved. May the soul of the late Minister,
the Caribbean. We commend his leadership for the
and those who have departed in these tragic
successes achieved during the Caribbean Week of
circumstances rest in peace.
Agriculture held in Guyana in 2003. This has set the
standard for all future events of this nature in the region.

Articles, news, updates, book reviews, studies, questions and comments for publication in AV are welcomed!
AgriView is published trimesterly by the
Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on
Agriculture. It provides a forum for
researchers, policy makers and agri-
entrepreneurs, including small farmer, to
share ideas and successful experiences that
will contribute to the repositioning of the
agri-food system in the Caribbean to one that
is economically efficient, socially responsible
and environmentally sound. It also provides
information to enhance knowledge critical to
agribusiness.
Editor:
Diana Francis
Production:
Printcom (Caribbean) Limited
Tel. 665 3324, 671-7289
ISSN – 0534-5391-CaRC/TT-01/06
The responsibility for opinions expressed in this publication and errors and ommissions rests solely with the authors.

Trimesterly Newsletter Vol. 12. No.1