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Theory of Machines -II

Lecture 2

Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly

Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering,

South Valley University, Qena-83523, Egypt. Email: noubyluxor@gmail.com

Outline of Presentation

Gear Animation

Gear Terminology

Velocity Ratio

Applications of Gears

Gear Animation

Gear Terminology

Pitch circle, theoretical circle upon which all calculation is based

p, Circular pitch, distance from one teeth to the next, along the pitch circle. p=πd/T

m, module=d/T pitch circle/number of teeth

p= πm

Gear Terminology

Pitch circle: is an imaginary circle that corresponds to the

circumference of the friction gear from which the spur gear is derived.

Addendum circle: A circle bounding the ends of the teeth, in a

right section of the gear.

Root (or dedendum) circle: The circle bounding the spaces between the teeth, in a right section of the gear.

Dedendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root circle.

Clearance: The difference between the dedendum of one gear

and the addendum of the mating gear.

Gear Terminology

Face of a tooth: That part of the tooth surface lying outside the

pitch surface.

Flank of a tooth: The part of the tooth surface lying inside the pitch surface.

Circular thickness (also called the tooth thickness): The

thickness of the tooth measured on the pitch circle. It is the length

of an arc and not the length of a straight line.

Backlash: The difference between the circle thickness of one gear

and the tooth space of the mating gear.

Circular pitch (Pc) : The width of a tooth and a space, measured on the pitch circle.

P

D

c T

Gear Terminology

Diametral pitch (Pd): The number of teeth of a gear unit pitch diameter. The

diametral pitch is, by definition, the number of teeth divided by the pitch diameter. That is,

Where P d = diametral pitch T = number of teeth D = pitch diameter

P d

T

D

Module (m): Pitch diameter divided by number of teeth. The pitch diameter is usually specified in inches or millimeters; in the former case the module is the inverse of diametral pitch.

m = D/T

Basic Gear Design

CENTER TO CENTER DISTANCES OF TWO GEARS

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Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly

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Gear Ratio (M)

Basic Gear Design

When two friction wheels of different diameter are placed together a point of the driver gear will travel the same distance as a point of the driven gear. Therefore, the number of teeth and the speed of

the gears are directly proportional to its pitch diameter.

M1 = D1 = T1 = RPM2

M2

D2

T2

RPM1

Linear Velocity (V) Linear velocity is the distance that a given point on the friction wheel travels during a certain time period. Linear Velocity (V) = Π x Pitch Diameter of Gear (D) x RPM

Factors considered in gear

selection

Pitch circle diameter

Number of teeth

Face Width

Material used to manufacture the gear

Style of hub, bore, etc

A Gear Spur Gear
Catalog

A Gear Spur Gear

Catalog

GEAR TRAINS

A gear train is two or more gear working together by

meshing their teeth and turning each other in a system to

generate power and speed

It reduces speed and increases torque

Electric motors are used with the gear systems to reduce the speed and increase the torque

Types of Gear Train.

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Simple Gear Train Compound Gear Train Riveted Gear train Epicycle Gear Train

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Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly

Simple Gear Train

The most common of the gear train is the gear pair

connecting parallel shafts. The teeth of this type can

be spur, helical or herringbone.

Only one gear may rotate about a single axis

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Simple Gear Train

Multiple gears can be connected together to form a gear train.

Each shaft carries only one gear wheel.

Intermediate gears are known as Idler Gears.

Compound Gear Train

If two gear wheels are mounted on a common shaft then it’s a Compound Gear train.

Driver

Compound

Gear
Driven

Compound Gear train

For large velocities ratios,

compound gear train arrangement is preferred.

Input
B
D
A
C

The velocity of each tooth on A and B are the same so:

A T A = B T B

Output

Compound Gears

GEAR 'B'
GEAR 'C'
1.

-as they are simple gears.

Likewise for C and D,

C T C = D T D .

GEAR 'A'

GEAR 'D'

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Reverted Gear Train

When the axes of the first

driver and the last driven

are co-axial, then the

gear train is known as

reverted gear train.

In a reverted gear train, the

motion of the first gear and

the last gear is same.

Epicyclic Gear Train

Epicyclic means one gear

planet and sun gears as one

orbits the other like a planet around the sun.

A small gear at the center called

the sun, several medium sized gears called the planets and a large external gear called the ring gear.

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Gear Ratio

Generally, the Gear Ratio is calculated by counting the teeth of the two gears,

and applying the following formula:

Gear ratio = Number of teeth on driven gear Number of teeth on driver gear

Gear Ratio - Calculation

A 100 tooth gear drives a 25 tooth

gear. Calculate the gear ratio for the

meshing teeth.

Gear ratio =

Number of teeth on driven gear

Number of teeth on driver gear

 Gear ratio = driven 25 = 1 driver 100 4 This is written as 1:4

Gear Speed :- Calculation

A motor gear has 28 teeth and

revolves at 100 rev/min. The

driven gear has 10 teeth. What

is its rotational speed?

28 teeth,

driver

10 teeth,

driven

Speed of driven gear = Number of teeth on driver gear

x 100

Number of teeth on driven gear

 Speed of driven gear = driver = 28 x 100 = 280 rev/min driven 10

Report 1

Different methods of Gear Manufacture

Questions?