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Theory of Machines -II Lecture 2 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of

Theory of Machines -II

Lecture 2

Theory of Machines -II Lecture 2 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering,

Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly

Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering,

South Valley University, Qena-83523, Egypt. Email: noubyluxor@gmail.com

Outline of Presentation • Gear Animation • Gear Terminology • Velocity Ratio • Applications of

Outline of Presentation

Gear Animation

Gear Terminology

Velocity Ratio

Applications of Gears

Gear Animation • Gear Terminology • Velocity Ratio • Applications of Gears 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M.
Gear Animation 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 3

Gear Animation

Gear Animation 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 3
Gear Animation 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 3
Gear Terminology
Gear Terminology

Pitch circle, theoretical circle upon which all calculation is based

, theoretical circle upon which all calculation is based p , Circular pitch , distance from

p, Circular pitch, distance from one teeth to the next, along the pitch circle. p=πd/T

m, module=d/T pitch circle/number of teeth

p= πm

Gear Terminology • Pitch circle : is an imaginary circle that corresponds to the circumference

Gear Terminology

Gear Terminology • Pitch circle : is an imaginary circle that corresponds to the circumference of

Pitch circle: is an imaginary circle that corresponds to the

circumference of the friction gear from which the spur gear is derived.

Addendum circle: A circle bounding the ends of the teeth, in a

right section of the gear.

Root (or dedendum) circle: The circle bounding the spaces between the teeth, in a right section of the gear.

Addendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the addendum circle.

Dedendum: The radial distance between the pitch circle and the root circle.

Clearance: The difference between the dedendum of one gear

and the addendum of the mating gear.

Gear Terminology • Face of a tooth : That part of the tooth surface lying

Gear Terminology

Gear Terminology • Face of a tooth : That part of the tooth surface lying outside

Face of a tooth: That part of the tooth surface lying outside the

pitch surface.

Flank of a tooth: The part of the tooth surface lying inside the pitch surface.

Circular thickness (also called the tooth thickness): The

thickness of the tooth measured on the pitch circle. It is the length

of an arc and not the length of a straight line.

Backlash: The difference between the circle thickness of one gear

and the tooth space of the mating gear.

Circular pitch (Pc) : The width of a tooth and a space, measured on the pitch circle.

P

D

c T

Gear Terminology • Diametral pitch ( Pd): The number of teeth of a gear unit

Gear Terminology

Gear Terminology • Diametral pitch ( Pd): The number of teeth of a gear unit pitch

Diametral pitch (Pd): The number of teeth of a gear unit pitch diameter. The

diametral pitch is, by definition, the number of teeth divided by the pitch diameter. That is,

Where P d = diametral pitch T = number of teeth D = pitch diameter

P d

T

D

Module (m): Pitch diameter divided by number of teeth. The pitch diameter is usually specified in inches or millimeters; in the former case the module is the inverse of diametral pitch.

m = D/T

Basic Gear Design
Basic Gear Design
Basic Gear Design CENTER TO CENTER DISTANCES OF TWO GEARS 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 1.

CENTER TO CENTER DISTANCES OF TWO GEARS

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Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly

1.

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Gear Ratio (M) Basic Gear Design When two friction wheels of different diameter are placed

Gear Ratio (M)

Basic Gear Design

Gear Ratio (M) Basic Gear Design When two friction wheels of different diameter are placed together

When two friction wheels of different diameter are placed together a point of the driver gear will travel the same distance as a point of the driven gear. Therefore, the number of teeth and the speed of

the gears are directly proportional to its pitch diameter.

M1 = D1 = T1 = RPM2

M2

D2

T2

RPM1

Linear Velocity (V) Linear velocity is the distance that a given point on the friction wheel travels during a certain time period. Linear Velocity (V) = Π x Pitch Diameter of Gear (D) x RPM

Factors considered in gear selection • Pitch circle diameter – Number of teeth – Face

Factors considered in gear

selection

Pitch circle diameter

considered in gear selection • Pitch circle diameter – Number of teeth – Face Width –

Number of teeth

Face Width

Material used to manufacture the gear

Style of hub, bore, etc

A Gear Spur Gear Catalog
A Gear Spur Gear
Catalog
A Gear Spur Gear Catalog 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 12

A Gear Spur Gear

Catalog

A Gear Spur Gear Catalog 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 12
GEAR TRAINS • A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing

GEAR TRAINS

GEAR TRAINS • A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their

A gear train is two or more gear working together by

meshing their teeth and turning each other in a system to

generate power and speed

It reduces speed and increases torque

Electric motors are used with the gear systems to reduce the speed and increase the torque

Types of Gear Train. 1. 14  Simple Gear Train  Compound Gear Train 

Types of Gear Train.

Types of Gear Train. 1. 14  Simple Gear Train  Compound Gear Train  Riveted
Types of Gear Train. 1. 14  Simple Gear Train  Compound Gear Train  Riveted

1.

14

Simple Gear Train Compound Gear Train Riveted Gear train Epicycle Gear Train

3/15/2014

Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly

Simple Gear Train • The most common of the gear train is the gear pair

Simple Gear Train

Simple Gear Train • The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting

The most common of the gear train is the gear pair

connecting parallel shafts. The teeth of this type can

be spur, helical or herringbone.

Only one gear may rotate about a single axis

3/15/2014

can be spur, helical or herringbone. • Only one gear may rotate about a single axis

Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly

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Simple Gear Train • Multiple gears can be connected together to form a gear train.

Simple Gear Train

Simple Gear Train • Multiple gears can be connected together to form a gear train. Each
Simple Gear Train • Multiple gears can be connected together to form a gear train. Each

Multiple gears can be connected together to form a gear train.

Each shaft carries only one gear wheel.

Intermediate gears are known as Idler Gears.

Compound Gear Train If two gear wheels are mounted on a common shaft then it’s

Compound Gear Train

If two gear wheels are mounted on a common shaft then it’s a Compound Gear train.

on a common shaft then it’s a Compound Gear train. D r i v e r

Driver

shaft then it’s a Compound Gear train. D r i v e r Compound Gear Driven

Compound

Gear Driven
Gear
Driven
Compound Gear train • For large velocities ratios, compound gear train arrangement is preferred. Input

Compound Gear train

Compound Gear train • For large velocities ratios, compound gear train arrangement is preferred. Input B

For large velocities ratios,

compound gear train arrangement is preferred.

Input B D A C
Input
B
D
A
C

The velocity of each tooth on A and B are the same so:

A T A = B T B

Output

Compound Gears

GEAR 'B' GEAR 'C' 1.
GEAR 'B'
GEAR 'C'
1.

-as they are simple gears.

Likewise for C and D,

C T C = D T D .

GEAR 'A'

GEAR 'D'

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Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly

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Reverted Gear Train  When the axes of the first driver and the last driven

Reverted Gear Train

When the axes of the first

driver and the last driven

are co-axial, then the

gear train is known as

reverted gear train.

In a reverted gear train, the

motion of the first gear and

the last gear is same.

In a reverted gear train, the motion of the first gear and the last gear is
Epicyclic Gear Train  Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and around another. The design

Epicyclic Gear Train

Epicyclic Gear Train  Epicyclic means one gear revolving upon and around another. The design involves

Epicyclic means one gear

revolving upon and around another. The design involves

planet and sun gears as one

orbits the other like a planet around the sun.

A small gear at the center called

the sun, several medium sized gears called the planets and a large external gear called the ring gear.

medium sized gears called the planets and a large external gear called the ring gear. 3/15/2014

3/15/2014

Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly

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Gear Ratio • Generally, the Gear Ratio is calculated by counting the teeth of the

Gear Ratio

Gear Ratio • Generally, the Gear Ratio is calculated by counting the teeth of the two
Gear Ratio • Generally, the Gear Ratio is calculated by counting the teeth of the two

Generally, the Gear Ratio is calculated by counting the teeth of the two gears,

and applying the following formula:

Gear ratio = Number of teeth on driven gear Number of teeth on driver gear

Gear Ratio - Calculation A 100 tooth gear drives a 25 tooth gear. Calculate the
Gear Ratio - Calculation A 100 tooth gear drives a 25 tooth gear. Calculate the

Gear Ratio - Calculation

Gear Ratio - Calculation A 100 tooth gear drives a 25 tooth gear. Calculate the gear

A 100 tooth gear drives a 25 tooth

gear. Calculate the gear ratio for the

meshing teeth.

Gear ratio =

Number of teeth on driven gear

Number of teeth on driver gear

Gear ratio =

driven

25

=

1

driver

100

4

This is written as

1:4

Gear Speed :- Calculation A motor gear has 28 teeth and revolves at 100 rev/min.

Gear Speed :- Calculation

Gear Speed :- Calculation A motor gear has 28 teeth and revolves at 100 rev/min. The

A motor gear has 28 teeth and

revolves at 100 rev/min. The

driven gear has 10 teeth. What

is its rotational speed?

28 teeth,

driver

10 teeth,

driven

is its rotational speed? 28 teeth, driver 10 teeth, driven Speed of driven gear = Number

Speed of driven gear = Number of teeth on driver gear

x 100

Number of teeth on driven gear

Speed of driven gear = driver

=

28

x

100 =

280 rev/min

driven

10

Report 1 • Different methods of Gear Manufacture 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 24

Report 1

Report 1 • Different methods of Gear Manufacture 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 24

Different methods of Gear Manufacture

Questions? 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 25

Questions?

Questions? 3/15/2014 Dr. Nouby M. Ghazaly 25