THE HISTORY OF qCALCULUS AND A NEW METHOD.
THOMAS ERNST
Contents
1. 
Introduction. 
3 

1.1. 
Partitions, generalized Vandermonde determinants and representation theory. 
5 

1.2. 
The Frobenius character formulae. 
8 

1.3. 
Symmetric functions. 
11 

1.4. 
The connection between analytic number theory and qseries. 
15 

1.5. 
Some aspects of combinatorics. 
15 

1.6. 
A short history of hypergeometric series 
17 

1.7. 
A short history of elliptic functions. 
25 

1.8. 
The Jacobi theta functions 
27 

1.9. 
Meromorphic continuation and Riemann surfaces. 
28 

1.10. 
Riemann theta functions, Schottky problem and hierarchies of integrable equations. 
30 

1.11. 
Multiple gamma functions, multiple qgamma functions 

and 
q = 1. 
39 

2. 
Introduction to qcalculus. 
40 

2.1. 
The qdiﬀerence operator. 
40 

2.2. 
Heine’s letter to Dirichlet 1846. 
42 

2.3. 
Basic deﬁnitions for qhypergeometric series with the classical notation (Watson). 
42 

2.4. 
A new notation and a new method for qhypergeometric series. 
43 

2.5. 
The qbinomial theorem. 
49 

2.6. 
Some aspects on the development of qcalculus in the period 18931950. 
51 

2.7. 
The qintegral. 
53 

2.8. 
Elementary qfunctions. 
55 

2.9. 
Some useful identities. 
57 
Date: March 2, 2001. ^{0} 1991 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation: Primary 33D15; Secondary 15A15
1
2
THOMAS ERNST
2.10. The Gauss qbinomial coeﬃcients and the Leibniz qtheorem.
2.11. Cigler’s operational methods for qidentities.
2.12. qAnalogues of the trigonometric and hyperbolic functions.
2.13. Some variants of the qdiﬀerence operator, of the qanalogue, fractional qdiﬀerentiation and functions of matrix argument.
2.14. Heine’s transformation formula for the _{2} φ _{1} and the qgamma function.
2.15. A qbeta analogue and a qanalogue of the dilogarithm and of the digamma function.
2.16. Heine’s qanalogue of Gauss’ summation formula.
2.17. A qanalogue of Saalschutz’s¨ summation formula.
2.18. The BaileyDaum summation formula.
2.19. A general expansion formula.
2.20. A summation formula for a terminating verywellpoised
_{4} φ _{3} series.
65
70
72
76
83
86
87
90
91
91
93
2.21. A summation formula for a terminating verywellpoised
_{6} φ _{5} series.
2.22. Watson’s transformation formula for a terminating verywellpoised _{8} φ _{7} series.
2.23. Jackson’s sum of a terminating verywellpoised balanced
_{8} φ _{7} series.
2.24. Watson’s proof of the RogersRamanujan identities.
2.25. A new qTaylor formula.
96
97
99
100
103
3. 
The recent history of qcalculus with some physics. 106 

3.1. 
The connection between qcalculus, analytic number 

theory and combinatorics. 
106 

3.2. 
Some aspects of the development of qcalculus in the second half of the twentieth century. 
110 
3.3. 
Umbral calculus 
114 
3.4. 
Quantum groups 
114 
3.5. 
Quantum algebras 
117 
3.6. 
Chevalley groups and qSchur algebras. 
120 
3.7. 
Some aspects on qorthogonal polynomials and q polynomials in several variables. 
122 
3.8. 
The symmetric and nonsymmetric Macdonald polynomials. 124 

4. 
Generalized Vandermonde determinants. 
126 
4.1. 
Applications of Schur functions and Schur polynomials. 
126 
4.2. 
Generalized Vandermonde determinants with two deleted rows. 
127 
THE HISTORY OF qCALCULUS AND A NEW METHOD.
3
4.3. 
Generalized Vandermonde determinants with any number of deleted rows. 
138 
4.4. 
Generalized Vandermonde determinants again. 
143 
5. 
Generalized Vandermonde determinants, diﬀerence equations, symmetric polynomials and representations of the symmetric group. 145 

5.1. 
The simple root case. 
147 
5.2. 
Simple root case with general initial conditions. 
149 
6. 
A new Vandermonderelated determinant and its connection to diﬀerence equations. 
154 
6.1. 
Introduction 
154 
6.2. 
Formal series solutions of diﬀerence equations. 
154 
6.3. 
A new Vandermonderelated determinant. 
155 
6.4. 
A new proof of a Vandermonderelated determinant. 
159 
6.5. 
The multiple root case with general initial conditions. 
162 
7. 
qCalculus and physics. 
163 
7.1. 
The qCoulomb problem and the qhydrogen atom. 
163 
7.2. 
General relativity. 
164 
7.3. 
Molecular and nuclear spectroscopy. 
164 
7.4. 
Elementary particle physics and chemical physics. 
165 
7.5. 
String theory. 
165 
References 
167 

Index before 1900 
213 

Index after 1900 
216 

Physics index 
220 

Name index before 1900 
223 

Name index after 1900 
224 

Name index physics 
226 

List of notation chapter 1 
227 

List of notation chapters 2,3 
228 

List of notation chapter 4 
229 

List of notation chapters 57 
230 
1. Introduction.
This Licentiate Thesis contains the following papers:
1. Ernst T., Silvestrov S. D.: Shift diﬀerence equations, symmetric polynomials and representations of the symmetric group, U. U. D. M. Report 1999:14, ISSN 11013591, Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, 1999.
4
THOMAS ERNST
2. Ernst T.: A new notation for qcalculus and a new qTaylor formula. U. U. D. M. Report 1999:25, ISSN 11013591, Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, 1999.
3. Ernst T.: Generalized Vandermonde determinants. U. U. D. M.
Report 2000:6, ISSN 11013591, Department of Mathematics, Uppsala
University, 2000.
4. Ernst T.: A new Vandermonderelated determinant and its con
nection to diﬀerence equations. U. U. D. M. Report 2000:9, ISSN 11013591, Department of Mathematics, Uppsala University, 2000.
This is a history of qcalculus with a new notation and a new method for qhypergeometric series. Of course it is not possible to cover all the details in this vast subject in only one book and the reader is in vited to study the book by Gasper and Rahman [343] for additional information. Some parts of chapter 2 are based on the ﬁrst chapters of this book. In section 2.25 a new qTaylor formula is presented. Fur thermore generalized Vandermonde determinants, symmetric functions and representation theory of the symmetric group are treated. These two parts will later be united when solving linear qdiﬀerence equations with constant coeﬃcients. In the last decades qcalculus has developed into an interdisciplinary subject, which is brieﬂy discussed in chapters 3 and 7. This is nowadays called qdisease. Despite the current increase of pessimism concerning the quantum group invasion (possibly the quantum group pest), all these applications should invite one to pursue the investigations of quantum groups [670]. In this context it would be natural to say something about the his tory of the connection between group representation theory and quan tum mechanics, which was initiated by Eugene Wigner (19021995) between November 12 and November 26 1926 when Wigner’s ﬁrst pa pers on quantum mechanics reached the Zeitschrift der Physik, and both appeared in volume 40. It was John von Neumann who ﬁrst proposed that group representation theory be used in quantum mechanics. Wigner was invited to G¨ottingen in 1927 as assistant to David Hilbert. Though the new quantum mechan ics had been initiated only in 1925, already in 192627 the mathematician Hilbert in G¨ottingen gave lectures on quantum mechanics [935]. The Gruppenpest [842] (the pest of group theory) would last for three decades [935].
THE HISTORY OF qCALCULUS AND A NEW METHOD.
5
1.1. Partitions, generalized Vandermonde determinants and representation theory. The theory of symmetric functions appeared ﬁrst in Newtons Arithmetica Universalis. A modern account is given by Macdonald (1995) [594] which we shall use as reference for matters of notation. The theory of symmetric functions is intimately connected to the symmetric group as was outlined in [594]. The basic theory of the symmetric group was developed by Young and Frobenius in the ﬁrst two decades of the twentieth century. A partition [594] of m ∈ N is any ﬁnite sequence λ
(1)
λ = (λ _{1} , λ _{2} ,
,
λ _{n} ),
m ≡
n
j=1
λ _{j} ≡ λ
of nonnegative integers in decreasing order:
λ _{1} ≥ λ _{2} ≥
, ≥ λ _{n} ≥ 0
containing only ﬁnitely many nonzero terms such that the weight m of λ
(2)
l(λ)
j=1
λ _{j} = m,
where l(λ), the number of parts > 0 of λ, is called the length of λ. We shall ﬁnd it convenient not to distinguish between two such sequences which diﬀer only by a string of zeros at the end. The Young frame [802] of a partition λ may be formally deﬁned as the set of points (i, j) ∈ Z ^{2} such that 1 ≤ j ≤ λ _{i} . The conjugate of a partition λ is the partition λ ^{} whose Young frame is the transpose of the Young frame λ, i.e. the Young frame obtained by reﬂection in the main diagonal.
be a monomoial, and consider the polynomial a _{α}
obtained by antisymmetrizing x ^{α} :
Let x ^{α} = ^{}
n
j=1 ^{x} j
α
j
(3) a _{α} ≡ a _{α} (x _{1} ,
, x _{n} ) ≡ ^{} (w)w(x ^{α} ) =
w∈S _{n}
x
x
x
^{α} ^{1}
1
^{α} ^{2}
1
.
.
.
^{α} ^{n}
1
x
x
x
^{α} ^{1}
2
^{α} ^{2}
2
.
^{α} ^{n}
2
^{.}
.
.
.
.
.
.
^{.}
.
.
.
.
x
x
x
α
n
α
n
.
α
n
1
2
n
,
where (w) is the sign of the permutation w. Given partitions λ : λ _{1} ≥
λ _{2}
, 1, 0) of ^{} ^{n} ^{} , the
≥
·
·
·
≥
λ _{n}
≥ 0 of m and δ
= (n − 1, n − 2,
2
6
THOMAS ERNST
generalized Vandermonde determinant is deﬁned by
(4)
a _{λ}_{+}_{δ} ≡
_{x} λ _{1} +n−1
1
_{x} λ _{2} +n−2
1
x
.
.
.
^{λ} ^{n}
1
x
x
λ _{1} +n−1
2
λ _{2} +n−2
2
.
λ
2
n
^{.}
.
.
.
.
.
.
^{.}
.
.
.
.
x
x
x
.
λ
n
n
.
λ _{1} +n−1
n
λ _{2} +n−2
n
x
Some references on generalized Vandermonde determinants are [315],
[785],[909].
To keep this paper as selfcontained as possible we need some deﬁni
tions and theorems from representation theory. The following formulae [240] are needed in the proof of the second Frobenius character formula
(21).
Theorem 1.1. Let K be a ﬁeld and G a group. Further let χ and ζ be the characters aﬀorded by the irreducible KGmodules V and U . Then (1) V ^{∼} U implies
^{} χ(x)ζ(x ^{−}^{1} ) = 0.
(5)
=
x∈G
(2) If K is a splitting ﬁeld for G, then
(6)
^{} χ(x)χ(x ^{−}^{1} ) = G.
x∈G
(7)
(3) Let K be a splitting ﬁeld for G. Assume that G has exactly r
r _{i} = C _{i} , choose x _{i} ∈ C _{i} ,
, χ _{r} . Then
conjugacy classes C _{1} ,
., C _{r} . Denote
and denote the irreducible characters of G by χ _{1} ,
r
m=1
χ _{m} (x _{i} )χ _{m} (x
−1
j
_{)}
_{=}
δ _{i}_{j} G
r j
=
δ _{i}_{j} c _{x} _{j} ,
where c _{x} _{j} =the centralizer of x _{j} in G= {x ∈ Gxx _{j} = x _{j} x}.
Theorem 1.2. Let χ _{1} , C. Then
(8)
where the bar denotes complex conjugation.
., χ _{r} be the irreducible characters of G over
χ _{i} (x ^{−}^{1} ) = χ _{i} (x), ∀x ∈ G,
, m in
the boxes of the Young frame belonging to the partition λ.
Remark 1. Proctor has deﬁned Young tableau for the classical groups [722], [723].
A Young tableau Y is any placement of the numbers 1, 2,
THE HISTORY OF qCALCULUS AND A NEW METHOD.
7
Deﬁnition 1. For a given Young tableau Y , let the Young subgroup P _{Y} be the set of all permutations that permute the numbers in each row of Y among themselves. We denote the permutations in P _{Y} by letters such as p. Let W _{Y} be the set of all permutations in S _{m} that permute elements of each column of Y among themselves. We denote the permutations in W _{Y} by letters such as ω. Let A be the group algebra of the group S _{m} : A ≡ A _{S} _{m} . We consider the following elements of the algebra A :
(9)
f _{Y} = ^{} p
(10)
p
ϕ _{Y} = ^{} π _{ω} ω,
ω
where π _{ω} is the sign of the permutation ω.
Deﬁnition 2. The Young symmetrizer h _{Y} corresponding to the Young tableau Y is deﬁned by
(11)
h _{Y} = f _{Y} ϕ _{Y} .
The ideal
(12)
is a minimal left ideal in A _{S} _{m} .
I _{Y} = A _{S} _{m} h _{Y}
The restrictions T _{λ} ^{∼} T _{Y} of the left regular representation T to I _{Y}
=
form a complete system of irreducible representations of the group S _{m} ,
as Y runs through all partitions. Now let m _{Y} denote the dimension of T _{λ} . The element
(13)
is an idempotent in I _{Y} . According to the hook rule,
e _{Y} = ^{m} m! ^{Y}
h
Y
(14)
m _{Y} = m!
p<r
(l _{p} − l _{r} )
n
j=1
λ _{j} !
,
where
(15)
Remark 2. The qhook rule was deﬁned in [332].
l _{k} = λ _{k} + n − k.
8
THOMAS ERNST
We know that every element of S _{m} is uniquely the product of disjoint cycles. The lengths of these cycles form a partition of m and, in this way, the conjugacy classes of S _{m} are indexed by the partitions of m [358]. The character χ _{λ} of the irreducible representation T _{λ} of the group S _{m} is written in terms of the symmetrizer h _{Y} as
(16)
χ _{λ} (µ) = ^{m} m! ^{Y}
h _{Y} (a ^{−}^{1} g ^{−}^{1} a),
a∈S _{m}
where g is any member of the conjugacy class µ of S _{m} .
Remark 3. For the general linear group GL(n, F ) over a ﬁeld F with arbitrary characteristic, an element similar to (13) is called the Schur module [597].
1.2. The Frobenius character formulae. In our partition λ let
(17)
be a Young subgroup. Consider the corresponding irreducible repre sentation T _{λ} of the symmetric group S _{m} , which is induced from the trivial representation of the subgroup S _{λ} by the Frobenius character formula for induced representations. Let the conjugacy class
(18)
belong to S _{m} , let n ≥ m and put
S _{λ} ≡ S _{λ} _{1} × · · · × S _{λ} _{n}
µ = 1 ^{µ} ^{1} 2 ^{µ} ^{2}
m
^{µ} ^{m}
(19)
S _{µ} (x _{1} ,
, x _{n} ) ≡ S _{µ} ≡
m
n
(
k=1
j=1
x ^{j} _{k} ) ^{µ} ^{j} .
Theorem 1.3. The Frobenius character formula for S _{m} [802]:
(20)
S _{µ} a _{δ} = ^{} χ _{λ} (µ)a _{λ}_{+}_{δ} ,
λ
where the sum is taken over all partitions of m, adding the appropriate number of zeros and χ _{λ} is the character of the irreducible representation T _{λ} .
Sketch of proof Simon [802]:
(1) Let λ be a partition of m and let F be a Young frame of λ
, λ _{n} , where we set some λ _{j} = 0 if need be. The
notion F ^{} F for an mframe F and an m − 1frame F ^{} means that you can get F ^{} from F by removing a square from F. Each mframe F has an associated irreducible representation which will be denoted U ^{(}^{F}^{)} .
with rows λ _{1} ,
THE HISTORY OF qCALCULUS AND A NEW METHOD.
9
(2) Using µ as a class label and λ as a frame label, we’ll use induced representations to produce some (not necessarily irreducible) character Ψ _{λ} (the permutation character) [358].
(3) We’ll compute a generating function for the Ψ _{λ} ’s, that is, suit
able polynomials S _{µ} (x _{1} ,
, x _{n} ) and G _{λ} (x _{1} ,
S _{µ} (x _{1} ,
,
x _{n} ) = ^{} Ψ _{λ} G _{λ} (x _{1} ,
λ
,
x _{n} ).
, x _{n} ), so
(4) With a _{δ} ≡ (−1) ^{(} ^{n}
2
)
^{}
1≤j<i≤n
(x _{i} − x _{j} ), we’ll expand
a _{δ} S _{µ} (x _{1} ,
where
with b _{τ}_{λ} ∈ Z.
,
x _{n} ) ≡ F _{µ} (x _{1} ,
χ˜ _{λ} = ^{}
τ
, x _{n} ) = ^{} χ˜ _{λ} (µ)a _{λ}_{+}_{δ} ,
b τλ Ψ τ
λ
(5) We’ll prove
a _{δ} G _{λ} (x _{1} ,
,
x _{n} ) = ^{}
τ
b λτ a τ +δ .
Thus, the χ˜ _{λ} are integral combinations of characters in
where
of irreducible representations, each class consisting of unitar ily equivalent irreducible representations.
S _{m} ,
S _{m} , the dual object, is the set of equivalence classes
1
(6) We’ll prove _{m}_{!} ^{} _{µ} µχ˜ _{λ} (µ) ^{2} = 1, where µ =
^{m}^{!}
m
j=1
µ _{j} ! j ^{µ} ^{j}
is the
number of elements in the conjugacy class µ.
(7) We’ll prove χ˜ _{λ} ({e}) > 0. It follows that the χ˜ _{λ} are irreducible characters.
(8) We’ll prove a branching law:
^{χ}^{˜} λ S m−1 ^{=}
χ˜ _{λ}
(1) ,
λ ^{(}^{1}^{)} F(λ ^{(}^{1}^{)} ) F(λ)
so that χ˜ _{λ} is the character of U ^{(}^{F}^{)} by induction.
10
THOMAS ERNST
This formula can be used to compute the characters of the symmet
ric group. Namely, χ _{λ} (µ) is the coeﬃcient of x ^{λ} ^{1} ^{+}^{n}^{−}^{1} · · · x
polynomial S _{µ} a _{δ} . The following corollary gives a formula for the generalized Vander monde determinant in terms of the irreducible characters of S _{m} .
Corollary 1.4. (Frobenius)
(21)
in the
λ
n
n
1
^{a} ^{λ}^{+}^{δ}
a δ
^{} ^{} χ _{λ} (µ)c
µ∈S
∗
m
−1
µ
S µ ^{} ,
=
where S _{m} denotes the set of all conjugacy classes of S _{m} , and the order of the centralizer of any permutation ∈ µ [358]
∗
(22)
c _{µ} =
m
j=1
µ _{j} ! j ^{µ} ^{j} .
Proof. [801] Let λ ^{(}^{1}^{)} , λ ^{(}^{2}^{)} and λ ^{(}^{3}^{)} denote partitions of m. We calculate the righthand side of (21) and show that it is equal to the lefthand
side.
^{1}
a δ
µ
χ _{λ} _{(}_{3}_{)} (µ)c
−1
µ
S _{µ} =
χ _{λ} _{(}_{3}_{)} (µ)c
−1
µ
_{λ}
(1)
χ _{λ} (1) (µ)a _{λ} (1) _{+}_{δ} =
µ
1
δ
a
_{λ}
(1)
We must prove that
^{}
µ
χ _{λ} _{(}_{1}_{)} (µ)χ _{λ} _{(}_{3}_{)} (µ)c
(23)
^{} χ _{λ} _{(}_{1}_{)} (µ)χ _{λ} _{(}_{3}_{)} (µ)c
µ
−1
µ
_{=} ^{} 0,
1,
−1
µ
a λ (1) +δ .
if λ ^{(}^{3}^{)} if λ ^{(}^{3}^{)}
= λ ^{(}^{1}^{)} ;
= λ ^{(}^{1}^{)} .
From the proof of (20) we know that the χ _{λ} _{(}_{3}_{)} (µ) are integers. Equa tions (7) and (8) now imply that we must prove that
(24)
^{} χ _{λ} _{(}_{1}_{)} (µ)χ _{λ} _{(}_{3}_{)} (µ)
µ
λ (2) (µ) 2 _{=} ^{} 1, 0,
1
_{λ} (2) χ
if λ ^{(}^{3}^{)}
if λ ^{(}^{3}^{)} = λ ^{(}^{1}^{)} .
= λ ^{(}^{1}^{)} ;
First consider the case λ ^{(}^{3}^{)} = λ ^{(}^{1}^{)} . According to (6),
and we ﬁnd that
µ
_{}_{S} µ m _{} χ _{λ} _{(}_{3}_{)} (µ) ^{2} = 1,
µ S _{m}  ^{=}
1
^{} _{λ} _{(}_{2}_{)} χ _{λ} _{(}_{2}_{)} (µ) ^{2} ^{,}
THE HISTORY OF qCALCULUS AND A NEW METHOD.
11
which is equation (7). Now let λ ^{(}^{3}^{)}
=
λ ^{(}^{1}^{)} . According to (5),
µ
µχ _{λ} _{(}_{3}_{)} (µ)χ _{λ} _{(}_{1}_{)} (µ) = 0.
Now we only have to use (7) again to complete the proof.
Remark 4. The character χ _{1} m is equal to the sign of the permutation which corresponds to the conjugacy class and is therefore called the signature [358]. The following equation is a consequence of the Frobenius character formula [802].
(25) χ _{λ} (µ) = (−1) ^{s}^{g}^{n}^{(}^{µ}^{)} χ _{λ} (µ).
In particular, the dimensions of the representations associated with
conjugate partitions are equal. There are other methods to compute the irreducible characters χ _{λ} (µ). One method uses the socalled lattice permutation [412], [750]. A graphical construction is given in [802]. Let M _{λ} be the permutation module aﬀording Ψ _{λ} . M _{λ} has a natural
¯
basis {f _{P}  P = λ} permuted by S ^{m} . Since χ _{λ} has multiplicity 1 in Ψ _{λ} ,
there is a unique submodule X _{λ} ⊆ M _{λ} aﬀording χ _{λ} which is called the Specht module. Let A _{m} denote the alternating group, and let S ^{λ} denote the Specht module. If λ is a nonsymmetric partition of m then the restrictions S ^{λ} ↓ A _{m} and S ^{λ} ^{} ↓ A _{m} are irreducible and isomorphic to each other [98]. In [512] and [181] a Frobenius character formula for a Hecke alge bra was presented. In [519], [887] a qanalogue of Frobenius character formula was presented. This was accomplished by calculating the irre ducible representations of the Hecke algebra H _{n} (q).
1.3. Symmetric functions. The symmetric group S _{n} acts on the ring
Z[x _{1} ,
, x _{n} with
rational integer coeﬃcients by permuting the variables, and a polyno mial is symmetric if it is invariant under this action. The symmetric
polynomials form a graded subring
(26)
, x _{n} ] of polynomials in n independent variabels x _{1} ,
Λ _{n} ≡ Z[x _{1} ,
,
x _{n} ] ^{S} ^{n} ≡ ^{} Λ
k
n
^{,}
k≥0
k
where Λ _{n} consists of the homogeneous symmetric polynomials in n variables of degree k, together with the zero polynomial. The element Λ ^{k} is obtained from Λ _{n} by letting the number of vari ables → ∞ [594, p. 19]. The graded ring Λ ≡ ^{} _{k}_{≥}_{0} Λ ^{k} is called the ring of symmetric functions in countably many variables x _{1} , x _{2} ,
k
12
THOMAS ERNST
The k:th elementary symmetric polynomial e _{k} (x _{1} ,
terminates x _{1} ,
k at a time , of the elements x _{1} ,
, x _{n} ) in the inde
., x _{n} is the sum of all possible distinct products, taken
, x _{n} [843] i.e.
(27)
e _{k} (x _{1} ,
,
x _{n} ) =
j _{1} <j _{2}
1,
0,
<j _{k} ≤n
x
_{j} _{1}
x _{j} _{k} ,
1 ≤ k ≤ n;
k = 0
k < 0 or k > n.
Now follows a similar deﬁnition. The k:th elementary symmetric func
tion e _{k} [594] is the sum of all products of k distinct variables x _{j} , i.e.
(28)
e _{k} =
j _{1} <j _{2}
<j
k
x
_{j} _{1}
x _{j} _{k} ,
1 ≤ k;
1, 
k = 0 
0, 
k < 0. 
We make the convention that always when the number of variabels is
not speciﬁed we let e _{k} denote the elementary symmetric function etc.
For each partition λ = (λ _{1} , λ _{2} ,
(29)
For each integer k ≥ 0 the k:th complete symmetric polynomial
h _{k} (x _{1} ,
, x _{n} is the sum of all possible
products, taken k at a time, chosen without restriction on repetition,
of the elements x _{1} ,
.) deﬁne
e _{λ} = e _{λ} _{1} e _{λ} _{2} ,
, x _{n} ) in the indeterminates x _{1} ,
, x _{n} i.e.
(30)
h _{k} (x _{1} ,
,
x _{n} ) =
1≤j _{1} ≤j _{2}
≤j _{k} ≤n
x
_{j} _{1}
x _{j} _{k} ,
1 ≤ k;
1, 
k = 0 
0, 
k < 0. 
where the summation is extended over all vectors (j _{1} , gers satisfying 1 ≤ j _{1} ≤ · · · ≤ j _{k} ≤ n. Let λ be any partition of length ≤ n. The polynomial
(31)
summed over all distinct permutations α of λ = (λ _{1} ,
symmetric. For each k ≥ 0 the k:th complete symmetric function
, j _{k} ) of k inte
m _{λ} (x _{1} ,
, x _{n} ) = ^{} x ^{α}
., λ _{n} ) is clearly
[594] h _{k} is the sum of all monomials of total degree k in the variables
x _{1} , x _{2} , 
., so that 

(32) 
h _{k} = ^{} m _{λ} . 
λ=k
THE HISTORY OF qCALCULUS AND A NEW METHOD.
13
For each partition λ = (λ _{1} , λ _{2} ,
(33)
The following equation [433] obtains ∀n ≥ 1:
.) deﬁne
h _{λ} = h _{λ} _{1} h _{λ} _{2} ,
(34)
n
k=0
(−1) ^{k} e _{k} h _{n}_{−}_{k} = 0
Let ω be the involution and homomorphism of graded rings
ω : Λ →
Λ
deﬁned by
ω(e _{k} ) = h _{k} ,
∀k ≥ 0.
The ’forgotten’ symmetric functions are deﬁned by
(35)
they don’t have any simple direct description. The Schur function s _{λ} , deﬁned by
(36)
f _{λ} = ω(m _{λ} ),
s _{λ} = ^{a} ^{λ}^{+}^{δ}
a δ
^{,}
is a quotient of two homogeneous skewsymmetric polynomials and is thus a homogeneous symmetric polynomial [594]. The following equa tions obtain [433],[594]:
(37)
s _{λ} =
=
h λ _{1}
.
.
.
h λ _{i} +1−i
.
.
.
h λ _{n} −n+1
e
e
λ
_{1}
.
.
.
λ
_{i} +1−i
.
.
.
e
λ
_{n} −m+1
.
^{.}
^{.}
^{.}
.
.
^{.}
^{.}
^{.}
.
.
^{.}
.
^{.}
.
.
.
^{.}
.
.
.
^{.}
.
^{.}
.
.
.
.
.
.
h λ _{1} +j−1
.
h λ _{i} +j−i
.
h λ _{n} −n+j
e _{λ}
_{1} +j−1
.
^{e} λ ^{} _{i} +j−i
.
e λ _{n} ^{} −m+j
.
^{.}
^{.}
^{.}
.
.
^{.}
^{.}
^{.}
.
.
^{.}
.
^{.}
.
.
.
^{.}
.
.
.
^{.}
.
^{.}
.
.
.
.
.
.
h λ _{1} +n−1
.
h λ _{i} +n−i
.
h λ _{n}
e λ _{1} ^{} +m−1
.
^{e} λ _{i} ^{} +m−i
.
e λ
^{}
m
,
=
where n ≥ l(λ) and m ≥ l(λ ^{} ).
Remark 5. The ﬁrst equation is originally due to Jacobi 1841 [468] and is sometimes called the JacobiTrudi identity. The second identity was ﬁrst proved by Aitken 1931 [14]. Aitken from Edinburgh had been greatly inﬂuenced by Young’s work on the representation theory of the symmetric group [667].
14
THOMAS ERNST
There are ﬁve Zbases of Λ:
e _{λ} ,
h _{λ} ,
f _{λ} ,
m _{λ} and s _{λ} .
Let R ^{m} denote the Zmodule generated by the irreducible characters of S _{m} , and let
(38)
R = ^{} R ^{m} ,
m≥0
with the understanding that S _{0} = {1}, so that R ^{0} = Z. The Zmodule
R has a ring structure and is called the LittlewoodRichardson ring. R carries a scalar product: if f, g ∈ R, say
f
= ^{} f _{m} ,
g = ^{} g _{m} ,
m m
f _{m} , g _{m} ∈ R ^{m} ,
we deﬁne 

(39) 
< f, g >= ^{} 
< 
f _{m} , g _{m} > _{S} _{m} . 
m≥0
For each k ≥ 1, the k:th power sum is deﬁned by
(40) 
p _{k} = ^{} x 
k 

i 
^{,} 

and as before 

(41) 
p _{λ} = p _{λ} _{1} p _{λ} _{2} , 
If f _{µ} is the value of f at elements of cycle type µ, the characteristic of
f is deﬁned by
(42)
ch(f ) = ^{}
c
−1
µ
f _{µ} p _{µ} .
µ=m
The characteristic map ch is an isometric isomorphism of R onto Λ [594]. Under this isomorphism, the irreducible character χ _{λ} corre sponds to the Schur function s _{λ} and the permutation character Ψ _{λ} corresponds to the complete symmetric function h _{λ} , where the per mutation character Ψ _{λ} is the character on S _{m} induced by the identity character of
S _{λ} = S _{λ} _{1} × S _{λ} _{2} ×
The following equation is of fundamental importance for the theory of the symmetric group:
(43) χ _{λ} = det(Ψ _{λ} _{i} _{−}_{i}_{+}_{j} ) _{1}_{≤}_{i}_{,}_{j}_{≤}_{m} ∈ R ^{m} .
THE HISTORY OF qCALCULUS AND A NEW METHOD.
15
1.4. The connection between analytic number theory and q
series. It was Euler who started analytic number theory by inventing the EulerMaclaurin summation formula 1732 [256] and 1736 (proof) [257], which expresses the average value of an arithmetical function using integrals and the greatest integer function [282], [41]. Then came the Euler product in 1737, which expresses the inﬁnite sum of a multiplicative arithmetical function as the inﬁnite product
over the primes of an inﬁnite sum of function values of prime powers. If the function is completely multiplicative, the product simpliﬁes. Euler developed the theory of partitions, also called additive number theory in the 1740s. The partition function p(n) is the number of ways to write n as a sum of integers. There are also other partition functions, but they have some restriction on the parts, e.g. only odd parts are allowed. Euler found all the generating functions for these
partitions. In 1748 Euler considered the inﬁnite product
∞
(1−q ^{k}^{+}^{1} ) ^{−}^{1}
k=0
as a generating function for p(n).
By using induction Euler proved the pentagonal number theorem in
1750
(44)
1 +
∞
m=1
(−1) _{m} (q m(3m−1)
2
+ q
m(3m+1)
2
) =
∞
m=1
(1 − q ^{m} ), 0 < q < 1,
which was the ﬁrst example of a qseries, and at the same time the ﬁrst example of a thetafunction. Furthermore Euler discovered the ﬁrst two qexponential functions, a prelude to the qbinomial theorem and at the same time introduced an operator which would over hundred years later lead to the qdiﬀerence operator. Yet another example of a qseries is the following result of Gauss, which was published in 1866, 11 years after his death 1855:
(45)
∞ ∞
1 +
m=1
q ( m+1
2
^{)} =
m=1
2m
1 1 − − q q _{2}_{m}_{−}_{1} , q < 1.
1.5. Some aspects of combinatorics. We are now going to deﬁne a
series of numbers and related polynomials. Some of their qanalogues will be presented in a subsequent chapter. It is not a coincidence that the next section is concerned with hypergeometric series. In fact it can be shown that the two approaches are equivalent as was ﬁrst observed by Gauss.
16
THOMAS ERNST
Let the Pochhammer symbol (a) _{n} be deﬁned by
(46)
(a) _{n} =
n−1
m=0
(a + m),
(a) _{0} = 1.
Since products of Pochhammer symbols occur so often, we shall fre quently use the more compact notation
(47)
(a _{1} , a _{2} ,
,
a _{m} ) _{n} ≡
m
j=1
(a _{j} ) _{n} .
We will take some of the following deﬁnitions from Riordan [748]. James Stirling (16921770) was a disciple of Newton [246, p. 17] who in vented the Stirling numbers of the ﬁrst and second kind s(n, k), S(n, k), which are deﬁned as follows. s(0, 0) = S(0, 0) = 1
(48)
(t − n + 1) _{n} =
n
k=0
s(n, k)t ^{k} ,
t ^{n} =
n
k=0
S(n, k)(t − k + 1) _{k} ,
n > 0
n > 0.
The following recurrence relations obtain:
_{(}_{4}_{9}_{)}
s(n + 1, k) = s(n, k − 1) − ns(n, k)
S(n + 1, k) = S(n, k − 1) + kS(n, k).
The generalised Stirling numbers and generalised Stirling polynomials are deﬁned by [799], [352]
(50)
S ^{(}^{α}^{)} (n, k, γ) = (−1) ^{k} /k!
k
j=0
(−1) ^{j} (k/j)(α + γj) ^{n}
and
(51)
T _{n} ^{(}^{α}^{)} (x, γ, −p) =
n
k=0
S ^{(}^{α}^{)} (n, k, γ)p ^{γ} x ^{γ}^{k} .
The Catalan numbers C _{n} =
^{} [210] were ﬁrst discovered in China
about 1730 by J.Luo [566] and were studied by Euler in the middle of the 18th century. They became famous through the 1838 paper by Catalan.
n+1 2n
1
n
THE HISTORY OF qCALCULUS AND A NEW METHOD.
17
The Bernoulli numbers B _{n} are deﬁned by
(52)
_{−} _{1} = 1 − ^{z}
z
e
^{z}
2 ^{+}
∞
n=1
B 2n z ^{2}^{n}
(2n)! ^{.}
The Bernoulli polynomials are deﬁned by
(53)
B _{n} (x) = (B + x) ^{n} =
n
k=0
^{} n
k
B _{k} x ^{n}^{−}^{k} ,
where B ^{n} must be replaced by B _{n} on expansion. The generalized
Bernoulli polynomials B
(α)
n
(x) are deﬁned by [684, Ch. 6], [827]
(54)
(
z
_{1} ) ^{α} e ^{x}^{z} =
e
^{z}
_{−}
∞
n=0
B
(α)
n
(x)z ^{n}
(n)!
,
z < 2π,
α ∈ C.
The generalized Bernoulli numbers are deﬁned by B _{n} (α) = B
(α)
n
(0).
The Eulerian numbers H _{n} (λ) are deﬁned by [157], [331], [259, p.
487].
(55)
1 − λ e ^{z} − λ ^{=}
∞
n=0
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