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Fest published in Great Britain 0 1955by Acoul, member cl te Hodder Headline group 438 Bustos Rood London NWI 8H © 1995 Norman Fairclough [Allright reserved, No part ofthis publcaion may be reproduced or ransm.ted La. any ie ny mena, letrocaBy ct mechanical, ncn phokoocprng, se ing orany information wore retieval jem, out either Er peralation 1 tang fom the poblisne ora cence dermiting rested c25ying In “TG ingdor such canes ave ssued by the Copyright Licensing Agency: avenhar Cour Rd. Landen Wie SHE, rts Litrary Casing i Pubition Dato ‘Acatalogue ent for ns boc aval am the Bish Libray trary of Cares Cataloging n-Pablation Data Foiniough, Nogran, 141— ‘Meda dscoursttNerman Fareloug, pat Anludes Ubliogrsphicl references (p, 206) and inde. ISBN 6-340-49002-.— IBN 0-310-6809-6 TP iMiss media end anguoge. 1 Tle pedis 193 mnB—ae0 5.17879 ar son 9340 509896 (Pb) TaN 3a 652204 (He) , 78910 98 99 00 Cl 02 Compositin by Poe Phtosetieg, Chatham Ket ‘rine ane Loe in Gre atin by Redes Boks, Towra, Wisse CONTENTS Acknowledgements Note on transcriptions 2 Media andianguage: seting an agenda Approaches to media discourse Linguisticand sociolinguistic analysis Conversation analysis Semioticaralysis Critical linguistics and social semiotics Van Dijk: the ‘social-cognitive’ model Cultural-genericanalysis Desiderata for acritical analysis of media discourse Communication in the mass media ‘The properties of mass communication ‘The economics of media ‘The polities of media Practices of media text production and consumption 4. Critical analysis of media discourse Theory of discourse ‘Aralysis of communicative events ‘Analysis of the order of discourse ‘A sample critical discourse analysis 5 Intertextuaity and the News Discourse types Discourse representation in media texts Genericanalysis ot discoursetypes Analysis of discourses in texts 6. Representations in documentary and news Presencesand absences in text: presupposition Representations in clauses Combination and sequencing of clauses 7 Icentity and social relatioris in media texts ‘Medicine Now High Resolution The Oprah Winfrey Show Today 8 Crimecontch UK The Crimewatch format Genericanaiysis Voices Discourses: official and lifeworld Between eakers isindicated by a squate bracket MEDIA AND LANGUAGE: SETTING AN AGENDA Four events too< place in roughly the first half of 1994, while I was working on this book: Silvio Betlusconi’s Forza alia won the Malian gereral election, in the UK Tony Blair was elected leader of the Latour Party, between one and two million Hutu refugees fled from Rwanda into Zaire in the space of a few days, and Rupert Murdoch made a week-tcng trip to Delhi. It was generally recognized that Ferza Italia was a media creation (Berlusconi founded ‘he party in January, it won the election in March) and that Berlusconi's victory was largely the result of his control of the -talian media — he owns three television =hannels with a 40 per cent share of the audience, a atonal newspzper, and Italy's biggest publishing company. Long, before the Labour leadership contest even officially opened, most of the British media had already chosen Tony Bla r as the successor to the late John Smith, Blair’s campaign was crchestrated 3y Labour's own ‘spin doctor’ Peter Mandelson, and his attractiveness as a media personality was seen (whatever his other virtues) asa major qualifica~ tien for the job. In mid-July the civil war in Rwanda, which had received patchy coverage before, suddenly became the lead item on