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MAASTRICHTIAN PLANKTIC FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALEOENVIRONMENT OF BRAZOS RIVER, FALLS COUNTY, TEXAS, U.S.A.
SIGAL ABRAMOVICH Dept. of Geological & Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba, 84105, Israel e-mail: sigalabr@bgu.ac.il GERTA KELLER Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544, U.S.A.

MATAN CYMBALISTA AND CARMI RAK Dept. of Geological & Environmental Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheba, 84105, Israel
ABSTRACT: Investigation of late Maastrichtian faunal and environmental changes in three subsurface wells spanning over 3 km along the Brazos River, Texas, reveals similar minimum-diversity high-stress assemblages associated with shallow shelf conditions. Upper Maastrichtian sediments recovered span planktic foraminiferal (CF) zones CF1 to CF4 in well Mullinax-1 to the north and well KT3 at Cottonmouth Creek, and zones CF1-CF2 in Mullinax-3 at Darting Minnow Creek. Biotic stress conditions are demonstrated by the minimum species richness, near exclusion of larger specialized species, dwarng, and dominance of small generalist taxa. Faunal assemblages dominated by alternating abundances of the disaster opportunist Guembelitria cretacea (Cushman) (particularly in zones CF4 and CF2-CF1) and heterohelicid species [e.g., Heterohelix globulosa (Ehrenberg), H. planata (Cushman), Paraspiroplecta navarroensis (Loeblich)]. Other small surface and subsurface mixed-layer dwellers are rare to common (e.g., hedbergellids, globigerinellids, pseudoguembelinids). The coincidence of Guembelitria blooms with lithological changes and oxygen and carbon stable isotope excursions may represent discrete episodes of freshwater runoff related to short-term pulses of the latest Maastrichtian (zone CF1-CF2) global climate warming. Climate warming ended in the upper part of zone CF1 with the return to a cooler climate, lower sea level, and the formation of incised valleys in a coastallagoonal environment. With the subsequent early transgression, incised valleys were inlled by a sandstone complex with reworked impact spherules, as well as lithied clasts with impact spherules up to 80 cm below the KT boundary. In this environment the shallow inner-neritic setting superimposed by changes in sea level and climate is the most probable cause for the observed conditions of high biotic stress preceding the KTB in the Brazos area.

INTRODUCTION

Most studies of the Brazos River area (Falls County, Texas) have focused on the CretaceousTertiary boundary (KTB) (also called K Pg) transition and in particular the sandstone complex with Chicxulub impact spherules at the base, which is interpreted by some as the deposit of an impact-generated megatsunami (e.g., Bourgeois et al., 1988; Hansen and Upshaw, 1990; Hansen et al., 1993a; Hansen et al., 1993b; Heymann et al., 1998; Schulte et al., 2006). Consequently, these workers placed the KTB at the base of this sandstone complex based on the assumption that the Chicxulub impact caused the KTB mass extinction and therefore denes the KTB (see Schulte et al., 2008; Schulte et al., 2010; Keller et al., 2008; Keller, this volume, for arguments pro and con of this circular reasoning). Other workers interpreted the sandstone complex as a submarine-channel inll associated with the latest Maastrichtian sea-level lowstand and subsequent rise, with the KTB well above it (e.g., Donovan et al., 1988; Keller, 1989a; Keller et al., 1989b; Beeson, 1992; Me dus, 1992; Gale, 2006; Keller et al., 2007a; Keller et al., 2009a, Keller et al., this volume). Older Maastrichtian sediments from the Brazos area are little known because outcrops are limited to approximately 1 m below the sandstone

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The End-Cretaceous Mass Extinction and the Chicxulub Impact in Texas SEPM Special Publication No. 100, Copyright 2011 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology), Print ISBN 978-1-56576-308-1, CD/DVD ISBN 978-1-56576-309-8, p. 123156.

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KEY WORDS:

Index Words: Brazos Texas, Biostratigraphy, Paleoenvironment, upper Maastrichtian, planktic foraminifera, Faunal Turnover, Depositional environment

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ZSOLT BERNER Institute for Mineralogy & Geochemistry, University of Karlsruhe, 76128 Karlsruhe, Germany

complex. Smith and Pessagno (1973) reported on the taxonomy and excellent preservation of some Maastrichtian samples from various localities between Dallas and College Station in north-central Texas. No stratigraphic sections or precise localities of the samples are provided. For the Brazos outcrops in Falls County, eight samples are listed, all of which contain Gansserina gansseri (Bolli), which indicates that the age of these samples is probably early late Maastrichtian. It was not until 1986 that the rst Maastrichtian sequences were recovered by Thor Hansen and Earl Kaufman by rotary drilling of two wells (KT1, KT2) approximately 350 m south of the Highway 413 Bridge across the Brazos River and a third well (KT3) on Cottonmouth Creeek (Fig. 1). Few studies have concentrated on the Maastrichtian interval of these wells. Keller (l989a) reported on the biostratigraphy of the KT3 well, but the age remained uncertain because the standard late Maastrichtian index species Abathomphalus mayaroensis (Bolli) is absent in these shallow-water sequences. In subsequent studies of El Kef and DSDP Site 525A, Li and Keller (l998a, 1998b, 1999) rened the Maastrichtian biozonation and subdivided the A. mayaroensis zone into four biozones, CF1 to CF4. Based on this biozonation, Schulte et al. (2006) assigned the 7.5 m of uppermost Maastrichtian sediments below the sandstone complex of well KT2 (which they called Brazos core 1) to zones CF1-CF2 and

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FIGURE 1.Map of CretaceousTertiary boundary (KTB) outcrops and wells drilled along the Brazos River, Cottonmouth Creek, and Darting Minnow Creek of Falls County, Texas. Wells Mullinax-1, Mullinax-3, and KT3 were analyzed for this study.

nannofossils zone CC26, which span the last ; 300 kyr (time scale of Gradstein et al., 2004) of the Maastrichtian. No older Maastrichtian sediments have yet been studied from well KT2. In 2005 three wells, 2230 m deep, were funded by the National Science Foundation (Continental Dynamics Program and Sedimentary Geology and Paleobiology Program) and drilled by DOSECC (Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earths Continental Crust) with a CS-500 rig under the guidance of Jerry Baum and Gerta Keller. The rst well, Mullinax-1, is located at the same GPS location (318 07.53 0 N, 968 49.30 0 W) as the old wells KT1 and KT2 of Hansen and Kaufman (Brazos core 1 and 2 of Schulte et al., 2006) (Fig. 1). This location was chosen to recover the expanded KTB sequence of the nearby outcrop Brazos-1, which was also evident in the old wells KT1 and KT2 that encountered drilling disturbance (Thor Hansen, written communication, 1987). Wells Mullinax-2 and Mullinax-3 were drilled as overlapping cores 1.2 m apart on a meadow approximately 150 m from the Darting Minnow Creek waterfall (GPS Location 318 06.55 0 N, 968 50.28 0 W). Core recovery at was 95% Mullinax-1 and 100% at Mullinax-2 and Mullinax-3. Of these new wells only the KTB transition of Mullinax-1 has been published (Keller et al., 2007a; Keller et al., this volume).

Maastrichtian cores of Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3 were measured, described, photographed, and sampled at an average sampling step of 1020 cm. Planktic foraminifera were processed using standard techniques (Keller et al., 1995). Samples were soaked overnight in dilute (10%) H2O2, then gently washed through sieve sizes 3863 lm and 63150 lm to recover very small, small, and large planktic foraminifera. The washed residues were dried in the oven at 508C. Core sample size was generally restricted to 5 cm3, except for intervals where too few specimens were recovered for quantitative analysis and therefore sample size was doubled. In some intervals even 10 cm3 samples yielded insufcient foraminiferal tests for quantitative analysis. In these cases several samples were grouped to yield representative assemblages. Larger samples were provided by Thor Hansen for the KT3 cores in 1987, and this has yielded a signicantly larger number of rare species. Quantitative analysis was conducted on two size fractions, . 63 lm and . 150 lm, to obtain optimum representation of both smaller and larger species. In Mullinax-3 the . 38 lm size fraction was also analyzed because species dwarng is severe in the latest Maastrichtian and early Danian. For each sample of the two size fractions an aliquot of 250300 specimens was picked whenever possible, mounted on microslides, and identied. Benthic specimens were counted in the same aliquots of the . 63 lm size fraction as an indicator of sea-level changes. The remaining residues were examined for rare species, and these were noted for data on species range. The 3863 lm size fraction was examined for very small species that may not be present in the larger size fractions, particularly in the early Danian. Scanning electron micrographs of Late Cretaceous planktic foraminifera are illustrated in Plates 18 and the quantitative foraminiferal data are listed in Appendix I. Stable isotopes are based on well-preserved specimens of the benthic foraminifer Lenticulina spp. in the size fraction 150250 lm with little or no sediment inlling chambers. Pseudoguembelina costulata (Cushman) was analyzed as indicator of surface water conditions. Heterohelix globulosa was previously analyzed for the KT3 well (Barrera and Keller, 1990). Stable isotope analysis was performed using a fully automated carbonate preparation system (MultiCarb) connected on-line to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Optima, Micromas Ltd., UK). Isotope ratio values are reported relative to NBS19 with d13C 1.95 (V-PDB). Precision, assessed on the basis of repeated measurements of the carbonate standard, was generally better

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METHODS

For this study we chose well Mullinax-1, which contains a nearly complete and undisturbed Maastrichtian subsurface record spanning 36 m below the sandstone complex. In addition, we reanalyzed and updated the taxonomy of the old well KT3 rst published by Keller (1989a), which spans a 23-m-long subsurface record below the sandstone complex. Mullinax-3, to the south, spans only the uppermost Maastrichtian zones CF1-CF2, but is added for completeness of the Brazos northsouth transect showing the shallowing environment towards the shoreline over a distance of little more than 34 km (Fig. 1). These three wells provide insights into the nature and complexity of shallow water environments in the Western Interior Seaway and how they were affected by changes in sea level and climate. The main objectives of this study are to: (1) document the age and biostratigraphy of the Brazos area based on planktic foraminifera, (2) evaluate the climatic and environmental changes during the late Maastrichtian based on stable isotopes, (3) evaluate paleoenvironmental conditions based on planktic foraminiferal assemblages, including species richness, nature and composition of assemblages, and species dwarng, and (4) document species assemblages through SEM illustrations as guide to future identication of species in shallow water environments of the Western Interior Seaway.

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than 0.06 for each analytical batch. Stable isotope data are listed in Appendix II.

LITHOLOGY
Upper Maastrichtian sediments of the Brazos area have been recovered in three wells; all three span the entire upper Maastrichtian from zones CF4 through CF1 (wells Mullinax-1, KT3), but only the uppermost Maastrichtian zones CF1 and CF2 were analyzed in well Mullinax-3. Detailed lithologic descriptions are available only for the Mullinax wells, which are briey described here and illustrated for Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3. Photologs and descriptions of each well are provided in Appendix III of this volume.

Well Mullinax-1

The base of well Mullinax-1 stratigraphical succession consists of poorly sorted, argillaceous sandstone with a mud matrix, irregular bedding, and common sand-lled burrows. Sharp contacts mark the base (44.32 m) and top of this sandstone (40.73 m; Fig. 2). Above the sandstone (40.75 m to 29.5 m) sediments consist of medium gray sandy mudstone with abundant ne-grained sand and mud laminae, some sand lenses indicating low-amplitude ripples, shell fragments, and sand lled burrows. Sand content decreases upwards. A layer of framboidal pyrite concretions occurs at 29.6 m followed by a sharp basal contact approximately 10 cm above it. Above this disconformity sediments consist of dark gray thick-bedded sandy mudstones with framboidal pyrite concretions, common sand laminae, small macrofossils, sand-lled burrows, and rare ammonites Discoscaphites iris (Conrad), which is indicative of the uppermost Maastrichtian ammonite zone in North America; Neil Landman, written communication 2005; see also Kennedy et al., 2001. This lithologically monotonous interval spans from 29.5 to 16.5 m, but is interrupted at 21.95 m by a 4-cm-thick silty mudstone with abundant shells and shell fragments that may represent a tempestite (Fig. 2). About 25 cm above is a 12-cm-thick dark gray ne-grained sandstone followed by light gray concretions with carbonate cement. Another thin sandy mudstone with abundant shells (a tempestite?) is present at 20.90 m. At 18.95 m a gradational contact with a laminated upward-coarsening sandstone with sand-lled burrows and phosphatic gastropods indicates a very shallow depositional environment (Fig. 3). The upper contact with the overlying silty mudstone at 18.35 m is gradational, with sand laminae and sand-lled burrows. At 16.5 m the silty, sandy mudstone is overlain by dark gray, thick-bedded mudstone with small and large macrofossils. Uppermost Maastrichtian lithology from 16.5 to 8.6 m consists of monotonous dark gray, bedded mudstone with macrofossils, rare ammonites, and common burrows. This sequence is interrupted by changes from dark gray to lighter gray that indicate increased terrigenous inux and transitions from dysoxic to oxic conditions on the sea oor. Each of these lithological changes coincides with major negative d13C and d18O excursions that suggest fresh-water inux at these times (Fig. 3). The rst contact at 12.10 m marks the transition from ssile medium gray mudstone with rare macrofossil shells to lighter gray mudstone with common shells. The second lithological change at 11.10 m marks a sharp contact between dark gray and medium gray mudstone. The third lithological change marks a transition from dark gray mudstone and medium gray mudstone with common shell fragments. The most prominent lithological change of the upper Maastrichtian is to the sandstone complex between 8.0 and 8.65 m (Fig. 3), which has been variously interpreted as an impact0-generated tsunami deposit (e.g., Bourgeois et al., 1988; Smit et al., 1996; Heymann et al., 1998; Schulte et al., 2006; Schulte et al., 2008), or sea-level lowstand systems tract (e.g., Keller, 1989a; Gale, 2006; Keller et al., 2007a; Keller et al., 2009a; Adatte et al., this volume). The sandstone complex overlies the

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Wells Mullinax-2 and Mullinax-3 BIOSTRATIGRAPHY Biozonation

scoured surface of submarine channels that marks an erosional surface. Clasts from the underlying mudstone and lithied clasts, some with spherules and mudcracks, are commonly found above the erosion surface and indicate erosion from an older impact spherule layer (Keller et al., 2007a; Adatte et al., this volume). Above these large clasts are three upward-ning glauconitic, shell-rich, and spherule-rich layers with smaller claystone and phosphatic clasts. An erosional surface separates these layers from the overlying hummocky crossbedded sandstone (HCS) with large burrows truncated at the top. Laminated dark gray and light gray silty mudstone with small Chondrites burrows mark the top of the sandstone complex. The 80 cm between the top of the sandstone complex and the KTB consists of dark gray mudstones with few small shells and burrows, some inlled with framboidal pyrite. There is no lithological change at the KT boundary.

A total of 23.77 m of sediments was recovered in Well Mullinax-3, which is located approximately 150 m from the Darting Minnow Creek waterfall. This well was double cored to ensure complete recovery. Only the upper interval of Mullinax-3 was analyzed from 3 m to 11 m depth spanning the early Danian and latest Maastrichtian zones CF1 and upper CF2 (Fig. 4). Wells Mullinax-2 and Mullinax-3 are important for their very different lithologies across the KTB transition, the absence of a sandstone complex with impact spherules, the occurrence of frequent disconformities and erosion surfaces, and common roots indicating a coastal to lagoonal environment. In the lower part of the analyzed sequence (11.07.3 m) the lithology consists of thick-bedded dark gray mudstone, fractured in layers, common framboidal pyrite, few small macrofossils, and rare ammonites, similar to well Mullinax-1 (Fig. 4). At 7.26 m is a sharp contact followed by another sharp and undulose contact at 6.86 m. The interval above is a silty mudstone with weathered yellow streaks, few fossils, common roots, up to 12 cm in length, and pyrite. Disconformities occur at 5.9 m and 5.6 m. The latter marks the KT boundary, as a major erosion surface and hiatus. Above it is a sandy mudstone with quartz pebbles, clasts, and few small shells with a gradational contact at 4.5 m. In the upper part of the sequence a sandstone with gastropods, shells, burrows, rizoliths, and phosphate nodules ends with a sharp contact 3.5 m. Disconformities and gradational and erosional contacts in Mullinax3 mark sea-level uctuations in a shallow coastal to lagoonal environment. The common presence of roots in the upper part of zone CF1 indicates temporary subaerial exposure, which appears to be restricted to the southern Brazos area (Darting Minnow Creek, Fig. 1). The unconformity at the KTB also indicates that this area was shallower than all other localities analyzed.

Maastrichtian biostratigraphy used in this study is based on the highresolution CF (Cretaceous Foraminifera) biozonation of Li and Keller (1998a, 1998b, 1999) which subdivides this stage into eight biozones (CF1-CF8; Fig. 5). For the KTB transition the early Danian zonal scheme of Keller et al. (1995) is used. For this study the biozonation and index species are illustrated in Figure 6. The CF zonal scheme was originally proposed based on El Kef, Tunisia, and DSDP Site 525A (Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic). Since that time these biozones have been tested, applied, and in some cased rened in Maastrichtian sequences worldwide (e.g., Abramovich et al., 2002; Abramovich et al., 2003; Abramovich et al., 2010; Abramovich and Keller, 2002, 2003; Keller, 2002, 2003, 2004; Keller et al., 2007a; Keller

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FIGURE 2.Lithology and description of the upper Maastrichtian Well Mullinax-1, zones CF4-CF3.

et al., 2007b; Keller et al., 2009a; Keller et al., 2009b). They have proved to be reliable age indicators worldwide, although variations may occur, particularly in areas of poor fossil preservation, shallow-water sequences, or high latitudes, where some index species may be sporadically present or missing and/or their stratigraphic ranges shortened. In earlier studies the ages of the CF Zones were calculated based on the time scale of Cande and Kent (1995) and Berggren et al. (1995), which placed the KTB at 65 Ma. They are here recalculated based on the chronostratigraphic update of Gradstein et al. (2004) who placed the KT boundary at 65.5 Ma (Fig. 6). However, further updates appear likely based on ongoing U/Pb dating,

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which places the KT boundary close to 66 Ma (Sam Bowring, personal communication, 2009). The Maastrichtian biozones of Li and Keller (1998a, 1998b) are shown in comparison with biozonal schemes of Caron (1985) and Huber et al. (2008) (Fig. 6). All three biostratigraphic schemes are based mainly on datum events of largesize keeled globotruncanid and racemiguembelinid species. Huber et al. (2008) recently proposed modications to Carons (1985) biozonation based on deep-sea sites on Blake Nose (DSDP Site 390A, ODP Sites 1049, 1050, 1052), where they encountered rare and sporadic occurrences of some index species

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FIGURE 3.Lithology and description of the upper Maastrichtian well Mullinax-1, zones CF3, CF2, and CF1 with stable isotopes, Guembelitria data and sea-level interpretation.

(e.g., Gansserina gansseri, Globotruncana aegyptiaca Nakkady). They proposed to subdivide the long Abathomphalus mayaroensis zone, which spans the upper Maastrichtian (equivalent to zones CF1 to CF4) into two zones (Pseudoguembelina hariaensis and A. mayareoensis) and replace the lower Maastrichtian G. gansseri and G. aegyptiaca zones of Caron (1985) (equivalent to CF5-CF8) by Racemiguembelina fructicosa and P. palpebra zones (Fig. 6). In the Brazos well Mullinax-1, the CF zonation indicates that the entire late Maastrichtian interval from Zone CF4 up to Zone CF1 was recovered along with the early Danian (Keller et al., this volume). Zones CF1 to CF4 correspond to the P. hariaensis and A. mayaroensis Zones of Huber et al. (2008). In the Mullinax-1 well, the keeled globotruncanid and racemiguembelinid species are sporadically present or exhibit juvenile or dwarfed morphologies, which introduces some uncertainty into determinations of zonal boundaries. Plummerita hantkeninoides CF1 Zone: This zone was rst dened by Masters (1993) as the total range of the nominate species,

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based on sections from Egypt. It was later dated by Pardo et al. (1996) to correspond to the nal 300 ky of the Maastrichtian based on calibration with the paleomagnetic record at Agost, Spain. Based on the new chronostratigraphic update of Gradstein et al. (2004), which dated the KT boundary at 65.5, Zone CF1 is considerably reduced, spanning just the last 160 ky (between 65.5 and 65.66 Ma) of the Maastrichtian. The CF1 Zone is now routinely applied in low-latitude regions, particularly of the Tethys Ocean (Keller et al., 2007a; Keller et al., 2009a; Keller et al., 2009b; Keller et al., this volume; Abramovich et al., 2010). In the Brazos well Mullinax-1, as well as the other wells, Plummerita hantkeninoides (Bro nnimann) is rare and sporadically present, with few specimens exhibiting the characteristics of well-developed asteroid tests. Based on the lowest (11.09 m) occurrence of P. hantkeninoides in Mullinax-1, Zone CF1 spans 3.85 m; this includes the 80 cm of Zone CF1 above the sandstone complex (Keller et al., 2007a) (Fig. 7). The average sedimentation rate is 2.3 cm/ky (Fig. 8). The presumed ancestor Rugoglobigerina reicheli Bro nnimann is more common and

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FIGURE 4.Lithology and description of the upper Maastrichtian well Mullinax-3, zones CF1 and CF2 with stable isotope data.

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FIGURE 5.Maastrichtian planktic foraminiferal zonal schemes and ages of biozones based on the revised time scale with the KTB at 65.5 Ma.

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FIGURE 6.Illustration of Late Maastrichtian planktic foraminiferal CF biozones used in this study. (CF Cretaceous Foraminifera).

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rst appears earlier at 16.99 m. In well Mullinax-3 Zone CF1 spans 3.2 m but is terminated at the top by a hiatus (Fig. 9). In well KT3 Zone CF1 spans 1.4 m (Fig. 10). The shorter stratigraphic range is partly due to a less complete sedimentary record and partly to the rarity of the index species. Zone CF1 in the Brazos sections contains the sandstone complex with its reworked Chicxulub impact spherules. This sandstone complex and its implications for the age of the Chicxulub impact are discussed in Keller et al. (this volume).

Pseudoguembelina palpebra CF2 Zone: This zone is dened by the last appearance (LA) of Gansserina gansseri at the base and rst appearance (FA) of Plummerita hantkeninoides at the top (Li and Keller, 1998a). Based on the time scale of Gradstein et al. (2004) the age duration of this biozone is 65.6665.78 Ma, or 120,000 years (Fig. 6). Gansserina gansseri is considered to have been a deepcold waterdwelling keeled globotruncanid (Abramovich et al., 2003; Abramovich et al., 2010). This species is also observed in shallow-water sequences, including Egypt, Argentina (Keller, 2002; Tantawy, 2003; Keller et al., 2007b), and the Brazos sections. Its presence in these sequences was interpreted as representing the expansion of cold water into shallower environments in the tropical zone. In these localities, the LA of G. gansseri typically marks the termination of an acme event of this species. This acme event was found to coincide with a global cooling event between ; 68 and 65.8 Ma from the upper part of Zone CF5 up to the base of Zone CF2 (Abramovich et al., 2010).

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EThe Gansserina gansseri acme event was not recognized in the Brazos wells, and this species is rarely present. Its absence may be due to the shallow shelf environment of the Brazos area in the Western Interior Seaway. A hiatus that spans the entire G. gansseri acme event (i.e., upper CF5-CF2 interval) can be excluded because the nominate species of Zone CF3, Pseudoguembelina hariaensis Nederbragt is present. The base of Zone CF2 at well Mullinax-1 was recognized based on the presence of a single specimen of G. gansseri at 15.95 m. Based on this occurrence Zone CF2, which lasted 120,000 years, spans 4.86 m, with an estimated sedimentation rate of 4.1 cm/ky (Figs. 7, 8). In well KT3, G. gansseri is more frequently present, with the last appearance at 10.72 m and spanning 2.37 m, and an estimated sedimentation rate of 2.27 cm/ky (Fig. 10). The lower sediment accumulation rate compared with Mullinax-1 is probably due to more condensed sedimentation and/or a short hiatus. The base of Zone CF2 was not recovered in Mullinax-3. Pseudoguembelina hariaensis CF3 Zone: Zone CF3 was dened by Li and Keller (1998a) as the interval between the FA of P. hariaensis at the base and the LA of G. gansseri at the top. This zone is not equivalent to the P. hariaensis Zone of Huber et al. (2008). In the Blake Nose localities analyzed by Huber et al. (2008) they did not recognize the Plummerita hantkeninoides Zone and therefore extended the P. hariaensis Zone to the end of the Maastrichtian, thus spanning our zones CF3-CF1 from 66.78 to 65.5 Ma.

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FIGURE 7.Species ranges of planktic foraminifera in well Mullinax-1 along with species richness (three-point average) of small species (63150 lm) and larger species (. 150 lm) and planktic/benthic ratio. Gray-shaded bands in CF3 mark intervals with very rare foraminifera and where several samples were combined to obtain statistically representative samples. Gray-shaded band in CF1 marks the sandstone complex with reworked impact spherules.

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In well Mullinax-1, the FA of P. hariaensis occurs at 26.64 m. Therefore Zone CF3 spans 10.69 m and lasted 1.21 My based on the recalculated age of 65.78 to 66.99 Ma. The average sediment accumulation rate for this interval is 0.88 cm/ky. In well KT3, the FA of P. hariaensis occurs at 19.70 m and Zone CF3 spans 8.98 m. The average sediment accumulation rate is thus 0.74 cm/ky (Fig. 7). These sedimentation rates are signicantly lower than for Zones CF1 and CF2. Huber et al. (2008) placed the FA of P. hariaensis Zone at 66.78 Ma, approximately 200 ky younger then the revised age of Li and Keller (1998a) (Fig. 6), though this only marginally raises the sedimentation rate to a maximum of 1 cm/ky. The reason for the lower sediment accumulation rate is probably one or more hiatuses. For example, in Mullinax-1, a sandstone bed marks a sharp contact with the mudstone at 18.5 m. In both wells, the base of CF3 follows an interval of high abundance in the disaster opportunist G. cretacea, suggesting high stress conditions. Racemiguembelina fructicosa CF4 Zone: This biozone is dened by the rst appearance (FA) of R. fructicosa (Egger) at the base and the FA of P. hariaensis at the top (Li and Keller, 1998a, 1998b). Based on the placement of the KT boundary at 65.5 Ma (Gradstein et al., 2004),

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Ethis biozone spans from 68.36 to 66.99 Ma, for a duration of 1.37 My, (Fig. 6). Zone CF4 is not coeval with the R. fructicosa Zone of Huber et al (2008), who assigned a signicantly older age for the FA of this species at 68.72 Ma based on the Blake Nose sections. This age discrepancy may be a taxonomic artifact related to identifying the point of transition from R Racemiguembelina powelli Smith & Pessagno to R. fructicosa. Zone CF4 mostly overlaps with the Abtahomphalus mayaroensis Zone of Huber et al (2008) (Fig. 6). The index taxon A. mayaroensis is absent in the shallow depositional environment of the Brazos area because this species was a deep-water dweller. Racemiguembelina fructicosa is very rare. This species did not survive, probably because of the frequently eutrophic conditions which are unfavorable to photosymbiotic species such as R. fructicosa. This is also indicated by the rare occurrences of the other members of this lineage in Brazos sections (e.g., Racemiguembelina powelli and Pseudotextularia intermedia De Klasz). For these reasons, the base of Zone CF4 in the Brazos River area cannot be determined condently based on the nominate taxon. Huber et al. (2008) suggested that Pseudotextularia elegans (Rzehak) serves as a secondary marker species in the absence of R. fructicosa. This is not possible in the Brazos River area because P.

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STABLE ISOTOPES
Oxygen and carbon isotopes of benthic and planktic foraminifera were analyzed to document changes in paleoproductivity and paleotemperatures in the upper Maastrichtian of well Mullinax-1 (Fig. 3). Benthic foraminifera (mixed species) were analyzed from the interval between 19.0 to 5.43 meters which corresponds to the upper part of the Maastrichtian zone CF3 to the early Danian zone P1b. Stable isotope data of P. costulata, the index taxon for upper surface waters, is limited to the interval between 14.56 to 11.69 meters, which includes most of zone CF2, where sufcient specimens were found for the stable isotope analyses. Throughout this interval, benthic d18O values are distinctly higher than those of P. costulata, suggesting the existence of a thermal gradient between surface and bottom waters in the shelf environment of the Brazos River area. Similarly, benthic d13C are mostly ; 0.5 higher than those of P. costulata, indicating a surface-to-bottom gradient in paleoproductivity. Both d18O and d13C values of foraminifera at well Mullinax-1 are signicantly lower than expected for the Maastrichtian and suggest a regional signal, as revealed by the comparison with coeval isotopic records from oceanic and other continental-shelf localities. For example, benthic d18O values vary mostly between 4 to 1.5. In comparison, benthic d18O values at DSDP Hole 525A vary between 0.25 to 0.5 in the cold interval between 67 to 65.9 Ma and reached a minimum of 0.37 during the latest Maastrichtian warm event at 65.4 Ma (Li and Keller, 1998a). Similarly, benthic d13C at well Mullinax-1 vary between 1.5 to 0.4, whereas at Hole 525A they average around 1.5, and in the shallow shelf localities of Madagascar and Argentina they range between 1.5 to 0 (Abramovich et al., 2002; Keller et al., 2007b).

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elegans is very rare. In addition, P. elegans rst appears in zone CF6 in deep-sea sections, including DSDP Sites 463 and 525A and in Tunisia (Li and Keller 1998a, 1998b; Abramovich and Keller, 2003). An alternative marker for Zone CF4 is an acme of Guembelitria cretacea (Fig. 11). This disaster opportunist is best known as the dominant species in the aftermath of the KTB mass extinction, when it thrived in the absence of most other species (Keller and Pardo, 2004; Pardo and Keller, 2008). However, G. cretacea thrived in any high-stress environments, particularly in shallow-water sequences and during the late Maastrichtian. Two intervals of high Guembelitria abundances are commonly recognized, one in Zone CF1 and the other in Zone CF5 and the lower part of CF4 (e.g., Keller et al., 1998; Keller et al., 2007b; Keller, 2002, 2003; Abramovich et al., 1998; Abramovich et al., 2010; Abramovich and Keller, 2002). In Mullinax-1 and KT3 wells the lower Guembelitria acme appears to span Zone CF4, a time of relatively warm climate (Fig. 11) (Haq et al., 1987; Li and Keller, 1999; Adatte et al., 2002). A global cooling occurs at the transition from the relatively warm climate of CF4 to CF3. In Brazos sections, this interval is marked by sandstone at the base of well Mullinax-1, which suggests a sea-level fall, followed by sandy silty mudstone with high abundance of Guembelitria and the lowest species richness (1020 species) of the upper Maastrichtian (Fig. 7). In well KT3 Zone CF4 is also marked by sandy silty mudstone and abundant Guembelitria, though species richness is higher (2030 species), probably due to the larger sample size available. The index species R. fructicosa was observed near the base of this interval (29.5 m; Fig. 10), suggesting that the Guembelitria acme is at or near the base of Zone CF4. Here we tentatively assume that the Guembelitria acme approximates the base of CF 4, which is also suggested by the sandstone deposit that marks a sea-level fall in well Mullinax-1. Based on this placement, sediment accumulation rates for CF4 range from 0.82 m/ky (KT3) to 1.35 m/ky (Mullinax-1) (Fig. 8).

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FIGURE 8.Agedepth plots for wells Mullinax-1 and KT3, showing sediment accumulation rates for biozones CF1 to CF4. The KTB is set at 65.5 Ma; chronology after Gradstein et al. (2004).

The differences in d18O values between well Mullinax-1 and Hole 525A can be partially explained by the fact that ocean-bottom temperatures were considerably cooler than bottom temperatures in the shallow neritic environment of the Brazos River area. However, other factors that involved depletion of the isotopic values of foraminifera at Mullinax-1 must be taken into consideration. A cross plot of the d18O and d13C values of the benthic foraminifera in well Mullinax-1 shows a signicant positive correlation at the 99.95% level (r 0.78; Fig. 5). Such a high positive correlation is usually attributed to late diagenetic alteration of meteoric groundwater that is characterized by both low d18O and d13C values (Faure, 1986). However, recrystallization and cementation caused by meteoric groundwater diagenesis is not evident in the foraminiferal tests from Mullinax-1 which mostly exhibit excellent or pristine preservation. The covariance between d18O and d13C and the low isotopic values can be alternatively explained by lower salinity due to fresh-water inux (Khim and Park, 2000) The oxygen isotope composition of seawater is linked to salinity either as a result of mixing between water masses with different salinities and isotopic compositions, or changes in the precipitationevaporation cycle (Wolff et al., 1999; Pierre, 1999; Rohling and de Rijk, 1999). A correlation between d18O and d13C of foraminifera is to be expected only if salinity changes are due to inux of a fresh water source, which is lighter in both d18O and d13C. During the late Maastrichtian in the Brazos River area, a lowelevation rainfall source of the river water was probably not sufciently light in d18O to produce a signicant reduction of the seawater values. An additional rainfall source of the fresh water could have originated from more distant sources. Dettman and Lohmann (2000) suggested that permanent snowelds existed at times in the late Maastrichtian and late Paleocene mountains of north-central Wyoming and southwest Montana, and that melting of this snow fed the rivers and signicantly reduced the d18O values of mollusk fossils. Similarly, Cochran et al. (2003) presented the possibility of fresh water inux into nearshore Western Interior Seaway based on stable Sr and O isotopes. It is therefore reasonable to consider snowmelt from distant highlands, for example to the west of the Brazos River area as a possible source for the light d18O and d13C values of the foraminifera in well Mullinax-1.

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FIGURE 9.Species ranges of planktic foraminifera in well Mullinax-3 along with species richness (three-point average) of small species (63150 lm) and larger species (. 150 lm). Note the decrease in species richness to 10 species is due to shallowing to coastallagoonal environment. One interval with high species richness is due to reworking.

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Periodic melting of ice caps could also explain the prominent negative peaks in both d18O and d13C records, which are particularly frequent in intervals from the upper part of zone CF2 to the middle part of zone CF1 (; 65.765.4 Ma). d18O and d13C values decreased sharply at these episodes by as much as 2, relative to background values (Fig. 3). This time interval marks the globally recognized latest Maastrichtian warm events (Li and Keller, 1998c; Premoli Silva and Sliter, 1999; Olsson et al., 2001; Nordt et al., 2003). The d18O negative peaks could therefore represent a periodic pattern of the warm event that may have consisted of several warm peaks as recently suggested by Abramovich et al. (2010). The negative d18O peaks could in part reect an increase in seawater temperature but also an increase in fresh-water runoff from a high altitude source. Most of the isotopic peaks coincide with peak abundances of Guembelitria (Fig. 3). This correlation provides strong evidence that the negative isotopic peaks in the latest Maastrichtian at Brazos were induced by environmentalclimatic changes that involved shifts in the isotopic composition of the seawater. The isotopic peaks of foraminifera at well Mullinax-1 are also marked by distinct color changes from dark gray to light gray shales (Fig. 3) that imply transitions from dysoxic to more oxic conditions at the sea oor. Such transitions are expected during times of increased

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Efreshwater runoff and provide further support that the negative d18O peaks represent discrete short-term warming pulses that may have been part of the global late Maastrichtian warm event and associated sealevel changes (e.g., parasequences; Fig. 3).

Species census data and species ranges are the necessary tools for biostratigraphy and relative age dating along with unique acme events of species. Paleoenvironmental information is largely obtained from the total species assemblages and, in particular, the relative abundances of individual species as obtained from quantitative analysis based on representative sample splits. This dataset combined with observations of the geographic and latitudinal species distributions, afnity to lowoxygen and/or high-productivity environments, and species depth habitats based on stable isotope ranking all provide insight into the paleoecology and depositional environment of a particular region. For the Brazos area, relative species abundances of the late Maastrichtian were analyzed for each of the three wells (Mullinax-1, Mullinax-3, KT3) in an attempt to gain insights into the local depositional and paleoenvironmental conditions.

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FAUNAL ASSEMBLAGES

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FIGURE 10.Species ranges of planktic foraminifera in well KT3 along with species richness (three-point average) of small species (63150 lm) and larger species (. 150 lm). Note that the more consistent presence of rare species is probably due to larger samples analyzed.

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Late Maastrichtian faunal assemblages are very similar in the three wells of the Brazos area, which span a distance of approximately 3.5 km (Fig. 1). Species patterns show four groups characterized by dominant (up to ; 80%), common (; 1030%), persistent (110%), to sporadic and rare occurrences (, 1%, Figs. 1315). In each well the same three species dominate (H. globulosa, H. planata, G. cretacea; Plates 1, 2), and the same ve species are relatively common (; 10%) [Hedbergella spp., P. navarroensis, Globigerinelloides asper (Ehrenberg), P. costulata, Pseudoguembelina costellifera Masters; Plates 1, 3]. For most of these species, variations in relative abundances are relatively minor with no long-term trends, except for G. cretacea, H. globulosa and H. planata (Figs. 1416). Globigerinelloides asper tends to be more common in Zone CF4 (Figs. 14, 15), whereas P. navarroensis is more abundant in Mullinax-1 than in the two localities to the south. All of these species can be considered ecological opportunists (r-strategists) that thrived in open marine as well as shallow-water environments.

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EPersistent and Sporadic Taxa


Persistent and sporadic occurrences of taxa vary between Mullinax-1 and KT3. It is unclear whether this is due to local environmental conditions or to the smaller sample size analyzed in Mullinax-1. It may primarily be the latter that accounts for the lower species richness and fewer specimens. This is evident in the upper part of zone CF4, where specimen counts of several samples had to be combined in order to obtain a statistically signicant representation of the assemblages (see grayshaded intervals in Fig. 12). This is also evident by the extremely low number of foraminifera per gram of sediments through most of the section (this data are not available for KT3). High specimen numbers are conned to the sandstone at the base and to some isolated samples below the sandstone complex near the top of the Maastrichtian (Fig. 12). In both cases, these erratic peaks may simply reect reworking and winnowing of older sediments. Therefore, we assume that well KT3 is more representative of late Maastrichtian assemblages in the Brazos area. In well KT3, persistent and sporadic occurrences of taxa encompass a number of small heterohelicids [e.g., Heterohelix striata (Ehrenberg), Heterohelix labellosa Nederbragt, Fleisherites glabrans (Cushman);

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FIGURE 11.Stratigraphic correlation of Guembelitria bloom events in the upper Maastrichtian of the eastern Tethys and the Western Interior Seaway correlated with the climate record of South Atlantic DSDP Site 525A. Note that there are two major Guembelitria blooms in zones CF4 and CF2-CF1.

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Plate 3] , pseudoguembelinids (e.g., P. palpebra Bro nnimann & Brown, P. hariaensis, P. kempensis Esker; Plate 4), pseudotextularids (P. elegans P. nutalli, P. elegans ( deformis); Plate 4), rugoglobigerinids (e.g., R. rugosa Plummer, R. macrocephala Bro nnimann, R. hexacamerata Bro nnimann Kuglerina rotundata. Bro nnimann, Trinitella scotti (Bro nnimann); Plates 5, 6), and globigerinellids [G. volutus (White), G. yaucoensis (Pessagno)] (Fig. 13). In open marine environments of low to middle latitudes most of these species are persistently present if not common. Their minor presence (, 15% of total assemblage) in the Brazos area most probably reects adverse conditions due to shallow water depth and high terrigenous inux (predominantly mudstone and claystone deposition).

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All larger specialized (K-strategy) species (. 150 lm) are rare or absent in the Brazos sections, and they gradually disappeared beginning in zone CF2 (Figs. 1214). An abundance plot of the . 150 lm size fraction in Mullinax-3 shows the gradual disappearance beginning below CF1 and near absence in the top 1 m below the KT boundary (Fig. 15). In this uppermost Maastrichtian interval only some sample intervals contained any specimens . 150 lm and generally insufcient in numbers (, 100 specimens) for a quantitative abundance assessment. For this reason, they are plotted as present in Figure 15. Moreover, the species most common in the . 150 lm size fraction are the ones that are most abundant in the 63150 lm size fraction (e.g., H. globulosa, H. labellosa, P . costulata, R. rugosa). The sporadic occurrence of these species and low specimen numbers suggests reworking and/or intermittent inux of

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marine waters into the shallow coastal to lagoonal environment of Mullinax-2 and Mullinax-3. The K-strategists in all three wells include all globotruncanids and the large multiserial taxa (racemiguembelinids, planoglobulinids; Plate 4), although they are represented by only a few specimens (Plates 7, 8) and are generally poorly developed. The rarity of this group and their underdeveloped nature reveals high-stress conditions related to the shallow-water environment of the Brazos area (Keller and Abramovich, 2009).

Guembelitrids are a group of small-sized (38100 lm) triserial planktic foraminiferal species that are sporadically known from the middle Cretaceous to the recent and thus form one of the longestranging plankton groups. Despite this long history, their stratigraphic record is poorly documented, largely because routine foraminiferal analysis concentrates on larger species. However, in recent years as more studies have concentrated on mass extinctions and biotic stress conditions the importance of small species as environmental indicators has become increasingly recognized, and the dataset has grown accordingly. Guembelitria is particularly common in shallow-water environments such as the Brazos area, where they vary in abundance and size range. The most frequent small species is G. cretacea, a well-known disaster opportunist that thrived in eutrophic surface waters, and their blooms are best known from the aftermath of the KTB mass extinction

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ENVIRONMENTAL INDICES Guembelitria Blooms: Disaster Opportunists

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(review in Keller and Pardo, 2004). Abramovich et al. (1998) rst reported Guembelitria blooms in the upperr Maastrichtian of Israel, and since then they have been documented in many localities and across latitudes globally (Fig. 17; Pardo and Keller, 2008). Guembelitria blooms indicate that conditions of high biotic stress occurred intermittently, and they are widespread during zone CF1 and CF4 of the late Maastrichtian (e.g., Abramovich et al., 2010), but they have also been observed in CF3 (Pardo and Keller, 2008). These blooms are thus useful biostratigraphic markers, especially in shallow-water environments, such as the Brazos River sections in Texas. Association of Guembelitria with mass extinction is considered evidence for the opportunistic nature of this species which proliferated during times of enhanced food resources and absence of normal consumers (Keller, 1996; Keller and Pardo, 2004; Pardo and Keller, 2008). In the Maastrichtian, Guembelitria bloomed in the uppermost surface water primarily above shelf and slope environments. These blooms were found to coincide with global warming and suggest similar opportunistic behavior (Abramovich et al., 2010). Unlike the KTB, the Maastrichtian blooms appear to have failed to reach the open ocean. Moreover, the presence of other species during these bloom events indicates that global warming did not involve signicant elimination of species habitats, unlike the KTB catastrophe. In well Mullinax-1, the Guembelitria blooms in Zone CF1-CF2 show an erratic pattern that correlates with a similar pattern in d13C and d18O isotopes and the benthic/planktic ratio (Fig. 3). Stable isotopes

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FIGURE 12.Relative species abundances of upper Maastrichtian planktic foraminifera (. 63 lm) in well Mullinax-1, along with the planktic/ benthic abundance and the number of foraminifera per gram of sediment. Note that only in the sandstone at the base is there an appreciably high number of specimens per gram; in the rest of the sequence foraminifera are relatively rare. See Figure 8 for complete caption.

Eshow three short-term but strongly negative excursions of 2.5 in d18O and 1.5 in d13C during the latest Maastrichtian maximum climate warming, beginning near the top of CF2 and continuing through the lower half of CF1. These negative excursions are of almost the same magnitude as at the KT boundary, and each coincides with a lithologic change. A smaller 1 negative excursion is present at the CF2-CF3 transition. (No stable isotope data are available for the Guembelitria bloom in zone CF4). Guembelitria blooms (5060% abundance) coincide with the KT boundary and the two zone CF1 excursions but drop to lower values after the excursions. The Guembelitria blooms, lithological changes and the coincidence with CF2-CF1 maximum global climate warming are real events that may represent discrete episodes of freshwater runoff that were induced by short-term warming pulses.

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Dominance of Heterohelix: Common generalists
The most typical example of generalist strategy among the Maastrichtian planktic foraminifera are the biserial heterohelicids, namely H. globulosa and H. planata (Leckie, 1987; Keller, 1989a, 1996, this volume; Nederbragt and Koning, 1994; Abramovich et al., 1998; Abramovich et al., 2002, Pardo and Keller, 2008). Species of this genus typically display great variation in test size and chamber shape, which implies the ability to adjust to a wide range of environmental conditions. Highest abundance of Heterohelix (. 50%) is found in

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FIGURE 13.Relative species abundances of upper Maastrichtian planktic foraminifera (. 63 lm) in well KT3, along with stable isotope data.

shelfslope environments such as Spain (Pardo et al., 1996), El Kef and Elles, Tunisia (Keller, 1988; Li and Keller, 1998b; Abramovich and Keller, 2002), and Negev, Israel (Abramovich et al., 1998; Abramovich et al., 2010). In deep-sea localities, particularly in middle latitudes, populations of biserial species are often smaller than those of shelf environments (; 30%), yet considerably larger than those of highly specialized species in the associated assemblage (Abramovich and Keller, 2003; Frank et al., 2005). The high abundance of these species in different environments and the great variation in their test morphology suggest the ability to adjust to rapid environment changes. However, in contrast to Guembelitria species, those of Heterohelix were generalists and not opportunists, as suggested by their continuous high occurrences in stable marine environments. Small heterohelicids are also often considered to be tolerant of lowoxygen conditions, thriving within the oxygen-minimum zone (e.g., Kroon and Nederbragt, 1990; Barrera and Keller, 1990; Leckie, 1987; Leckie et al., l998; Nederbragt et al., l998; Premoli Silva and Sliter, 1999; Keller and Pardo, 2004). A relative abundance increase in these species was interpreted as indicating an expanded oxygen-minimum zone due to increased surface productivity and the depletion of oxygen in subsurface waters due to oxidation of organic carbon (Hart and Ball, l986). Heterohelicids appear to have evolved to take advantage of lowoxygen conditions, as evident in the oceanic anoxic event (OAE2) of the CenomanianTuronian transition, where this group thrived to the exclusion of most other species, and the shift to Heterohelix dominated

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Eassemblages is an important global marker of OAE2 (Leckie et al., l998; Luciani and Cobianchi, l999; Nederbragt et al., 1998; Nederbragt and Fiorentino, l999; Keller et al., 2001; Keller and Pardo, 2004; Coccioni and Luciani, 2004; 2005). Frank et al. (2005) reported a similar response of heterohelicids during the early Maastrichtian warming (; 7068 Ma) in the tropical Pacic at Shatsky Rise. This event was manifested by the brief appearance of abundant inoceramid bivalves over shallow portions of Shatsky Rise, and coincided with a distinct increase in heterohelicids, which suggested higher productivity at the time of the warming. In contrast, in the late Cretaceous upwelling system of the southern Tethys Almogi-Labin et al. (1993) found that very high TOC levels (. 10% wt) in association with dominant Globigerinelloides, whereas dominance of heterohelicids was found in intervals with lower TOC levels and higher-diversity assemblages that include keeled globotruncanids. Pardo and Keller (2008) summarized late Maastrichtian Heterohelix and Guembelitria blooms from nutrient-rich to eutrophic environments from the Tethys to high latitudes and related these to volcanism and high terrestrial runoff, particularly in Argentina (Keller et al., 2007b) and Indian Ocean Ninetyeast Ridge DSDP Site 216 (Keller, 2003, 2005). In all of these environments Heterohelix globulosa and other small biserial species (e.g., P. navarroensis, H. dentata, ( H. planata in this study; heterohelicids with costate ornamentation over most of the chamber surface) invariably are the rst species to thrive after environmental conditions improved and Guembelitria blooms de-

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FIGURE 14.Relative species abundances of Upper Maastrichtian planktic foraminifera (. 63 lm) in well Mullinax-3, along with species richness per sample and three-point average.

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creased in intensity. This is well illustrated by the alternating Guembelitria and Heterohelix blooms at Site 216 in association with volcanic inputs during the late Maastrichtian (Fig. 16). The same alternation is observed in the Brazos sections. At Mullinax-1, where H. globulosa and H. planata have been plotted together, the alternation of Guembelitria and Heterohelix peaks is particularly pronounced (Fig. 12). But the same pattern is evident in KT3 and Mullinax-3, although H. planata and H. gobulosa are plotted separately (Figs. 13, 14). In all three Brazos sections Guembelitria and Heterohelix peaks frequently exceed 80% during the late Maastrichtian, which indicates persistent high-stress conditions, which are typical of shallow marine environments with possibly high nutrient input as indicated by the dark claystones, mudstones, and burrows inlled with pyrite framboids. These conditions are superimposed by the global warming episodes during the CF4 and CF21 intervals, which are indicated by the bloom events of Guembelitria.

Species RichnessEnvironmental Stress Index

Species richness is the most easily identied proxy for conditions of high biotic stress. It assumes that preservation is good and that species are not lost to breakage and dissolution. In the Brazos area, preservation is mostly excellent, as evident by the species illustrations (Plates 18), and there is no evidence of preservational bias. Nevertheless, there appears to be another type of bias, an inux of reworked specimens that enhances primarily the number of large thickshelled species. This is evident in all three sections below the unconformity at the base of a sandstone complex in Mullinax-1 and

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KT3, and in the equivalent interval below the KTB unconformity at Mullinax-3 (Figs. 1215). This may also account for the relatively high but erratic peaks in the number of specimens per gram of sediment in the sandstone at the base of well Mullinax-1. Plots of species richness for the Brazos sections are shown as threepoint sample averages, to smooth out closely spaced sample variations and reveal long-term trends. Signicant variations are evident between the three localities (Fig. 17). Well KT3 shows an average total of 35 species, with a maximum of 42 and a low of 27 species for the late Maastrichtian. Larger species (. 150 lm) are plotted separately to show their relative proportion; they average between 12 and 15 species with only minor variations. The total species richness shows regular variations that may reect environmental changes. However, this cannot be determined because only a generalized sediment description is available for these old cores, which permits no evaluation of the changes in the sedimentary environment. The species richness pattern is quite different in Mullinax-1, although the average number of species is approximately the same, with a minimum of 15 species and a maximum of 39 species (Fig. 17). Larger species (. 150 lm) vary from 0 to 15. This extreme variation is due to an interval of low species richness in upper zone CF4 to lower zone CF3 that is characterized by sandy mudstone with very rare planktic foraminifera. In contrast, the lower interval, consisting of ne sandstone, contains relatively common specimens and a high of 33 species, including 812 larger species (. 150 lm). It is unclear why the species richness and number of species per gram of sediment are higher in the sandstone than in the sandy mudstone. One possibility is an inux of reworked specimens along with the sand. Most probably

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FIGURE 15.Relative species abundances of upper Maastrichtian planktic foraminifera (. 150 lm) in well Mullinax-3, along with species richness per sample and three-point average.

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this difference is due to local topographic variations and associated sediment drift. Only zones CF1 to upper CF3 show species richness similar to that in KT3 (Fig. 17). Mullinax-3 shows a maximum of 30 species and a minimum of 18 species for the upper Maastrichtian zones CF2 to the lower half of CF1, with larger species (. 150 lm) varying from 2 to 10 (Fig. 15). Most signicant in this section of the . 63 lm size fraction is the disappearance of larger species at an unconformity in the middle of zone CF1 and the decrease to just 11 smaller species, including the group of eight common and dominant species in the Brazos area. Even in the counts of the . 150 lm size fraction, specimens are rare in the top meter (Fig. 15) which reveals the high-stress conditions. This interval consists of a sandy, glauconitic mudstone with clasts, shell fragments, oysters, desiccation cracks, and rootlets that suggest a coastal environment, possibly of mangroves. The same lithology continues for 1.0 m, followed by a 25-cm-thick glauconitic sandstone. In the upper 50 cm of this interval is a temporary inux of diverse species that are not present below and above (Figs. 14, 15, 17). These species probably mark the occasional inux of marine waters (tempestites?) carrying more diverse planktic foraminiferal assemblages into this coastal area. The uppermost part below the KTB

FIGURE 16.Guembelitria and Heterohelix blooms during the late Maastrichtian at the Indian Ocean Ninetyeast Ridge DSDP Site 216 are related to mantle-plume volcanism (Modied after Keller, 2003, 2005).

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FIGURE 17.Species richness of planktic foraminifera in wells Mullinax-1, Mullinax-3, and KT3 based on histograms of three-point sample average of small species (63150 lm) and larger species (. 150 lm). Gray shading marks the latest Maastrichtian zone CF1. Data on species richness show shallowing from north to south, with coastallagoonal conditions in the south during the upper part of CF1.

unconformity returns to the minimum species richness characteristic of the lower part of the sandy glauconitic interval. Variations in species richness and lithology of the three Brazos wells indicate signicant shallowing from north to south over a distance of approximately 3 km, with the southernmost well Mullinax-3, located in a coastal area marked by temporary emergence in the upper part of zone CF1. This emergence is coeval with deposition of the spherulerich and shell-rich glauconitic sandstone that inlls incised valleys in wells KT3 and Mullinax-1, as well as the Darting Minnow Creek outcrop, only approximately 150 m away (Fig. 1). The overall low species diversity of the late Maastrichtian (2540 species) is characteristic of middle-shelf to inner-shelf conditions. Based on the faunal assemblages and lithology we estimate deposition during the late Maastrichtian to have occurred at a depth much less than 100 m and approaching 0 to 30 m at the time of the sea-level fall and deposition of the sandstone complex with impact spherules in zone CF1 in Mullinax-1 and KT3, but emersion in Mullinax-3 to the south. Diversity reduction is the most commonly noticed response to environmental stress conditions. In continental-shelf settings, highest species richness (; 65 species) occurs in deeper outer-shelf to upperslope or open marine environments (Fig. 21). In shallower, middleshelf conditions (; 100200 m), species richness is reduced by

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Eapproximately one-third (e.g., Madagascar; Abramovich et al., 2002). Further species reduction is observed in mesotrophic or restricted basins, such as in Israel and Egypt, where species richness varies between 25 and 35 species, regardless of water depth (Keller, 2002, 2004). In very shallow inner-neritic environments species richness varies between 20 and 35 and in coastal to lagoonal settings decreases to approximately 10 species (e.g., Mullinax-3 in CF1; Fig. 18). A similar low diversity is observed at Seldja at the edge of the Sahara, (e.g., Tunisia; Keller et al., l998). Lowest species richness was observed in areas of volcanic activity, such as DSDP Site 216 and in the Neuque n Basin of Argentina (Keller, 2003; Keller et al., 2007b). In both regions species richness varies between 6 and 12 species, but it increased to approximately 20 in Site 216 when volcanic activity ceased (Figs. 16, 18). The progressively decreasing trend in species richness towards shallower and restricted environments thus marks increasing biotic stress. In such environments, volcanic activity or volcanic inux from weathering (e.g., Neuque n Basin) results in extreme biotic stress and the survival of only the most resistant opportunisticgeneralist species. Across diverse continental-shelf environments, the reduction in species richness seems to follow a uniform pattern of morphologic selectivity, eliminating large species rst and smaller species surviving. The

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FIGURE 18.Species richness decreases with increasing biotic stress conditions that parallel environments from outer shelf to inner shelf. Maximum biotic stress is associated with very shallow inner-neritic to coastal and lagoonal environments with high nutrient inux leading to eutropic and dysoxic conditions. In these high-stress environments, some or all species may be dwarfed. Mullinax-3 shows high biotic stress similar to environments stressed by volcanic activity in the Indian Ocean and Argentina. (Modied after Keller and Abramovich, 2009).

selective nature of the diversity reduction can be illustrated by examining the rk continuum and depth-ranked species in optimum, high-stress, and disaster assemblages.

Species Depth Ranking

Stable isotope depth ranking of planktic foraminiferal species provides insights into the nature of species assemblages, prevailing watermass characteristics, and probably paleodepths in shelf areas. d18O values of foraminiferal species generally increase with depth due to decreasing temperatures. In contrast, d13C values decrease with depth due to selective removal of 12C by photosynthesis in the photic zone and accumulation of 12C in deeper water due to organic matter decay (e.g., Fairbanks et al., 1982; Abramovich et al., 2003). Surface dwelling planktic foraminifera are therefore expected to display the lightest d18O and heaviest d13C values, whereas deep dwellers display heaviest d18O and lightest d13C values. Stable isotope depth ranking of late Maastrichtian species from equatorial sites (DSDP Sites 577A, 463) and middle-latitude Atlantic (DSDP Site 525A) by Abramovich et al. (2003) is shown in Table 1. This dataset is integrated with new stable isotope data of individual species analyzed from three selected intervals in wells Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3 by Carmi et al., (personal communication; Fig. 20). Differences between the d18O values of benthic and planktic foraminifera from Brazos vary between 0.5 and 1 , which indicates that the water column in this environment was thermally stratied but probably not sufciently deep to support intermediate-depth and deepwater species (i.e., keeled globotruncanids) which are extremely rare and, if present, have dwarfed or juvenile morphologies.

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The depth distribution deduced from Brazos d18O records of individual planktic species is generally in agreement with the oceanic records (Fig. 20). Seven of the eight species listed as surface mixed layer in the oceans are rare, persistently present, or common in the Brazos area. Also present in the surface mixed layer are Guembelitria species. These groups have relatively low d18O values, but most distinctly ranked very low in d13C values (0.50) that overlap the benthic records (Rak et al., personal communication; Fig. 20). This suggests that the episodic blooms of this species occurred in the uppermost water-layer where photosynthesis is inhibited by high UV and nutrients are nearly absent (see further discussion in Pardo et al., 2008; Abramovich et al., 2010). Pseudoguembelina costulata and Paraspiroplecta navarroensis were also found to inhabit the surface water judging by their relatively low d18O values. Planoheterohelix cf. planata, a species with lighter striations than P. costulata, is relatively common in Brazos sections and was probably also a surface dweller. The largest species group ranks slightly deeper in the mixed layer, or the subsurface layer. All but two of the 17 species isotopically ranked by Abramovich et al. (2003) are present in the Brazos sections (Table 1). Most of these species are rare and/or sporadically present at Brazos. The only exception is the dominant species H. globulosa, and common species R. rugosa and G. asper. The latter typically display slightly higher d18O and d13C values (2.5 and 1.21.6, respectively) which imply that it inhabited somewhat cooler water with higher primary productivity (Fig. 20). There is an additional group of 14 species at Brazos that are also probably subsurface dwellers. Most of these are small heterohelicids, rugoglobigerinids, globigerinellids, and hedbergellids. Among these only H. planata and Hedbergella species are common to abundant.

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FIGURE 19.Patterns of test-size variations in three planktic and one benthic species during the late Maastrichtian to early Danian at well KT3 (data from MacLeod et al., 2000). Note that test-size reduction begins below the sandstone complex and coincides with a major sea-level fall that marks a sequence boundary. (Modied after Keller and Abramovich, 2009).

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FIGURE 20.The main features of the planktic foraminiferal assemblages of the Brazos are domination of small, simple morphotypes opportunists, generalists, and high-stress specialist morphologies.

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Most globotruncanids and racemiguembelinids are listed as living at thermocline depths. All but two of the 12 species listed are very rarely found in the Brazos sections. In addition to these, rare Globotruncana duwi, G. esnehensis, and G. insignis are recorded at Brazos (Table 1). None of the deep dwellers are present. Stable isotope depth ranking of species reveals that at Brazos the bulk of species populations (; 90%) lived in the surface (Guembeli-

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tria, Pseudoguembelina costulata, Planoheterohelix cf. planata, Paraspiroplecta navarroensis) and subsurface (H. globulosa, H. planata, R. rugosa, G. asper) of the mixed layer (Table 1). Almost all other species are rare and sporadically present. This indicates a high-stress shallow-water environment, as also indicated by species richness, lithology, and macrofossils.

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TABLE 1.Isotopic depth ranking of late Maastrichtian species based on Abramovich et al. (2003) and Rak et al. (personal communication). Late Maastrichtian Stable Isotope Depth Ranking of Planktic Foraminifera mixed layer Surface Pseudoguembelina excolata P. kempensis P. costulata P. hariaensis P. palpebra Rugoglobigerina pennyi** R. hexacamerata Planuglobulina acervulinoides ** also listed in thermocline * also listed in subsurface Subsurface Globotruncana aegyptiaca G. mariei G. rosetta Rosita walfishensis Rugogloberina rugosa R. hexacamerata R. milamensis R. rotundata Globigerinelloides asper* G. subcarinatus Gublerina acuta Pseudotextularia deformis P. elegans Heterohelix globulosa* H. labellosa Planoglobulina carseyae P. brazoensis * also listed in thermocline Thermocine intermediate Globotruncana arca G. dupeublei G. falsostuarti G. mariei G. orientalis G. ventricosa Globotruncanita angulata/pettersi G. stuarti Rosita patelliformis Racemiguembelina fructicosa R. intermedia R. powelli Rugoglobigerina pennyi Globotruncanella havananensis Subthermocline Deep Planoglobulina multicamerata Heterophelix rajagopalani Abathomphalus mayaroensis Gublerina cuvilieri Gansserina gansseri Lipsonia lipsonae

Species also present in Brazos area (this study) Paraspiroplecta navarroensis Guembelitria cretacea Guembelitria irregularis Guembelitria trifolia Guembelitria danica Paraspiroplecta navarroensis

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Globotruncana duwi G. esnehensis G. insignis Rugoglobigerina macrocephala R. scotti R. reicheli Plummerita hantkeninoides Heterohelix planate H. dentate H. punctulata Globigerinelloides multispina G. rosebudensis G. volutes G. yaucoensis Hedbergella monmouthensis H. holmdelensis

At times of high environmental stress, species diversity is reduced across latitudes. The size of the diversity decrease depends on the severity of biotic stress, though the largest reduction occurs in low to middle latitudes, shallow shelf areas, and restricted basins. A diversity reduction of 30% to 50% is not uncommon. Species reduction is selective, eliminating the largest and most specialized species rst (e.g., Racemiguembelina, Contusotruncana, Planoglobulina, most keeled globotruncanids). These taxa are predominantly intermediate dwellers (e.g., subsurface and thermocline; Table 1) (Abramovich et al., 2003). The resulting survivor assemblages consist of lower-

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diversity and morphologically smaller species (, 150 lm). In these assemblages, relative species abundances of surviving larger species are very low and may be present only sporadically. In contrast, diversity of morphologically small species tends to remain steady and their relative abundances tend to increase to 6080% as documented in Madagascar, Israel, Egypt, Tunisia, and Denmark (Abramovich and Keller, 2002; Abramovich et al., 2002; Keller, 2002, 2004; Keller et al., 1993; Keller et al., 1998; Hart et al., 2005). During the late Maastrichtian, the foraminiferal assemblages of the Brazos area were dominated by small, simple morphotypes, opportunists, generalists, and high-stress specialist morphologies. Most abundant species at Brazos are small heterohelicid species (H.

EGlobotruncanella petaloidea Globotruncanella havanensis

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 Upper Maastrichtian sediments recovered from three subsurface

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wells along the Brazos River, Cottonmouth Creek, and Darting Minnow Creek span Cretaceous foraminiferal zones CF1-CF4. The KTB is 80 cm above a sandstone complex with reworked impact spherules. sandy mudstone with common sand laminae into the lower part of CF3 and grading into silty mudstone through CF3 and mudstones claystones in CF2 through CF1, except for the sandstone complex in CF1. CF1 are reworked, as evident by lithied clasts with spherules and mudcracks.

 At the base of CF4, sediments consist of sandstone followed by

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CONCLUSIONS

globulosa, H. planata, P. navarroensis) and Guembelitria species (Fig. 20). Other small surface and subsurface dwellers are rare to common (e.g., Hedbergella, Globigerinelloides, P. costulata, Planoheterohelix cf. planata). Larger specialized species (e.g., globotruncanids, racemiguembelinids, planoglobulinids, pseudoguembelinids, pseudtextularids) are rare and sporadically present (Figs. 1215). Their combined abundance is less than 2% of the total planktic foraminiferal assemblages. MacLeod et al. (2000) studied the intraspecies variations in three planktic and one benthic species from the Brazos well KT3 and demonstrated that all four species experienced statistically signicant test size decreases in the latest Maastrichtian and continuing into the earliest Danian (Fig. 19). The maximum mean test size in Heterohelix globulosa and P. navarroensis was reached ; 50 cm below the KTB or approximately 10 cm below the unconformity at the base of the sandstone complex. A similar pattern is observed in the benthic foraminifer Anomalinoides newmanae. However, G. cretacea shows maximum size just below the KTB coincident with minimum test size in heterohelicid species. Similar patterns of test size are observed at Nye Klov, Denmark, and ODP Site 738 (Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean). In all three localities the test size changes parallel a strong decrease in species richness and reect severe biotic stress (Keller et al., 1993; MacLeod et al., 2000; Hart et al., 2005; Keller and Abramovich, 2009). The most probable causes for the biotic stress in the Brazos area include the shallow shelf setting superimposed by global climate changes and sea-level uctuations. During the late Maastrichtian zones CF4 to CF2, sediment deposition uctuated between middle-neritic and inner-neritic environments. The maximum climate warming at the end of CF2 and in CF1 was accompanied by sea-level uctuations that led to coastallagoonal environments punctuated by temporary emergence marked by high benthic abundance (. 60%), decreased planktics, karstied erosion surfaces, roots, and mudcracks (Gale, 2006; Keller et al., 2007a; Adatte et al., this volume). The return to cooler climate in the upper part of zone CF1 was accompanied by a sea-level fall leading to major erosion and the formation of incised valleys, which were subsequently inlled with clasts, glauconitic, shell- and spherule-rich sand eroded from exposed areas nearshore. The biotic stress caused by the climate warming and shallowing environment resulted in the exclusion of deeper dwelling species, dwarng, and assemblages dominated by alternating abundances of Guembelitria and Heterohelix blooms.

cids species (H. globulosa, H. planata, P. navarroensis). These assemblages account for approximately 80% and reveal high biotic stress through the late Maastrichtian due to high nutrient inux and dysoxic subsurface waters. All specimens are smaller than 150 lm.
 The remaining faunal components include common surface and

subsurface dwellers (hedbergellids, globigerinellids, heterohelicids, pseudotextularids, and rugoglobigerinids) which account for approximately 15% of the total assemblages and are generally dwarfed, with specimens smaller than 150 lm.
 Larger (. 150 lm) specialized species are very rare and sporadically

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 The Chicxulub impact spherules in the sandstone complex in zone

 Planktic foraminiferal assemblages of the Maastrichtian at Brazos

are of low diversity and dominated by alternating high abundances of the disaster opportunist G. cretacea (zones CF4 and CF2-CF1) which thrived in uppermost water during periods of global warming and the subsurface-dwelling, low-oxygen tolerant small heteroheli-

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS REFERENCES

present, including globotruncanids, most rugoglobigerinids, pseudtextularids, pseudoguembelinids, planoglobulinids, and racemiguembelinids. Specimens present are generally dwarfed attesting to high-stress conditions. Most of these species lived in deeper waters at or below the thermocline or required photosymbionts. Their rarity, dwarfed size, and frequent absence reects high biotic stress due to the shallow depths, high nutrients, and muddy (green) waters. middle-neritic in the Brazos River area, but frequent disconformities and erosional surfaces with abundant shell fragments, sand layers, snails, and rare planktic but abundant benthic foraminifera suggest temporary emergence, particularly near the top of zone CF2 and in CF1. Emergence at the time of deposition of the sandstone complex is indicated in well Mullinax-3 by a karst surface, rizoliths, clasts, and mudcracks. with disconformities and lower sea levels near the top of CF2 and in CF1. These negative excursions could in part reect an increase in seawater temperature but also an increase in fresh-water runoff.

 The depositional environment uctuated between inner-neritic and

 Stable isotope data show a short-term negative excursion associated

We are very grateful to Jerry Baum, who directed the drilling effort, and Tom Yancey for splitting and describing the cores. A special thank you to the owners of the Brazos Rose Ranch, Mr. and Mrs. Ronnie and Jackie Mullinax, who not only permitted drilling on their land but also took intense interest in the geology and so graciously hosted our many visits. We gratefully acknowledge the drilling crew of DOSECC and logging support from Schlumberger during two drilling phases. We greatly thank reviewers Marius Dan Georgescu and Emma Sheldon for their contribution towards improvement of this paper We also thank Marius Dan Georgescu for his comments on the taxonomical identications. The material of this study is based upon work supported by the US National Science Foundation through the Continental Dynamics Program and Sedimentary Geology Program under NSF Grants EAR-0207407 and EAR-0447171, and BSF grant 2004045.

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LI, L., AND KELLER, G., 1999, Variability in Late Cretaceous climate and deep waters: evidence from stable isotopes: Marine Micropaleontology, v. 161, p.171190. LUCIANI, V., AND COBIANCHI, M., l999, The Bonarelli level and other black shales in the CenomanianTuronian of the northeastern Dolomites (Italy): Calcareous nannofossil and foraminiferal data: Cretaceous Research, v. 20, p. 135167. MACLEOD, N., ORTIZ, N., FEFFERMAN, N., CLYDE, W., SCHULTER, C., AND MACLEAN, J., 2000, Phenotypic response of foraminifera to episodes of global environmental change, in Culver, S.J., and Rawson, P., eds., Biotic Response to Global Environmental Change: The Last 145 Million Years: Cambridge, U.K., Cambridge University Press, pp. 5178. MASTERS, B.A., 1993, Re-evaluation of the species and subspecies of the genus Plummerita Bro nnimann and a new species of Rugoglobigerina Bro nnimann (Foraminiferida): Journal of foraminiferal research v. 23, p. 267274. DUS, J., 1992, Spores et Pollens du passage Cretace/Tertiaire dune coupe de ME Brazos River (Texas, U.S.A.): Archives de Science, Geneve, v. 45, p. 127 133. NEDERBRAGT, A.J., 1991, Late Cretaceous biostratigraphy and development of Heterohelicidae (planktic foraminifera): Micropaleontology, v. 37, p. 329 372. NEDERBRAGT, A., AND FIORENTINO, A., l999, Stratigraphy and paleoceanography of the CenomanianTuronian boundary event in Oued Mellegue, northwestern Tunisia: Cretaceous Research, v. 20, p. 4762. NEDERBRAGT, A.J., AND KONING, J.A., 1994, Morphologic variation in Turonian to Maastrichtian Heterohelix globulosa (Ehrenberg): Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Proceedings, v. 97, p. 429444. NEDERBRAGT, A.J., ERLICH, R.N., FOUKE, B.W., AND GANSSEN, G.M., 1998, Palaeoecology of the biserial planktonic Foraminifer Heterohelix moremani (Cushman) in the late Albian to middle Turonian circum-North Atlantic: Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, v. 144, p. 115133. NORDT, L., ATCHLEY, S., AND DWORKIN, S., 2003, Terrestrial evidence for two greenhouse Events in the latest Cretaceous: Geological Society of America Today, v. 13, p. 49. OLSSON, R.K., WRIGHT, J.D., AND MILLER, K.G., 2001, Paleobiogeography of Pseudotextularia elegans during the latest Maastrichtian global warming event: Journal of Foraminiferal Research, v. 31, p. 275282. PARDO, A., AND KELLER, G., 2008, Biotic effects of environmental catastrophes at the end of the Cretaceous: Guembelitria and Heterohelix blooms: Cretaceous Research, v. 29, p. 10581073, doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2008.05.031. PARDO, A., ORTIZ, N., AND KELLER, G., 1996, Latest Maastrichtian and K/T boundary foraminiferal turnover and environmental changes at Agost, Spain, in McLeod, N., and Keller, G., eds., Biotic and Environmental Events across the Cretaceous/Tertiary Boundary: New York, W.W. Norton & Company, p. 139171. PIERRE, CH., 1999, The carbon and oxygen isotope distribution in the Mediterranean water masses: Marine Geology, v. 153, p. 4155. ., 1999, Cretaceous paleoceanography: PREMOLI SILVA, I., AND SLITER W.V Evidence from planktonic foraminiferal evolution, in Barrera E., and Johnson, C.C., eds., Evolution of the Cretaceous Ocean Climate System: Geological Society of America, Special Paper 332, p. 301328. ROHLING, E.J., AND DE RIJK, S., 1999. Holocene Climate Optimum and Last Glacial Maximum in the Mediterranean: the marine oxygen isotope record: Marine Geology, v. 153, p. 5775. SCHULTE, P., SPEIJER, R., MAI, H., AND KONTNY, A., 2006, The Cretaceous Paleogene (KP) boundary at Brazos, Texas: Sequence stratigraphy, depositional events and the Chicxulub impact: Sedimentary Geology, v. 184, p. 77109. SCHULTE, P., SPEIJER, R.P., BRINKHUIS, H., KONTNY, A., CALEYS, P., GALEOTTI, S., AND SMIT, J., 2008, Comment on the paper; Chicxulub impact predates KT Boundary: New evidence from Brazos, Texas by Keller et al. (2007): Earth and Planetary Science Letters, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.11.066. SCHULTE, P., AND 40 OTHERS, 2010, The Chicxulub asteroid impact and mass extinction at the CretaceousPaleogene boundary: Science, v. 327, p. 1214 1218. SMIT, J., ROEP, T.B., ALVAREZ, W., MONTANARI, A., CLAEYS, P., GRAJALESNISHIMURA, J.M., AND BERMUDEZ, J., 1996, Coarse-grained clastic sandstone complex at the KT boundary around the Gulf of Mexico: Deposition by tsunami waves induced by the Chicxulub impact, in Ryder, G., Fastovsky, D., and Gartner, S. eds., The CretaceousTertiary Event and Other Catastrophes

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in Earth History: Geological Society of America, Special Paper, 307, p.151 182. SMITH, C.A., AND PESSAGNO, E.A., JR., 1973, Planktonic foraminifera and stratigraphy of the Corsicana Formation (Maastrichtian) north-central Texas: Cushman Foundation for Foraminiferal Research, Special Publication 12, 68 p. TANTAWY, A.A., 2003, Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the CretaceousTertiary transition in the western desert of Egypt: Marine Micropaloentology, v. 47, p. 323356. WEISS, W., 1983, Heterohelicidae (seriale planktonische Foraminiferen) der tethyalen Oberkreide (Santon bis Maastricht): Geologisches Jahrbuch (A), v. 72, p. 196. SRKOOP STZOLD, J., AND WOLFF, T., GRIEGER, B., HALE, W., DU , A., MULITZA, S., PA WEFER, G., 1999, On the reconstruction of paleosalinities, in Fischer, G., and Wefer, G., eds., Use of Proxies in Paleoceanography: Examples from the South Atlantic: Springer, Berlin, p. 207228.

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PLATE 3.Biserial morphologies (Paraspiroplecta, Spiroplecta, Heterohelix, Fleisherites and Pseudogumbelina) from late Maastrichtian zones CF1 to CF3 in Brazos River Wells Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3. Scale bar: 15, 9, 1114 10 lm, 68, 1519 50 lm). 14. Paraspiroplecta (Heterohelix) navarroensis (Loeblich), Mullinax-3, sample 77, 62, 9.79 m. Tests with early planispiral coil originally described as Heterohelix navarroensis. New genus Paraspiroplecta erected by Georgescu and Abramovich (2008) to accommodate forms with early planispiral coil, coarse costae, and weakly acute periphery of the early part of the test. 5. Spiroplecta americana Ehrenberg, Mullinax-1, Note the early planispiral stage, the globular chambers in adult specimens, ne costate ornamentation, and the absence of weakly acute periphery. The denition of this species was emended by Georgescu and Abramovich (2009). Spiroplecta differs from Paraspiroplecta mainly by lacking the weekly acute appearance of the peripheral test and being nely striate rather than coarse costae. 69. Heterohelix labellosa Nederbragt. Note the reniform shape of the chambers that are covered by thick costae. (6) Mullinax-1, sample 323, 211, 34.075 m. (79) Mullinax-1, sample 98, 51, 10.4 m. (9) close up of chamber surface shows large pores between costae. 1012. Fleisherites (Laeviheterohelix) glabrans (Cushman). Note the reniform shape of the chambers. This species was formerly identied as Laeviheterohelix glabrans Nederbragt, 1991. Georgescu (2009) has emended the genus Laeviheterohelix based on its polyphyletic nature. (10 12) Mullinax-3, sample 80, 42, 9.28 m, 13, Fleisherites (Laheviheterohelix) pulchra? Mullinax-1, sample 325, 212, 34.285 m. Note the tube shape ultimate chamber and the thickening of the costae in earlier chambers. Although this morphology is here included in F. pulchra, this specimen differs by the unique shape of its ultimate chambers and by the presence of costae rather than a smooth surface; it may be a new species. 14, 15. Pseudoguembelina costulata (Cushman). Small specimens with broken last chambers. Note the absence of supplementary apertures and the relatively large size of the pores. Mullinax-1, sample 325, 34.285 m. 1619. Pseudoguembelina excolata (Cushman). Note strong costae and supplementary apertures. (1517, 19) Mullinax-1, sample 98, 51, 10.4 m; (18) Mullinax-1, sample 325, 34.285 m.

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PLATE 2.Heterohelix species from late Maastrichtian zones CF1 to CF3 in the Brazos River wells Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3. Scale bar 50 lm. 16. Heterohelix globulosa (Ehrenberg). (1, 2) Specimens with strongly reduced costae show incipient appearance; Mullinax-1, sample 101, 51, 10.6 m. (36) Specimens with discontinuous ne costae; Mullinax-1, Sample 88, 44, 9.73 m. 711. Heterohelix striata (Ehrenberg). Note the coarse costae and variation in chambers size and numbers. (79) Specimens from Mullinax-1, sample 88, 43, 9.73 m; (10) Mullinax-3 sample 34, 42, 6.55 m.; (11) transitional form between H. striata and H. labellosa. Mullinax-1, sample 303, 183, 30.975 m. 12, 13. Heterohelix sp. Note the reniform shape of the ultimate chamber and the backward oriented periapertural anges. Mullinax-1, sample 153, 81, 15.155 m. 14. Heterohelix ultimatumida White; note that the last-formed chamber or pair of chambers is/are much more inated than the others. Mullinax-3, sample 34, 42, 6.55 m. 1517. Heterohelix planata (Cushman). (15), Mullinax-1, sample 88, 43, 9.73 m (16, 17) Mullinax-1, sample 108, 52, 10.97 m.

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PLATE 1.Guembelitria, Globigerinelloides, and Globotruncanella in the late Maastrichtian zones CF1 to CF3, Brazos River Wells Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3. Scale bar 17 10 lm, scale bar 815 50 lm. 15. Guembelitria cretacea Cushman. Mullinax-1, sample 383, 262, 42.865 m. 6. Guembelitria(?) irregularis Morozova. Note the atypical presence of costae on the surface of the chambers, and absence of pore mounds suggests mutational morphology of a biserial test. 7. Globigerinelloides multispinus (Lalicker). Specimens with two lateral ultimate chambers. Mullinax-3, sample 61, 53, 8.38 m. 8. Globigerinelloides praevolutus (Petters). Mullinax-1, sample 359, 243, 40.475 m. 9, 10. Globigerinelloides asper (Ehrenberg). Mullinax-1, sample 359, 243, 40.475 m. (9) Side view of a specimen showing one of the lateral apertures. 11. Globigerinelloides messinae (Broennimann). Mullinax-3, sample 66, 51, 8.69 m. 12. Globigerinelloides prairiehillensis Pessagno. Mullinax-3, sample 61, 53, 8.38 m. 13, Globigerinelloides subcarinatus Bro nnimann. Mullinax-1, sample 379, 261, 42.475 m. 14, 15. Globotruncanella petaloidea Gandol. Mullinax-1, sample 383, 262, 42.865 m. 16. Globotruncanella havanensis Voorwijk. Mullinax-3, sample 71, 61, 9.19 m.

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PLATE 7.Globotruncana species from late Maastrichtian zones CF1 to CF3, Brazos River wells Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3. Scale bar 50 lm. 18. Globotruncana aegyptiaca Nakkady. (1) Note the atypical high density of pustules on surface of the chambers and incipient spinose appearance of the two keels. Mullinax-1, sample 98, 51, 10.36 m. 912. Globotruncana duwi Nakkady. (9, 10) Note the high density of pustules on surface of the chambers. Spiral side characterized by three chambers, rapidly increasing in size with the ultimate chamber comprising one half of the test. Mullinax-1, sample 103, 52, 10.66 m. 1316. Globotruncana arca (Cushman). (13) Umbilical view of juvenile specimens with 3 and a half chambers and a narrow double keel. Mullinax-1, sample 86, 43, 9.61 m. (14) Spiral view of poorly developed adult with four and a half chambers. Mullinax-3, sample 53, 52, 7.9 m. (15, 16) Umbilical view of juvenile or poorly developed adult specimens with double keel that merge along the ultimate chamber. Mullinax-3, sample 53, 52, 7.9 m.

PLATE 8.Globotruncana and Globotruncanita species from late Maastrichtian zones CF1 to CF3, Brazos River wells Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3. Scale bar 50 lm. 15. Globotruncana arca (Cushman). Mullinax-3, sample 53, 52, 7.9 m. (13) Umbilical view of specimens with well-developed double keel. (4, 5) Note that nal whorl consist of only 5.5 chambers. 6, 7. Globotruncana orientalis El Naggar. Mullinax-1, sample 100, 51, 10.49 m. 810. Globotruncana esnehensis Nakkady. Mullinax-3, sample 74, 9.49 m. (8) Umbilical view of specimens with 4.5 chambers in the nal whorl. 11. Globotruncana rosetta (Carsey). Mullinax-3, sample 60, 53, 8.31 m. 1216. Globotruncanita stuartiformis (Dalbiez). Mullinax-3, sample 74, 62, 9.49 m. Note the characteristic circular outline of the test and the atypical small number of chambers of the last whorl.

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PLATE 6.Plummerita, Rugoblobigerina, Archaeoglobigerina, Hedbergella and Globotruncanella in the late Maastrichtian zones CF1 to CF3, Brazos River wells Mullinax-1. Scale bar 10 lm for 5, 1213, and 50 lm for 14, 6, 711, 1415. 1, 2. Plummerita hantkeninoides Bro nnimann. Mullinax-1, sample 110, 52, 11.09 m. 35. Rugoblobigerina reicheli Bro nnimann. Mullinax-1, sample 89, 43, 9.8 m. 6, 7. Intermediate forms between Rugoglobigerina rugosa and Archaeoglobigerina cretacea (dOrbigny) Mullinax 1, sample 85, 43, 9.55 m. Note the hispid surface of the test. 8, 9. Archaeoglobigerina cretacea (dOrbigny). Mullinax-1, sample 85, 43, 9.55 m. 10, 11. Rugoblobigerina rotundata Bro nnimann. Mullinax1, sample 80, 42, 9.28 m. 12, 13. Hedbergella monmouthensis (?). Note apertural lip appears broken. Mullinax-1, sample 303, 183, 30.97 m. 14, 15. Globotruncanella minuta Caron and Gonzalez Donoso. Mullinax-1, sample 365, 41.07 m.

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PLATE 5.Rugoglobigerina and Trinitella species from late Maastrichtian zones CF1 to CF3, Brazos River wells Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3. Scale bar 50 lm. 1. Intermediate form between Rugoglobigeriana rugosa (Plummer) and Rugloglobigerina pennyi Bro nnimann. Mullinax 3, sample 47, 52, 7.53 m. 24. Rugoglobigeriana rugosa (Plummer). Mullinax-1, sample 85, 43, 9.55 m. 5. Intermediate form between Rugoglobigeriana rugosa and Rugoglobigerina hexacamerata Bro nnimann. Mullinax 1, sample 85, 43, 9.55 m. 610. Rugoglobigeriana macrocephalla Bro nnimann. Mullinax-1, sample 85, 43, 9.55 m. 11, Rugoglobigerina hexacamerata Bro nnimann. Mullinax-1, sample 105, 52, 10.78 m. 1216. Trinitella scotti Bro nnimann. Mullinax-1, sample 105, 52, 10.78 m (1314). Specimens with early chambers covered with spines.

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PLATE 4.Specimens of Pseudogumbelina, Racemiguembelina, and Planoglobulina from the late Maastrichtian zones CF1 to CF3 in Brazos River wells Mullinax-1 and Mullinax-3. Scale bar 50 lm. 13. Pseudoguembelina palpebra Bronnimann and Brown. Note the relatively large sized pores. (3) Specimen with broken last chamber and no supplementary apertures. Mullinax-1, sample 90, 43, 9.89 m. 4. Pseudoguembelina kempensis Esker. Mullinax-3, Sample 77, 62, 9.79 m, small-sized adult specimen. 5, 6. Pseudoguembelina hariaensis Nederbragt. (5) Intermediate form between P. hariaensis and P. palpebra as suggested by the large-sized pores. Mullinax-3, sample 34, 42, 6.55 m. 7, 8. Pseudotextularia elegans Rzehak. Mullinax-1, sample 325, 212, 34.285 m. Note that this morphology is frequently identied as P. deformis in earlier studies by Keller, Abramovich and others following Weiss (1983). However, this morphology was dened as P. elegans based on the holotype of Rzehak, 1891 (Nederbragt, 1990; Li and Keller, 1998a, 1998b). 9, 10. Racemiguembelina powelli Smith and Pessango. Mullinax-1, sample 91, 43, 9.95 m. 11, 12. Planoglobulina brazoensis (Martin). (11) Mullinax-1, sample 325, 212, 34.28 m. (12) Mullinax-1, sample 108, 52, 10.97 m. 1316, Planoglobulina carseyae (Plummer). (13) Intermediate form between P. carseyae and P. brazoensis. Mullinax-3, sample 53, 22, 7.9 m. (14) Mullinax-1, sample 107, 10.9 m. (15) Mullinax-1, sample 99, 51, 10.42 m. (16) Mullinax-1, sample 385, 262, 43.06 m.

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