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33-234 Quantum Physics

Spring 2010
Name: ___________________________________

Test 1 An equation sheet is on the last page. Put a box around the nal formula in all cases and, in addition, around the numerical answer where called for.

1. Suppose we have solved the time independent Schrodinger equation (for some specic potential energy function) and obtained two wavefunctions, 1 (x) and 2 (x), with energy eigenvalues, E1 and E2 , respectively. Assume that 1 and 2 are real functions. a. (5 points) What is the form of the full, time dependent wavefunction, 1 (x, t), associated with 1 (x)? Use a deBroglie relation to express 1 (x, t) in terms of a frequency, 1 .

b. (10 points) If a particle is in the state described by 2 (x), what is the probability of nding the particle within an interval, dx, of position x? What are the units associated with the probability function, P2 (x) and with 2 (x)?

c. (8 points) If one forms a new function, (x, t), dened as 1 (x, t) = [1 (x, t) + 2 (x, t)] , 2 under what condition is (x, t) a solution of the time independent Schrodinger equation? In the general case, is (x, t) a solution of the time dependent Schrodinger equation? Note that the factor of 1/ 2 is necessary to maintain normalization thus, (x, t) is a normalized wavefunction.

d. (12 points) Write an expression, in terms of 1 , 2 and the associated time dependent functions, for the probability function P (x, t) associated with (x, t). You should write out the expression in explicit form (not leaving it as |...|2 ) and simplify any terms you can. Will this probability be a function of time?

e. (5 points) Given the function (x, t), write an expression you could use to compute < E >, the expectation value for the energy. Would you expect a nite value or a non-zero value for E , the standard deviation of the energy?

2 2. A complex function, f (x, t), is written as f (x, t) = Aei(kxt) . (2)

a. (10 points) If A is the complex number represented in the following graph of the complex plane, write f (x, t) as a product of a single real number and a single complex exponential. Hint: rst write A in polar form. Im(z)

A Re(z)

1 1

b. (5 points) Evaluate |f (x, t)|2 for the value of A given in part (a).

is the displacement operator dened as L [g (x)] = g (x + x0 ), what c. (10 points) If L [f (x, t)], where f (x, t) is the function given above? Is f (x) an eigenfunction of this is L operator? If so, what is the eigenvalue. Show your work. You may use the form given by Equation 2.

3 3. To describe the wave-like propagation of a particle of mass, m, we want a wave-like function that moves through space with the speed of the particle. By adding together (that is, by doing an integral of) harmonic traveling waves, ei(kx(k)t] , with a range of k s specied by k , we calculated a trial wavefunction of the form (x, t) = A ei(k0 x0 t) sin . (3)

Here, = 1 being the group velocity. We assumed that k << k0 k (x vg t) with vg = d 2 dk k0 so that the dispersion relation, (k ) could be approximated as a straight line. a. (5 points) The term ei(k0 x0 t) is a complex traveling harmonic wave. At what speed does a point of constant phase move?

b. (5 points) Write down the real part of (x, t). Write this explicitly as a function of x and t (i.e., not in terms of ).

c. (5 points) What is the probability for nding the particle described by the wavefunction in Eq. 3 at location x at time t?

d. (5 points) At what value of does the maximum value of maximum value?


occur? What is the

4 e. (5 points) Taking account of the denition of , does the position, xm , of the maximum value of sin depend to time, t? If so, at what speed does it move? Write this speed in terms of the dispersion relation, (k ).

f. (5 points) If (k ) = 0 cos(ka), with 0 and a being constants, what is vg at k = k0 ?

g. (5 points) Is Eq. 3 a solution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for a free particle in a region of space with V (x) = 0? Is it a solution of the corresponding timeindependent Schrodinger equation? Justify your answer but you do not have to explicitly demonstrate your answer through substitution.

Test 1 Equations

c (free photons) 1 2 p2 K = mv = (non relativistic free masses) 2 2m (x, t) = dk A(k ) ei[kx(k)t] = x k = 4 (square packet) t = 4 (square packet) x p 2 t E 2 x = x p x = i = K x p 2 2m = i E t = = = = 1.054 1034 J s = 6.58 1016 eV s 6.626 1034 J s = 4.14 1015 eV s 1.602 1019 C 9.11 1031 kg mn = 1.67 1027 kg

h e me mp