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Q1.) Define the term agriculture Ans- the science or practice of cultivating soil and rearing animals is known as agriculture. Q2.) What is called Jhumming cultivation in Madhya Pradesh ? Ans- The jhumming cultivation in Madhya Pradesh is called Bewar or Dahiya Q3.) Name the states of India where intensive subsistence farming is practiced Ans- With increasing population, the pressure on land is continuously increasing. Therefore, in all the densely populated states of India intensive cultivation has become a norm eg. in Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Q4.)What is the main characteristic of commercial agriculture? Ans- The main characteristic of commercial farming is the use of higher doses of modern inputs like HYV seeds, commercial fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides in order to obtain higher productivity. Q5.) Rice an example of a crop which may be commercial in one region and may provide subsistence crop in another region. Ans-Rrice is a commercial crop in Haryana and Punjab, but in Orissa it is a subsistence crop Q6.) What is meant by leguminous plants? Ans- leguminous plants are those plants that help to restore the fertility of the soil as their small nodes absorb nitrogen from the air and fix it into the soil. All pulses are leguminous. Q7.) What is sericulture?

Ans the rearing of silk worms for the production of silk is called sericulture Q8.) What is horticulture? Ans- intensive cultivation of fruits, flowers and vegetables for the commercial purpose is known as horticulture Q9.) Name the short cropping season practiced in india. And name some crops grown in this period. Ans- Zaid is the season and watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder crops are grown in this season. Q10.) What is called as the golden fiber of India? What is its importance? Ans- Jute is called the golden fiber of India and it is used to make gunny bags, mats, ropes and yarns Q11.) Name the important millets grown in this area. Ans- Jowar, bajra and ragi are the important millets grown In India. Q12.) Why is there enormous pressure on agricultural land in intensive subsistence farming? Ans- The right of inheritance leading to the division of land among successive generations has rendered land holding size uneconomical. The famers continue to take maximum output from the limited land in the absence of alternative sources of livelihood. Thus there is enormous pressure on agricultural land. Q13.) Which is the most classic example of plantation crop grown in India? Name its 2 major producing states. Ans- tea is the most classic example of plantation crop grown in India. Its 2 major planting states are Assam and West Bengal. Q14.) Which variety of coffee is mainly grown in India? Ans- Arabica coffee is mainly grown in India. Q15.) What is the other name for white revolution? Ans- Operation flood is the other name for white revolution. Q16.) Name the 4 major fiber crops grown in India. And- Cotton, jute, hemp and natural silk are the 4 major fiber crops in India. The first 3 are derived from the crops grown in the soil, the latter is obtained from cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves specially mulberry Q17.) What is Indias rank among the worlds rubber production? Ans- India is ranked 5th among the worlds rubber production Q18.) What was the main focus of the first 5 year plan for agriculture? Ans- Land reforms was the main focus of the first 5 year plan for agriculture.

Q19.) What is the position of India among the worlds rice producer? Ans our country is the 3nd largest producer of rice in the world after china. Q20.) Name the cereal crop of India which is used both as a food and fodder Ans- Maize is the cereal crop of India which is used both as a food and fodder. Q21.) How is the agriculture important for Indian economy? Ans- India is an agriculturally important country. Employment 2/3 of the population is engaged in agricultural activities so it is the main source for livelihood. Food security agriculture is a primary activity, which produces most of the food that we consume. Raw material it also provides raw material for various industries eg. paper industry, textile industry. Export- some agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices etc are also exported and our country earns a good amount of income through it.

Q23.) Write differences b/w rabi and kharif season

RABI 1.)Rabi crops are sown in winter From October to December and Harvested in summer from April and June.

KHARIF 1.) Kharif crops are grown with the onset of monsoon in different Parts of the country and these Are harvested in September And October 2.)Important crops grown during this season are paddy, maize, jowar, bajra, tur, mong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut and soybean 3.) Important rice growing region are Assam, Coastal region of Orrisa, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kerela, Maharashtra, Utter Pradesh and Bihar

2.) Some of the important rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram and mustard

3.) States from the north and north western parts such as Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh and Uttranchal are important for the production of wheat and other rabi crops.












Requires high humidity, in areas of less rainfall grown with the help of irrigation

Assam ,West Bengal, coastal areas of Orissa ,Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu ,Kerala and Maharashtra, parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

India is the second largest producer of rice in the world after China

Wheat (Rabi Crop)

Cool growing season and a bright sunshine at the time of ripening

50 - 75 cm

Black and Loamy Soil

Two important wheat growing zones are the Ganga and Satluj plains in the north west and black soil regions of the Deccan. Major States Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Rajasthan and parts of Madhya Pradesh.

Second most important cereal crop. Main food crop in North and North Western part of India.

Maize (Kharif Crop)

21C - 27C

Old Alluvial Soil

Use of HYVs, fertilizers and irrigation have contributed to the increasing production

Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.

Crop used as both food and fodder. In Bihar, it is grown in Rabi season as well. Second largest producer after Brazil. Main source of sugar, gur, khandsari and molasses.


21C - 27C

75 - 100 cm and IRRIGATION needed in low rainfall areas

Variety of Soils

Tropical as well as Sub-Tropical Crop and also needs manual labour

Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.

Tea (Plantation Crop)

20C - 30C

150 - 300 cm and needs frequent showers evenly distributed for the tender growth of the leaves.

Deep and fertile well drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.

Labor Intensive and Warm & Moist frost free climate. It also needs abundant, cheap and skilled labour.

Assam, hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri district in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala are major producers. Others also include Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Tripura

India is the leading producer and exporter in the world

Coffee (Plantation Crop)

15C - 28C

150 - 200 cm

Initially introduced on Baba Budan Hills even today cultivation is confined to Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu

Produces 4 % of the worlds coffee. Arabica Good quality coffee, great demand in international market. Rubber is an important industrial raw material. Ranks fifth among the Worlds Natural Rubber producers. Main raw material for cotton textile industry. India is the third largest producer of cotton in the world.

Rubber (Plantation Crop) & (Equatorial Crop)

25C and Moist and humid climate

200 cm

Tropical and Sub Tropical Areas

Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Garo hills of Meghalaya

Cotton (Kharif Crop)

High temperature and bright sunshine for its growth are needed

Light rainfall or irrigation

Black Soil

210 frost free days and requires 6 - 8 months to mature

Maharasthra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh


High temperature during growth

Well drained fertile soils in the flood plains

West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Meghalaya

Known as the golden fibre Used for making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts. India is the largest producer as well as consumer of pulses in the world. These are the major source of protein in the vegetarian diet. Major pulses grown in India are Tur (Arhar), Urad, Moong, Masur, Peas and Gram. Leguminous crop (except ARHAR) Help in restoring fertility by fixing Nitrogen from the air. Therefore grown in rotation with other crops.

Pulses (Tur, Urad, Moong are Kharif Crops. Masur, Peas, Gram are Rabi Crops.)

Need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions

Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka


India is the largest producer of oilseeds in the world. Covers 12 Groundnut is a Kharif % of the total Crop and accounts for cropped area of about 50 % of major the country. oilseeds produced in Main oilseeds India. Andhra Pradesh produced in India is the leading producer are groundnut, followed by Tamil mustard, coconut, Nadu, Karnataka, sesamum, Gujarat, Maharasthra. soyabean, castor Linseed and Mustard seeds, cotton are Rabi Crops. seeds, linseed and Sesamum is a Kharif sunflower. Used Crop in north and Rabi as a medium of Crop in South. Castor cooking. Used as Seed is grown both as a raw material in Kharif and Rabi season the production of crop. soap, cosmetics and ointments. After extracting oil residue is used as cattle fodder.

Q24.) Distinguish between subsistence and commercial agriculture Ans= The differences are :SUBSISTENCE AGRICULTURE 1.) Subsistence agriculture is practiced on small patches of land with the help of primitive tools like doe, hoe and digging sticks. 2.) Farmers and his family produce cereals for themselves and for the local market. the export them to other countries. 3)It is labour intensive where most of the activities are done by family and community labour 4)It is practiced in thickly populated areas 5) Wheat, maize, millets etc are raised COMMERCIAL AGRICULTURE 1.) commercial agriculture is done on large scale with the use of huge doses of modern inputs eg- HYV Seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.

2.) crops are grown with a view to 3 Export them to other counteries 3) It is capital intensive where much of the work is done by machines 4) It is practiced in sparsely populated Areas. 5) Cotton, jute,coffee etc are raised

3) It is labour intensive where most of

Q25.) Write important features of plantation agriculture? Ans= Important features of plantation agriculture : Plantation is a type of commercial farming. In this type of farming, a single crop is grown on a large area The plantation has an interface of agriculture and industry plantation cover large tracts of land, using capital intensive inputs, with the help of migrant laborers. All the produce is used as raw material in respective industries. Since the production is mainly for markets, a well developed network of transport and communication connecting the plantation areas, processing industries and markets play an important role in the development of plantations. In India tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane and banana etc. are important plantation crops.

Q 26.) Explain the technological and institutional reforms introduced by the government to improve the agricultural production in India.. Ans = In the 1980s and 1990s a comprehensive land development programme was initiated, which included both institutional and technical reforms Technological reforms : Highyielding and early maturing seeds are developed. They are now being increasingly used to raise productivity. Chemical fertilizers are being used on a large scale to increases farm yields and productivity. They are now being supplemented by bio fertilizers which greatly add to the fertility of the soil. Irrigation methods- the flooding of water is now being replaced by drip- irrigation and the use of sprinklers. The water pump replaced the Persian wheel, the plough by tiller and harrow drawn by the tractor, the bullock cart by truck Institutional reforms : LAND REFORMS it was the main focus of our first five year plan. The right of inheritance had already lead to fragmentation of land holidays necessitating consolidation of land holdings.



Consolidation of land holiding - the government took the step of promoting consolidation of small and scattered holdings through chakbandi. The larger plots have become economically more productive. They save farmers time, money and energy. Abolition of zamindari zamindari system was abolished. Farmers became land owners. Earlier cultivated land was owned by the zamindars who themselves did not cultivate the land, instead they exploited the actual cultivators. On becoming the owners of the land, the peasants took cultivation seriously. Agriculture production started increasing. Provision for crop insurance provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire, and disease was another step to provide protection to the farmers against losses caused by these calamities. Loan facilities grameen banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest were some important steps in this direction. Special bulletins and agricultural programme special weather bulletins and agricultural programme for farmers were introduced on the radio and TV. Minimum support price the government also announces minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to check the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middle men.

OTHER SCHEMES kisan credit card, personal accident insurance scheme are some other schemes introduced by the government of India for the benefit of farmers. Q 27.) What are the concerted efforts made by the government of India to modernize agriculture? Ans- Considering the importance of agriculture in India, the government of India made concerted efforts to modernize agriculture: Establishment of Indian council of agricultural research and agricultural universities. Providing veterinary services and animal breeding centers Horticulture development. Research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast were given priority for improving Indian agriculture Apart from this, improving the rural infrastructure was considered essential for the same.

Q28.) Why are farmers in India withdrawing their investment from agriculture? Ans- Farmers are withdrawing their investment from agriculture for the following reasons: Today, Indian farmers are facing a big challenge from international competition Our government is going ahead with reduction in the public investment in agriculture sector particularly in irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanization. Subsidy on fertilizer is decreased leading to increase in the cost of production. Moreover, reduction in import duties on agriculture products have proved detrimental to agriculture in the country.

Q29.) Write short note on horticulture. Ans- India is the largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world. India is a producer of tropical as well as temperate fruits. India is well known for: Mangoes of Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. Oranges of kerela,Mizoram, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Lichi and guava of Utter Pradesh and Bihar. Pineapples of Meghalaya. Grapes of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra Apples, pears, apricots and walnuts of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. There is a great demand of these the world over. India produces about 13% of the worlds vegetable. It is an important producer of pea, cauliflower, onion, cabbage, tomato, brinjal and potato.