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www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 1 (a) Define gravitational potential. www.studyguide.

pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ..................................................................................................................................... [2] (b) Explain why values of gravitational potential near to an isolated mass are all negative. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ..................................................................................................................................... [3] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk (c) The Earth may be assumed to be an isolated sphere of radius 6.4 www.studyguide. 10 km with its mass of 6.0 10 kg concentrated at its centre. An object is projected vertically from the surface of the Earth so www.studyguide.pk that it reaches an altitude of 1.3 10 km. www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk Calculate, for this object, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (i) the change in gravitational potential, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. change in potential = . J kg www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (ii) the speed of projection from the Earths surface, assuming air resistance is www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. negligible. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. speed = . m s www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [5] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
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For Examiners Use

24

Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (d) Suggest why the equation v = u + 2as www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. is not appropriate for the calculation in (c)(ii). www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ..................................................................................................................................... [1] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
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Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 1 The Earth may be considered to be a uniform sphere with its mass M concentrated at its centre. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. A satellite of mass m orbits the Earth such that the radius of the circular orbit is r. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (a) Show that the linear speed v of the satellite is given by the expression GM www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. v = . r www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (b) For this satellite, write down expressions, in terms of G, M, m and r, for www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (i) its kinetic energy, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. kinetic energy = . [1] (ii) its gravitational potential energy, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. potential energy = . [1] www.studyguide.pk (iii) its total energy. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. total energy = . [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

3 Examiners
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Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (c) The total energy of the www.studyguide.pk satellite gradually decreases. of this decrease on State and explain the effect www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (i) the radius r of the orbit, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .............................................................................................................................. [2] (ii) the linear speed v of the satellite. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .............................................................................................................................. [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

4 Examiners
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Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 1 (a) Explain what is meant by a gravitational field. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [1] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (b) A spherical planet has mass M and radius R. The planet may be considered to have all www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. its mass concentrated at its centre. A rocket is launched from the surface of the planet such that the rocket moves radially away from the planet. The rocket engines are stopped when the rocket is at a height R www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. above the surface of the planet, as shown in Fig. 1.1. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 2R R www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. planet www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk R www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. Fig. 1.1 www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. The mass of the rocket, after its engines have been stopped, is m. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk (i) Show that, for the rocket to travel from a height R to a height 2www.studyguide. R above the planets surface, the change E in the magnitude of the gravitational potential energy of the rocket is given www.studyguide.pk by the expression www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. GMm E = . 6R www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

5 Examiners
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Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (ii) During the ascent from a height R to a height 2R, the speed of the rocket changes from 7600 m s to 7320 m s . Show that, in SI units, the change E in the kinetic www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. energy of the rocket is given by the expression E = (2.09 10 )m. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [1] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (c) The planet has a radius of 3.40 10 m. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (i) Use the expressions in (b) to determine a value for the mass M of the planet. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. M = kg [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (ii) State one assumption made in the determination in (i). www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .................................................................................................................................. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ............................................................................................................................. [1] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

6 Examiners
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Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 1 The Earth may be considered to be a sphere of radius 6.4 10 m with its mass of www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 6.0 10 kg concentrated at its centre. A satellite of mass 650 kg is to be launched from the Equator and put into geostationary orbit. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (a) Show that the radius of the geostationary orbit is 4.2 10 m. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [3] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. during its launch (b) Determine the increasewww.studyguide.pk in gravitational potential energy of the satellite from the Earths surface to the geostationary orbit. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. energy = ... J [4] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (c) Suggest one advantage of launching satellites from the Equator in the direction of rotation of the Earth. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ......................................................................................................................................[1] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

7 Examiners
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24

Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 1 The definitions of electric potential and of gravitational potential at a point have some similarity. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (a) State one similarity between these two definitions. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ..................................................................................................................................... [1] (b) Explain why values of www.studyguide.pk gravitational potential are always negative whereas values of www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. electric potential may be positive or negative. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .................................................................................................................................... [4] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. is to be used to measure the temperature of some oil. 2 A mercury-in-glass thermometer www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. The oil has mass 32.0 g and specific heat capacity 1.40 J g K . The actual temperature of www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. the oil is 54.0 C. has mass 12.0 g and an average specific heat capacity of The bulb of the thermometer www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 0.180 J g K . Before immersing the bulb in the oil, the thermometer reads 19.0 C. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk The thermometer bulb is placed in the oil and the steady reading onwww.studyguide. the thermometer is taken. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (a) Determine (i) the steady temperature recorded on the thermometer, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. temperature = C [3] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

8 Examiners
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Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (ii) the ratio change in temperature of oil . www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. initial temperature of oil www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ratio = [1] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (b) Suggest, with an explanation, a type of thermometer that would be likely to give a www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. calculated in (a)(ii). smaller value for the ratio .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ..................................................................................................................................... [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (c) The mercury-in-glass thermometer is used to measure the boiling point of a liquid. Suggest why the measured value of the boiling point will not be affected by the thermal www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. energy absorbed by the thermometer bulb. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .......................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ..................................................................................................................................... [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

9 Examiners
Use

Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. stars that orbit about a fixed point C, as shown in Fig. 3.1. 3 A binary star consists of two www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. R www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. C M M www.studyguide.pkRwww.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. Fig. 3.1 The star of mass M has a circular orbit of radius R and the star of mass M has a circular www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. orbit of radius R . Both stars have the same angular speed , about C. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (a) State the formula, in terms of G, M , M , R , R and for (i) the gravitational force between the two stars, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ................................................................................................................................... www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (ii) the centripetal force on the star of mass M . www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ................................................................................................................................... [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (b) The stars orbit each other in a time of 1.26 10 s (4.0 years). Calculate the angular speed for each star. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. angular speed = ................................... rad s [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

10 Examiners
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Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (c) (i) Show that the ratio of the masses of the stars is given by the expression M R = . www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. M R www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. M (ii) The ratio is equal to 3.0 and the separation of the stars is 3.2 10 m. M www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. Calculate the radii R and R . www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. R = ........................................ m www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. m R = ........................................ [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (d) (i) By equating the expressions you have given in (a) and using the data calculated in (b) and (c), determine the mass of one of the stars. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. mass of star = ......................................... kg www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (ii) State whether the answer in (i) is for the more massive or for the less massive star. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. ................................................................................................................................... [4] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

11 Examiners
Use

1 2

2 1

1 2

11

1 2

Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 4 If an object is projected vertically upwards from the surface of a planet at a fast enough speed, it can escape the planets gravitational field. This means that the object can arrive at for this to happen is infinity where it has zero kinetic energy. The speed that is just enough www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk known as the escape speed. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. to its total gain (a) (i) By equating the kinetic energy of the object at the planets surface of potential energy in going to infinity, show that the escape speed v is given by www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 2GM v = , R www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. where R is the radius of the planet and M is its mass. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk (ii) Hence show that www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. v = 2Rg, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. where g is the acceleration of free fall at the planets surface. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [3] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
12 Examiners
Use For

Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk (b) The mean kinetic energy E of an atom of an ideal gas is given by www.studyguide. E = kT, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. where k is the Boltzmann constant and T is the thermodynamic temperature. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. Using the equation in (a)(ii), estimate the temperature at the Earths surface such that helium atoms of mass 6.6 10 kg could escape to infinity. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. You may assume that helium gas behaves as an ideal gas and that the radius of Earth is www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 6.4 10 m. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. temperature = ........................................ K [4] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 5 Some capacitors are marked 48 F, safe working voltage 25 V. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. Show how a number of these capacitors may be connected to provide a capacitor of capacitance www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (a) 48 F, safe working voltage 50 V, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (b) 72 F, safe working voltage 25 V. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [2] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
13 Examiners
Use For

3 2

27

Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya

www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. 4 A rocket is launched from the surface of the Earth. of the rocket at two heights above the Earths surface, after Fig. 4.1 gives data for the speed www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. the rocket engine has been switched off. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. speed / m s height / m www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. h = 19.9 10 v = 5370 www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. h = 22.7 10 v = 5090 www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. Fig. 4.1 The Earth may be assumedwww.studyguide.pk 10 m, with its mass to be a uniform sphere of radius R = 6.38 www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk M concentrated at its centre. The rocket, after the engine has been switched off, has mass m. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (a) Write down an expression in terms of www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (i) G, M, m, h , h and R for the change in gravitational potential energy of the rocket, www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. [1] .............................................................................................................................. (ii) m, v and v for thewww.studyguide.pk change in kinetic energy of the rocket. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. .............................................................................................................................. [1] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. (b) Using the expressions in (a), determine a value for the mass M of the Earth. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. M = kg [3] www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide. www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.pk www.studyguide.
For

14 Examiners
Use

6 6

1 2

1 2

Compiled and rearranged by Sajit Chandra Shakya