Weyh
31
Natural Vibrations
Linear Mechanical Systems
DuE
Linear Mechanical Systems
homogeneous ordinary dierential motion equations
M y + (D+ G
. .
P
) y + (K+ N
. .
Q
) y = 0
coordinate vector
y = [y
1
, y
2
, . . . , y
f
]
T
symmetric matrixes: mass, damping, stinessmatrix
M = {m
ij
} = {m
ji
}
D = {d
ij
} = {d
ji
} i, j = 1(1)f
K = {k
ij
} = {k
ji
}
antisymmetric matrixes: gyroskopic, non potential forces/moments
G = {g
ij
} = {g
ji
} mit: g
ii
= 0
N = {n
ij
} = {n
ji
} mit: n
ii
= 0 i, j = 1(1)f
(classical) solution approach
y(t) = v e
t
leads to homogeneous algebraic equationsystem eigenvalue problem
_
M
2
+ (D+ G) + (K+ N)
v = 0
for non trivial solutions v
det
_
M
2
+ (D+ G) + (K+ N)
= 0
characteristic polynomial (n = 2f)
a
0
+ a
1
+ a
2
2
+ . . . + a
n1
n1
+ a
n
n
= 0
eigenvalues
i
, i = 1(1)n, real or conjugate complex
SaM
Weyh
32
Natural Vibrations
Linear Mechanical Systems
DuE
Sorting, Normalizing
positive imaginary parts of eigenvalues = eigenfrequencies
i
Im{
i
} =
i
0 , i = 1(1)f
sorting (engineering agreement)
1
<
2
< . . . <
f
1
2
. . .
f
f+1
. . .
2f
real or conj.complex
to each eigenvalue
i
, i 1(1)n exists one eigenvector
v
(i)
=
_
v
(i)
1
, v
(i)
2
, . . . , v
(i)
f
_
T
real or conj.complex
solution of eigenvalue problem
_
M
2
+ (D+ G) + (K+ N)
v = 0
(linear, homogeneous, algebraic system of equations)
eigenvectors are unique up to an arbitrary factor
special normalizations
v
(i)
norm
=
1
i
v
(i)
maximal absolut value:
i
= v
(i)
j

max
, j = 1(1)f
Morthonormal:
2
i
= v
(i)T
M v
(i)
SaM
Weyh
33
Natural Vibrations
Linear Mechanical Systems
DuE
complete homogeneous structure of solution
superposition of the eigensolutions
y
(i)
(t) = v
(i)
e
i
t
, i = 1(1)2f
y(t) =
n
i=1
c
i
v
(i)
e
i
t
initial conditions at time t
0
= 0
y(0) =
n
i=1
c
i
v
(i)
!
= y
0
y(0) =
n
i=1
c
i
i
v
(i)
!
= y
0
n = 2f algebraic equations for n unknown coecients c
i
matrixform
_
v
(1)
v
(2)
. . . v
(n)
1
v
(1)
2
v
(2)
. . .
n
v
(n)
_
_
_
c
1
c
2
.
.
.
c
n
_
_
=
_
y
0
y
0
_
special cases: isolated eigensolution
y(t) = y
(j)
(t) , j 1(1)n
monofrequent vibration in
j
necessary initial conditions
y(0) = v
(j)
y(0) = 0
conservative systems
only real oder conj.imaginary eigenvalues, vectors
SaM
Weyh
34
Natural Vibrations
Generalized Linear Systems
DuE
Transition to state space form
(matrixvector) dierential equation
M y + (D+ G) y + (K+ N) y = h(t)
introduction of state space coordinates
x
1
= y , x
2
= y
leads to
x
1
= x
2
M x
2
= (D+ G) x
2
(K+ N) x
1
+ h(t)
rearranged
_
E 0
0 M
_
. .
B
_
x
1
x
2
_
=
_
0 E
[K+ N] [D+ G]
_
. .
A
_
x
1
x
2
_
+
_
0
h
_
general state space form
B x = Ax + b(t) general systems
state space vector
x = [x
T
1
, x
T
2
]
T
= [y
T
, y
T
]
T
hom
[y
T
, y
T
]
T
peculiarities:
symmetry
B symmetrical, A can be changed to symmetrical if N, G 0
special/ordinary state space form
x = Ax + b(t)
SaM
Weyh
35
Natural Vibrations
Generalized Linear Systems
DuE
Calculation Methods
solution approach x = ve
t
eigenvalue problem (E A)v = 0
charact. eqnation det(E A) = 0
charact. polynom
0
+
1
+
2
+ . . . +
n1
n1
+
n
= 0
numeric: setting system parameters
construction of state space matrix A
call eigenvalue function
i
, v
(i)
(i.g. non sortetd)
sorting, normalizing, setting initial conditions, . . .
software: NAG, IMSL, SSL II, Aachener Bibliothek,
Numerical Recipes, . . . ,
MATLAB, . . .
Macsyma, Reduce, Derive, Maple, Mathcad,
Mathematica, . . .
RASP, . . .
analytical: only up to 3rd order/grade
overall view about parameter inuences
statements for higher order systems desired
limit conditions
SaM
Weyh
36
Natural Vibrations
Generalized Linear Systems
DuE
Solution approach x = ve
t
leads to eigenvalue problem (EVP):
Av = Bv general EVP
Av = Ev special/ordinary EVP
homogeneous algebraic equations
eigenvalue
v (right) eigenvector
non trivial solutions v = 0 for special values only
Matlabfunctions
eig: all eigenvalues und vectors,
A normal storage mode full
eigs: all or some only,
A normal or sparse storage mode sparse
A
f
=
_
_
0 0 0 5
0 2 0 0
1 3 0 0
0 0 4 0
_
_
or A
s
=
(3, 1) 1
(2, 2) 2
(3, 2) 3
(4, 3) 4
(1, 4) 5
storage mode conversion: A
f
= full(A
s
), A
s
= sparse(A
f
)
requirement: B
T
= B, positiv denit.
result: D = diag[
1
,
2
, . . .]
V = [v
1
, v
2
, . . .] modalmatrix
normalization: AV = BVD or AV = VD
eigenvector norm v
(i)
 = 1
if V regular (eigenvectors linear independent), than
V
1
AV = D similarity/orthogonal transformation
D diagonal
SaM
Weyh
37
Natural Vibrations
Generalized Linear Systems
DuE
Typical functioncalls for eig and eigs
d=eig(A) eigenvalues of A stored in d
[V,D]=eig(A) eigenvectors and eigen values of A
stored in V and D (diagonalmatrix)
special EVP
[V,D]=eig(A,B) general EVP
d=eigs(A) k = 6 biggest eigenvalues of A stored in d
d=eigs(A,B,k,... most general form; with B pos.def.
sigma,options) k Eigenwerte
sigma, (sm/gt) smallest/greatest eigenvalue
options exactness,. . .
[V,D]=eigs(A,...) eigenvectors and eigenvalues
stored in V and D (diagonalmatrix)
[V,D,flag]=eigs(A,...) flag=0 EVP converges
A can be replaced by .mfile
e.g. (Afun,n), size n
SaM
Weyh
38
E31: Tank Truck Model
Linear Mechanical Systems
DuE
Exercise 3.1:
The linearized motion equations
M q + P q + Qq = h , with q = q
of the tank truck model respecting the equilibrium position
q
0
= [(M + m)/2/c, 0, 0]
T
have been calculated in exercises E23 and E24
massmatrix
M =
_
_
M + m 0 0
0 Mh
2
+ J
S
+ mH
2
mH
0 mH m
2
+ J
N
_
_
velocityproportional matrix P = 0
displacementproportional matrix
Q =
_
_
2c 0 0
0 (Mgh + mgH) + 2cL
2
0
0 0 mg
_
_
a) Determine the eigenvalues of the linearized motion equation:
1) symbolical;
2) numerical for the below given parameterset.
b) Calculate the eigenvectors and sketch the natural modes.
Parameter: c = 6.3 10
6
N/m tire cover stiness
L = 0.8 m half axlelength
M = 8880.0 kg semitrailer mass (with empty tank)
J
S
= 12.688 10
3
kgm
2
semitrailer... mass moment
h = 0.82 m semitrailer... center point distance
m = 27.1 10
3
kg payload mass
J
N
= 200.0 kgm
2
payload mass moment
= 0.265 m payload pendulum length
H = 1.13 m payload pendulum fastenpoint distance
g = 9.81 m/s
2
gravitation constant