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Pollution Prevention and Abatement Handbook

WORLD BANK GROUP


Effective July 1998

Analytical Support for Cost-Effective


Pollution Control
Analytical tools have been developed by the World Bank Group to estimate rapidly the extent
and impacts of pollution in a given situation and to support decisions on pollution manage-
ment. These tools help decisionmakers overcome the frequent lack of data concerning emissions
from different sources, their impact on ambient quality, and mitigation alternatives.

Decision Support System for Integrated cording to the United Nations International
Pollution Control (DSS) Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC) at the
four-digit level
What Is the DSS? • Principal control options available for each
process, including “good housekeeping” and
The Decision Support System for Integrated Pol- waste prevention programs
lution Control (DSS), developed by the World • Emissions factors associated with these pro-
Bank in collaboration with the World Health Or- cesses and “process-control option” combi-
ganization (WHO) and the Pan American Health nations
Organization (PAHO), allows a rapid assessment • Normalized costs and parameters for control
of the pollution situation in a specific geographic technologies
location, such as a metropolitan area or water • Health guidelines for air and water pollutants,
basin. The DSS is designed to assist in the analy- where applicable.
sis of alternative pollution control strategies and
policy options. It is a personal computer software Editing and calibration features of the soft-
program and database that has been developed ware allow adjustment of the default data to
from the approach and parameters provided in local conditions when actual information is
the 1989 WHO working document on manage- available.
ment and control of the environment. The DDS Computation modules enable the user to
generates estimated pollution loads in a study estimate:
area by applying emissions factors to data on
• Air, water, and solid waste emissions, based
economic activities. This load data can then be
on an inventory of economic activities for a
further processed to estimate areawide concen-
given location
trations or to examine the impacts and costs of
• Ambient concentrations of air and water pol-
selected pollution control measures. Full details
lutants, obtained by using simple (screening)
of the system, the basic assumptions, and the base
dispersion models with minimum meteoro-
parameters are given in the manual that accom-
logical and hydrological data
panies the software.
• Total costs of control options, derived by
The following databases are included, com-
using standardized engineering-type cost
piled by medium of discharge:
functions
• Pollution-intensive technological processes • Long-run marginal cost schedules for achiev-
across all sectors of economic activity, includ- ing a certain level of emissions reduction (or
ing mining, manufacturing industries, energy, decline in ambient concentration) for a cho-
transport, and municipal sectors, grouped ac- sen pollutant.

78
Analytical Support for Cost-Effective Pollution Control 79

What Are the Uses of the DSS? industries and in the municipal sector. The sys-
tem supports integrated approaches to airshed
The DSS can be used by Bank staff, environmen- management and wastewater treatment by cap-
tal agencies, pollution engineers, economists, and turing and evaluating the effect of all kinds of
policy analysts for the following tasks: sources on pollution load and ambient quality.
The computer-driven analysis of pollution
• Obtaining information on typical emissions
sources and abatement options highlights varia-
factors and control costs (at a generalized level)
tions in marginal costs of abatement across in-
• Managing data on economic and industrial
dustries and other sources. It defines the control
activity and related pollution loads
levels and associated investments that should be
• Estimating impacts and analyzing options
adopted for different industries to achieve a de-
• Conducting training in pollution economics
sired pollution abatement target (in terms of ei-
and management.
ther emissions reduction or concentration decline
Each task is discussed in detail below. of a particular pollutant) at least cost for the area
Information. The DSS database can provide in- as a whole. Specifically, the system estimates the
formation on pollutants, emissions factors, tech- amount of pollution that can be reduced with-
nological processes, control options, and unit out costly investments, just by improving man-
costs that can be independently applied in other agement, operation, and maintenance. The
models or studies or can serve as a point of refer- software can also be used to support the selec-
ence. However, the range and variability of the tion of alternative locations for new industries
parameters included is frequently large, and the or industrial zones, as well as for urban devel-
database should be validated or adjusted for lo- opment and expanding municipal services. It can
cal conditions wherever possible. estimate the possible effects of different policies
Data management. The DSS helps to estimate on the pollution situation and the associated costs
pollution conditions in the absence of moni- of compliance with environmental regulations in
tored data on emissions and ambient concen- each proposed location.
trations and permits identification of the major As a first step in analyzing pollution control
pollution sources. It can also help to highlight policies, such as policies setting environmental
gaps in the existing system of data collection standards or applying economic instruments, the
by providing a framework for organizing the DDS can be used to:
information-gathering process systematically
• Estimate the costs of attaining proposed emis-
and presenting the information in a convenient
sions standards or ambient standards in an
format as a table, chart, or map. The system
area
requires a detailed inventory of industries in a
• Estimate the impact on ambient quality of pro-
given area, including data on key inputs and
posed emissions standards or technological
outputs in physical units and the types of ex-
standards
isting pollution controls. This type of data is
• Allocate emissions limits across pollution
often more readily available than actual pol-
sources in an area in a cost-effective way
lutant emissions or concentrations.
• Estimate the incentive level of an emissions
When such an inventory is not possible within
charge rate needed to achieve a certain envi-
the limited time and resources available, the In-
ronmental target in the area or watershed (us-
dustrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS),
ing long-run marginal cost schedules)
which has less demanding data requirements, can
be used to estimate pollution loads from manu- Educational tool. The DSS helps to make key
facturing industries for a number of air and wa- issues and causal links in pollution management
ter pollutants. The IPPS is described in greater transparent. It can demonstrate the comparative
detail below. effect on pollution load and ambient quality of a
Analytical tool. The DSS is designed to help number of factors that can be affected by sectoral
develop a cost-effective pollution control strat- and environmental policies. It can promote pub-
egy across various pollution sources for a given lic participation and consensus building by in-
area and identify priority investments in specific forming various stakeholders about the key
80 IMPLEMENTING POLICIES: SETTING PRIORITIES

pollution problems, major pollution sources, and no reliable information about their own emis-
principal mitigation measures in the area. sions, but many of them have relatively detailed
In applying the DSS, it is important to remem- industry survey information on employment,
ber that the system is a rapid and rough assess- value added, or output. IPPS converts any of
ment tool that can only indicate where problems these measures of manufacturing activity into
are likely to occur, the relative significance of estimates of the associated pollution output.
different pollution sources, and the order of The IPPS initially combined extensive U.S.
magnitude of the costs and effects associated databases on manufacturing activity (Census
with alternative pollution control strategies. Its Bureau data) and industrial emissions (USEPA
main advantage is in helping to create a com- data) to produce sectoral measures of “pollution
prehensive picture of the pollution problems intensity”—the level of emissions per unit of
in an area and to focus further analysis on spe- manufacturing activity. Pollution intensities have
cific priorities. been developed for seven criteria air pollutants,
two key water-pollution indicators, and several
Implementing the DSS System total indices of toxic pollution. The high level of
sectoral detail in the U.S. databases and the
The DSS software runs under Windows and can great diversity of U.S. industry make it pos-
be closely linked to Microsoft Excel. The data- sible to match IPPS data with the industrial
base is established using Access software but can profile of virtually any country, but the data
be manipulated directly through the DSS system. are being refined on the basis of information
The minimum data for starting the system are from other countries.
industrial output or input for major industries The IPPS exploits the fact that levels of indus-
(at the four-digit ISIC level), together with basic trial pollution are closely related to the scale and
information on municipal services and traffic. sectoral composition of industrial activity and to
From this minimum information, the system can the level of control. The system is easy to use, in
estimate emissions loads, using the default coeffi- conjunction with macroeconomic or sectoral pro-
cients. The estimates can be improved with further jections at various spatial levels, to trace the po-
knowledge on the levels of industrial pollution con- tential environmental implications of industrial
trol and local emissions factors, which can be used growth and for rough screening of current indus-
to refine the default values. The system also in- trial emissions when more specific information
cludes simple air and water dispersion models that is not available.
can offer estimates of pollutant concentrations if The outcomes of the IPPC should be used pri-
basic geographic data are provided. marily for estimating a relative change in emis-
In addition, the system can generate total and sions according to different scenarios of industrial
marginal costs for the reduction of pollution activity rather than for drawing conclusions
loads. These costs are also based on default val- about absolute levels of industrial emissions.
ues; the results can be refined by introducing lo-
cally specific economic data. Compatibility of the DDS and the IPPS
The system database covers 150 industry pro-
cesses and other polluting activities and 30 air The DDS and the IPPS are broadly compatible
and water pollutants, as well as solid wastes. An because they operate at different levels of aggre-
expanded database covering about 1,500 activi- gated data. The IPPS can be used to quickly as-
ties and over 300 pollutants is also available. sess the relative magnitude of emissions from
different industries in cases where the applica-
Industrial Pollution Projection System tion of DSS is constrained by lack of data on in-
puts and outputs in physical units. However,
The Industrial Pollution Projection System (IPPS) since the IPPS is limited to manufacturing indus-
is a modeling system that uses manufacturing in- tries, it has to be supplemented with other as-
dustry or trade data to generate profiles of in- sessment tools when analyzing the pollution
dustrial pollution for countries, regions, or urban situation in urban areas. Where local industrial,
areas. Most developing countries have little or municipal, and transport data are available or can
Analytical Support for Cost-Effective Pollution Control 81

be collected, the DSS provides a greater capabil- IPPS


ity for estimating loads and concentrations and Environment, Infrastructure, and Agriculture
analyzing control strategies. Division
Policy Research Department
Additional Resources World Bank
Washington, D.C.
DSS
Urban, Industry, and Energy Team or check the environmental section on the World
Environment Department Bank Group’s Website (www.worldbank.org).
World Bank
Washington, D.C.