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Karady, G.G.

Energy Distribution
The Electrical Engineering Handbook
Ed. Richard C. Dorf
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000
2000 by CRC Press LLC
65
nergy IIsfrIlufIon
65.1 Intioduction
65.2 Piimaiy Distiibution System
65.3 Secondaiy Distiibution System
65.4 Radial Distiibution System
65.5 Secondaiy Netwoiks
65.6 Load Chaiacteiistics
65.7 Voltage Regulation
65.8 Capacitois and Voltage Regulatois
65.1 Intruductiun
Distiibution is the last section of the electiical powei system. Figuie 65.1 shows the majoi components of the
electiic powei system. The powei plants conveit the eneigy stoied in the fuel (coal, oil, gas, nucleai) oi hydio
into electiic eneigy. The eneigy is supplied thiough step-up tiansfoimeis to the electiic netwoik. To ieduce
eneigy tianspoitation losses, step-up tiansfoimeis inciease the voltage and ieduce the cuiient. The high-voltage
netwoik, consisting of tiansmission lines, connects the powei plants and high-voltage substations in paiallel.
The typical voltage of the high-voltage tiansmission netwoik is between 240 and 765 kV. The high-voltage
substations aie located neai the load centeis, foi example, outside a laige town. This netwoik peimits load
shaiing among powei plants and assuies a high level of ieliability. The failuie of a line oi powei plant will not
inteiiupt the eneigy supply.
The subtiansmission system connects the high-voltage substations to the distiibution substations. These
stations aie diiectly in the load centeis. Foi example, in uiban aieas, the distance between the distiibution
stations is aiound 5 to 10 miles. The typical voltage of the subtiansmission system is between 138 and 69 kV.
In high load density aieas, the subtiansmission system uses a netwoik confguiation that is similai to the high-
voltage netwoik. In medium and low load density aieas, the loop oi iadial connection is used. Figuie 65.1
shows a typical iadial connection.
The distiibution system has two paits, piimaiy and secondaiy. The piimaiy distiibution system consists of
oveihead lines oi undeigiound cables, which aie called feeders. The feedeis iun along the stieets and supply
the distiibution tiansfoimeis that step the voltage down to the secondaiy level (120-480 V). The secondaiy
distiibution system contains oveihead lines oi undeigiound cables supplying the consumeis diiectly (houses,
light industiy, shops, etc.) by single- oi thiee-phase powei. Sepaiate, dedicated piimaiy feedeis supply industiial
customeis iequiiing seveial megawatts of powei. The subtiansmission system diiectly supplies laige factoiies
consuming ovei 50 MW.
65.2 Primary Distributiun System
The most fiequently used voltages and wiiing in the piimaiy distiibution system aie listed in Table 65.1.
Piimaiy distiibution, in low load density aieas, is a iadial system. This is economical but yields low ieliability.
In laige cities, wheie the load density is veiy high, a piimaiy cable netwoik is used. The distiibution substations
Ceorge C. Karady
Arzono Srore Inverry
2000 by CRC Press LLC
aie inteiconnected by the feedeis (lines oi cables). Ciicuit bieakeis (CBs) aie installed at both ends of the feedei
foi shoit-ciicuit piotection. The loads aie connected diiectly to the feedeis thiough fuses. The connection is
similai to the one-line diagiam of the high-voltage netwoik shown in Fig. 65.1. The high cost of the netwoik
limits its application. A moie economical and faiily ieliable aiiangement is the loop connection, when the
main feedei is supplied fiom two independent distiibution substations. These stations shaie the load. The
pioblem with this connection is the ciiculating cuiient that occuis when the two supply station voltages aie
diffeient. The loop aiiangement signifcantly impioves system ieliability.
FIGURE 65.1 Electiic eneigy system.
TABLE 65.1 Typical Piimaiy Feedei Voltages (line-to-line)
Class, kV Voltage, kV Wiiing
2.5 2.4 3-wiie delta
5 4.16 4-wiie Y
8.66 7.2 4-wiie Y
15 12.47 3-wiie delta/4-wiie Y
25 22.9 4-wiie Y
35 34.5 4-wiie Y
2000 by CRC Press LLC
The ciiculating cuiient can be avoided by using the open-loop connection. This is a populai, fiequently used
ciicuit. Figuie 65.2 shows a typical open-loop piimaiy feedei. The distiibution substation has foui outgoing
main feedeis. Each feedei supplies a diffeient load aiea and is piotected by a ieclosing CB.
The thiee-phase foui-wiie main feedeis supply single-phase lateial feedeis. A recloser and a sectionalizing
switch divide the main feedei into two paits. The noimally open tie-switch connects the feedei to the adjacent
distiibution substation. The fault between the CB and ieclosei opens the ieclosing CB. The CB iecloses aftei
a few cycles. If the fault is not cleaied, the opening and ieclosing piocess is iepeated two times. If the fault has
not been cleaied befoie the thiid ieclosing, the CB iemains open. Then the sectionalizing switch opens and
the tie-switch closes. This eneigizes the feedei between the ieclosei and the tie-switch fiom the neighboiing
feedei. Similaily, the fault between the ieclosei and tie-switch activates the ieclosei. The ieclosei opens and
iecloses thiee times. If the fault is not cleaied, the ieclosei iemains open and sepaiates the faulty pait of the
FIGURE 65.2 Radial piimaiy distiibution system.
2000 by CRC Press LLC
feedei. This method is paiticulaily effective in oveihead lines wheie tempoiaiy faults aie often caused by
lightning, wind, and metal balloons.
A thiee-phase switched capacitor bank is iated two-thiids of the total aveiage ieactive load and installed
two-thiids of the distance out on the feedei fiom the souice. The capacitoi bank impioves the powei factoi
and ieduces voltage diop at heavy loads. Howevei, at light loads, the capacitoi is switched off to avoid
oveivoltages.
Some utilities use voltage iegulatois at the piimaiy feedeis. The voltage iegulatoi is an autotiansfoimei. The
secondaiy coil of the tiansfoimei has 32 taps, and a switch connects the selected tap to the line to iegulate the
voltage. The pioblem with the tap changer is that the lifetime of the switch is limited. This peimits only a few
opeiations pei day.
The lateial single-phase feedeis aie supplied fiom diffeient phases to assuie equal phase loading. Fuse cutouts
piotect the lateial feedeis. These fuses aie cooidinated with the fuses piotecting the distiibution tiansfoimeis.
The fault in the distiibution tiansfoimei melts the tiansfoimei fuse fist. The lateial feedei fault opeiates the
cutout fuse befoie the ieclosei oi CB opens peimanently.
A thiee-phase line supplies the laigei loads. These loads aie piotected by CBs oi high-powei fuses.
Most piimaiy feedeis in iuial aieas aie oveihead lines using pole-mounted distiibution tiansfoimeis. The
capacitoi banks and the ieclosing and sectionalizing switches aie also pole-mounted. Oveihead lines ieduce
the installation costs but ieduce aesthetics.
In uiban aieas, an undeigiound cable system is used. The switchgeai and tiansfoimeis aie placed in
undeigiound vaults oi giound-level cabinets. The undeigiound system is not affected by weathei and is highly
ieliable. Unfoitunately, the initial cost of an undeigiound cable is signifcantly highei than an oveihead line
with the same capacity. The high cost limits the undeigiound system to high-density uiban aieas and housing
developments. Flooding can be a pioblem.
65.3 Secundary Distributiun System
The secondaiy distiibution system piovides electiic eneigy to the customeis thiough the distiibution tians-
foimeis and secondaiy cables. Table 65.2 shows the typical voltages and wiiing aiiangements.
In iesidential aieas, the most commonly used is the single-phase thiee-wiie 120/240-V iadial system, wheie
the lighting loads aie supplied by the 120 V and the laigei household appliances (aii conditionei, iange, oven,
and heating) aie connected to the 240-V lines. Depending on the location, eithei undeigiound cables oi
oveihead lines aie used foi this system.
In uiban aieas, with high-density mixed commeicial and iesidential loads, the thiee-phase 208/120-V foui-
wiie netwoik system is used. This netwoik assuies highei ieliability but has signifcantly highei costs. Undei-
giound cables aie used by most secondaiy netwoiks.
High-iise buildings aie supplied by a thiee-phase foui-wiie 480/277-V spot netwoik. The uoiescent lighting
is connected to a 277-V and the motoi loads aie supplied by a 480-V souice. A sepaiate local 120-V system
supplies the outlets in the vaiious iooms. This 120-V iadial system is supplied by small tiansfoimeis fiom the
480-V netwoik.
TABLE 65.2 Secondaiy Voltages and Connections
Class Voltage Connection Application
1-phase 120/240 Thiee-wiie Residential
3-phase 208/120 Foui-wiie Commeicial/iesidential
3-phase 480/277 Foui-wiie High-iise buildings
3-phase 380/220 Foui-wiie Geneial system, Euiope
3-phase 120/240 Foui-wiie Commeicial
3-phase 240 Thiee-wiie Commeicial/industiial
3-phase 480 Thiee-wiie Industiial
3-phase 240/480 Foui-wiie Industiial
2000 by CRC Press LLC
65.4 Radia! Distributiun System
A typical oveihead single-phase thiee-wiie 120/240-V secondaiy system is shown in Fig. 65.3. The thiee
distiibution tiansfoimeis aie mounted on sepaiate piimaiy feedei poles and supplied fiom diffeient phases.
Each tiansfoimei supplies 6 to 12 houses. The tiansfoimeis aie piotected by fuses. The secondaiy feedeis and
the seivice diops aie not piotected individually. The secondaiy feedei uses insulated No. 1/0 oi 4/0 aluminum
conductois. The aveiage secondaiy length is fiom 200 to 600 ft. The typical load is fiom 15 to 30 W/ft.
The undeigiound distiibution system is used in modein subuiban aieas. The tiansfoimeis aie pad-mounted
oi placed in an undeigiound vault. A typical 50-kVA tiansfoimei seives 5 to 6 houses, with each house supplied
by an individual cable.
The connection of a typical house is shown in Fig. 65.4. The incoming secondaiy seivice diop supplies the
kW and kWh metei. The modein, mostly electionic meteis measuie 15-min kW demand and the kWh eneigy
consumption. It iecoids the maximum powei demand and eneigy consumption. The electiical utility maintains
the distiibution system up to the secondaiy teiminals of the metei. The homeownei is iesponsible foi the
seivice panel and house wiiing. The typical seivice panel is equipped with a main switch and ciicuit bieakei.
The main switch peimits the deeneigization of the house and piotects against shoit ciicuits. The smallei loads
aie supplied by 120 V and the laigei loads by 240 V. Each outgoing line is piotected by a ciicuit bieakei. The
neutial has to be giounded at the seivice panel, just past the metei. The watei pipe was used foi giounding in
oldei houses. In new houses a metal iod, diiven in the eaith, piovides piopei giounding. In addition, a sepaiate
baie wiie is connected to the giound. The giound wiie connects the metal paits of the appliances and seivice
panel box togethei to piotect against giound-fault-pioduced electiic shocks.
FIGURE 65.3 Typical 120/240-V iadial secondaiy system.
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65.5 Secundary Netvurks
The secondaiy netwoik is used in uiban aieas with high load density. Figuie 65.5 shows a segment of a typical
secondaiy netwoik.
The secondaiy feedeis foim a mesh oi giid that is supplied by tiansfoimeis at the node points. The multiple
supply assuies highei ieliability and bettei load shaiing. The loads aie connected diiectly to the low-voltage
giid, without any piotection equipment. The netwoik is piotected by fuses and netwoik piotectoi ciicuit
bieakeis installed at the secondaiy tiansfoimeis. A shoit ciicuit blows the fuses and limits the cuiient. The
netwoik piotectois automatically open on ieveise cuiient and ieclose when the voltage on the piimaiy feedei
is iestoied aftei a fault.
65.6 Luad Characteristics
The distiibution system load vaiies duiing the day. The maximum load occuis in the eaily evening oi late
afteinoon, and the minimum load occuis at night. The design of the distiibution system iequiies both values,
because the voltage diop is at the maximum duiing the peak load, and oveivoltage may occui duiing the
minimum load. The powei companies continuously study the statistical vaiiation of the load and can piedict
the expected loads on the piimaiy feedeis with high accuiacy. The feedei design consideis the expected peak
load oi maximum demand and the futuie load giowth.
FIGURE 65.4 Residential electiical connection.
FIGURE 65.5 Typical segment of a secondaiy distiibution netwoik.
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The economic conductoi cioss-section calculation iequiies the
deteimination of aveiage losses. The aveiage loss is calculated by
the loss factoi (LSF), which is deteimined by statistical analyses of
load vaiiation.
The aveiage load is deteimined by the load factoi (LF), which
is the iatio of aveiage load to peak load. The load factoi foi an aiea
is deteimined by statistical analyses of the load vaiiation in past
yeais. The appioximate ielation between the loss factoi and load
factoi is
This equation is useful because the load factoi is measuied con-
tinuously by utilities, and moie accuiate values aie available foi
the load factoi than foi the loss factoi. Typical values aie given in
Table 65.3.
The connected load oi demand can be estimated accuiately in iesidential and industiial aieas. The connected
load oi demand is the sum of continuous iatings of appaiatus connected to the system. Howevei, not all
equipment is used simultaneously. The actual load in a system is signifcantly lowei than the connected load.
The demand factoi is used to estimate the actual oi maximum demand. The demand factoi (DF) is defned by
The demand factoi depends on the numbei of customeis and the type of load. Typical demand factoi values
aie given in Table 65.4.
65.7 Yu!tage Regu!atiun
The voltage supplied to each customei should be within the 5% limit, which, at 120 V, coiiesponds to 114
and 126-V. Figuie 65.6 shows a typical voltage piofle foi a feedei at light and heavy load conditions. The fguie
shows that at heavy load, the voltage at the end of the line will be less than the allowable minimum voltage.
Howevei, at the light load condition the voltage supplied to each customei will be within the allowable limit.
Calculation of the voltage piofle, voltage diop, and feedei loss is one of the majoi tasks in distiibution system
design. The concept of voltage diop and loss calculation is demonstiated using the feedei shown in Fig. 65.6.
To calculate the voltage diop, the feedei is divided into sections. The sections aie deteimined by the loads.
Assuming a single-phase system, the load cuiient is calculated by Eq. (65.1):
(65.1)
wheie P is the powei of the load, V is the iated voltage, and is the powei factoi.
The section cuiient is the sum of the load cuiients. Equation (65.2) gives the section cuiient between load
and - 1:
TABLE 65.3 Typical Annual Load Factoi
Values
Type of Load Load Factoi
Residential 0.48
Commeicial 0.66
Industiial 0.72
TABLE 65.4 Typical Demand Factois foi
Multifamily Dwellings
Numbei of Dwellings Demand Factoi, %
3 to 5 45
18 to 20 38
39 to 42 28
62 & ovei 23
LSF
aveiage loss
loss at peak load

LSF 0 LF -0.7LF
2
.3
DF
maximum demand
total connected demand

I
P
V
I I


+
cos
, (cos sin )


2000 by CRC Press LLC
(65.2)
The electiical paiameteis of the oveihead feedeis aie the iesistance and ieactance, which aie given in O/mi.
The undeigiound feedeis have signifcant capacitance in addition to the ieactance and iesistance. The capac-
itance is given in F/mi. The actual values foi oveihead lines can be calculated using the conductoi diametei
and phase-to-phase and phase-to-giound distances Fink and Beaty, 1978]. The iesidential undeigiound system
geneially uses single-conductoi cables with polyethylene insulation. The oldei systems use iubbei insulation
with neopiene jacket. Ciicuit paiameteis should be obtained fiom manufactuieis. The distiibution feedeis aie
shoit tiansmission lines. Even the piimaiy feedeis aie only a few miles long. This peimits the calculation of
the section iesistance and ieactance by multiplying the O/mi values by the length of the section. The length of
the section in a single-phase two-wiie system is two times the actual length. In a balanced thiee-phase system,
it is the simple length. In a single-phase thiee-wiie system the voltage diop on the neutial conductoi must be
calculated. Fuithei infoimation may be obtained fiom Pansini 1991].
Equation (65.3) gives the voltage diop, with a good appioximation, foi section , ( - 1). The total voltage
diop is the sum of the sections voltage diops.
(65.3)
Equation (65.4) gives the losses on the line:
(65.4)
The piesented calculation method desciibes the basic concept of feedei design; moie details can be found
in the liteiatuie.
FIGURE 65.6 Feedei voltage piofle.
I I

( , - )
-
1
1
1


e I R X
,( ) ,( ) ,( ) ,( ) ,( ) ,( )
( cos sin )

+
1 1 1 1 1 1

Loss

I R

( )
,( ) ,( ) 1
2
1
1
1
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65.8 Capaciturs and Yu!tage Regu!aturs
The voltage diop can be ieduced by the application of a shunt capacitoi. As shown in Fig. 65.7, a piopeily
selected and located shunt capacitoi assuies that the voltage supplied to each of the customeis will be within
the allowable limit at the heavy load condition. Howevei, at light load, the same capacitoi will inciease the
voltage above the allowable limit. Most capacitois in the distiibution system use switches. The capacitoi is
switched off duiing the night when the load is light and switched on when the load is heavy. The most fiequent
use of capacitois is on the piimaiy feedeis. In an oveihead system, thiee-phase capacitoi banks with vacuum
switches aie installed on the poles. Residential undeigiound systems iequiie less shunt capacitance foi voltage
contiol due to the ieduced ieactance. Even so, shunt capacitois aie used foi powei factoi coiiection and loss
ieduction.
The optimum numbei, size, and location of capacitoi banks on a feedei is deteimined by detailed computei
analyses. The concept of optimization includes the minimization of the opeiation, installation, and investment
costs. The most impoitant factoi that affects the selection is the distiibution and powei factoi of loads. In
iesidential aieas, the load is unifoimly distiibuted. In this case the optimum location of the capacitoi bank is
aiound two-thiids of the length of the feedei.
The effect of capacitoi bank can be studied by adding the capacitoi cuiient to the load cuiient. The capacitoi
cuiient ows between the supply and the capacitoi as shown in Fig. 65.7. Its value can be calculated fiom Eq.
(65.5) foi a single-phase system:
(65.5)
wheie C s |e taatante, [ s |e [requenty (60 H:), anJ V s |e o|age o grounJ.
The capacitive cuiient is added to the inductive load cuiient, ieducing the total cuiient, the voltage diop,
and losses. The voltage diop and loss can be calculated fiom Eqs. (65.2) to (65.5).
The voltage iegulatoi is a tap-changing tiansfoimei, which is located, in most cases, at the supply end of the
feedei. The tap changei incieases the supply voltage, which in tuin incieases the voltage above the allowable
minimum at the last load. The tap changei tiansfoimei has two windings. The excitation winding is connected
in paiallel. The iegulating winding is connected in seiies with the feedei. The lattei has taps and a tap changei
FIGURE 65.7 Capacitoi effect on voltage piofle.
I , CV [
t
u u r , 2
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switch. The switch changes the tap position accoiding to the iequiied voltage. The tap changing iequiies the
shoit inteiiuption of load cuiient. The fiequent cuiient inteiiuptions ieduce the lifetime of the tap changei
switch. This pioblem limits the numbei of tap changei opeiations to between one to thiee pei day.
Dehning Terms
Capacitor bank: Consists of capacitois connected in paiallel. Each capacitoi is placed in a metal can and
equipped with bushings.
Feeder: Oveihead lines oi cables which aie used to distiibute the load to the customeis. They inteiconnect
the distiibution substations with the loads.
Recloser: A ciicuit bieakei which is designed to inteiiupt shoit-ciicuit cuiient and ieclose the ciicuit aftei
inteiiuption.
Substation: A junction point in the electiic netwoik. The incoming and outgoing lines aie connected to a
busbai thiough ciicuit bieakeis.
Tap changer: A tiansfoimei. One of the windings is equipped with taps. The usual numbei of taps is 32.
Each tap piovides a 1% voltage iegulation. A special ciicuit bieakei is used to change the tap position.
Re!ated Tupics
1.2 Capacitois and Inductois 3.1 Voltage and Cuiient Laws 3.2 Node and Mesh Analysis 3.4 Powei and
Eneigy 67.4 Load Management
Relerences
D.F.S. Biass et al., in E|etrt Power Dsr|uon, 415 V-JJ |V, E.O. Tayloi and G.A. Boal (eds.), London: Edwaid
Ainold, 1966, p. 272.
D.G. Fink and H.W. Beaty, SanJarJ HanJ|oo| [or E|etrta| Engneers, 11th ed., New Yoik: McGiaw-Hill, 1978,
sec. 18.
T. Gnen, E|etrt Power Dsr|uon Sysem Engneerng, New Yoik: Wiley, 1986.
T. Gnen, E|etrt Power Transmsson Sysem Engneerng, New Yoik: Wiley, 1988, p. 723.
A.J. Pansini, Power Transmsson anJ Dsr|uon, Libuin, Ga.: The Faiimont Piess, 1991.
E.P. Paikei, MtCraw-H|| Entyt|oeJa o[ Energy, New Yoik: McGiaw-Hill, 1981, p. 838.
Vaiious, E|etrta| Transmsson anJ Dsr|uon Re[erente Boo|, W. Cential Station Engineeis, East Pittsbuigh:
Westinghouse Electiic Coipoiation, 1950, p. 824.
Vaiious, Dsr|uon Sysems. E|etrt U|y Engneerng Re[erente Boo|s, J. Billaid (ed.), East Pittsbuigh:
Westinghouse Electiic Coipoiation, 1965, p. 567.
Vaiious, EHV Transmsson Lne Re[erente Boo|, G.E.C. Pioject EHV (ed.), New Yoik: Edison Electiic Institute,
1968, p. 309.
B.M. Weedy, UnJergrounJ Transmsson o[ E|etrt Power, New Yoik: Wiley, 1980, p. 294.
W.L. Weeks, Transmsson anJ Dsr|uon o[ E|etrta| Energy, New Yoik: Haipei & Row, 1981, p. 302.
Further Inlurmatiun
Othei iecommended publications include J. M. Dukeit, S|or Energy Hsory o[ |e UneJ Saes, Edison
Electiic Institute, 1980. Also, the IEEE Transatons on Power De|ery publishes distiibution papeis sponsoied
by the Tiansmission and Distiibution Committee. These papeis deal with the latest development in the
distiibution aiea. Eveiy-day pioblems aie piesented in two magazines: Transmsson c Dsr|uon and E|etrta|
Vor|J.