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Tutorial Lecture 1- 5

Kanad Kulkarni
05/11/2013
Hydrostatic Pressure
HP = g x !f x D

Pressure Gradient
HG = HP / D (psi/ft)


Calculate the hydrostatic pressure for the following
wells:
a. mud weight = 9 ppg, hole depth = 10100 ft MD
(measured depth), 9900 ft TVD (truevertical
depth)
Solution:

HP (psi) = 0.052 x !f (ppg) x D (ft) = 0.052 x 9 x
9900 = 4632 psi
b. mud gradient = 0.468 psi / ft, hole depth =
10100 ft MD (measured depth), 9900 ft TVD
(true vertical depth)
Solution

= 0.468 (psi /ft) x 9900(ft) = 4633 psi
The overburden pressure can therefore be
expressed as the hydrostatic pressure exerted by
all materials overlying the depth of interest:
"ov = 0.052 x !b x D

where
"ov = overburden pressure (psi)
!b = formation bulk density (ppg)
D = true vertical depth (ft)
And similarly as a gradient (EMW) in ppg:

"ov= 0.433x!b/0.052

Where,
"ovg = overburden gradient, ppg
!b = formation bulk density (gm/cc)
(the factor 0.433 converts bulk density from gm/cc to psi/
ft)
A useful equation for calculating the
overburden gradient under field conditions of
varying lithological and pore fluid density is
given by:
"ovg= 0.433[(1 #)!ma + (#x!f)]

where
"ovg= overburden gradient, psi/ft
#= porosity expressed as a fraction
!f= formation fluid density, gm/cc
!ma= matrix density, gm/cc
!"#$% '()*$+ !$%,"%+-./$
01-%-/*$%2)3/)
! 1he overall power emclency deLermlnes Lhe
raLe of fuel consumpuon, !
"
, aL a glven speed.
! 1he heaung value of a fuel for lnLernal
combusuon ls #
! 1he lnpuL power ls expressed ln Lerms of !
"
and #%
TABLE 1 - HEATING VALUE
OF VARIOUS FUELS
Fuel
Type
Density
(lbm/gal)
Heating Value
(Btu/lbm)
diesel
gasoline
butane
methane
7.2
6.6
4.7
---
19,000
20,000
21,000
24,000
Engine
power
output
P = F
.
V
Power = Force * Velocity
Power = Ang.Vel. * Torque
!"#$% '()*$+ !$%,"%+-./$
01-%-/*$%2)3/)
! 1he overall emclency of power-generaung
sysLems may be dened as Lhe energy
ouLpuL per energy lnpuL:
Efficiency = (Power Out / Power in)
Example 1. A diesel engine gives an output
torque of 1,740 ft-lbf at an engine speed of 1,200
rpm. If the fuel consumption rate was 31.5 gal/hr,
what is the output power and overall efficiency of
the engine?
Solution: The angular velocity, ! , is given by
! = 2! (1,200) = 7,539.8 rad/min.
The power output can be computed using Eq.1


( )
hp 5 . 397
/hp lbf/min - ft 33,000
lbf/min - ft (1,740) 7,539.8
T P = = =!
Since the fuel type is diesel, the density is 7.2
lbm/gal and the heating value H is 19,000 Btu/
lbm (Table 1). Thus, the fuel consumption rate w
f

is:



w
f
= 3.78 lbm/min.

The total heat energy consumed by the engine is
given by Eq. 2:

!
"
#
$
%
&
=
minutes 60
hour 1
lbm/gal) (7.2 gal/hr 31.5 w
f
Q
i
= w
f
H



Thus, the overall efficiency of the engine at 1,200
RPM given by Eq. 3 is



( ) ( )
lbf/min/hp - ft 33,000
lbf/Btu - ft 779 lbm 19,000Btu/ lbm/min 3.78
=
i
Q
Efficiency = (Power Out / Power in)
23.4% or 0.234
1695.4
397.5
= = =
i
t
Q
P
E
Calculate the overburden gradient for the
following:
Formation type: sandstone, density = 2.65 gm/cc
Formation water: 1.03 gm/cc
For porosities 5%, 20% and 35%.

Solutions
For Sandstone
For = 5% "ovg = 0.433 x [(1 0.05)x2.65 + (0.05 x 1.03)] = 1.11 psi/ft
For = 20% "ovg =1.01 psi/ft
For = 35% "ovg = 0.90 psi/ft-
Water Depth= 500 ft
RKB/MSL= 65 ft
Specific gravity of sea water= 1.03 gm/cc
Rock density= 1.9 gm/cc from seabed to 1000ft,
and 2.1gm/cc from 1000-3000 ft
Calculate the overburden gradient of the
formations:
At seabed, 200 ft, 500 ft, 1000 ft and at 3000 ft
below seabed.
Example 1
(no friction)
The total weight of 9,000 ft of 9 5/8-inch casing
for a deep well is determined to be 400,000 lbs.
Since this will be the heaviest casing string run,
the maximum mast load must be calculated.
Assuming that 10 lines run between the crown
and the traveling blocks and neglecting
buoyancy effects, calculate the maximum load.
Solution:
The tension, T, will be distributed equally
between the 10 lines. Therefore,
T = 400,000/10 = 40,000 lbf
The tension in the fast line and dead line will
also be 40,000 lbf, so the total load is
40,000 X 12 = 480,000 lbf
Solution, cont.
Example 1 demonstrates two additional points.

1. The marginal decrease in mast load
decreases with additional lines.

2. The total mast load is always greater than
the load being lifted.
Example 2
A rig must hoist a load of 300,000 lbf. The
drawworks can provide an input power to the
block and tackle system as high as 500 hp.
Eight lines are strung between the crown block
and traveling block. Calculate
1. The static tension in the fast line
when upward motion is impending,
2. the maximum hook horsepower
available,
Solution
1. The power efficiency for n = 8 is given
as 0.841 in Table 1.2. The tension in the
fast line is given by Eq. 1.7.

Tension in the Fast Line,
lb
n E
W
F 590 , 44
8 * 841 . 0
000 , 300
= = =
( or: 0.98
8
= 0.851 )
Solution
2. The maxi mum hook hor sepower
available is

P
h
= Ep
i
= 0.841(500) = 420.5 hp.

Solution
3. The maximum hoisting speed is given by

v
P
W
b
h
=
=
!
"
#
$
%
&

hp
ft - lbf / min
hp
300,000 lbf
= 46.3 ft / min
420 5
33 000
.
,
Solution to 3., cont.
To pull a 90-ft stand would require


t
90
1 9
ft
46.3 ft / min
. min.
Solution
4. The actual derrick load is given by Eq.1.8b:
F
E En
En
W
d
=
+ +
!
"
#
$
%
&
!
"
#
$
%
&
1
=
1+0.841+0.841(8)
0.841(8)
(300,000)
= 382,090 lbf.
Solution
5. The maximum equivalent load is given by
Eq.1.9:
lbf F
W
n
n
F
de
de
000 , 450
000 , 300 *
8
4 8 4
=
!
"
#
$
%
&
+
=
!
"
#
$
%
&
+
=
n
W
4
W
F
DLL
+ =
W
n 4
4 n
F
DLL
!
!
"
#
$
$
%
& +
=
W
n
4 n
F
de
!
!
"
#
$
$
%
& +
=
Solution
6. The derrick efficiency factor is:
000 , 450
090 , 382
F
F
E
de
d
d
= =
84.9% or 849 . 0 E
d
=
29
30
Example 3
Compute the pump factor in units of barrels per stroke
for a double-acting duplex pump having:
6.5-inch liners (d
L
)
2.5 inch rods (d
r
)
18-inch strokes (L
S
)
and a volumetric efficiency of 90%. (E
V
)
31
Solution:
The pump factor for a duplex pump can be
determined using Equation 1.10


( )
( )( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
stroke
d d E L F
r L V S p
/ in 991 , 1
5 . 2 5 . 6 2 9 . 0 18
2

2
2
3
2 2
2 2
=
! =
! =
"
"
32
There are 231 in.
3
in

a U. S. gallon and 42 U.S.
gallons in a U.S. barrel. Thus converting to the
desired field units yields:

1,991 in.
3
/stroke * gal/231 in.
3
* bbl/42 gal.
= 0.2052 bbl/stroke.

Thus: Pump Factor = 0.2052 bbl/stroke
33
Pump Factor = 3 * !/4 d
L
2
L
S
E
V
/ (231 * 42)
Example:



Pump Factor for Triplex Pump
( )( )
!
"
#
$
%
&
!
"
#
$
%
&
'
!
!
"
#
$
$
%
&
!
"
#
$
%
&
=
'
!
"
#
$
%
&
' =
3
3
2
V S
2
L
in
bbl
42 231
1
stroke
in
0.90 12 6
4
!
3
E L d
4
!
3
bbl/stroke 0.09442 Factor Pump =
Example: Pump Rate
= Pump Factor * Strokes/min

= 0.09442

= 7.554 bbl/min
= 317.3 gal/min


min
stks
80
stk
bbl
!
Pump Rate = 317 gal/min
Drilling Pipe size and grade table
37
Cutaway View and
Dimensions for
Example Tool Joint
PIN
BOX

TJ
Shoulder
4"*-%( '()*$+
! !"#"$%&' ls used Lo refer Lo Lhe cross-
secuonal area of Lhe plpe or annulus
expressed ln unlLs of conLalned volume per
unlL lengLh
! (%)#*"$+,+-& ls oen used Lo refer Lo Lhe
cross-secuonal area of sLeel ln Lhe plpe
expressed ln unlLs of volume per unlL lengLh
39
Capacity = Area * Length
What is the capacity of 10,000 ft of 5
OD, 19.50 lb/ft drillpipe?
Capacity = Area * Length
Area = !/4 d
2
= !/4 * 4.276
2
= 14.36 in
2
Length = 10,000 ft = 120,000 in
Capacity = 14.36 *120,000 in
3
/(231*42 in
3
/bbl)
Capacity = 177.6 bbls
What is the displacement of 10,000 ft
of 5 OD, 19.50 lb/ft drillpipe?
Capacity = Area * Length
Area = ! /4 (od
2
- id
2
) = ! /4 * (5
2
- 4.276
2
)
= 5.275 in
2
Length = 10,000 ft = 120,000 in
Displ. = 5.276 * 120,000 in
3
/(231 * 42 in
3
/bbl)

Displacement = ? bbls
Pressure at the shoe after drillers rotation can be
calculated by
Px = Pf - Pg - (TD - H - CSD) xpm
Where
Pf= Formation Pressure next to TD
Pg= Pressure in gas Bubble= HXG
H = height of gas bubble at casing shoe, ft
G = gradient of gas = 0.05 to 0.15 psi/ft
TD = next hole total depth, ft
CSD = casing setting depth, ft
pm = maximum mud weight for next hole section, ppg

Rearranging in terms of H & replacing Px with FG (fracture
Gradient)




In vertical and near-vertical holes the FBG is invariably greater than
the FG. In highly inclined holes the FBG is usually smaller than the
FG. For kick tolerance calculations, it is recommended to reduce the
value recorded during leak-off tests in vertical wells by 100 psi and
to use the resulting value as an approximate value of FG.
The volume of influx at the casing shoe is
V1= H x Ca bbl
where
Ca = capacity between pipe and hole, bbl/ft

At bottom hole conditions the volume of influx (V2) is given by:
P2 V2 = P1 V1
(The effects of T and Z are ignored for the moment)
V2=P1V1/P2
where
P1 =fracture pressure at shoe, psi
P2 =Pf, psi
The value of V2 is the circulation kick tolerance in bbls.
The maximum allowable drillpipe shut-in
pressure (DPSIP) is given by:
DPSIP = (FG - m) x CSD x 0.052
And in terms of additional mud weight,
Kick Tolerance= (FG- pm)
Calculate the kick tolerance for the following well:
9 5/8" casing =14,500 ft
Next TD = 17000 ft
FG at 9 5/8" shoe = 16 ppg
Temperature gradient = 0.02 F/ft
Max. mud weight for next hole =14.5 ppg
Max formation pressure at next hole= 14 ppg
Assume next hole 8 " and there is 5" drillpipe from
surface to TD
In case of Exploration well where the fracture gradient is
calculated constantly it is advisable to change the mud weight
accordingly and also the Kick Tolerance should be calculated
repeatedly.
Revised calculateions for the above problem

Given that the formations pressure at 5000 ft is 2400 psi
and the overburden stress is 1 psi/ft(determined from
bulk density logs), estimate the formation fracture
gradient at 5000 ft.


(1) The required hydrostatic pressure of mud is taken
as equal to pore pressure + 200 psi, where 200 psi is
the magnitude of overbalance. Any reasonable value of
overbalance may be used depending on company
policy.
(2) Calculate the pore pressure and mud pressure
gradients by simply dividing pore pressure and mud
pressure by depth to obtain the gradient in psi/ft.
Taking "v/D = 1psi/ft, and using Table 2.2, the
fracture gradient at 5000 ft, for example, is
calculated as follows:




The same equation can be used to calculate FG
at other depths