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age 0

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age 1
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lnLroduccLlon
Lxerclse 1
Lxerclse 2
Lxerclse 3
Lxerclse 4
8lbllography
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age 2
&,012-344052,

llrsLly, we lnLroduce nACA (naLlonal Advlsory CommlLLee for AeronauLlcs") four dlglLs.
1he meanlng of Lhe flrsL dlglL ls Lhe camber ln percenL of chord, Lhe second dlglL glves
Lhe locaLlon of Lhe maxlmum camber ln Lerms of chord, and Lhe lasL Lwo dlglLs glve Lhe
Lhlckness ln percenL of chord. 1hus, 0003 ls a symmeLrlcal secLlon of 6 Lhlckness.
Cnce we recollecLed all Lhe deLalls of Lhe four chosen alrfolls, Lhen, we wlll ploL all Lhe
relevanL daLes, for lnsLance, ploLLlng coefflclenL of llfL versus angle of aLLack,
coefflclenL of drug versus coefflclenL of llfL and efflclency.
Moreover, afLer ploLLlng all Lhls graphs, we wlll dlscuss deeply all Lhe deLalls, ln Lhls
way we can compare all Lhe advances and drawbacks of Lhem. So, we wlll able Lo
observe whlch one has more efflclency ln Lhe lncompresslble reglme.
Also, lL deserves menLlon LhaL we calculaLe before Lhe 8eynolds number, whlch glves
us Lhe relaLlon beLween Lhe lnerLlal forces and vlscoslLy forces ln Lhls medlum.
All Lhls acLlvlLles are carrled ouL wlLh ablo, whlch ls a powerful Lool LhaL allow us Lo
flgure ouL some properLles, relaLed Lhe alrfoll, for lnsLance, varleLy of coefflclenL of llfL,
drag, all Lhese Lhlngs depends on Lhe angle of aLLack LhaL ablo sofLware allow us
change lL.
67. 82992:5,; <=0.15=9> :7.1. 3>.- 5, 231 ?1=4054.@
67. .>>.,05=9 0229 :=> "=09=A
#3024=-
B2<. 42,4.?0> 28 4=94393>


age 3
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-0.25
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
NACA 0018
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-0.25
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
NACA 1408
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0.3
NACA 4415
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-0.25
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
NACA 2421
C/.145>. +
lor Lhls exerclse, 4 alrfolls of dlfferenL cambers and Lhlckness have been chosen. 1hey were
descrlbed uslng 4 dlglLs accordlng Lo Lhe nACA. 1hey are Lhe alrfoll nACA 2421, Lhe nACA 4413,
Lhe nACA 1408 and Lhe nACA 0018, Lhls lasL one ls a symmeLrlcal alrfoll. 1hese are Lhelr
graphlcs:


1hen uslng ablo, Lhe coefflclenL of drag and llfL were obLalned for dlfferenL angles of aLLack.
ln order Lo do Lhls, Lhe 8eynolds number ls needed. lor Lhls exerclses, lL was Laken a Mach
below 0,3 so Lhe alr can be consldered as an lncomprenslble fluld. 1he Mach number LhaL was
used ls 0,13:


lnlLlal condlLlons and assumpLlon:
Alr ls lncompresslble aL Mach 0.13.
1he alrcrafL ls flylng aL 11000m.
1he molar gas consLanL of Lhe alr(8) ls approxlmaLely 8.3143 !mol
-1
k
-1
.
M ls Lhe molar mass ln kllograms per mole. 1he mean molar mass for dry alr ls abouL 0.0289643 kg/mol.
1he molar mass (M) for alr ls approxlmaLely 0.0289643 kg/mol
AL Lhls helghL and accordlng Lo lSA:
-1he denslLy of alr (y) ls 0.3629 kgm
-3
.
-1he LemperaLure (1) ls 216,3k.
1he vlscoslLy of alr ls = 0, 000018 ns/m
2

1he chord of Lhe alrfoll (c) ls 3
1he speed of alr aL cerLaln polnL ls glven by:
1he equaLlon of Lhe Mach number ls:
1he 8eynolds equaLlon ls:


age 4



WlLh Lhls value of 8eynolds number, Lhese are Lhe coefflclenL of drag (cd), coefflclenL of llfL (cl)
and efflclency (cl/cd) of Lhe alrfoll for dlfferenL angles of aLLack:























Naca
Angle of
attack Cl Cd Efficiency
2421 0 0,2645 0,0071 37,2535211

1 0,3926 0,0071 55,2957746

2 0,5202 0,0073 71,260274

3 0,647 0,0072 89,8611111

4 0,7728 0,0077 100,363636

5 0,8972 0,0082 109,414634

6 1,02 0,0087 117,241379

7 1,141 0,0091 125,384615

8 1,2599 0,0096 131,239583

9 1,3764 0,0107 128,635514

10 1,4903 0,0116 128,474138

11 1,6014 0,0129 124,139535

12 1,7094 0,0147 116,285714

13 1,8142 0,0168 107,988095

14 1,9154 0,0191 100,282723

15 2,013 0,0212 94,9528302

Naca
Angle of
attack Cl Cd Efficiency
4415 0 0,4843 0,0066 73,3787879

1 0,6064 0,0068 89,1764706

2 0,7279 0,007 103,985714

3 0,8483 0,0072 117,819444

4 0,9675 0,0075 129

5 1,0852 0,0075 144,693333

6 1,2012 0,0089 134,966292

7 1,3152 0,0091 144,527473

8 1,427 0,0108 132,12963

9 1,5363 0,0121 126,966942

10 1,6429 0,0134 122,604478

11 1,7466 0,0154 113,415584

12 1,8472 0,0179 103,195531

13 1,9445 0,0206 94,3932039

14 2,0382 0,0228 89,3947368

15 2,1283 0,0254 83,7913386
Naca
Angle of
attack Cl Cd Efficiency
1408 0 0,1022 0,006 17,0333333
1 0,2173 0,0061 35,6229508

2 0,332 0,0069 48,115942

3 0,446 0,0069 64,6376812

4 0,5592 0,0067 83,4626866

5 0,6714 0,007 95,9142857

6 0,7822 0,0081 96,5679012

7 0,8914 0,0084 106,119048

8 0,9988 0,0095 105,136842

9 1,1043 0,01107 99,7560976

10 1,2075 0,0005 2415

11 1,3082 0,0005 2616,4

12 1,4063 0,0005 2812,6

13 1,5015 0,0005 3003

14 1,5937 0,028 56,9178571

15 1,6826 0,0382 44,0471204
Naca
Angle of
attack Cl Cd Efficiency
0018 0 0 0,0068 0

1 0,01252 0,0069 1,81449275

2 0,2502 0,0069 36,2608696

3 0,3747 0,0071 52,7746479

4 0,4983 0,0074 67,3378378

5 0,6209 0,0078 79,6025641

6 0,7422 0,008 92,775

7 0,8619 0,0082 105,109756

8 0,9798 0,0089 110,089888

9 1,0956 0,0095 115,326316

10 1,2091 0,0109 110,926606

11 1,32 0,0122 108,196721

12 1,4282 0,0136 105,014706

13 1,5333 0,0153 100,215686

14 1,6352 0,0172 95,0697674

15 1,7337 0,0197 88,0050761
8eynolds number:



age 3
C/.145>. '
uslng Lhe values of cd, cl and efflclency obLalned ln Lhe exerclse 1, we can compare Lhem
among Lhe dlfferenL alrfolls.
WlLh cl and Lhe angle of aLLack we obLaln Lhe followlng graphlc:

1hls graphlc show as LhaL Lhe relaLlon beLween Lhe cl and Lhe angle of aLLack ls pracLlcally
llnear and Lhe slope of Lhe dlfferenL funcLlons of cl are very slmllar (especlally ln Lhe ones LhaL
are noL symmeLrlcal).
1he value of cl lncreases wlLh Lhe angle of aLLack. 1he value of Lhe cl when Lhe angle of aLLack
ls 0 seems Lo be llnearly dependenL wlLh Lhe camber of Lhe alrfoll. 1he hlghesL ls Lhe camber
wlll also wlll be Lhe cl
0
.
uslng boLh deducLlons and Lhe graphlc, Lhe funcLlon for Lhe asymmeLrlcal alrfolls can be
approxlmaLely descrlbed as cl(o)=0,12o+0,123c, where o ls Lhe angle of aLLack and c, Lhe
camber. ln Lhe case of Lhe symmeLrlcal alrfoll, Lhe cl
0
ls 0 and Lhe slope ls a llLLle blL hlgher. 1he
Lhlckness seems noL Lo modlfy Lhe value of cl.
1he nexL graphlc LhaL was used was Lhe one LhaL
relaLed cd wlLh cl:
ln Lhls case we can lgnore Lhe alrfoll nACA 1408
because lLs values seem Lo be wrong. ln Lhe oLher
ones, Lhe funcLlon ls a curve. 1he cd grows wlLh Lhe
cl.
As lL ls shown, all Lhe funcLlons glves slmllar values
for cd when cl ls lower Lhan 0.3. 1hen, Lhe ones
wlLh lower values for Lhlckness are Lhe ones wlLh
hlgher values for cd.


age 6
1he lasL one relaLes Lhe efflclency of Lhe alrfoll(cl/cd) wlLh Lhe angle of aLLack.

Agaln, Lhe graph for Lhe alrfoll nACA 1408 can be lgnored. ln Lhe oLher ones, Lhe funcLlon ls a
curve LhaL has a maxlmum when Lhe angle of aLLack ls beLween 6 and 10 degrees. All Lhe
curves are slmllar.
1he alrfolls wlLh a hlgher camber are Lhe ones LhaL reach a larger maxlmum ln efflclency and lL
seems LhaL Lhe ones wlLh lower Lhlckness are Lhe ones LhaL achleve Lhls maxlmum fasLer.

C/.145>. D
LlfL aL low angles of aLLack lncreases as Lhe angle of aLLack lncreases, sLall ls a phenomenon
LhaL causes Lhe reducLlon of llfL afLer a crlLlcal angle of aLLack. 1hls ocurrs when Lhe boundry
layer ls deLached from Lhe upper alr surface, reduclng llfL and produclng more drag. lL ls
dependenL upon Lhe wlngs aspecL raLlo, lLs plaLform and Lhe wlngs proflle.


ablo allows us Lo calculaLe Lhe coefflclenL of llfL respecL Lo Lhe angle, buL due Lo sLall Lhe wlll
only be preclse for small angles. AfLer lnvesLlgaLlng on lnLerneL we have declded LhaL Lhe sLall
polnL should be among 13 and 13 degrees for Lhls alrfoll.

age 7
C/.145>. E
1he followlng plcLure ls Lhe alrfoll we have made up wlLh 0 degrees:











1he followlng plcLure ls Lhe alrfoll we have made up wlLh 3 degrees:












WhaL does an alrfoll pressure dlsLrlbuLlon look llke? We generally ploL Cp vs. x/c.

x/c varles from 0 aL Lhe leadlng edge Lo 1.0 aL Lhe Lralllng edge. Cp ls ploLLed "upslde-down"
wlLh negaLlve values (sucLlon), hlgher on Lhe ploL. (1hls ls done so LhaL Lhe upper surface of a
convenLlonal llfLlng alrfoll corresponds Lo Lhe upper curve.)

1he Cp sLarLs from abouL 1.0 aL Lhe sLagnaLlon polnL near Lhe leadlng edge

lL rlses rapldly (pressure decreases) on boLh Lhe upper and lower surfaces and flnally recovers
Lo a small poslLlve value of Cp near Lhe Lralllng edge.

varlous parLs of Lhe pressure dlsLrlbuLlon are deplcLed ln Lhe flgure below and are descrlbed ln
Lhe followlng secLlons.

upper Surface
1he upper surface pressure ls lower (ploLLed hlgher on Lhe usual scale) Lhan Lhe lower surface
Cp ln Lhls case. 8uL lL doesn'L have Lo be.

Lower Surface
1he lower surface someLlmes carrles a poslLlve pressure, buL aL many deslgn condlLlons ls
acLually pulllng Lhe wlng downward. ln Lhls case, some sucLlon (negaLlve Cp -> downward force
on lower surface) ls presenL near Lhe mldchord.

age 8
1hls lllusLraLes Lhe use of clamped or compleLe spllne lnLerpolaLlon where end slopes are
prescrlbed. ln Lhls example, we are creaLlng Lhe spllne for Lhe upper wlng:

x= [-13 -11 -8 -4 0 10 23 40 36.8616], y= [0 3.3832 10.198 12.6886 14.993 13 14.349 12.2616
7.7678 0]
cs = spllne(x,[0 y 0]),
xx = llnspace(-13, 38.8616, 101),


Cnce we have Lhe spllne we lnLegraLe Lhem: lnLegral upper wlng = quad([(x)ppval(cs,x),-13,
36.8616),
= 741.3708

lnLegral lower wlng = -602.4833
pressure lnLegral underneaLh= -1.3483e+003
pressure lnLegral above = 2.3361e+003

1he coefflclenL of llfL for an alrfoll wlLh >015409F 7215G2,0=9 >318=4.> can be calculaLed from Lhe
coefflclenL of pressure dlsLrlbuLlon by lnLegraLlon, or calculaLlng Lhe area beLween Lhe llnes on
Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon.

where:
ls pressure coefflclenL on Lhe lower surface
ls pressure coefflclenL on Lhe upper surface
,- ls Lhe leadlng edge
.- ls Lhe Lralllng edge
When Lhe lower surface /
0
ls hlgher (more negaLlve) on Lhe dlsLrlbuLlon lL counLs as a negaLlve
area as Lhls wlll be produclng down force raLher Lhan llfL.

pressure underneaLh Lhe wlng= -743.8160
pressure above Lhe wlng = 1.8143e+003


Plgh ressure
Low ressure
age 9
H5A952;1=?7F

hLLp://www.dynamlcfllghL.com/aerodynamlcs/pres_paLLerns/
hLLp://www.eng.cu.edu.eg/users/mkhalll/uls/Lxp1.ul
hLLp://home.anadolu.edu.Lr/~mcavcar/hyo301/14_ressureulsLrlbuLlon.pdf
hLLp://claymore.englneer.gvsu.edu/~smladakd/LC8363-Lab9.pdf