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STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN

CHAPTER 2
STRENGTH OF WELDED CONNECTIONS
Department of Civil Engineering, University of North Sumatera
Ir. DANIEL RUMBI TERUNA, MT;IP-U HAKI
Strength of fillet welds
Strength of fillet welds
Tensile strength of electrode
material
Strength of fillet welds
Strength of fillet welds
Strength of fillet welds
Strength of fillet welds
Design Strength of fillet welds
The design strength per unit length of a fillet weld is based on the shear
resistance through the throat of the weld, as follows:
( ) weld fillet F t R
EXX e nw
= 60 . 0 75 . 0 |
But not greater than shear rupture strength of the base metal:
( ) metal base F t R
u nw
= 60 . 0 75 . 0 |
metal base of strength tensile F
placed is weld which along material base of thickness t
material electrode of strength tensile F
ension throat effective t
u
EXX
e
=
=
=
= dim
where
Design strength of fillet welds
( )( ) weld fillet F t R
EXX e nw
= u |
5 . 1
sin 5 . 0 1 60 . 0 75 . 0
u
P
( ) weld al longitudin F t R for
EXX e nw
= = 60 . 0 75 . 0 0 | u
( )( ) weld transverse F t R for
EXX e nw
= = 5 . 1 60 . 0 75 . 0 90 | u
a transvese weld is 50% stronger than longitudinal weld
Design tension member with welded end connection
g y n
xA xF P 9 . 0 = |
1. Yielding on Ag
2. Fracture on Ae
e u n
xA xF P 75 . 0 = |
connection welded UxA A
connection bolted UxA A
g e
n e
=
=
plate of width w
weld al longitudin of length L
w L w when U
w L w when U
w L when U
c
c
c
c
=
=
> > =
> > =
> =
5 . 1 75 . 0
5 . 1 2 87 . 0
2 00 . 1
Where
When a member is a
single plate fastened
by only longitudinal
welds
) ( w L
c
>
Design tension member with welded end connection
When preceding item is not applicable
9 . 0 1 s
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
c
L
x
U
Where
=
=
x
L
c
Length of longest longitudinal welds
Connection eccentricity
Design tension member with welded end connection
3. Block shear rupture
v u t u
A F A F 6 . 0 >
( )
t u v y bs
A F A F R + = 6 . 0 | |
v u t u
A F A F 6 . 0 <
( )
t y v u bs
A F A F R + = 6 . 0 | |
Shear yielding tension fracture
Shear fracture tension yielding
Design tension member with welded end connection
where
=
=
=
=
=
y
u
t
v
F
F
A
A
|
gross area subject to shear
gross area subject to tension
0,75 for fracture limit state
minimum tensile strength
minimum yield stress
Example 1. A plate welded 8mm x 200mm welded to a 10 mm gusset
plate. Compute the maximum force. ( block shear are not considered)
mm 8
mm 200
mm 2400
mm 200
P
mm t
Mpa cm kg E
Mpa F Mpa F
e
u y
4
420 / 4200
450 , 300
2
60
=
~ =
= =
Strength of steel plate.
- Yielding on Ag
( )( ) kN N A F P
g y n
432 432000 1600 300 9 . 0 9 . 0 = = = = |
Strength of fillet welds
- Fracture on Ae
( )
2
1200 1600 75 . 0 mm UA A
g e
= = =
( )( ) kN xA xF P
e u n
405 1200 450 75 . 0 75 . 0 = = = |
- Strength of fillet weld
For longitudinal weld
1. Weld fracture
( ) mm N x x x F t R
EXX e nw
/ 756 ) 420 60 . 0 ( 4 75 . 0 60 . 0 75 . 0 = = = |
2. Shear rupture of the member alongside a weld
( ) mm N x t F R
u n
/ 1620 8 ) 450 60 . 0 ( 75 . 0 60 . 0 75 . 0 = = = |
governs fracture weld R R
nw n
, since >| |
Strength of fillet welds
For transverse weld
1. Weld fracture
( ) mm N mm N x x F t R
EXX e nw
/ 1134 / 756 5 . 1 5 . 1 60 . 0 75 . 0 = = = |
2. Tension rupture of the gusset plate alongside of weld
( ) mm N t F R
gusset u n
/ 3375 10 ) 450 ( 75 . 0 75 . 0 = = = |
governs fracture weld R R
nw n
, since >| |
For the fillet weld group, the design strength is
( ) kN N x x xL mm R
w nw
389 389680 200 ) 1134 ( 240 ) 756 ( 2 / ~ = + =

|
Thus, the maximum force of steel plate connection is 389 kN
Strength of fillet welds
Example 2. A pair of steel angle is welded to 9mm thick gusset plate as
shown in figure below . A36 is used for steel angle and gusset plate. Find the
dimension of angle if the connection is loaded 420kN axial force, (2). design
the thickness of weld.
Mpa cm kg E
Mpa F Mpa F
u y
490 / 4900
360 , 250
2
70
~ =
= =
u
P
e
1
L
2
L
Using equilibrium equations to find
2 1
P and P
nw
R
P
L
|
1
1
=
nw
R
P
L
|
2
2
=
( )
2
1867
250 9 . 0
9 . 0 mm
P
A P xA xF P
u
g u g y n
~ = > = |
1. Yielding on Ag
2. Fracture on Ae
e u n
xA xF P 75 . 0 = |
85 . 0 = U estimate
( )
2
1556
360 75 . 0
mm
P
A
u
e
~ =
2
1830mm
U
A
A
e
g
~ =
6 90 90 2 , x x L Try
0
x
0
x
0
y
0
y
(min) q
(max)
y
c
x
c
cm c c cm r cm r
cm r r cm A
y x
y x g
42 . 2 , 75 . 1 , 47 . 3
75 . 2 , 50 . 10
0 0
2
= = = =
= = =
q
3. Design of weld
kN P
c
P
u
x
54 . 153 ) 2 / (
9
9
1
=

=
2 /
u
P
x
c
1
L
2
L
x
c 9
1
P
2
P
kN P
c
P
u
x
46 . 56 ) 2 / (
9
2
= =
mm t t and mm t use
e
4 707 . 0 6 ~ = =
4. Strength of longitudinal weld
weld fracture
( ) mm N x x x F t R
EXX e nw
/ 882 ) 490 60 . 0 ( 4 75 . 0 60 . 0 75 . 0 = = = |
shear rupture of base metal (angle)
( ) mm N x t F R
u n
/ 972 6 ) 360 60 . 0 ( 75 . 0 60 . 0 75 . 0 = = = |
governs fracture weld R R
nw n
, since >| |
mm
R
P
L
nw
175 1 . 174
882
153540
1
1
~ = = =
|
min
2
2
62 7 . 61
882
54460
L mm
R
P
L
nw
> ~ = = =
|
mm t L 24 4
min
= =
( )( ) ) ( 5 . 472 1050 2 250 9 . 0 9 . 0 ok P kN x xA xF P
u g y n
> = = = |
Yielding on Ag
2. Fracture on Ae
( )( ) ) ( 6 . 629 1166 2 360 75 . 0 75 . 0 ok P kN x xA xF P
u e u n
> = = = |
9 . 0 90 . 0 98 . 0
175
42 . 2
1 1 = > = = = U use
L
x
U
2
1166
9 . 0
1050
mm
U
A
A
g
e
= = =
4. Check the strength of angle
) (
3 1
P P
h
c h
P
u
x

=
u
P
x
c
1
L
3
L
x
c h
1
P
2
P
2
L
3
P
) (
3 2
P P
h
c
P
u
x
=
nw
R x L P |
3 3
=