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Analysis of the parameters affecting energy consumption of a rotary kiln in cement industry Adem Atmaca, Recep Yumruta PII: DOI: Reference: To appear in: S1359-4311(14)00130-6 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.02.038 ATE 5412 Applied Thermal Engineering

Received Date: 22 August 2013 Revised Date: 19 January 2014 Accepted Date: 15 February 2014

Please cite this article as: A. Atmaca, R. Yumruta, Analysis of the parameters affecting energy consumption of a rotary kiln in cement industry, Applied Thermal Engineering (2014), doi: 10.1016/ j.applthermaleng.2014.02.038. This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.

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Analysis of the parameters affecting energy consumption of a rotary kiln in cement industry Adem Atmaca*, Recep Yumruta
*University of Gaziantep, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 27310 Gaziantep, Turkey e-mail: aatmaca@gantep.edu.tr, yumrutas@gantep.edu.tr Phone: +90 342 317 1734, Fax: +90 342 360 1170

Keywords: cement; rotary kiln; specific energy consumption; energy; exergy. 1. Introduction Cement industry is one of the most energy intensive industries in the world. It is essential to investigate the feasibility of reducing coal consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of the rotary kilns in the industry. In comparison to the other industrial sectors, cement industry has been consuming the highest proportion of energy. A typical well-equipped plant consumes about 4 GJ energy to produce one ton of cement. At the same time, this sector is one of the worst pollutant sector [1], which emits an increasing amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, chlorofluorocarbons and methane. For each ton of clinker produced, an equivalent amount of green house gases are emitted [2, 3]. Cement production in the world is about 3.6 billion ton per year [4]. About 2 % of the electricity produced in the whole world is used during the grinding process of raw materials [5]. Total electrical energy consumption for cement production is about 110 kWh/t of cement, roughly two thirds of this energy is used for particle size reduction [6]. Because of high energy consumption rates and high environmental impact of the process, the manufacturing process has been considered by the investigators for many years. Schuer et al. [7] studied energy consumption data and focused on the energy saving methods for German cement industry considering electrical and thermal energy saving methods. Saxena et al. [8] investigated energy efficiency of a cement plant in India. Worell et al. [9] dealt with energy analysis in the U.S. cement industry for the years 1970 and 1997. Engin and Ari [10] analyzed a dry type rotary kiln system with a kiln capacity of 600 t clinker per day. They found that about 40 % of the total input energy was lost through hot flue gas, cooler stack and kiln shell. The study indicates that for a dry type cement production process, the carbon dioxide emission intensity for kiln feed preparation process is about 5.4 kg CO2 per ton cement produced. Camdali et al. [11] have calculated the enthalpies going into and leaving the rotary kiln in cement industry and the heat losses from the system by conduction, convection and radiation according to the first law of thermodynamics. Furthermore, exergy analysis of the system is made based on the second law of thermodynamics. Kabir et al. [12] analyzed a pyroprocessing unit of a typical dry process cement plant. In order to enhance the energy performance of the unit, they considered conservation of heat losses from the system. Application of waste heat recovery steam generator and secondary kiln shell were suggested. They showed that power and thermal energy savings of 42.88 MWh/y and 5.30 MW can

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Abstract In this study, the effects of refractory bricks and formation of anzast layer on the specific energy consumption of a rotary kiln are investigated. Thermodynamic analysis of the kiln is performed to achieve effective and efficient energy management scheme. Actual data, which are taken from a cement plant located in Gaziantep, Turkey, are used in numerical calculations to obtain energy balance for the system. It is calculated that 12.5 MW of energy is lost from the surface of the kiln which accounts for the 11.3 % of the total energy input to the unit. The specific energy consumption for clinker production is determined to be 3735.45 kJ/kg clinker. The formation of anzast layer and the use of high quality magnesia spinel and high alumina refractory bricks provide 7.27 % reduction in energy consumption corresponding to a saving of 271.78 MJ per ton of clinker production. It is recognized that the anzast layer has an important role for durability of the refractory bricks and heat transfer out of the kiln. The applications prevent the emission of 1614.48 tons of CO2 per year to the atmosphere.

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2. System description Cement production is a long process which consumes large amounts of fossil fuels and electricity. The process includes five main stages: (a) mining and grinding of raw materials into fine powder, (b) blending the farine in homogenization silos prior to preheating in four staged cyclone preheaters, (c) increasing the temperature of farine (pre-calcination) in preheating tower with flue gases from the kiln, (d) burning the prepared mixture of farine in a rotary kiln (calcination) after the preheating tower and (e) grinding the clinker in a cement mill. Clinker production in rotary kiln system is the most energy intensive stage in cement production, accounting for about 90% of total thermal energy use [8]. In the present study, Gaziantep cement plant located in the South-east of Turkey is considered as a case study for the thermal energy analysis. Annual cement production capacity of the plant is 1.5 million tons. The cement plant operates on a dry cement process line. The rotary burner is a refractory lined tube type kiln with a diameter of 4.2 m and 59 m length. It is inclined at an angle of 3.5, and its rotational speed is 12 rpm. The average clinker production capacity of the rotary kiln is 65 t/h. Four stage cyclone type pre-heater is used to pre-calcinate the raw material before it enters the kiln. In a typical dry rotary kiln system, pre-calcination gets started in the pre-heaters, and approximately one third of the raw material would be pre-calcined at the end of pre-heating. The temperature of the pre-heated material is about 1000 C. The raw material passes through the rotary kiln towards the flame. In the calcination zone, calcination process, combination of alumina, silica and ferric oxide with lime take place at about 1500 C. Pulverized coal is burnt in the rotary kiln to reach the required reaction temperature. After the combustion and the reactions inside the kiln, clinker, the semi product of cement is produced. Clinker is rapidly cooled in cooling unit after the rotary kiln. Fast cooling of the clinker enables heat recovery from clinker, and improves the product quality [9]. The clinker is ground together with gypsum and other pozzolans materials and finally cement is produced. The flow diagram of the rotary kiln is shown in Fig.1.

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be achieved respectively. Atmaca et. al [13,14,15] have employed energy and exergy analysis on a pyroprocessing unit in Turkey, the rate of heat loss is reduced from 22.7 MW to 17.3 MW by the application of insulation to the system. They determined that 1056.7 kW of electricity can be generated by using the waste heat, and annual emission rates have been reduced by 8.2 %. In this study, thermal performance of the rotary kiln presented in a cement plant is investigated using energy analysis based the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The data collected from a cement plant located in Gaziantep, Turkey, are used in numerical calculations to obtain realistic performance parameters. The effects of the anzast layer and thickness, type and composition of refractory bricks on the performance parameters of the kiln are examined. The literature survey indicates that studies on rotary kiln is limited in number and scope, and this paper can contribute to a better understanding of rotary kiln operation and parameters affecting its performance.

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Fig. 1. Rotary kiln flow diagram.

3. Thermodynamic analysis of the rotary kiln The rotary kiln is heart and the most energy consuming part of a conventional cement plant. Thermodynamic analysis of the kiln system is performed in this section to achieve effective and energy efficient management scheme. Energy and exergy analyses for the kiln unit of the cement factory are performed by using the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Specific heat capacity, input and output mass of each item, temperature, pressure values and constant specific heat of the input and output materials are determined for the operating rotary kiln. Cement production is a continuous process. Stopping the production process in order to change the refractories is a long, costly and undesirable process. The refractory bricks of the rotary kiln are changed when they lose their thermal properties. In order to enter into the rotary kiln and measure the thickness of the anzast layer, we waited for the appropriate time. Many measurements have been taken for about 3 years and average values are used. During the analysis, the following assumptions are made: (1) the system is assumed to be steady state, steady flow process, (2) kinetic and potential energy chances of input and output materials are negligible, (3) the gases inside the kiln are assumed to be ideal gases, (4) electrical energy produces the shaft work in the system, (5) the ambient and kiln average surface temperatures are constant throughout the period of the study. In order to find heat and work interactions, energy and exergy efficiencies, and the rate of irreversibility in a steady state flow process, the following balance equations are applied. The mass balance for an open system operating under steady state conditions is expressed as: & in = m & out (1) m & is the mass flow rate of the kiln, subscripts in and out in all expressions stand for where m input and output values of each parameter. The general energy balance can be expressed as: & = E & (2) E in out & & & h m & h W = m Q (3)

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net,in

net,out

out out

& is the rate of heat transfer, W & is the rate of work, m & is mass flow rate, and h is enthalpy. where Q The first law (energy or energetic) efficiency is defined as the ratio of energy output to the amount of energy input, which is: & E I = &out (4) E

in

The general exergy balance is expressed as: & Ex & & Ex in out = Exdest 3

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(5)

hout = cavg (T2 T0 ) (11) where T1 and T2 are the input and output temperatures of the materials and To is the ambient air temperature. For incompressible substances the entropy change is: T (12) s2 s1 = cavg ln 2 T0 For ideal gases the entropy change is: T P (13) s2 -s1 = c p,avg ln 2 -R ln 2 T0 P0 Since the pressures of the input and output materials are equal, their s values are expressed as: T (14) sin = c p ,avg ln 1 T0 T (15) sout = c p ,avg ln 2 T0 After obtaining the entropy and enthalpy values of the input and output materials, the exergy values of input and output materials in the rotary kiln are calculated from the equations. (16) in = hin T0 sin (17) out = hout T0 sout
4. Heat loss calculation of the rotary kiln Due to temperature difference between inner surface and ambient air temperature, there will be heat transfer from the kiln to atmosphere. The heat transfer from the rotary kiln takes place due to conduction, convection and radiation. Substantial quantity of heat is transferred to the atmosphere from the surface. This heat transfer is considered waste heat. Conservation of this heat will improve the thermal efficiency of the rotary kiln. 4

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(9) h = u + P where cavg is average specific heat, is specific volume and P is pressure change. Due to negligible pressure change the enthalpy change is equal to the internal energy change. The enthalpy values of the input and output materials can be expressed with reference to ambient conditions: hin = cavg (T1 T0 ) (10)

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u = c (T ) dT = cavg (T2 T1 )

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T0 & W & & & & (6) 1 Q net,out + min in mout out = Exdest T p p & where Qp is the heat transfer rate through the boundary at temperature Tp at location p. The subscript zero indicates properties at the dead state of Po and To. The subscript dest indicates destruction. The second-law (exergy or exergetic) efficiency may generally be defined as the rate of exergy output divided by the rate of exergy input: & Ex II = & out (7) Exin In this study, we use Eq. (9) and use exergies of outgoing and input materials to the unit. Maximum improvement in the exergy efficiency for a process is obviously achieved when the exergy loss or irreversibility is minimized. Higher exergy efficiency permits a better matching of energy sources and uses [16]. Internal energy change and enthalpy change values are: (8)

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To obtain the general energy balance of the system, the energy consumed during the formation of clinker is calculated. The clinker composition which is taken from the facility laboratory is shown in Table 1. Al2O3, MgO, CaO, SiO2 and Fe2O3 percentages in the manufactured cement has been analyzed to be 3, 1.76, 51.2, 26.5 and 4.5 %, respectively. Formation energy of the clinker is calculated by using the Zur Strassen equation [17]. Formation energy (kcal/kg) = 4.11[Al2O3]+6.48[MgO]+7.646[CaO]5.116[SiO2]0.59[Fe2O3] (18) Table 1 Clinker composition. Chemical name Calcium ferrite Di-calcium silicate Calcium aluminate Tri-calcium silicate Potassium oxide Sulfur trioxide Magnesium oxide Sodium oxide Total

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where is the emissivity of the surface, and is Stefan-Boltzman constant as 5.67108 W/m2 K4.

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Energy is transferred by mass, heat and work within the rotary kiln which we choose as the control volume. The simplifications of the one dimensional heat conduction, convection and radiation equations in a cylindrical structure for the case of constant conductivity for steady conduction with no heat generation is applied (Fig.2). The rate of heat transfer between the control volume and its surroundings is calculated from the following equations: & = Tin Tout (19) Q total Rtotal where Rtotal is the total thermal resistance of the system and calculated from x Rrad R Rtotal = Rconv ,1 + Rcond ,1 + Rcond ,2 + Rcond ,3 + conv ,2 (20) Rconv ,2 + Rrad Conduction, convection and radiation thermal resistance values are determined from the expressions: r r 1 1 1 Rconv ,1 = Rcond ,1 = ln 3 Rcond ,2 = ln 2 2 r4 L1h1 2 L1k1 r4 2 L1k2 r3 r 1 1 1 (21) Rconv ,2 = Rrad = Rcond ,3 = ln 1 2 L1k3 r2 2 r1 L1h2 2 r1 L1hrad where h is the convection coefficient, k is the thermal conductivity, and hrad is the radiation heat transfer coefficient and its value is determined from, 2 2 hrad = (Tout (22) , surf + Tout )(Tout , surf + Tout )

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Chemical structure 4CaO. Al2O3.Fe2O3 2CaO.SiO2 3CaO. Al2O3 3CaO.SiO2 K2 O SO3 MgO Na2O -

Chemical form C4AF C2 S C3 A C3 S -

Percentage (%) 10.4 13.2 9.1 60.2 2.5 2.1 1.2 1.3 100

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Fig. 2. The thermal resistance network for heat transfer through the mantle of the rotary kiln. 5. Results and discussion The effects of the refractory bricks and formation of anzast layer on specific energy consumption (SEC) of the kiln are investigated in this study. For that reason, thermodynamic analysis was performed to find performance parameters of the kiln such as heat losses, efficiency and SEC. The energy and exergy calculations are done using MS Excel Professional Plus 2013 which is a commercial software. The software makes it possible to analyze the whole system by considering their interactions with each other. Actual data are used in numerical calculations, and the performance parameters are obtained. The results obtained are presented as Tables and figures, and they are discussed in this chapter. In dry process, the raw ingredients are prepared and stored without addition of water, and the kiln is commonly divided into five zones (Table 2 and Fig.3). The refractory brick arrangement and anzast layer in rotary kiln are presented in Fig.4. Tin is the inner temperature of the rotary kiln and Tsurf is the surface temperature of the mantle of the kiln. r1, r2, r3 and r4 are the inner radiuses of the rotary kiln. r1-r2 gives the thickness of the steel mantle, r2-r3 is the thickness of the refractory bricks and r4 is the average radius of the anzast layer. The surface of the kiln is divided into 4 sections with different surface temperature values. The type and length of refractory materials used are presented in Fig.5.

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Fig. 3. Rotary kiln zones.

Fig. 4. Presentation of refractory arrangement and anzast layer in rotary kiln.

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Fig. 5. The rotary kiln surface temperature zones and brick arrangement. 7

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Table 2 Kiln zones and refractory materials.

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Refractory materials

Kiln Zones 1 2

Chain zone: The front end of the kiln, it is typically lined with coarse aggregate Coarse aggregate monolithic. Preheating: Usually the longest zone as the name suggests this section is the pre- Mid/High Alumina heating section of the kiln. It is generally lined with alkali resistant refractories such as 40 to 50 % alumina bricks. Calcining: Higher in temperature than the chain and pre-heating zones it is High Alumina commonly lined with higher alumina refractory materials.

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Burning zone: The eutectic temperature between the free lime in the calcined feed and alumina-silica materials is in the region of 1100 to 1300 C, that is why the burning section of the kiln is lined with basic refractories such as magnesia-chrome or magnesia-spinel as these materials form no eutectics with lime at the temperatures encountered in the hot zones. The three sections are commonly determined by different clinker coating conditions, a stable coating is essential for extended refractory life. 4.1 Upper Transition: In the upper transition zone the coating is usually thin or nonexistent; temperatures are generally in the region of 1250 C. About 30 % of the length of the burning zone is called as the upper transition zone. 4.2 Sintering: Coatings in sintering zone are usually thick and stable. This zone is about the 50 % of the burning zone length.

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5.1. Energy and exergy analysis of the kiln Energy balance for the kiln is defined that energy input is equal to energy output for the steady state operation. Total energy input to the kiln consists of energy entering by raw materials, electricity consumed and the combustion of pulverized lignite coal. Total energy output consists of the energy absorbed by raw materials, heat loss and hot gas leaving from the kiln. Results obtained from a case study can be given to explain energy analysis for the kiln. The results of the energy and exergy analysis for the rotary kiln unit are presented in Table 3. The relevant data and constants are obtained from on site measurements. The work transfer due to electricity and heat lost values are calculated. The given and calculated values including mass flow rates (), input (Tin) and output (Tout) temperatures, constant pressure specific heats (cp), enthalpy (h) and entropy (s) changes, energy and exergy values of the raw materials, first law (I) and second law (II) efficiencies, and average ambient air temperature (To) are given in Table 3. The material and energy balance for the unit is presented in Table 4. The specific heat capacity of the each input and output material has been calculated using the empiric correlation below which practices upon the Kirchhoff law [19].

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4.3 Lower Transition: The lower transition zone encounters the most severe conditions in the kiln. Temperatures here are at the highest and the coating is often unstable and thin, clinker fluids are also present. This zone is about 20 % of the burning zone length. 5 Discharge: There is a chamber between the rotary kiln and the clinker cooler. The clinker discharges into firing hood. High wear often occurs at the ring end of the discharge zone. The discharge zone is commonly lined with basic or high alumina refractories [18].

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MagnesiaAlumina-Spinel

MagnesiaAlumina-Spinel MagnesiaAlumina-Spinel MagnesiaAlumina-Spinel

MagnesiaAlumina-Spinel and/or Mid/High Alumina

Table 3 Energy and exergy analysis of the kiln unit.


Input material Content CaO SiO2 Al2O3 Fe2O3 MgO K 2O H 2O Na2O SO3 C2 Ash O2 H2 H 2O N2 S2 N2 O2 (kg/h) 75,369 18,543 5145 2709 1312.5 901.95 739.2 249.9 30.45 105,000 4788 1468.8 273.6 259.2 201.6 115.2 93.6 7200 7200 7675.7 2056.1 cp (kJ/kgK) 0.61 0.69 2.01 4.16 0.37 4.31 4.18 4.36 0.62 0.03 1.3 0.92 14.32 4.18 1.04 5.64 T0 (K) 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290

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Tin (K) 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 1110 344 344 344 344 344 344 344 h (kJ/kg) 492 565.8 1648.2 3411.2 303.4 3534.2 3427.6 3575.2 492 1.62 70.2 49.68 773.28 225.72 56.16 304.56 920 320 320 31655.825 31.2 27.75

(23) C p = a + bT + cT 2 + dT 3 Here, a, b, c and d are the constants for raw material, and T represents temperature of each material. The constants of each component of the input and output materials are taken from Ref. [20, 21]. Total energy input to the kiln is calculated to be 111.18 MW. Heat lost from the surface of the kiln is equal to 12.5 MW which accounts for the 11.3 % of the total energy input to the unit. Based on the calculated values given in Table 3, the first law efficiency of the kiln is calculated from Eq. (4) to be 62.10 MW/111.18 MW = 0.558 or 55.8 %. The energy lost account to 44.2 % of the inlet energy. The second law efficiency of the rotary kiln is calculated from Eq. (7) to be 34.649 MW / 89.49 kW = 0.387 or 38.7 %. This corresponds to an exergy loss of 61.3 % in the unit. Fig. 7 shows a Sankey diagram indicating magnitudes and percentages of energy flows and losses while Fig. 8 shows a Grassmann diagram with the corresponding data for exergy. Operation of the system involves thermal energy inputs in the form of hot gas, electricity, and thermal energies of burning coal and raw materials. The output includes thermal energies contained in clinker and hot gas as well as energy losses with heat losses, leaking dust and ash and the energy consumed during the formation of clinker which are the unavoidable waste of burning process. The input energy is dominated by the combustion of pulverized lignite coal with a 56.9 % contribution while inlet air accounts for 20.9 % and precalcined farine accounts for 18.1 % of the total energy input (Fig. 8). 32.9 % of the input energy is lost during the formation of clinker. Heat loss from the surface of the kiln accounts for 11.3 % and hot gas leaving the system accounts for 32.6 % of the output energies (Table 4). The exergy flow diagram in Fig. 8 shows that most of the exergy input to the system is due to combustion of fuel (69.9 %) followed by the exergy of primary and secondary air streams (13.5 %) and the precalcined farine (11.8 %). As a result, combustion process has the greatest contribution of input energy and input exergy. An examination of output exergies shows that exergy loss is responsible for 61.3 % of the all output exergies.

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s (kJ/kgK) 0.81 0.93 2.7 5.58 0.5 5.79 5.61 5.85 0.81 0.01 0.22 0.16 2.45 0.71 0.18 0.96 1.33 0.102 0.091

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h (kW) 10300.43 2914.34 2355.55 2566.93 110.61 885.46 703.81 248.18 4.16 20,089.47 2.15 28.64 3.78 55.68 12.64 1.80 7.92 112.60 63,311.65 66.52 15.849

Total

Coal

Total Combustion of coal Primary air

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Farine

(kW) 5410.89 1530.93 1237.39 1348.43 58.11 465.14 369.71 130.37 2.19 10,553.15 0.18 2.38 0.31 4.62 1.05 0.15 0.66 9.34 62,541.6 3.22 0.76

1.15 1.04 0.92

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Total

Secondary air

Total Electrical work TOTAL Output material

Content

211,577

cp (kJ/kgK) 0.618 2.167 4.426 0.618 0.743 0.618 2.167 0.618 0.743 4.779 0.887 0.392 4.711 1.083 1.093 2.046 1.012 4.97 0.71 1.05 0.71 2.59 5.3 0.705 0.924 0.705 2.598 0.705 0.924 1.3 -

T0 (K) 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 -

Tin (K) 1550 1550 1550 1550 1550 1550 1550 1550 1550 1550 1550 1550 1550 1120 1120 1120 1120 1120 1120 1120 710 710 710 710 710 710 710 710 710 710 h (kJ/kg) 778.68 2730.42 5576.76 778.68 936.18 778.68 2730.42 778.68 936.18 6021.54 1117.62 493.92 5935.86

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4341.5 111,182.83 h (kW) 423.08 1087.92 4545.06 1410.28 2034.63 705.14 2571.45 5076.99 2882.39 2181.14 202.41 98.4 1075.05 24,293.94 22965.64 7568.91 3652.28 342.61 1529.63 120.19 48.47 36,227.74 38.15 54.68 191.21 140.95 100.01 60.41 132.79 356.09 166.68 340.04 1581

Ar CO2 H 2O Other N2 O2 Ar CO2 H 2O Other -

118.4 3.9 3 8.9 9866 69639.6 18654.1 1074.1 35.8 26.9 80.6 89,511

4.97 0.85 4.18 1.007 1.146 1.074 4.97 1.21 2.4 1.177

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290 290 290 290 320 320 320 320 149.1 25.38 125.4 30.2

0.489 0.083 0.411 0.099 1.51 1.42 6.55 1.60 3.16 1.55

290 290 290 290 290 290

1084 1084 1084 1084 1084 1084

909.82 852.66 3945.74 960.63 1905.39 934.43

4.903 0.028 0.103 0.075 87.481 17599.93 4418.23 1177.29 9.55 14.21 20.91 23,240.13

0.24 0.001 0.005 0.004 4.235 9123.74 2290.4 610.3 4.95 7.37 10.84 12,047.6 4341.5 89,497.43 (kW) 259,87 668,23 2791,69 866,23 1249,72 433,11 1579,45 3118,41 1770,44 1339.71 124.33 60.44 660.32 14,921.93 12123.4 3995.58 1928.01 180.86 807.48 63.45 25.59 19,124.37 14.57 20.87 73 53.81 38.18 23.06 50.69 135.94 63,63 129.81 603.56

(kg/h) 1956 1434.4 2934 6520 7824 3260 3390.4 23472 11084 1304 652 717,2 652 65,200 91975,98 30035,7 7742,54 1468,41 1334,92 734,21 200,24 133,492 463.86 180.39 309.24 1713.705 927.72 734.445 438.09 4329.36 1546.2 2241.99 12,885

Clinker

Total

Hot gas

Total

Dust and ash

Total

4CaO C4AF Al2O3 Fe2O3 2CaO C2S SiO2 3CaO C3A Al2O3 3CaO C3S SiO2 K 2O SO3 MgO Na2O N2 CO2 H 2O O2 Ar SO2 Other 4CaO C4AF Al2O3 Fe2O3 2CaO C2S SiO2 3CaO C3A Al2O3 C3S 3CaO SiO2 Ash -

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898.89 907.19 1698.18 839.96 4125.1 589.3 871.5 296.1 1091.16 2226 296.1 388.08 296.1 1091.16 296.1 388.08 546.00 -

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s (kJ/kgK) 1.04 3.63 7.42 1.04 1.25 1.04 3.63 1.04 1.25 8.01 1.49 0.66 7.9 1.46 1.48 2.76 1.37 6.72 0.96 1.42 0.63 2.33 4.75 0.63 0.83 0.63 2.33 0.63 0.83 1.16 -

TOTAL

211,577

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62,102.68

34,649.86

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Fig. 6. Energy balance of the RK. 11

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Table 4 Mass and energy balance of the unit. Input materials (kg/h) Farine 105,000 Pulvarized coal 7200 Primary air 9866 Secondary air 89,511 Electrical work Combustion of coal Total 211,577 Output materials (kg/h) Formation of clinker Clinker 65,200 Hot gas 133,492 Dust and ash 12,885 Heat transfer from the kiln Total 211,577

36,537.63 24,293.94 36,227.74 1581.00 12,542.51 111,182.83

32.9 21.8 32.6 1.4 11.3 100

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in (kW) 20,089.47 112.6 87.48 23,240.13 4341.5 63,311.65 111,182.83 out (kW)

Percentage (%) 18.1 0.1 0.1 20.9 3.9 56.9 100 Percentage (%)

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Fig. 7. The energy band diagram (Sankey) of the rotary kiln.

5.2. Specific energy consumption (SEC) of the kiln The specific energy consumption (SEC) of the system is calculated by using the data taken from the factory area for one year (Table 5). For the production of 65,200 kg/h clinker, the factory consumes 4341.5 kW of electricity and 63,311.65 kW of energy by the combustion of pulverized lignite coal. Thus, the average SEC is (63,311.65+4,341.5)*3600/65,200 =3735.45 kJ/kg clinker. Table 5 Monthly SEC of the rotary kiln under standard conditions. Electricity Coal Clinker production * consumption Months consumption (kg/month) (kg/month) (kWh/month) 12

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Fig. 8. The exergy band diagram (Grassmann) of the rotary kiln.

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SEC (kJ/kg clinker)

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5.2.2. Effect of the type and quality of the refractory bricks on the efficiency of the kiln Refractory materials play a critical role in the rotary kiln lining. The main contents of these bricks are mainly based on alumina, magnesia and chrome (Table 6). While replacing the bricks, it is recognized that the thickness of the old bricks are reduced by half in some regions of the kiln. It is seen that, there is only magnesia chromite and alumina bricks inside the kiln. The second quality old bricks with poor thermal properties are replaced with bricks which have higher Mg and Al content. The new chrome ore free bricks have resistance against high thermo-mechanical and thermochemical loads with redox conditions, alkali and sulphate attack. Thus, the service life of the bricks are increased considerably. Table 6 Properties of new refractory bricks. Content Mg0 (%) Al2O3 (%) Section 1 Magnesia Chromite 65-70 2-5 13 Section 2 Magnesia Spinel 80-84 10-14 Section 3 High alumina 10-20 75-80 Section 4 Alumina 12-16 65-70

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5.2.1. Effect of anzast layer on the efficiency of the kiln The formation of an anzast layer inside the kiln has important effects on energy and exergy efficiency of the unit. Some advantages of the anzast layer formation are summarized below: - An anzast layer protects the refractory bricks against high temperature values, - Reduces the deformations on the bricks due to hot clinker flow, - Supports bricks during continuous rotation of the kiln, - Reduces the heat transfer rate and coal consumption. In order to maintain appropriate anzast layer inside the kiln, the silicate module of the farine has kept as low as possible to provide easy sintering. Silica has an abrasive effect on the bricks. Therefore, the amount of free silica has been decreased by using iron oxide minerals instead of sand during production of farine. In this way, the materials containing higher silica were able to melt easily under lower temperature values. The experienced staff have an important role to maintain the desired conditions. The thickness of the anzast layer is measured in each section of the kiln, and the average thickness of the layer is found to be 450 mm. After obtaining the thickness of the anzast layer, the first law efficiency of the kiln is calculated to be 69419.89 kW / 116614.2 kW = 0.595 or 59.5 %. The second law efficiency of the rotary kiln is calculated to be 40215.96 kW / 93151.44 kW = 0.431 or 43.1 %. The SEC of the unit is found to be 3441.26 kJ/kg clinker. SEC value is calculated from, 65760.99 kJ/s x 3600 / 66450 kg/h = 3562.67 kJ/kg clinker.

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January 5493.6 3,230,076 44,788.8 February 4791.36 2,795,926 39,090.8 March 5501.88 3,230,076 45,384 April 5098.2 3,021,684 42,804 May 5399.21 3,230,076 45,979.2 June 5212.8 3,125,880 44,568 July 5364.24 3,230,076 45,706.89 August 5386.56 3,230,076 45,384 September 5199.84 3,125,880 43,200 October 5424.13 3,230,076 44,640 November 5320.8 3,125,880 43,560 December 5475.84 3,230,076 44,788.8 Average 5305.71 3,150,481.8 44,157.87 * The specific combustion energy of the coal is calculated to be 31,100 kJ/kg coal.

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3813.14 3810.39 3768.79 3702.86 3650.78 3636.37 3648.81 3690.02 3742.22 3777.61 3797.38 3800.85 3735.45

Table 8 Monthly SEC of the rotary kiln after the application of anzast layer and new refractory bricks. Coal Electricity Clinker production SEC Months consumption* consumption (t/month) (kJ/kg clinker) (t/month) (kWh/month) January 5349.6 3,230,076 47,675.52 3488.62 February 4662.56 2,795,926 41,505.8 3492.49 March 5353.08 3,230,076 47,839.2 3478.95 14

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Table 7 Mass and energy balance of the unit after installing refractory bricks with better thermal properties. Input materials (kg/h) in (kW) Percentage (%) Farine 105,000 22,784.4 19.59 Pulvarized coal 6810 106.5 0.09 Primary air 10,106 59.74 0.05 Secondary air 89,511 29,105.84 25.03 Electrical work 4341.5 3.73 Combustion of coal 59,880.71 51.5 Total 211,427 116278.7 100 Output materials (kg/h) out (kW) Percentage (%) Formation of clinker 35,411.75 30.45 Clinker 66,750 25,999.44 22.36 Hot gas 133,242 43,566.14 37.47 Dust and ash 11,435 1703.75 1.47 Heat transfer from the kiln 9597.62 8.25 Total 211,427 116,278.7 100

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The heat transfer losses from the surface of the unit and the coal consumption of the unit decreased considerably after replacing high quality refractory bricks inside the kiln. The first and second law efficiency and SEC of the unit have been evaluated again. Based on the calculated values in Table 7, the first law efficiency of the kiln is calculated to be 72838.4 kW / 118973.65 kW = 0.612 or 61.2 %. The second law efficiency of the rotary kiln is calculated to be 42874.65 kW / 95089.68 kW = 0.451 or 45.1 %. SEC value is calculated from, 64222.21 kJ/s x 3600 / 66750 kg/h = 3463.67 kJ/kg clinker. The energy consumption and clinker production of the unit on a month basis is given in Table 8.

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Cr2O3 (%) CaO (%) Fe2O3 (%) SiO2 (%) Apparent Porosity (%) Bulk Density (g/cm3) Thermal conductivity at 1000 C (W/mK) Cold Crushing Strength (MPa ) Thickness (mm)

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2-4 10-16 3-5 18 3.05-3.1 3.5 55 250

2-5 1-4 17 2.9-3.05 2.4 60 300

4-7 2-8 20 2.7-2.96 1.8 63 350

3-6 4-10 22 2.65-3.1 2.2 61 250

* The specific combustion energy of the coal is calculated to be 31,100 kJ/kg coal.

Standart conditions
3850

After efficiency enhancement studies

3750

SEC (kJ/kg clinker)

3550 3450

3350

Ja n Fe b M ar ch A pr il M ay Ju ne Ju ly A ug Se pt O ct N ov

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5.2.3. Effect of ambient air temperature on the efficiency of the kiln The highest and lowest ambient air temperatures are obtained from Turkish State Meteorological Service [22]. The monthly changes in SEC of the rotary kiln with respect to ambient air temperature are shown in Fig. 9. The data indicates that at higher ambient temperatures (during summer months), both the first and second law efficiencies increase. This corresponds to higher rates of clinker production. The average air temperatures for winter and summer can be taken as 5 C and 30 C, respectively. As a result, the efficiencies are higher in summer than in winter. The temperature difference between the mantle of the kiln and the surrounding air is lower in summer, and less heat is lost. As a result, coal consumption of the unit is lower in summer days.

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Fig. 9. SEC of the rotary kiln with respect to months.

5.3. Emissions reduction After obtaining a suitable anzast layer and using better quality refractory bricks inside the kiln, the heat transfer from the surface and coal consumption of the kiln have been decreased considerably. Clinker production has been increased at the same time. At the end of 2nd year, the average coal consumption of the unit has decreased from 63,668.46 t/y to 61,931.66 t/y. The amount of coal saved per year is 1736.8 tons. The amount of carbon dioxide emission per kg of coal burned is 0.93 kg [23, 24]. Thus, 1,614,480 kg of CO2 emission has been prevented by saving 1736.8 tons of coal in a year. Nitrogen oxides are formed during fuel combustion in rotary kilns. The NOx emissions result from the oxidation of nitrogen in the fuel as well as in incoming combustion air. The quantity of NOx

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April May June July August September October November December Average

4959 5250.41 5068.8 5215.44 5237.76 5055.84 5275.33 5176.8 5327.04 5160.97

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3,021,684 3,230,076 3,125,880 3,230,076 3,230,076 3,125,880 3,230,076 3,125,880 3,230,076 3,150,481.8

44,683.2 47,616 46,080 47,318.4 47,318.4 45,360 47,020.8 46,044 47,467.2 46,327.38

3450.56 3428.41 3420.17 3427.06 3441.69 3465.61 3488.24 3495.56 3489.21 3463.67

formed depends on the type of fuels, its nitrogen content, combustion temperature, etc. The emission factor for NOx in cement process is 1.4 kg/t coal burned for both dry and wet process kilns. Thus, 2,431.5 kg of NOx / y emission has been prevented. The emission of SO2 into the atmosphere is known to cause the formation of acid rain and smog. Sulfur dioxide may come from the sulfur content in ores and in combusted fuel which will vary from plant to plant. The emission factors of dry kilns suggested by US EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency) is 3.5S kg SO2 / ton of coal burned, where S is the sulfur content in the fuel in percent [25, 26]. The properties of the coal are presented in Table 3. The emission factor for SO2 is calculated to be 0.0455 kg SO2/t coal burned. About 79 kg of SO2 emission is prevented yearly. 6. Conclusions The analysis and performance assessment of the rotary kiln indicate that the clinker formation process involves energy and exergy losses, and the process is affected by certain parameters. The main results of the study can be summarized as follows: The first law efficiency of the rotary kiln is determined to be 55.8 % while the second law efficiency is 38.7 %. The energy lost from the system is calculated to be 12.5 MW. The specific energy consumption for clinker production is determined to be 3735.45 kJ/kg clinker. It is calculated that 32.9 % of the energy is lost during the formation of clinker and 32.6 % of the total energy exits with hot gas streams. The quality and type of the refractory used inside the kiln affect the performance of the rotary kiln significantly. After the application of anzast layer and new refractory bricks inside the kiln, the first and second law efficiency and SEC values of the system are calculated as 61.2 %, 45.1 % and 3463.67 kJ/kg clinker, respectively. With the help of efficiency enhancement studies, annual clinker production of the kiln has been increased from 529,894.5 tons to 555,928.5 tons. There is 4.68 % increase in production capacity of the unit. The rotary kiln operates for about 7750 hours in a year. The annual total coal consumption of the facility has been decreased from 63,668.46 tons to 61,931.66 tons. Coal consumption of the kiln decreased by 2.72 %, thats 1736.8 tons of coal per year has been saved after the application of anzast layer and new refractory bricks. With decrease in coal consumption, annual CO2, NOx and SO2 emissions rates of the facility are decreased by 1,614,480 kg, 2,431.5 kg and 79 kg respectively. The ambient air conditions affect efficiency and production capacity of the kiln. The SEC of the kiln increase in winter months due to lower ambient temperatures. It appears that the losses (particularly heat losses) increase in winter months. Reduction in fuel consumption in a rotary kiln operation can be achieved by minimizing various losses occurring in the unit [27]. According to the results, increase in combustion efficiency will be the main parameter on the system efficiency. Minimizing heat losses by effective insulation, reducing the temperature of gases at the outlet by more effective heat transfer in the unit, and minimizing air and steam leak by effective sealing are some measures that can help reduce energy consumption. Further studies on the topic may involve the investigation of the parameters effecting the system performance and optimization of them for best operation. A thermoeconomic analysis of the system can also provide significant information indicating cost allocation in the system. Special Thanks I would first like to thank my mother, Elif and my father Kemal Atmaca who have died in a terrible traffic accident in 27th of November 2013, without their continuous support and encouragement I never would have been able to achieve my goals. I would like to express my deepest appreciation to my parents. Acknowledgment The authors acknowledge the support provided by the Scientific Research Unit (GUBAP) of the 16

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University of Gaziantep, Dr. Nihat Atmaca from the University of Gaziantep, and Huseyin Sencan, Mehmet Marasli, Deniz Ozdil and Erkan Demirel from Limak Cement Group. Nomenclature A cross-sectional area (m2) c specific heat (kJ/kg K) energy rate (kW) x exergy rate (kW) h specific enthalpy (kJ/kg) or heat convection coefficient(W/m2K) k thermal conductivity (W/mK) L length (m) m mass (kg) mass flow rate (kg/s) pressure (Pa) P r radius (m) R thermal resistance (K/W) Q heat transfer (kJ) & heat transfer rate (kW) Q s specific entropy (kJ/kg K) entropy rate (kW) T temperature (K) t ton T0 ambient temperature, C or K specific volume (m3/kg) v W work (kJ) work rate or power (kW) y year Greek Letters first law (energy) efficiency (%) 1 2 second law (exergy) efficiency (%) emissivity flow exergy (kJ/kg) Stefan-Boltzman constant as 5.67108 W/m2 K4 References [1] S. Kaustubh, K.V. Mujumdar, S.B. Ganesh Kulkarni, V.V. Ranade, Rotary Cement Kiln Simulator (RoCKS): Integrated modeling of pre-heater, calciner, kiln and clinker cooler, Chemical Engineering Science 62 (2007) 2590-2607. [2] H.G. van Oss, A.C. Padovani, Cement Manufacture and the Environment Part II: Environmental Challenges and Opportunities, Journal of Industrial Ecology 7 (2003) 93-126. [3] E. Mokrzycki, A. Uliasz-Bochen czyk, M. Sarna, Use of alternative fuels in the Polish cement industry, Applied Energy 74 (2003) 10111. [4] World cement production 2012, by region and main countries. IMF World Economic Outlook 2013, April 2013. [5] M. Katsioti, P.E. Tsakiridis, P. Giannatos, Z. Tsibouki, J. Marinos, Characterization of various cement grinding aids and their impact on grindability and cement performance, Construction and Building Materials 23 (2009) 1954-1959. [6] K.G. Tsakalakis, G.A. Stamboltzis, Correlation of the Blaine value and the size of the cement particle size distribution, Zement-Kalk-Gips 61 (2008) 60-68.

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[7] A. Schuer, A. Leiman, H.G. Ellerbock, Possible ways of saving energy in cement production, Cement Kalk Gips 7 (1992) 175-182. [8] J.P. Saxena, A. Saxena, A. Pahuja, S.N. Yadav, Energy efficiency through technological improvements, World Cement 1 (1995) 63-66. [9] E. Worrell, M. Nathan, L. Price, Potentials for energy efficiency improvement in the US cement industry, Energy 25 (2000) 1189-1214. [10] T. Engin, V. Ari, Energy auditing and recovery for dry type cement rotary kiln systems, A case study, Energy Conversion and Management 46 (2004) 551-562. [11] U. Camdali, A. Erisen, F. Celen, Energy and exergy analyses in a rotary kiln with precalcinations in cement production, Energy Conversion and Management 45 (2004) 3017-3031. [12] G. Kabir, A.I. Abubakar, U.A. El-Nafaty, Energy audit and conservation opportunities for pyroprocessing unit of a typical dry process cement plant, Energy 35 (2010) 1237-1243. [13] A. Atmaca, M. Kanoglu, M. Gadalla, Thermodynamic analysis of a pyroprocessing unit of a cement plant: a case study, Int. J. Exergy 11 (2012) 152-172. [14] A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas, Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement plant: Part I Methodology, Energy Convers Manage (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.11.053. [15] A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas, Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement plant: Part II Application, Energy Convers Manage (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.11.054. [16] Y.A. Cengel, M.A. Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, 5th edition, McGraw Hill (1998). [17] H. Zur Strassen, The theoretical heat requirement for cement burning, Zement Kalk Gips 10 (1957) 1. [18] A. Atmaca, R. Yumrutas, The Use Of Waste Heat Streams As An Energy Resource In A Rotary Burner In Cement Industry. 12th IAEE European Energy Conference Energy Challenge And Environmental Sustainability, September 9-12; 2012 Venice, Italy. [19] R.C. Weast, Handbook of chemistry and physics. 56th ed. Cleveland: CRC Press (1976). [20] A. Atmaca, M. Kanoglu, Reducing energy consumption of a raw mill in cement industry, Energy 42 (2012) 261-269. [21] O. Kubaschewski, E.L. Evans, C.B. Alcock, Metallurgical thermo-chemistry, Pergamon Press (1989). [22] Turkish State Meteorological Service. Statistical temperature values of Gaziantep. http://www.mgm.gov.tr/veridegerlendirme/il-ve-ilceler-istatistik.aspx?m=GAZIANTEP#sfB [23] Cembureau. Environmental Benefits of Using Alternative Fuels in Cement Production. A lifecycle approach, http://www.wbcsdcement.org/pdf/tf2/CEMBUREAU.pdf. Table A.1, p.17. [24] M. Hrvoje, V. Milan, D. Neven, Reducing the CO2 emissions in Croatian cement industry, Applied Energy 101 (2013) 41-48. [25] P. Khummongkol, R. Bowonwiwat, Coal and its impact on the environment, Thailand Environment Institute page.36 April (1995). [26] J.O. Jaber, Future energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in Jordanian industries, Applied Energy 71 (2002) 15-30. [27] Z. Sogut, Z. Oktay, H. Karako, Mathematical modeling of heat recovery from a rotary kiln, Applied Thermal Engineering 30 (2010) 817-25.

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Highlights
We analyzed a rotary kiln and investigated the first law and second law efficiency values. Performance assessment of a kiln indicates that the burning process involves energy and exergy losses.

The specific energy consumption for clinker production is determined.

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The anzast layer affect the efficiency and production capacity of the kiln.