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Why a Project Proposal?

Writing a good proposal is a very important tool for organizing time and resources to complete a project which fully realizes your objectives. Whether the proposal is done as a PQP for credit separate from the one-unit project, or as the first fraction of credit towards the one-unit requirement, a project proposal will be invaluable in structuring your ideas about carrying out your research and writing your conclusions. ome faculty use it as an informal !"ontract! to establish an agreement about the content and limits of the final project report. #lso, since the project proposal is a widely used communications tool in the professional world, you will have the advantage of learning what goes into a proposal as part of your undergraduate education. #t WP$, only those students who present budgets in conjunction with a project proposal will be considered for funding toward $QP e%penses. tudents should consult with their advisors in framing a proposal and a budget, and some modification of these guidelines may be needed to accommodate your subject. &ut since money for your proposed budgets will be allocated competitively, be sure to cover the basic points outlined here. 'equests for funding toward MQP expenses should be presented to the individual departments.

Basic Sections of a Proposal

$n addition to specifying the needed allocation of resources to complete the project, proposals have three major sections( ). $ntroduction *. +iterature 'eview ,or &ac-ground. /. Procedure ,or 0ethodology. 1. &udget 2he !$ntroduction! tells the reader ). what your project is about, *. why the project is worth doing, and /. why your project is a good topic for fulfilling the objectives of the degree requirement. 2he $ntroduction must also state clearly and completely the specific objectives of your project -- in some detail, what you intend to accomplish. 2hough the reader encounters it first, you probably should write the !$ntroduction! last since you will need to have mastered the other parts of the proposal to provide an effective !$ntroduction.! 2he !+iterature 'eview! tells your audience ,your advisors, off-campus sponsors, or sources of funding. what the state if the art in your topic is. 3ou probably should tac-le the !+iterature 'eview! first since mastering it will give you the bac-ground you need to write other sections. 2he !Procedure! ,also called 0ethodology. lays out the method you have selected to conduct your research. $f you will be doing an $QP, the !Procedure! should emphasize how the particular interactions between science, technology, and society will be analyzed. $f you will be doing an 0QP, the !Procedure! should emphasize how your research will allow you to complete your project successfully. # good Project proposal has an additional advantage4 with appropriate revisions, the chapters in the proposal can give you a start on similar sections for the final report. 5ood wor- on the proposal has two advantages( planning for effective resource use when doing the project, and getting a jump ahead on the final report. We suggest you write the three sections of the proposal in this logical sequence( +iterature 'eview, Procedure, $ntroduction. 2hese guidelines will thus follow that order. 6ther material which should go into the report, and will be discussed below, are the

). #bstract *. 2itle Page /. 2able of "ontents 1. 7ootnotes 8. &ibliography

2he $ntroduction will be the first major section the reader encounters, so you want to ma-e it as effective as you can to encourage further interest. 2he $ntroduction states the broad problem objectives, helps introduce the project subject, and e%plains why the problem is worth solving and who will be interested in the solutions. $f the proposal is being prepared for an off-campus project sponsor as well as an advisor, ma-e certain the value of solving the problem is clear to the real-world sponsor. ome questions to cover here are( ). What is the project subject9 *. What are the goals of the project9 the sub-goals9 /. Who is the project audience who wants to use the results( you9 your advisor9 off-campus or community groups9 1. :ow and when will the results be presented physically9 8. :ow will the results be used9 ;. What is the general method or procedure being used to conduct the project9

Literature Review (or Background

2o show your advisor that you -now what your tal-ing about concerning your project, you need to demonstrate that you -now the bac-ground and conte%t of your topic. 5ood questions to answer in this section are( ). What -inds of research have been done before ,including previous $QPs and 0QPs which can be accessed through the reference des- at the library.9 *. What relevant -inds of studies or techniques need to be mastered to do your project9 /. Where is the state of the art today9 1. :ow have others gone about trying to solve problems you want to tac-le, and in what ways will your approach build on and vary from previous wor-9 2hin- of the bac-ground section as the place where you identify and discuss the most important boo-s, articles, or any other -ind of source materials for your project. $f you wanted to bring another student up to date on what you<re doing, what would be the most important thing to read9 # well written review will provide a sense of critical issues and debates which form the bac-ground for your own original wor-. =verything in your literature review section should be mentioned in your bibliography, B!" not everything in the bibliography is important enough to be mentioned in the literature review. $n other words, this section is a comment on the most valuable material you have identified which you will need to assimilate to do your project. 2he literature review thus provides a guide to all material you list separately as footnotes or bibliography

2he procedure or the methodology is the heart of the proposal because it must tell the reader how you propose to carry out your project. $t must convince your advisor ,or in industry your manager or potential client. that you clearly understand your tas-, have a logical time plan for solving your problems, and have identified all the resources you need. $f your proposal is for an $QP, you must ta-e special care to e%plain :6W you plan to relate some aspect of science or technology to society. >ote that !technology! need not be defined narrowly here( !technology! can mean the techniques used to manage or evaluate any resource efficiently, not just !nuts and bolts! hardware. &ut you must e%plain clearly how your procedure insures that the WP$ $QP degree requirement will be satisfied by completing a project which defines, investigates, and reports on a topic relating science or technology to a social need or issue. $n short, why is your topic an $QP9 ome of the other questions the reader will e%pect you to answer in this section are( ). What are the tas-s and sub-tas-s identified to achieve your objectives9 *. What materials will you need to carry out your project( equipment9 computer support9 typing9 graphics9 others9 /. What data are needed for the project and how will they be collected9 $f the project requires a survey or interviews, the design of this instrument ,especially the selection of participants. must be e%plained and justified. 1. What method or process will be used to analyze this data and where else ,if anywhere. has this method or process been used9 8. What time frame do you thin- you will need to accomplish identified tas-s or subtas-s9 hould schedules be presented in standard forms li-e P='2 or 2as- "harts9 ,see 7igures ) and *.. ;. $f you are wor-ing on a team, which teammates will accomplish which sections9 ?. What costs do you anticipate the project will incur -- in other words, your budget9 ,# &udget ummary 'equest 7orm must be submitted to the $nterdisciplinary tudies @ivision 6ffice as shown in #ppendi% ) for $QP Proposals. # &udget summary for an 0QP Proposal should be submitted to the individual department..

#ppendi$ % (Budget
2he &udget ummary 'equest form on the last page should be copied and used to submit a budget request. Please note the following( Ander item ;, on a separate sheet brea- down your costs carefully by itemizing all anticipated e%penses. $nformation supplied on actual costs ,such as copies of list prices, estimates, and the li-e. is crucial in determining accuracy of anticipated e%penses. 2he more information you can supply on such e%penses as travel, labor, supplies and material, and so on, the better your proposed budget will be. 2ravel e%penses will be paid per term using the standard WP$ travel e%pense form, signed by you and your advisor ,who thus validates the accuracy of your travel costs.. Ander item B, you must contribute from your own funds at a standard rate of C*8 per student per )D/ unit of activity ,in place of e%penses for boo-s..

#ll telephone calls should be placed through the Projects Phone in the Project "enter, "osts for calls to destinations within the continental A. . thus should not appear on your budget, since the support is already available automatically. $f you anticipate the need to ma-e international calls, please document this request very carefully. 3ou are responsible for all costs normally associated with producing the final report which goes on file at the library, as well as for any copies you ma-e for yourself. @o not apply for reimbursement of standard typing, laser printing, or %ero%ing costs of your report. 6thers who want copies should pay for their copies. 'equests for support #+W#3 loo- better if you indicate that you have investigated all possible avenues, and have identified funding sources ,off-campus agencies, research grants. in addition to what you are as-ing from the $5 @ 6ffice or your department. Ander $tem )E, briefly describe your objectives and procedures ,to enable the committee to weight your request relative to others..
BUDGET SUMMARY REQUEST FORM* BUDGET REQUEST for (project named below) Title: _________________________________________________________________ 1 % ( . 1 T!pe of "roject (circle) #Q" $Q" __ __

Department (#Q") or Di&i'ion ($Q") )ac*lt! +d&i'or', $nitial' "roject Re/i'tration 0*mber STUDE0TS _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ B23 4 ________ ________ ________ ________

__ __ __- __ __ __- __ __ __ __ __ __ __ #+52R ________ ________ ________ ________ 6E+R _______ _______ _______ _______ TER# +0D U0$TS

7 : < = 1@

Total 8o't of "roject ('*ppl! detail' on 'eparate '9eet) Total +mo*nt of S*pport Re;*e't Total +mo*nt of S*pport from all ot9er So*rce' ('ee in'tr*ction') ________________ ________________

>ill an! f*nd' in addition to t9e abo&e be re;*ired later in t9e project? 6e' _____ 0o _____ Brief 'tatement of objecti&e' and proced*re'

11 $ 9a&e re&iewed t9e project propo'al and b*d/et detail w9ic9 are attac9ed to t9i' B*d/et Re;*e't for appro&al

"roject +d&i'or,' Si/nat*re


* Submit to Interdisciplin r! Studies Di"ision O##ice i# IQ$ re%uest or indi"idu l Dep rtment O##ice i# MQ$ re%uest&

&ther Sections' (inishing !p

6nce you have these three main sections well along, several other sections coming at the beginning and the end should be drafted to provide the opening and closing e%pected in professional presentations. 2hese sections are listed below and placed in the order they will occupy relative to the three main sections noted in parentheses(

2itle Page #bstract 2able of "ontents ,$ntroduction. ,+iterature 'eview. ,Procedure, including &udget. 'eferences -- 7ootnotes and &ibliography #ppendices

Title Page
2he title page should contain, neatly arranged, the following(

title of the project project registration number of the project name,s. of the author,s. name of the faculty advisor,s. name of off-campus sponsor, if any date of submission

7igure / shows a sample title page.

2he abstract should be a brief statement of the topic, procedure, and the projected outcome of the project, in three or four sentences. 2he abstract of the final report ,which can be modified from the one in the proposal. is crucial since it goes on your transcript and is circulated widely off-campus. ,2he final project report abstract should be about BE words to accommodate the space on your transcript. 3ou will want to ma-e this as good as possible since project abstracts are a major source job interviewers use to formulate questions.. # three-sentence abstract might well follow this order. ). 7irst sentence introduces the project topic, mentioning ,if relevant. the off-campus agency with whom the project is being done.


econd sentence indicates what material will be e%amined and procedures employed to carry out the project.

/. 2hird sentence indicates the anticipated conclusions ,or results, application, or real world use of the project.. #n e%ample( 2his proposal, prepared for the A. . mall &usiness #dministration in Washington, will describe 7le%ible 0anufacturing ystems ,70 . and assess their impact on small businesses. Wor-ing from literature and interviews, we will describe 70 technology, its use in industry, and its impact on small businesses, especially suppliers. We will assess( ). if 70 can be used in small businesses, *. how 70 will impact on small businesses, and /. if management techniques related to 70 will affect small businesses in the near future.

Table of Contents
2he table of contents lists ,with final page numbers. the location of each separately titled section of the report, usually following the sequence above from abstract through appendices. 2o the professional reader ,who as such is faced with lots of reading and appreciates conveniences., the table of contents also indicates at a glance what material is covered.

'eferences usually consist of footnotes and a bibliography. 7ootnotes may appear a. at the bottom of the page, b. at the end of the chapters, or c. at the end of the report but before the appendices. 7ootnotes usually cite appropriate sources of information ,including interviews or verbal contributions from others. or occasionally indicate cross-reference to additional material. 2he form of the note varies with the professional area concerned, so chec- with your advisor. 2he standard for such matters is the latest edition of Fate 2urabian<s # 0anual 7or Writers. Whatever the format, footnotes contain the name,s. of the author,s., boo- or journal title, date of publication ,usually with the place and publisher for boo-s. and, for journals, the volume and page numbers. 2he bibliography lists all materials cited in notes. $ts value as a list of relevant materials often ma-es it useful to consult independent of the report itself ,so be sure to chec- bibliographies in your sources for relevant materials.. &ibliographies are often used as the sole source for the full reference for footnotes4 the footnotes very briefly cite the wor- in question ,by author,s. and year, for e%ample., leaving the full citation in the bibliography.

#ppendices ,singular, appendi%. contain materials too lengthy for inclusion in the te%t, or not directly relevant. "ertain -inds of raw data, bac-ground materials, and the li-e go here. #++ material in appendices must be referred to in the te%t so readers -now why they are here.

Other parts
6ccasionally a proposal and more often a report will contain an Executive Summary. 2his section, which comes after the abstract, provides a succinct overview of each section of the entire document in five to ten pages. =%ecutive summaries are required in professional reports, and at WP$, as a part of applying for the President<s $QP #ward. # Letter of Transmittal is normally affi%ed before the title page if the proposal or report is being submitted to an off-campus liaison. 2his letter is in business-letter format, and tells the recipient

briefly that you are submitting the attached proposal as part of an agreed-upon plan to conduct the project with the agency the liaison represents.

Computers And Education

An Interactive Qualifying Project Report submitted to the Faculty of the W RCE!"ER P #$"EC%&IC I&!"I"'"E in partial fulfillment of the re(uirements for the )egree of *achelor of !cience by

Paul M. Jones )ate+ ,ay -./ 0122


Professor Susan B. Smith, Major Advisor 1. computers 2. education 3. teaching

Professor o!ert ". #hite, "o$Advisor