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In-Cylinder Tutorial Four: Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.

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Last updated : 10/04/2004 Prepared by : Xiao Hu, Bipin S. Lokhande

Note: Please send your comments or questions to xh@fluent.com or bsl@fluent.co.in

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Introduction For SI engines and some natural gas combustion engines, fuel and air are mixed before entering into the combustion chamber. At the spark event, the mixture can be assumed to be homogeneous. And the combustion process can be assumed to be premixed. In this tutorial, the process of simulating such cases is demonstrated. This tutorial assumes that you are already familiar with basic Fluent simulation. And it also assumes that you are familiar with Fluent MDM layering approach. Please refer to the corresponding tutorials if you are not familiar with those. This simulation starts at IVC and ends at EVO. So, there are no valves involved. A pure layering approach is used on a 2d axisymmetric geometry. The tutorial demonstrates the following: How to set up IC premixed combustion inside FLUENT How to set up the spark model How to use the udf to modify laminar flame speed How to use the udf for some IC post-processing.

Setup Procedure: Step 1. Solver setup Start Fluent6.2 2d solver. Load the mesh, IC_premixed_com.msh.gz. Go to Grid->Scale and scale to mm as shown in Figure 1. Go to Define->Models->Solver and select Unsteady AND Axisymmetric Swirl, as shown in Figure 2.

Step2. Set up IC parameters Go to Define->Dynamic Mesh->Parameters and turn on Dynamic Mesh and In-Cylinder options and choose only Layering for Mesh Methods, as shown in Figure 3 For In-cylinder parameters, enter the following: 3000 as Crank Shaft Speed, 360 as Starting Crank Angle, 720 as Crank Period, 0.25 as Crank Angle Step Size, 80mm as Piston Stroke, and 140mm as Connecting Rod Length, as shown in Figure 3.

Step 3. Dynamic zones setup. There are only three dynamic zones, fluid, piston, and top. - Go to Define->Dynamic Mesh->Zones, and for fluid select Rigid Body as the Type. Under Motion Attributes tab, use **piston-full** as the Motion

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2 UDF/Profile, and the Valve/Piston Axis is (1, 0), as shown in Figure 4. Hit the Create button. For piston, select Rigid Body as the Type. Under Motion Attributes tab, use **piston-full** as the Motion UDF/Profile, and the Valve/Piston Axis is (1, 0), as shown in Figure 5. Under Meshing Options tab, use 0mm for Cell Height, as shown in Figure 6. Do not forget to hit the Create button. For top, select Stationary as the Type. Under Meshing Options tab, use 1mm for Cell Height, as shown in Figure 7. Do not forget to hit the Create button.

Step 4. Perform a mesh motion preview Display the grid Go to Solve->Mesh Motion Do a mesh motion preview of 840 steps, as shown in Figure 8. At Crank Step Size of 0.25 deg, a mesh motion of 840 steps will bring the mesh to CA=570, the starting point of our combustion simulation. CA=570 is the assumed IVC CA. Save a case, IC_premixed_com_CA570.cas.gz

Step 5. Modify the udf inputs There are three UDFs used in this tutorial. One is used to initialize the flow field with a solid body rotation. For IC flow simulation, there are times that one wants to only simulate the combustion stroke. Then the initial condition is normally using a solid body rotation. And the strength of the rotation is specified using swirl ratio. In the UDF, one needs to specify the swirl ratio. The second UDF is used to modify the laminar flame speed. Laminar flame speed will affect turbulent flame speed, which is used in the Zimont model for premixed combustion. The third UDF is used to calculate indicated work and also output pressure, burnt fuel mass fraction as a function of CA to a text file. - Open initialize.c using a text editor. Specify the initial swirl ratio, swirl axis, and swirl origin. For this tutorial case, the swirl ratio is 3, the swirl axis is x coordinate, and the swirl origin is (0, 0). Next specify whether you want to initialize the whole domain or just selected cell zones. For this tutorial case, we want to initialize the whole domain. For 3d cases with ports, one just wants to initialize the combustion chamber. In that case, one also needs provide the cell zone list in the UDF. - Open laminar_flame_speed.c using a text editor. Modify the diluents mass fraction, which is included to account for any EGR product. Then pick up the fuel type. The laminar flame speed correlation for a few fuels is incorporated in the UDF. If your fuel is one of them, you could simply pick up the one. - Open work.c using a text editor. Specify cell ID for your combustion chamber and face zone ID for the piston. The IDs can be found under the Boundary Conditions panel. (Note that for this tutorial case, there is no need to modify the UDF inputs. These UDFs can be used for your own simulation. And for you own simulation, you will need to modify the UDF inputs following the above procedure.)

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2 Step 6. Combustion model setup Read the case, IC_premixed_com_CA570.cas.gz Go to Define->User Defined->Functions->Compiled and hit the Add button and load initialize.c, laminar_flame_speed.c, and work.c, as shown in Figure 9. Then, hit the Build button to build the library, and hit the Load button to load it. Go to Define->User Defined->Function Hooks. Hook my_init_function to Initialization Function. Hook my_T_u to Adjust Function. Hook output_results to Execture At End Function. Hook write_data to Write Data Function. Hook read_data to Read Data Function, as shown in Figure 10. Do not forget to hit OK button. Go to Define->User Defined->Memory and increase the Number of UserDefined Memory Location from 0 to 1 and then hit OK button, as shown in Figure 11. The user defined memory is used to save unburnt gas temperature, which is needed for laminar flame speed calculation. Go to Define->Models->Viscous and select k-epsilon as the turbulence model Go to Define->Models->Species->Transport & Reaction and select Premixed Combustion AND non-adiabatic under the Species Model panel. Note that the Turbulent Flame Speed Constant, as shown in Figure 12, can affect flame speed. For this tutorial, the default value is used. However, for your specific combustion run, this parameter needs to be tuned to get accurate results. Go to Define->Materials, and select ideal-gas for Density. Select user-defined for Laminar Flame Speed and pick laminar_flame_speed. Input 5e7 for Heat of Combustion and 0.0363 for Unburnt Fuel Mass Fraction, which amounts to an equivalence ratio of 0.65 for methane. Note that Cp significantly affects the peek temperature and will be addressed next. Do not forget to click Change/Create before you close the Materials panel. The above is shown in Figure 13. Note that since this model does not predict any species, it tends to over predict peak temperature and pressure. Fluent partially premixed combustion model, which predicts equilibrium composition and can be used for premixed combustion, will have better prediction for peak temperature and pressure. Go to Define->Materials, select piece-wise linear for Cp and use temperature dependent Cp. If you do not have good data. The following is for air from temperature 100K to 3000K. 100 1032, 350 1009, 600 1051, 850 1110, 1200 1175, 1700 1267, 2200 1417, 3000 2726. You can either use the panel or the text command to enter those as piece-wise linear temperature dependent Cp. If you want to use text command, the text command is : /def/mat/cc/air , , , , y piecewise-linear 8 100 1032 350 1009 600 1051 850 1110 1200 1175 1700 1267 2200 1417 3000 2726 , , , , , , , , , , , , , Simply copy and past the above to Fluent window without the quote. After applying the text command, you may use the Materials panel to double check the data.

Step 7. Spark model setup Go to Define->Models->Species->Spark Ignition. Select Fixed Spark Size and Circle as the Shapes. Use (0,0) as the center and 2mm as the Initial Radius. Use

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2 715 as the Start Time (deg), 0.001sec as the Duration (s), and 0.01sec as the Diffusion Time, as shown in Figure 14. Do not forget to hit the OK button. Note that the Diffusion Time for the spark model can significantly change the flame speed. This constant needs to be tuned for your specific simulation. Step 8. Initialize the flow Use all defaults except for Progress Variable to initialize the flow. Use 0 for the Progress Variable, as shown in Figure 15. Step 9. Boundary condition setup Set up boundary face zone axis to be a type of axis, as shown in Figure 16. Step 10. Animation setup Display the grid and put the grid in a decent view, as shown in Figure 17. Note that you may want to use axis as the Mirror Planes. This is under Display>Views, as shown in Figure 18. Go to Display->Views enter plot-view under Save Name and hit the Save button to save view as plot-view, as shown in Figure 19. Set up two Execute Commands under Solve->Execute Commands, as shown in Figure 20. Do not forget to hit the OK button before closing the panel. The two commands are as follows: /dis/sw 1 /dis/view/rv plot-view /dis/cont premixc 0 1 /dis/hc ./flame_%t.tif Under File->Hardcopy, select TIFF under Format and Color under Coloring, as shown in Figure 21. Do not forget to hit the Apply button before closing the panel. Under Display->Contours, select Filled under options and display the pressure contour once. Similar contour plots will be saved during the simulation. Those contour plots can then be used to create an animation.

Step 11. Solution controls setup Go to Solve->Controls->Solution. Select PRESTO! for Pressure and PISO for Pressure-Velocity Coupling. Reduce Skewness Correction from 1 to 0. Increase the Under-Relaxation Factors for Pressure from 0.3 to 0.5, as shown in Figure 22. Go to Solve->Monitors->Residual and reduce Convergence Criterion for continuity from 0.001 to 0.1. Go to File->Write->Autosave and set up auto save, as shown in Figure 23. Go to Solve->Monitors->Volume and set up monitors to save the volumeaveraged pressure/temperature if you wish. Save the cas/dat, IC_premixed_com_CA570_0000.cas/dat.gz

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2 Step 12. Run the simulation Run the solution for 1120 steps. The run will stop at CA=130 ATDC, the assumed CA for EVO. Step 13. Check the results The tiff files generated by Fluent can be used to produce an animation. A few tiff pictures are shown in Figure 24. The udf will automatically write out a file, called work.txt. In the file, it has combustion chamber volume, pressure, and burnt fuel mass fraction as a function of CA. Those can be used to generate plots shown in Figure 25, 26, and 27. Note that there is one Execute On Demand UDF, Indicated_work, which calculates the indicated work at any time. You can go to Define->User-Defined->Execute On Demand and pick up the above UDF and hit Execute button.

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 1. Grid scale

Figure 2. Solver setup

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 3. In-cylinder setup

Figure 4. Dynamic zone, fluid, setup.

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 5. Dynamic zone, piston, setup (1)

Figure 6. Dynamic zone, piston, setup (2).

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 7. Dynamic zone, top, setup.

Figure 8. Mesh motion preview.

Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 9. Build the library.

Figure 10. Hook UDFs.

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 11. User defined memory

Figure 12. Premixed combustion setup.

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 13. Species panel

Figure 14. Spark model setup

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 15. Initialization.

Figure 16. Boundary condition for axis.

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 17. View setup.

Figure 18. Mirror plane

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 19. Save the view.

Figure 20. Execute commands setup.

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 21. Hard copy setup.

Figure 22. Solutions controls setup.

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 23. Autosave setup.

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

Figure 24. Combustion sequence.

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

4.50E+06 4.00E+06 3.50E+06 3.00E+06

Pressure (Pa)

2.50E+06 2.00E+06 1.50E+06 1.00E+06 5.00E+05 0.00E+00 570

620

670

720

770

820

Crank Angle (deg)

Figure 25. Pressure as a function of CA

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

1.00E+00 9.00E-01

Burnt Fuel Mass Fraction 1

8.00E-01 7.00E-01 6.00E-01 5.00E-01 4.00E-01 3.00E-01 2.00E-01 1.00E-01 0.00E+00 710

720

730

740

750

760

770

780

Crank Angle (deg)

Figure 26. Burnt fuel mass fraction as a function of CA.

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Simulate IC Premixed Combustion in Fluent6.2

4.50E+06 4.00E+06 3.50E+06

Pressure (Pa)

3.00E+06 2.50E+06 2.00E+06 1.50E+06 1.00E+06 5.00E+05 0.00E+00 0.00E+00 2.00E-04 4.00E-04 6.00E-04

Engine Volume (m^3)

Figure 27. P-V plot from 570 deg to 850 deg

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