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POWER QUALITY

The term electric power quality broadly refer to mai!tai!i!" a !ear i!u oidal power di tributio! bu #olta"e at rated ma"!itude a!d freque!cy$ I! additio! the e!er"y upplied to a cu tomer mu t be u!i!terrupted from the reliability poi!t of #iew$ It i to be !oted that e#e! thou"h power quality i mai!ly a di tributio! y tem problem% power tra! mi io! y tem may al o ha#e a! impact o! the quality of power$ To mo t electric power e!"i!eer % the term refer to a certai! ufficie!tly hi"h "rade of electric er#ice but beyo!d that there i !o u!i#er al a"reeme!t$ The mea ure of power quality depe!d upo! the !eed of the equipme!t that i bei!" upplied$ What i "ood power quality for a! electric motor may !ot be "ood e!ou"h for a per o!al computer$ U ually the term power quality refer to mai!tai!i!" a i!u oidal wa#eform of bu #olta"e at rated #olta"e a!d freque!cy$ The wa#eform of electric power at "e!eratio! ta"e i purely i!u oidal a!d free from a!y di tortio!$ &a!y of the Power co!#er io! a!d co! umptio! equipme!t are al o de i"!ed to fu!ctio! u!der pure i!u oidal #olta"e wa#eform $ 'owe#er% there are ma!y de#ice that di tort the wa#eform$ The e di tortio! may propa"ate all o#er the electrical !etwor($ I! rece!t year % there ha bee! a! +la ificatio! of power the problem uch a i!crea ed u e of !o!)li!ear load which ha re ulted i! a! i!crea ed fractio! of !o!) i!u oidal curre!t a!d #olta"e i! Electric *etwor($ quality area may be made accordi!" to the ource of

co!#erter % ma"!etic circuit !o! li!earity% arc fur!ace or by the wa#e hape of the i"!al uch a harmo!ic % flic(er or by the freque!cy pectrum ,radio freque!cy i!terfere!ce-$ The wa#e hape phe!ome!a a ociated with power quality may be characteri.ed i!to y!chro!ou a!d !o!) y!chro!ou phe!ome!a$ /y!chro!ou phe!ome!a refer to tho e i! y!chro!i m with A$+ wa#eform at power freque!cy$

+AU/E/ O0 POWER QUALITY 1ETERIORATIO*

2$ *atural cau e 3 0ault or li"hti!" tri(e o! tra! mi io! li!e or di tributio! feeder % falli!" of tree or bra!che o! di tributio! feeder duri!" tormy co!ditio! % equipme!t failure etc$ 4$ 1ue to load or tra! mi io! li!e 5 feeder operatio!3 Tra! former e!er"i atio!% capacitor or feeder witchi!"% power electro!ic load ,UP/% A/1% co!#erter etc$-% arc fur!ace a!d i!ductio! heati!" y tem % witchi!" o! or off of lar"e load etc$

0OUR &A6OR REA/O*/ 0OR T'E I*+REA/E1 +O*+ER*3 2$ *ewer)"e!eratio! load equipme!t% with microproce or)ba ed co!trol equipme!t u ed i! the pa t$ 4$ The i!crea i!" empha i o! o#erall power y tem efficie!cy ha re ulted i! co!ti!ued "rowth i! the applicatio! of de#ice uch a hi"h)efficie!cy% ad7u table) peed motor dri#e a!d hu!t capacitor for power factor correctio! to reduce lo e $ Thi i re ulti!" i! i!crea i!" harmo!ic le#el o! power y tem a!d ha ma!y people co!cer!ed about the future impact o! y tem capabilitie $ 8$ E!d u er ha#e a! i!crea ed aware!e are becomi!" better i!formed about deli#ered$ 9$ &a!y thi!" are !ow i!terco!!ected i! a !etwor($ I!te"rated proce e mea! that the failure of a!y compo!e!t ha much more importa!t co! eque!ce $ The commo! thread ru!!i!" thou"h all the e rea o! for i!crea ed co!cer! about the quality of electric power i the co!ti!ued pu h for i!crea i!" producti#ity for all utility cu tomer $ of power quality i ue $ Utility cu tomer uch i ue a i!terruptio! % a" % a!d a!d

power electro!ic de#ice % i more e! iti#e to power quality #ariatio! tha! wa

witchi!" tra! ie!t a!d are challe!"i!" the utilitie to impro#e the quality of power

Utility cu tomer &a!ufacturer efficie!t machi!ery Utilitie their cu tomer equipme!t$

) )

alway wa!t to i!crea e producti#ity wa!t fa ter% more producti#e% more

e!coura"e thi

effort becau e it help defer lar"e

become more profitable a!d al o help

i!#e tme!t i! ub tatio! a!d "e!eratio! by u i!" more efficie!t load

I!tere ti!"ly% the equipme!t i! talled to i!crea e the producti#ity i al o ofte! the equipme!t that uffer the mo t from commo! power di ruptio! $ A!d the equipme!t i ometime the ource of additio!al power quality problem $ Whe! e!tire proce e are automated% the efficie!t operatio! of machi!e a!d their co!trol become i!crea i!"ly depe!de!t o! quality power$

POWER QUALITY ,A 1I00ERE*T PER+EPTIO*- 1E0I*ITIO* Whole of power e!"i!eeri!"% i! o!e way or other i related to power quality$ There i !o u!i#er al a"reeme!t for the defi!itio! of power quality$ Thi i becau e defi!itio! #arie depe!di!" o! the area of applicatio!% ay% power quality at tra! mi io! implie differe!t thi!" tha! power quality at di tributio! le#el$ It "e!erally relate to the faithful!e of load bu #olta"e to mai!tai! a i!u oidal wa#eform at rated #olta"e a!d freque!cy$ There ca! be completely differe!t defi!itio! for power quality% depe!di!" o! o!e: frame of refere!ce$ A Utility may defi!e power quality a demo! trati!" that it reliability a!d how tati tic y tem i ;;$;< perce!t reliable$ A ma!ufacturer of load

equipme!t may defi!e power quality a tho e characteri tic of the power upply that e!able the equipme!t to wor( properly$ The e characteri tic ca! be #ery differe!t for differe!t criteria$ Power quality i ultimately a co! umer)dri#e! i ue% a!d the e!d u er: poi!t of refere!ce ta(e precede!ce a!d we defi!e power quality

a % a!y power problem ma!ife ted i! #olta"e% curre!t% or freque!cy de#iatio! that re ult i! failure or mi operatio! of cu tomer equipme!t$ There are ma!y mi u!der ta!di!" re"ardi!" the cau e of power quality problem $ The chart i! 0i"$ 2$2 how the re ult of o!e ur#ey co!ducted by the =eor"ia Power +ompa!y i! which both utility per o!!el a!d cu tomer were polled about what cau e power quality problem $ While ur#ey of other mar(et ector mi"ht i!dicate differe!t plit betwee! the cate"orie % the e chart clearly illu trate o!e commo! theme that ari e repeatedly i! uch ur#ey 3 The utility: a!d cu tomer: per pecti#e are ofte! much differe!t$ While both te!d to blame about two)third of the e#e!t o! !atural phe!ome!a ,e$"$% li"ht!i!"-% cu tomer % much more freque!tly tha! utility per o!!el% thi!( that the utility i at fault$

The chart i! 0i"$ 2$2 the re ult of o!e ur#ey co!ducted by the =eor"ia Power +ompa!y i! which both utility per o!!el a!d cu tomer were polled about what cau e power quality problem $ While ur#ey of other mar(et ector mi"ht i!dicate differe!t plit betwee! the cate"orie % the e chart clearly illu trate o!e commo! theme that ari e repeatedly i! uch ur#ey 3 The utility: a!d cu tomer: per pecti#e are ofte! much differe!t$ While both te!d to blame about two)third of the e#e!t o! !atural phe!ome!a ,e$"$% li"ht!i!"-% cu tomer % much more freque!tly tha! utility per o!!el% thi!( that the utility i at fault$

Power quality% li(e quality i! other "ood a!d er#ice % i difficult to qua!tify$ There i !o i!"le accepted defi!itio! of quality power$ There are ta!dard for #olta"e a!d other tech!ical criteria that may be mea ured% but the ultimate mea ure of power quality i determi!ed by the performa!ce a!d producti#ity of e!d)u er equipme!t$ If the electric power i i!adequate for tho e !eed % the! the >quality? i lac(i!"$

1.2 Power Quality _ Voltage Quality The commo! term for de cribi!" the ub7ect of thi boo( i power quality@ howe#er% it i actually the quality of the #olta"e that i bei!" addre ed i! mo t ca e $ Tech!ically% i! e!"i!eeri!" term % power i the rate of e!er"y deli#ery a!d i proportio!al to the product of the #olta"e a!d curre!t$ It would be difficult to defi!e the quality of thi qua!tity i! a!y mea!i!"ful ma!!er$ The power upply y tem ca! o!ly co!trol the quality of the #olta"e@ it ha !o co!trol o#er the curre!t that particular load mi"ht draw$ Therefore% the ta!dard i! the power quality area are de#oted to mai!tai!i!" the upply #olta"e withi! certai! limit $

A+ power y tem are de i"!ed to operate at a i!u oidal #olta"e of a "i#e! freque!cy Atypically BC or DC hert. ,'.-E a!d ma"!itude$ A!y i"!ifica!t de#iatio! i! the wa#eform ma"!itude% freque!cy% or purity i a pote!tial power quality problem$ Of cour e% there i alway a clo e relatio! hip betwee! #olta"e a!d curre!t i! a!y practical power y tem$ Althou"h the "e!erator may pro#ide a !ear)perfect i!e)wa#e #olta"e% the curre!t pa i!" throu"h the impeda!ce of the y tem ca! cau e a #ariety of di turba!ce to the #olta"e$ 0or eFample% 2$ +urre!t re ulti!" from a hort circuit cau e the #olta"e to a" or di appear completely% a the ca e may be$ 4$ +urre!t from li"ht!i!" tro(e pa i!" throu"h the power y tem cau e hi"h)impul e #olta"e that freque!tly fla h o#er i! ulatio! a!d lead to other phe!ome!a% uch a hort circuit $

8$ 1i torted curre!t from harmo!ic)produci!" load al o di tort the #olta"e a they pa throu"h the y tem impeda!ce$ Thu a di torted #olta"e i pre e!ted to other e!d u er $ Therefore% while it i the #olta"e with which we are ultimately co!cer!ed% we mu t al o addre phe!ome!a i! the curre!t to u!der ta!d the ba i of ma!y power quality problem $

Why Are We Concerned about Power Quality? The ultimate rea o! that we are i!tere ted i! power quality i eco!omic #alue$ There are eco!omic impact o! utilitie % their cu tomer % a!d upplier of load equipme!t$ 1. INDUSTRY CUSTOMER 2. RESIDENTIAL CUSTOMER - do !ot uffer direct fi!a!cial lo i!ability to ear! i!come a a re ult of mo t power quality problem % or the

The Power Quality Evaluation Procedure Power quality problem e!compa a wide ra!"e of differe!t phe!ome!a% a

de cribed i! +hap$ 4$ Each of the e phe!ome!a may ha#e a #ariety of differe!t cau e a!d differe!t olutio! that ca! be u ed to impro#e the power quality a!d equipme!t performa!ce$ 'owe#er% it i u eful to loo( at the "e!eral tep that are a ociated with i!#e ti"ati!" ma!y of the e problem % e pecially if the tep ca! i!#ol#e i!teractio! betwee! the utility upply y tem a!d the cu tomer facility$ 0i"ure 2$4 "i#e tep$ ome "e!eral tep that are ofte! required i! a power quality i!#e ti"atio!% alo!" with the ma7or co! ideratio! that mu t be addre ed at each

The "e!eral procedure mu t al o co! ider whether the e#aluatio! i!#ol#e a! eFi ti!" power quality problem or o!e that could re ult from a !ew de i"! or from propo ed cha!"e to the y tem$ &ea ureme!t will play a! importa!t role for almo t a!y power quality co!cer!$ Thi i the primary method of characteri.i!" the problem or the eFi ti!" y tem that i bei!" e#aluated$ Whe! performi!" the mea ureme!t % it i importa!t to record impact of the power quality #ariatio! at the ame time o that problem ca! be correlated with po ible cau e $ /olutio! !eed to be e#aluated u i!" a y tem per pecti#e% a!d both the eco!omic a!d the tech!ical limitatio! mu t be co! idered$ Po ible olutio! are ide!tified at all le#el of the y tem from utility upply to the e!d)u e equipme!t bei!" affected$ /olutio! that are !ot tech!ically #iable "et throw! out% a!d the re t of the alter!ati#e are

compared o! a! eco!omic ba i $ The optimum olutio! will depe!d o! the type of problem% the !umber of e!d u er bei!" impacted% a!d the po ible olutio! $ The o#erall procedure i i!troduced here to pro#ide a framewor( for the more detailed tech!ical i!formatio! a!d procedure that are de cribed i! each chapter of thi boo($ The relati#e role of imulatio! a!d mea ureme!t for e#aluati!" power quality problem i de cribed eparately for each type of power quality phe!ome!o!$ The a#ailable olutio! a!d the eco!omic of the e olutio! are al o addre ed i! the i!di#idual chapter $

SOURCES OF POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS


It can be classified into two groups. 1) Load equipment and components 1. Converters, 2. Pulse modulated loads, 3. Machine drives 4. Arc furnaces 5. Fluorescent and other gas discharge lighting 6. Certain components which employ magnetic circuits 7. Computers 8. UPS 9. Television sets 2) Subsystems of the transmission and distribution system 1) Grounding systems 2) resonant systems

Power system grounding practice plays a very important role in power quality because the transients initiated in the power system or at a facility may travel through the grounding system and reach sensitive electronic equipment. Term and !e"inition The term power quality i applied to a wide #ariety of electroma"!etic phe!ome!a o! the power y tem$ The i!crea i!" applicatio! of electro!ic equipme!t a!d di tributed "e!eratio! ha hei"hte!ed the i!tere t i! power quality i! rece!t year % a!d thi ha bee! accompa!ied by the de#elopme!t of a pecial termi!olo"y to de cribe the phe!ome!a$ U!fortu!ately% thi termi!olo"y ha !ot bee! co! i te!t acro differe!t e"me!t of the i!du try$ Thi ha cau ed a co! iderable amou!t of co!fu io! a both #e!dor a!d e!d u er ha#e tru""led to u!der ta!d why electrical equipme!t i !ot wor(i!" a eFpected$

2.2 #eneral Cla

e o" Power Quality Problem

The termi!olo"y pre e!ted here reflect rece!t U$/$ a!d i!ter!atio!al effort to ta!dardi.e defi!itio! of power quality term $ The IEEE /ta!dard +oordi!ati!" +ommittee 44 ,IEEE /++44- ha led the mai! effort i! the U!ited /tate to coordi!ate power quality ta!dard $

The IE+ cla ifie electroma"!etic phe!ome!a ,occurre!ce% e#e!t- i!to the "roup how! i! Table 4$2$2 we will be primarily co!cer!ed with the fir t four cla e i! thi boo($

Table 4$4 how the cate"ori.atio! of electroma"!etic phe!ome!a u ed for the power quality commu!ity$ The phe!ome!a li ted i! the table ca! be de cribed further by li ti!" appropriate attribute $ 0or teady) tate phe!ome!a% the followi!" attribute ca! be u ed23 Amplitude 0reque!cy

/pectrum &odulatio! /ource impeda!ce *otch depth *otch area 0or !o!) teady) tate phe!ome!a% other attribute may be required23 Rate of ri e Amplitude 1uratio! /pectrum 0reque!cy Rate of occurre!ce E!er"y pote!tial /ource impeda!ce

Table 4$4 pro#ide i!formatio! re"ardi!" typical pectral co!te!t% duratio!% a!d ma"!itude where appropriate for each cate"ory of electroma"!etic phe!ome!a$2%9%B The cate"orie of the table% whe! u ed with the attribute pre#iou ly me!tio!ed% pro#ide a mea! to clearly de cribe a! electroma"!etic di turba!ce$ The cate"orie a!d their de criptio! are importa!t i! order to be able to cla ify mea ureme!t re ult a!d to de cribe electroma"!etic phe!ome!a which ca! cau e power quality problem $

1. Tran ient The term transient has lo!" bee! u ed i! the a!aly i of power y tem #ariatio! to de!ote a! e#e!t that i u!de irable a!d mome!tary i! !ature$ The !otio! of a damped o cillatory tra! ie!t due to a! RLC !etwor( i probably what mo t power e!"i!eer thi!( of whe! they hear the word tra! ie!t$ Groadly pea(i!"% tra! ie!t ca! be cla ified i!to two cate"orie % impulsive a!d oscillatory. The e term reflect the wa#e hape of a curre!t or #olta"e tra! ie!t$ 1.1 $m%ul ive tran ient A! impulsive transient i a udde!% !o!Hpower freque!cy cha!"e i! the teady) tate co!ditio! of #olta"e% curre!t% or both that i ,primarily either po iti#e or !e"ati#e-$ Impul i#e tra! ie!t are !ormally characteri.ed by their ri e a!d decay time % which ca! al o be re#ealed by their pectral co!te!t$ 0or eFample% a 2$4 * BC) _ 4CCC)#olt ,I- impul i#e tra! ie!t !omi!ally ri e from .ero to it pea( #alue of 4CCC I i! 2$4 _ a!d the! decay to half it pea( #alue i! BC _ $ The mo t commo! cau e of impul i#e tra! ie!t i li"ht!i!"$ 0i"ure 4$2 illu trate a typical curre!t impul i#e tra! ie!t cau ed by li"ht!i!"$ Gecau e of the hi"h freque!cie i!#ol#ed% the hape of impul i#e tra! ie!t ca! be cha!"ed quic(ly by circuit compo!e!t a!d may ha#e i"!ifica!tly differe!t characteri tic whe! #iewed from differe!t part of the power y tem$ They are "e!erally !ot co!ducted far from the ource of where they e!ter the power y tem% althou"h they may% i! ome ca e % be co!ducted for quite ome di ta!ce alo!" utility li!e $ Impul i#e tra! ie!t ca! eFcite the !atural freque!cy of power y tem circuit a!d produce o cillatory tra! ie!t $ u!idirectio!al i! polarity

1.2 & cillatory tran ient A! o cillatory tra! ie!t i a udde!% !o!Hpower freque!cy cha!"e i! the teady) tate co!ditio! of #olta"e% curre!t% or both% that i!clude both po iti#e a!d !e"ati#e polarity #alue $ A! o cillatory tra! ie!t co! i t of a #olta"e or curre!t who e i! ta!ta!eou #alue cha!"e polarity rapidly$ It i de cribed by it pectral co!te!t ,predomi!ate freque!cy-% duratio!% a!d ma"!itude$ The pectral co!te!t ubcla e defi!ed i! Table 4$4 are hi"h% medium% a!d low freque!cy$ The freque!cy ra!"e for the e cla ificatio! are cho e! to coi!cide with commo! type of power y tem o cillatory tra! ie!t phe!ome!a$ O cillatory tra! ie!t with a primary freque!cy compo!e!t "reater tha! BCC ('. a!d a typical duratio! mea ured i! micro eco!d ,or e#eral cycle of the pri!cipal freque!cy- are co! idered high-frequency transients$ The e

tra! ie!t are ofte! the re ult of a local y tem re po! e to a! impul i#e tra! ie!t$

A tra! ie!t with a primary freque!cy compo!e!t betwee! B a!d BCC ('. with duratio! mea ured i! the te! of micro eco!d ,or e#eral cycle of the pri!cipal freque!cy- i termed a medium-frequency transient. For instance, Gac()to)bac( capacitor e!er"i.atio! re ult i! o cillatory tra! ie!t curre!t i! the te! of (ilohert. a illu trated i! 0i"$ 4$4$ +able witchi!" re ult i! o cillatory #olta"e tra! ie!t i! the ame freque!cy ra!"e$ &edium) freque!cy tra! ie!t ca! al o be the re ult of a y tem re po! e to a! impul i#e tra! ie!t$ A tra! ie!t with a primary freque!cy compo!e!t le tha! B ('.% a!d a

duratio! from C$8 to BC m % i co! idered a low-frequency transient. Thi cate"ory of phe!ome!a i freque!tly e!cou!tered o! utility ubtra! mi io! a!d di tributio! y tem a!d i cau ed by ma!y type of e#e!t $ The mo t freque!t i capacitor ba!( e!er"i.atio!% which typically re ult i! a! o cillatory #olta"e tra! ie!t with a primary freque!cy betwee! 8CC a!d ;CC '.$ The pea( ma"!itude ca! approach 4$C pu% but i typically 2$8 to 2$B pu with a duratio! of betwee! C$B a!d 8 cycle depe!di!" o! the y tem dampi!" ,0i"$ 4$8-$ O cillatory tra! ie!t with pri!cipal freque!cie le fou!d o! the di tributio! tha! 8CC '. ca! al o be

y tem$ The e are "e!erally a ociated with

ferrore o!a!ce a!d tra! former e!er"i.atio! ,0i"$ 4$9-$ Tra! ie!t i!#ol#i!" erie capacitor could al o fall i!to thi cate"ory$ They occur whe! the y tem re po!d by re o!ati!" with low)freque!cy compo!e!t i! the tra! former i!ru h curre!t , eco!d a!d third harmo!ic- or whe! u!u ual co!ditio! re ult i! ferrore o!a!ce$ It i al o po ible to cate"ori.e tra! ie!t ,a!d other di turba!ce - accordi!" to their mode. Ga ically% a tra! ie!t i! a three)pha e y tem with a eparate !eutral co!ductor ca! be either common mode or normal mode, depe!di!" o! whether it appear betwee! li!e or !eutral a!d "rou!d% or betwee! li!e a!d !eutral$ 'i"h 0requ!cy &ed 0req JBCC(h. B)BCC(h. &icro/ec &icro/ec Local y re to Imp Tr Gac()to)bac( capacitor e!er"i.atio!

Low 0req

KB(h.

C$8 to BC m

+ap Ga!( e!er"i.atio!,TL1-

2. 'ong(!uration Voltage Variation Lo!")duratio! #ariatio! e!compa root)mea!) quare ,rm - de#iatio! at

power freque!cie for lo!"er tha! 2 mi!$ A*/I +<9$2 pecifie the teady) tate #olta"e tolera!ce eFpected o! a power y tem$ A #olta"e #ariatio! i co! idered to be lo!" duratio! whe! the A*/I limit are eFceeded for "reater tha! 2 mi!$ Lo!")duratio! #ariatio! ca! be either overvoltages or undervoltages. O#er#olta"e a!d u!der#olta"e "e!erally are !ot the re ult of y tem fault % but are cau ed by load #ariatio! o! the y tem a!d y tem witchi!" operatio! $ /uch #ariatio! are typically di played a plot of rm #olta"e #er u time$ /$* o 4$ 2 Parameter O#er#olta"e 1efi!itio! I!crea e i! the rm ac #olta"e "reater tha! 22C perce!t at the power freque!cy for a duratio! lo!"er tha! 2 mi!$ +au e 2$load witchi!" ,e$"$% witchi!" off a lar"e load or e!er"i.i!" a capacitor ba!(4$ I!correct tap etti!" o! Effect The o#er#olta"e re ult becau e either the y tem i too wea( for the de ired #olta"e re"ulatio! or #olta"e co!trol are i!adequate$

tra! former ca! al o re ult i! y tem o#er#olta"e $ 4$4 U!der#olta"e 1ecrea e i! the rm ac #olta"e to le tha! ;C perce!t at the power freque!cy for a duratio! lo!"er tha! 2 mi!$ 1ue to witchi!" e#e!t that are the oppo ite of the e#e!t that cau e o#er#olta"e $ 2$A load witchi!" o! or a capacitor ba!( witchi!" off ca! cau e a! u!der#olta"e u!til #olta"e re"ulatio! equipme!t o! the y tem ca! bri!" the #olta"e bac( to withi! tolera!ce $ 4$O#erloaded circuit ca! re ult i! u!der#olta"e

2.) *u tained interru%tion Whe! the upply #olta"e ha bee! .ero for a period of time i! eFce of 2

mi!% the lo!")duratio! #olta"e #ariatio! i co! idered a sustained interruption. Iolta"e i!terruptio! lo!"er tha! 2 mi! are ofte! perma!e!t a!d require huma! i!ter#e!tio! to repair the y tem for re toratio!$ The term u tai!ed i!terruptio! refer to pecific power y tem phe!ome!a a!d% i! "e!eral% ha !o relatio! to the u a"e of the term outage. Utilitie u e outa"e or i!terruptio! to de cribe phe!ome!a of imilar !ature for reliability reporti!" purpo e $ 'owe#er% thi cau e co!fu io! for e!d u er who thi!( of a! outa"e a a!y i!terruptio! of power that hut dow! a proce $ Thi could be a little a o!e)half of a cycle$ Outage, a defi!ed i! IEEE /ta!dard 2CC%<

doe !ot refer to a pecific phe!ome!o!% but rather to the tate of a compo!e!t i! a y tem that ha failed to fu!ctio! a eFpected$ Al o% u e of the term interruption i! the co!teFt of power quality mo!itori!" ha !o relatio! to reliability or other co!ti!uity of er#ice tati tic $ Thu % thi term ha bee! defi!ed to be more pecific re"ardi!" the ab e!ce of #olta"e for lo!" period $ 2.+ *hort(!uration Voltage Variation Thi cate"ory e!compa e the IE+ cate"ory of voltage dips and short interruptions. Each type of #ariatio! ca! be de i"!ated a instantaneous, momentary, or temporary, depe!di!" o! it duratio! a defi!ed i! Table 4$4$ /hort)duratio! #olta"e #ariatio! are cau ed by fault co!ditio! % the e!er"i.atio! of lar"e load which require hi"h tarti!" curre!t % or i!termitte!t loo e co!!ectio! i! power wiri!"$ 1epe!di!" o! the fault locatio! a!d the y tem co!ditio! % the fault ca! cau e either temporary #olta"e drop ,sags-% #olta"e ri e ,swells-% or a complete lo of #olta"e ,interruptions-$ The fault co!ditio! ca! be clo e to or

remote from the poi!t of i!tere t$ I! either ca e% the impact o! the #olta"e duri!" the actual fault co!ditio! i of the hort)duratio! #ariatio! u!til protecti#e de#ice operate to clear the fault$ 2.+.1 $nterru%tion A! interruption occur whe! the upply #olta"e or load curre!t decrea e to le tha! C$2 pu for a period of time !ot eFceedi!" 2 mi!$ I!terruptio! ca! be the re ult of power y tem fault % equipme!t failure % a!d co!trol malfu!ctio! $ The i!terruptio! are mea ured by their duratio! i!ce the #olta"e ma"!itude i alway le tha! 2C perce!t of !omi!al$ The duratio! of a! i!terruptio! due to a fault o! reclo i!" "e!erally will limit the i!terruptio! cau ed by a tha! 8C cycle $ 1elayed reclo i!" of the protecti#e de#ice or loo e co!!ectio! ca! be irre"ular$ /ome the utility y tem i determi!ed by the operati!" time of utility protecti#e de#ice $ I! ta!ta!eou !o!perma!e!t fault to le

may cau e a mome!tary or temporary i!terruptio!$ The duratio! of a! i!terruptio! due to equipme!t malfu!ctio!

i!terruptio! may be preceded by #olta"e a" whe! the e i!terruptio! are due to fault o! the ource y tem$ The #olta"e a" occur betwee! the time a fault i!itiate a!d the protecti#e de#ice operate $ 0i"ure 4$B how uch a mome!tary i!terruptio! duri!" which #olta"e o! o!e pha e a" to about 4C perce!t for about 8 cycle a!d the! drop to .ero for about 2$< u!til the reclo er clo e bac( i!$

2.+.2 *ag ,di% A sag i a decrea e to betwee! C$2 a!d C$; pu i! rm #olta"e or curre!t at the power freque!cy for duratio! from C$B cycle to 2 mi!$ The power quality commu!ity ha u ed the term sag for ma!y year to de cribe a hort)duratio! #olta"e decrea e$ Althou"h the term ha !ot bee! formally defi!ed% it ha bee! i!crea i!"ly accepted a!d u ed by utilitie % ma!ufacturer % a!d e!d u er $ The IE+

defi!itio! for thi

phe!ome!o! i

dip. The two term

are co! idered

i!tercha!"eable% with sag bei!" the preferred y!o!ym i! the U$/$ power quality commu!ity$ A >4C perce!t a"? ca! refer to a a" which re ult i! a #olta"e of C$< or C$4 pu$ >a a" to C$< pu? or >a a" who e ma"!itude wa 4C perce!t$? Whe! !ot pecified otherwi e% a 4C perce!t a" will be co! idered a! e#e!t duri!" which the rm #olta"e decrea ed by 4C perce!t to C$< pu$ Iolta"e a" are u ually a ociated with y tem fault but ca! al o be cau ed by e!er"i.atio! of hea#y load or tarti!" of lar"e motor $ 0i"ure 4$D how typical #olta"e a" that ca! be a ociated with a i!"le) li!e) to)"rou!d ,/L=- fault o! a!other feeder from the ame ub tatio!$ A! <C perce!t a" eFi t for about 8 cycle u!til the ub tatio! brea(er i able to i!terrupt the fault curre!t$ Typical fault cleari!" time ra!"e from 8 to 8C cycle % depe!di!" o! the fault curre!t ma"!itude a!d the type of o#ercurre!t protectio!$

0i"ure 4$M illu trate the effect of a lar"e motor tarti!"$ A! i!ductio! motor will draw D to 2C time it full load curre!t duri!" tart)up$ If the curre!t

ma"!itude i lar"e relati#e to the a#ailable fault curre!t i! the y tem at that poi!t% the re ulti!" #olta"e a" ca! be i"!ifica!t$ I! thi ca e% the #olta"e a" immediately to <C perce!t a!d the! "radually retur! to !ormal i! about 8 $ *ote the differe!ce i! time frame betwee! thi a!d a" due to utility y tem fault $

Typical a" duratio! i defi!ed i! ome publicatio! a ra!"i!" from 4 m ,about o!e)te!th of a cycle- to a couple of mi!ute $ U!der#olta"e that la t le tha! o!e)half cycle ca!!ot be characteri.ed effecti#ely by a cha!"e i! the rm #alue of the fu!dame!tal freque!cy #alue$ Therefore% the e e#e!t are co! idered transients. U!der#olta"e that la t lo!"er tha! 2 mi! ca! typically be co!trolled by #olta"e re"ulatio! equipme!t a!d may be a ociated with cau e other tha! y tem fault $ Therefore% the e are cla ified a lo!")duratio! #ariatio! $ /a" duratio! are ubdi#ided here i!to three cate"orie I! ta!ta!eou uch a %

&ome!tary Temporary

which coi!cide with the three cate"orie of i!terruptio! a!d well $ The e duratio! are i!te!ded to corre po!d to typical utility protecti#e de#ice operatio! time a well a duratio! di#i io! recomme!ded by i!ter!atio!al tech!ical or"a!i.atio! 2.+.) *well Aswell i defi!ed a a! i!crea e to betwee! 2$2 a!d 2$< pu i! rm #olta"e or curre!t at the power freque!cy for duratio! from C$B cycle to 2 mi!$ /well are characteri.ed by their ma"!itude ,rm #alue- a!d duratio!$ A with a" % well are u ually a ociated with y tem fault co!ditio! % but they are !ot a commo! a #olta"e a" $ O!e way that a well ca! occur i from the temporary #olta"e ri e o! the u!faulted pha e duri!" a! /L= fault$ 0i"ure 4$< illu trate a #olta"e well cau ed by a! /L= fault$ /well ca! al o be cau ed by witchi!" off a lar"e load or e!er"i.i!" a lar"e capacitor ba!($ The e#erity of a #olta"e well duri!" a fault co!ditio! i a fu!ctio! of the fault locatio!% y tem impeda!ce% a!d "rou!di!"$ O! a! u!"rou!ded y tem% with i!fi!ite .ero) eque!ce impeda!ce% the li!e) to)"rou!d #olta"e o! the u!"rou!ded pha e will be 2$M8 pu duri!" a! /L= fault co!ditio!$ +lo e to the ub tatio! o! a "rou!ded y tem% there will be little or !o #olta"e ri e o! the u!faulted pha e becau e the ub tatio! tra! former i u ually co!!ected delta)wye% pro#idi!" a low)impeda!ce .ero) eque!ce path for the fault curre!t$ 0ault at differe!t poi!t alo!" four)wire% multi"rou!ded feeder will ha#e #aryi!" de"ree of #olta"e well o! the u!faulted pha e $ A 2B perce!t well% li(e that how! i! 0i"$ 4$<% i commo! o! U$/$ utility feeder $ The term momentary overvoltage i u ed by ma!y writer a a y!o!ym for the term swell.

2.. Voltage $mbalance,voltage unbalanceVoltage imbalance i ometime defi!ed a the maFimum de#iatio! from

the a#era"e of the three)pha e #olta"e or curre!t % di#ided by the a#era"e of the three)pha e #olta"e or curre!t % eFpre ed i! perce!t$ Imbala!ce i more ri"orou ly defi!ed i! the ta!dard D%<%22%24 u i!" ymmetrical compo!e!t $ The ratio of either the !e"ati#e) or .ero eque!ce compo!e!t to the po iti#e) eque!ce compo!e!t ca! be u ed to pecify the perce!t u!bala!ce$ The mo t rece!t ta!dard 22 pecify that the !e"ati#e) eque!ce method be u ed$ 0i"ure 4$; how a! eFample of the e two ratio for a 2)wee( tre!d of imbala!ce o! a re ide!tial feeder$ The primary ource of #olta"e u!bala!ce of le tha! 4 perce!t i i!"le) pha e load o! a three)pha e circuit$ Iolta"e u!bala!ce ca! al o be the re ult of blow! fu e i! o!e pha e of a three)pha e capacitor ba!($ /e#ere #olta"e u!bala!ce ,"reater tha! B perce!t- ca! re ult from i!"le)pha i!" co!ditio! $

2./ Wave"orm !i tortion Waveform distortion i defi!ed a a teady) tate de#iatio! from a! ideal i!e wa#e of power freque!cy pri!cipally characteri.ed by the pectral co!te!t of the de#iatio!$ There are fi#e primary type of wa#eform di tortio!3 1+ off et 'armo!ic I!ter harmo!ic *otchi!" *oi e !C o"" et. The pre e!ce of a dc #olta"e or curre!t i! a! ac power y tem i termed dc offset.

Thi ca! occur a the re ult of a "eoma"!etic di turba!ce or a ymmetry of electro!ic power co!#erter $ EN3I!ca!de ce!t li"ht bulb life eFte!der % for eFample% may co! i t of diode that reduce the rm #olta"e upplied to the li"ht bulb by half) wa#e rectificatio!$ 1irect curre!t i! ac !etwor( ca! ha#e a detrime!tal effect by bia i!" tra! former core additio!al heati!" a!d lo o they aturate i! !ormal operatio!$ Thi cau e of tra! former life$ 1irect curre!t may al o cau e the

electrolytic ero io! of "rou!di!" electrode a!d other co!!ector $

0armonic . Harmonics are i!u oidal #olta"e or curre!t ha#i!" freque!cie that are i!te"er multiple of the freque!cy at which the upply y tem i de i"!ed to operate ,termed the fundamental freque!cy@ u ually BC or DC '.-$D IEEE /ta!dard B2;)2;;4 pro#ide "uideli!e for harmo!ic curre!t a!d #olta"e di tortio! le#el o! di tributio! a!d tra! mi io! circuit $ Periodically di torted wa#eform ca! be decompo ed i!to a um of the fu!dame!tal freque!cy a!d the harmo!ic $ 'armo!ic di tortio! ori"i!ate i! the !o!li!ear characteri tic of de#ice a!d load o! the power y tem$ 'armo!ic di tortio! le#el are de cribed by the complete harmo!ic pectrum with ma"!itude a!d pha e a!"le of each i!di#idual harmo!ic compo!e!t$ It i al o commo! to u e a i!"le qua!tity% the total harmonic distortion ,T'1-, a a mea ure of the effecti#e #alue of harmo!ic di tortio!$ 0i"ure 4$2C illu trate the wa#eform a!d harmo!ic pectrum for a typical ad7u table) peed)dri#e ,A/1- i!put curre!t$ +urre!t di tortio! le#el mi leadi!"$ ca! be characteri.ed by a T'1 #alue% a pre#iou ly de cribed% but thi ca! ofte! be

0or eFample% ma!y ad7u table) peed dri#e will eFhibit hi"h T'1 #alue for the i!put curre!t whe! they are operati!" at #ery li"ht load $ Thi i !ot !ece arily a i"!ifica!t co!cer! becau e the magnitude of harmo!ic curre!t i low% e#e! thou"h it relati#e di tortio! i hi"h$

To ha!dle thi co!cer! for characteri.i!" harmo!ic curre!t i! a co! i te!t fa hio!% IEEE /ta!dard B2;)2;;4 defi!e a!other term% the total demand

distortion ,T11-. Thi term i the ame a the total harmo!ic di tortio! eFcept

that the di tortio! i eFpre ed a a perce!t of ome rated load curre!t rather tha! a a perce!t of the fu!dame!tal curre!t ma"!itude at the i! ta!t of mea ureme!t$

$nterharmonic . Iolta"e or curre!t ha#i!" freque!cy compo!e!t that are !ot i!te"er multiple of the freque!cy,i$e$ freque!cy compo!e!t other tha! i!te"er multiple of fu!dame!tal freque!cy- at which the upply y tem i de i"!ed to operate ,e$"$% BC or DC '.- are called interharmonics. They ca! appear a di crete freque!cie or a a wideba!d pectrum$

I!terharmo!ic ca! be fou!d i! !etwor( of all #olta"e cla e $ The mai! ource of i!terharmo!ic wa#eform di tortio! are tatic freque!cy co!#erter % cycloco!#erter % i!ductio! fur!ace % a!d arci!" de#ice $ Power li!e carrier i"!al ca! al o be co! idered a i!terharmo!ic $ /i!ce the fir t editio! of thi boo(% co! iderable wor( ha bee! do!e o! thi ub7ect$ There i !ow a better u!der ta!di!" of the ori"i! a!d effect of i!terharmo!ic di tortio!$ It i "e!erally the re ult of freque!cy co!#er io! a!d i ofte! !ot co! ta!t@ it #arie with load$ /uch i!terharmo!ic curre!t ca! eFcite quite e#ere re o!a!ce o! the power y tem a the #aryi!" i!terharmo!ic freque!cy become coi!cide!t with !atural freque!cie of the y tem$ They ha#e bee! how! to affect power)li!e)carrier i"!ali!" a!d i!duce #i ual flic(er i! fluore ce!t a!d other arc li"hti!" a well a i! computer di play de#ice $

*otch Notching i a periodic #olta"e di turba!ce cau ed by the !ormal operatio! of power electro!ic de#ice whe! curre!t i commutated from o!e pha e to a!other$

Since notching occurs continuously, it can be characterized through the harmonic spectrum of the affected voltage.However, it is generally treated as a special case. The freque!cy compo!e!t a ociated with !otchi!" ca! be quite hi"h a!d may !ot be readily characteri.ed with mea ureme!t equipme!t !ormally u ed for harmo!ic a!aly i $ 0i"ure 4$22 how a! eFample of #olta"e !otchi!" from a three)pha e co!#erter that produce co!ti!uou dc curre!t$ The !otche occur whe! the curre!t commutate from o!e pha e to a!other$ 1uri!" thi period% there i a mome!tary hort circuit betwee! two pha e % pulli!" the #olta"e a clo e to .ero a permitted by y tem impeda!ce $

1oi e. Noise i defi!ed a u!wa!ted electrical i"!al with broadba!d pectral co!te!t lower tha! 4CC ('. uperimpo ed upo! the power y tem #olta"e or curre!t i! pha e co!ductor % or fou!d o! !eutral co!ductor or i"!al li!e $ *oi e i! power y tem ca! be cau ed by power electro!ic de#ice % co!trol circuit % arci!" equipme!t% load with olid) tate rectifier % a!d witchi!" power

upplie $ *oi e problem are ofte! eFacerbated,wor e!- by improper "rou!di!" that fail to co!duct !oi e away from the power y tem$ Ga ically% !oi e co! i t of a!y u!wa!ted di tortio! of the power i"!al that ca!!ot be cla ified a harmo!ic di tortio! or tra! ie!t $ *oi e di turb electro!ic de#ice uch a microcomputer a!d pro"rammable co!troller $ The problem ca! be miti"ated by u i!" filter % i olatio! tra! former % a!d li!e co!ditio!er $

2.2 Voltage 3luctuation ,voltage flickerVoltage fluctuations are y tematic #ariatio! of the #olta"e e!#elope or a erie of ra!dom #olta"e cha!"e % the ma"!itude of which doe !ot !ormally eFceed the #olta"e ra!"e pecified by A*/I +<9$2 of C$; to 2$2 pu$

IE+ D2CCC)4)2 defi!e #ariou type of #olta"e fluctuatio! $ We will re trict our di cu io! here to IE+ D2CCC)4)2 Type ,d- #olta"e fluctuatio! % which are characteri.ed a a erie of ra!dom or co!ti!uou #olta"e fluctuatio! $ Load that ca! eFhibit co!ti!uou % rapid #ariatio! i! the load curre!t ma"!itude ca! cau e #olta"e #ariatio! that are ofte! referred to a flic(er$ The term flicker i deri#ed from the impact of the #olta"e fluctuatio! o! lamp uch that they are percei#ed ,appare!t- by the huma! eye to flic(er$ To be tech!ically correct% #olta"e fluctuatio! i a! electroma"!etic

phe!ome!o! while flic(er i a! u!de irable re ult of the #olta"e fluctuatio! i! ome load $ 'owe#er% the two term are ofte! li!(ed to"ether i! ta!dard $ Therefore% we will al o u e the commo! term voltage flicker to de cribe fluctuatio! $ A! eFample of a #olta"e wa#eform which produce flic(er i how! i! 0i"$ uch #olta"e

4$24$ Thi i cau ed by a! arc fur!ace% o!e of the mo t commo! cau e of #olta"e

fluctuatio! o! utility tra! mi io! a!d di tributio! y tem $ The flic(er i"!al i defi!ed by it rm ma"!itude eFpre ed a a perce!t of the fu!dame!tal$ Iolta"e flic(er i mea ured with re pect to the e! iti#ity of the huma! eye$ Typically% ma"!itude a low a C$B perce!t ca! re ult i! perceptible lamp flic(er if the freque!cie are i! the ra!"e of D to < '.$

IE+

D2CCC)9)2B

defi!e

the

methodolo"y

a!d

pecificatio!

of

i! trume!tatio! for mea uri!" flic(er$ The IEEE Iolta"e 0lic(er Wor(i!" =roup ha rece!tly a"reed to adopt thi u e i! *orth America$ Thi ta!dard a ame!ded for DC '. power y tem for ta!dard de#i e a imple mea! of de cribi!" the

pote!tial for #i ible li"ht flic(er throu"h #olta"e mea ureme!t $ The mea ureme!t method imulate the lamp5eye5brai! tra! fer fu!ctio! a!d produce a fu!dame!tal metric called hort)term flic(er e! atio! ,P t-$ Thi #alue i !ormali.ed to 2$C to repre e!t the le#el of #olta"e fluctuatio! e! atio! ,Plt- i ufficie!t to cau e !oticeable flic(er to BC perce!t of a ample ob er#i!" "roup$ A!other mea ure called lo!")term flic(er ofte! u ed for the purpo e of #erifyi!" complia!ce with

compatibility le#el e tabli hed by ta!dard bodie a!d u ed i! utility power co!tract $ Thi #alue i a lo!"er)term a#era"e of P t ample $ 0i"ure 4$28 illu trate a tre!d of P t mea ureme!t ta(e! at a 2D2 (I ub tatio! bu e#aluatio! proce from the P t #alue $ er#i!" a! arc fur!ace load$ P t ample are !ormally reported at 2C)mi! i!ter#al $ A tati tical defi!ed i! the mea ureme!t ta!dard proce e i! ta!ta!eou flic(er mea ureme!t to produce the P t #alue$ The Plt #alue i produced e#ery 4 h

2.4 Power 3re5uency Variation Power frequency variations are defi!ed a the de#iatio! of the power y tem fu!dame!tal freque!cy from it pecified !omi!al #alue ,e$"$% BC or DC '.-$ The power y tem freque!cy i directly related to the rotatio!al peed of the "e!erator upplyi!" the y tem$ There are li"ht #ariatio! i! freque!cy a the dy!amic bala!ce betwee! load a!d "e!eratio! cha!"e $ The i.e of the freque!cy hift a!d it duratio! depe!d o! the load characteri tic a!d the re po! e of the "e!eratio! co!trol y tem to load cha!"e $ 0i"ure 4$29 illu trate freque!cy #ariatio! for a 49)h period o! a typical 28) (I ub tatio! bu $

0reque!cy #ariatio! that "o out ide of accepted limit for !ormal teady) tate operatio! of the power y tem ca! be cau ed by fault o! the bul( power tra! mi io! y tem% a lar"e bloc( of load bei!" di co!!ected% or a lar"e ource of "e!eratio! "oi!" off)li!e$

O! moder! i!terco!!ected power y tem % i"!ifica!t freque!cy #ariatio! are rare$ 0reque!cy #ariatio! of co! eque!ce are much more li(ely to occur for load that are upplied by a "e!erator i olated from the utility y tem$ I! uch ca e % "o#er!or re po! e to abrupt load cha!"e may !ot be adequate to re"ulate withi! the !arrow ba!dwidth required by freque!cy) e! iti#e equipme!t$ Iolta"e !otchi!" ca! ometime be mi ta(e! for freque!cy de#iatio!$ The !otche may come ufficie!tly clo e to .ero to cau e error i! i! trume!t a!d co!trol y tem that rely o! .ero cro i!" to deri#e freque!cy or time$ 2.16 Power Quality Term 1. Active "ilter A!y of a !umber of ophi ticated power electro!ic de#ice for elimi!ati!" harmo!ic di tortio!

2. C7E8A curve A et of cur#e repre e!ti!" the with ta!d capabilitie of computer i! term of the ma"!itude a!d duratio! of the #olta"e di turba!ce$ 1e#eloped by the +omputer Gu i!e Equipme!t &a!ufacturer A ociatio! ta!dard for ,+GE&A-% it had become the de facto ,PRA+TI+AL% REAL-

mea uri!" the performa!ce of all type of equipme!t a!d power y tem a!d i commo!ly referred to by thi !ame +GE&A ha bee! replaced by the I!formatio! Tech!olo"y I!du try +ou!cil ,ITI-% a!d a !ew cur#e ha bee! de#eloped that i commo!ly referred to a the ITI cur#e$ ). Common mode voltage The !oi e #olta"e that appear equally from curre!t carryi!" co!ductor to "rou!d$ 9. Cou%ling A circuit eleme!t% or eleme!t % or a !etwor( that may be co! idered commo! to the i!put me h a!d the output me h a!d throu"h which e!er"y may be tra! ferred from o!e to a!other$ +. Cre t "actor A #alue reported by ma!y power quality mo!itori!" i! trume!t repre e!ti!" the ratio of the cre t #alue of the mea ured wa#eform to the root mea!

quare of the fu!dame!tal$ 0or eFample% the cre t factor of a i!u oidal wa#e i 2$929$ .. Critical load 1e#ice a!d equipme!t who e failure to operate ati factorily 7eopardi.e ,E*1A*=ER)lead to da!"er- the health or afety of per o!!el% a!d5or re ult i! lo of fu!ctio!% fi!a!cial lo % or dama"e to property deemed ,thi!(% co! ider- critical by the u er$ /. Current di tortion 1i tortio! i! the ac li!e curre!t$ 2. !i""erential mode voltage The #olta"e betwee! a!y two of a pecified et of acti#e co!ductor $ 4. !i% /ee sag.

16. !i tortion A!y de#iatio! from the !ormal i!e wa#e for a! ac qua!tity$ 11. !i tributed generation ,!#- =e!eratio! di per ed throu"hout the power y tem a oppo ed to lar"e% ce!tral tatio! power pla!t $ I! the co!teFt u ed i! thi boo(% 1= typically refer to u!it le y tem$ 12.!ro%out A lo or i!terruptio!$ 1). !ro%out voltage The #olta"e at which a de#ice will relea e to it dee!er"i.ed po itio! ,for thi 1ocume!t% the #olta"e at which a de#ice fail to operate-$ 19. Electromagnetic com%atibility The ability of a de#ice% equipme!t% or y tem to fu!ctio! ati factorily i! it electroma"!etic e!#iro!me!t without i!troduci!" i!tolerable electroma"!etic di turba!ce to a!ythi!" i! that e!#iro!me!t$4%8 of equipme!t operatio! ,di crete data i"!al - due to !oi e% a"% tha! 2C me"awatt ,&W- i! i.e that are i!terco!!ected with the di tributio! y tem rather tha! the tra! mi io!

1+.E5ui%ment grounding conductor The co!ductor u ed to co!!ect the !o!H curre!t carryi!" part of co!duit % raceway % a!d equipme!t e!clo ure to the "rou!ded co!ductor ,!eutral- a!d the "rou!di!" electrode at the er#ice equipme!t ,mai! pa!el- or 2CC$M 1.. 3ailure mode The effect by which failure i ob er#ed 1/. 3a t tri%%ing ,3u e *aving- Refer to the commo! utility protecti#e relayi!" practice i! which the circuit brea(er or li!e reclo er operate fa ter tha! a fu e ca! blow$ Al o called fu e a#i!"$ Effecti#e for cleari!" tra! ie!t fault without a u tai!ed i!terruptio!% but i omewhat co!tro#er ial becau e i!du trial load are ub7ected to a mome!tary or temporary i!terruptio!$ 12. 3ault =e!erally refer to a hort circuit o! the power y tem$ 14. 3ault: tran ient A hort circuit o! the power y tem u ually i!duced by li"ht!i!"% tree bra!che % or a!imal % which ca! be cleared by mome!tarily i!terrupti!" the curre!t$ 26. 3errore onance A! irre"ular% ofte! chaotic type of re o!a!ce that i!#ol#e the !o!li!ear characteri tic of iro!)core ,ferrou - i!ductor $ It i i! tech!olo"ie !early alway u!de irable whe! it occur i! the power deli#ery y tem% but it i eFploited ,bro(e!uch a co! ta!t)#olta"e tra! former to impro#e the power quality$ of #i ual e! atio! i!duced by a li"ht eco!dary of a eparately deri#ed y tem ,e$"$% i olatio! tra! former-$ /ee *atio!al 0ire Protectio! A ociatio! ,*0PA- MC)2;;8%/ectio!

21. 3lic;er A! impre io! of u! teadi!e

timulu who e lumi!a!ce or pectral di tributio! fluctuate with time$4

22. 3re5uency deviation A! i!crea e or decrea e i! the power freque!cy$ The duratio! of a freque!cy de#iatio! ca! be from e#eral cycle to e#eral hour $ 2). 3re5uency re %on e I! power quality u a"e "e!erally refer to the #ariatio! of impeda!ce of the y tem% or a meteri!" tra! ducer% a a fu!ctio! of freque!cy$ 49$ 0undamental ,com%onent- The compo!e!t of order 2 ,BC to DC '.- of the 0ourier erie of a periodic qua!tity$ 2+. #round A co!ducti!" co!!ectio!% whether i!te!tio!al or accide!tal% by which a! electric circuit or electrical equipme!t i co!!ected to the earth% or to ome co!ducti!" body of relati#ely lar"e eFte!t that er#e i! place of the earth$ *ote3 It i u ed for e tabli hi!" a!d mai!tai!i!" the pote!tial of the earth ,or of the co!ducti!" body- or approFimately that pote!tial% o! co!ductor co!!ected to it% a!d for co!ducti!" "rou!d curre!t to a!d from earth ,or the co!ducti!" body-$< 2.. #round electrode A co!ductor or "roup of co!ductor "rou!d$M 2/. #round grid A y tem of i!terco!!ected bare co!ductor arra!"ed i! a patter! o#er a pecified area a!d o! or buried below the urface of the earth$ The primary purpo e of the "rou!d "rid i to pro#ide afety for wor(er by limiti!" pote!tial differe!ce withi! it perimeter to afe le#el i! ca e of hi"h curre!t that could flow if the circuit bei!" wor(ed became e!er"i.ed for a!y rea o! or if a! ad7ace!t e!er"i.ed circuit faulted$ &etallic urface mat a!d "rati!" are ometime utili.ed for the ame purpo e$< Thi i !ot !ece arily the ame a a i"!al refere!ce "rid$ 22. #round loo% A pote!tially detrime!tal ,harmful% dama"i!"- loop formed whe! two or more poi!t i! a! electrical y tem that are !omi!ally at "rou!d pote!tial are co!!ected by a co!ducti!" path uch that either or both poi!t are !ot at the ame "rou!d pote!tial$ i! i!timate

,clo e-co!tact with the earth for the purpo e of pro#idi!" a co!!ectio! with the

24. #round window The area throu"h which all "rou!di!" co!ductor % i!cludi!" metallic raceway % e!ter a pecific area$ It i ofte! u ed i! commu!icatio! otherwi e ha#e !o "rou!di!" co!!ectio!$ )6.0armonic ,com%onent- A compo!e!t of order "reater tha! 2 of the 0ourier erie of a periodic qua!tity$4 )1. 0armonic content The qua!tity obtai!ed by ubtracti!" the fu!dame!tal compo!e!t from a! alter!ati!" qua!tity$ )2. 0armonic di tortion Periodic di tortio! of the i!e wa#e$ /ee distortion a!d total harmonic distortion ,T'1-$ )). 0armonic "ilter O! power y tem % a de#ice for filteri!" o!e or more y tem throu"h which the buildi!" "rou!di!" y tem i co!!ected to a! area that would

harmo!ic from the power y tem$ &o t are pa i#e combi!atio! of i!ducta!ce% capacita!ce% a!d re i ta!ce$ *ewer tech!olo"ie i!clude acti#e filter that ca! al o addre reacti#e power !eed $

)9. 0armonic number The i!te"ral !umber "i#e! by the ratio of the freque!cy of a harmo!ic to the fu!dame!tal freque!cy$4 )+. 0armonic re onance A co!ditio! i! which the power y tem i re o!ati!" !ear o!e of the ma7or harmo!ic bei!" produced by !o!li!ear eleme!t i! the y tem% thu eFacerbati!" the harmo!ic di tortio!$ ).. $m%ul e A pul e that% for a "i#e! applicatio!% approFimate a u!it pul e or a 1irac fu!ctio!$4 Whe! u ed i! relatio! to mo!itori!" power quality% it i preferable to u e the term impul i#e tra! ie!t i! place of impul e$

)/. $m%ul ive tran ient A udde!% !o! power freque!cy cha!"e i! the teady tate co!ditio! of #olta"e or curre!t that i u!idirectio!al i! polarity ,primarily either po iti#e or !e"ati#e-$ )2. $n tantaneou Whe! u ed to qua!tify the duratio! of a hort)duratio!

#ariatio! a a modifier% thi term refer to a time ra!"e from o!e)half cycle to 8C cycle of the power freque!cy$ )4. $n tantaneou reclo ing A term commo!ly applied to reclo i!" of a utility brea(er a quic(ly a po ible after a! i!terrupti!" fault curre!t$ Typical time are 2< to 8C cycle $ 96. $nterharmonic ,com%onent- A freque!cy compo!e!t of a periodic qua!tity that i !ot a! i!te"er multiple of the freque!cy at which the upply y tem i de i"!ed to operate ,e$"$% BC or DC '.-$ 91. $nterru%tion: momentary ,electrical %ower y tem - A! i!terruptio! of a duratio! limited to the period required to re tore er#ice by automatic or uper#i ory)co!trolled witchi!" operatio! or by ma!ual witchi!" at locatio! where a! operator i immediately a#ailable$ *ote3 /uch witchi!" operatio! mu t be completed i! a pecified time !ot to eFceed B mi!$ 92. $nterru%tion: momentary ,%ower 5uality monitoring- A type of hort) duratio! #ariatio!$ The complete lo of #olta"e ,KC$2 pu- o! o!e or more pha e co!ductor for a time period betwee! 8C cycle a!d 8 $ 9). $nterru%tion: u tained ,electrical %ower y tem - A!y i!terruptio! !ot

cla ified a a mome!tary i!terruptio!$

99. $nterru%tion: The complete lo "reater tha! 2 mi!$

u tained ,%ower 5uality- A type of lo!")duratio! #ariatio!$ of #olta"e ,KC$2 pu- o! o!e or more pha e co!ductor for a time

9+. $nterru%tion: tem%orary A type of hort)duratio! #ariatio!$ The complete lo of #olta"e ,KC$2 pu- o! o!e or more pha e co!ductor for a time period betwee! 8 a!d 2 mi!$ 9.. $nverter A power electro!ic de#ice that co!#ert direct curre!t to alter!ati!" curre!t of either power freque!cy or a freque!cy required by a! i!du trial proce $ +ommo! i!#erter today employ pul e)width modulatio! to create the de ired freque!cy with mi!imal harmo!ic di tortio!$ 9/. $ landing Refer to a co!ditio! i! which di tributed "e!eratio! i i olated o! a portio! of the load er#ed by the utility power y tem$ It i u ually a! u!de irable ituatio!% althou"h there are ituatio! where co!trolled i la!d ca! impro#e the y tem reliability$ 92. $ olated ground A! i! ulated equipme!t "rou!di!" co!ductor ru! i! the ame co!duit or raceway a the upply co!ductor $ Thi co!ductor i i! ulated from the metallic raceway a!d all "rou!d poi!t throu"hout it le!"th$ It ori"i!ate at a! i olated "rou!d)type receptacle or equipme!t i!put termi!al bloc( a!d termi!ate at the poi!t where !eutral a!d "rou!d are bo!ded at the power ource$ /ee *0PA MC)2;;8% /ectio! 4BC)M9% EFceptio! O9 a!d /ectio! 4BC)MB% EFceptio!$M

94. $ olation /eparatio! of o!e ectio! of a y tem from u!de ired i!flue!ce of other ectio! $ +6. $T$ curve A et of cur#e publi hed by the I!formatio! Tech!olo"y I!du try +ou!cil ,ITI- repre e!ti!" the with ta!d capabilitie of computer co!!ected to 24C)I power y tem i! term of the ma"!itude a!d duratio! of the #olta"e di turba!ce$2C The ITI cur#e replace the cur#e ori"i!ally de#eloped by the ITI:

predece or or"a!i.atio!% the +omputer Gu i!e A ociatio! ,+GE&A-$; /ee CBEMA curve.

Equipme!t &a!ufacturer

+1. 'inear load A! electrical load de#ice that% i! teady) tate operatio!% pre e!t a! e e!tially co! ta!t load impeda!ce to the power ource throu"hout the cycle of applied #olta"e$ +2. 'ong(duration variation A #ariatio! of the rm #alue of the #olta"e from !omi!al #olta"e for a time "reater tha! 2 mi!$ U ually further de cribed u i!" a modifier i!dicati!" the ma"!itude of a #olta"e #ariatio! ,e$"$% u!der#olta"e% o#er#olta"e% or #olta"e i!terruptio!-$ +). 'ow( ide urge A term coi!ed by di tributio! tra! former de i"!er to ur"e that appear to be i!7ected i!to the tra! former

de cribe the curre!t #ici!ity$

eco!dary termi!al duri!" a li"ht!i!" tri(e to "rou!ded co!ductor i! the

+9. 8omentary Whe! u ed to qua!tify the duratio! of a hort)duratio! #ariatio! a a modifier% refer to a time ra!"e at the power freque!cy from 8C cycle to 8 $ ++. 1oi e U!wa!ted electrical i"!al that produce u!de irable effect i! the circuit of the co!trol y tem i! which they occur$< ,0or thi docume!t% >co!trol y tem ? i i!te!ded to i!clude e! iti#e electro!ic equipme!t i! total or i! part$+.. 1ominal voltage ,Vn- A !omi!al #alue a i"!ed to a circuit or y tem for the purpo e of co!#e!ie!tly de i"!ati!" it #olta"e cla ,a 4C<524C% 9<C54MM%DCC-$D

+/. 1onlinear load Electrical load that draw curre!t di co!ti!uou ly or who e impeda!ce #arie throu"hout the cycle of the i!put ac #olta"e wa#eform$

+2. 1ormal mode voltage A #olta"e that appear betwee! or amo!" acti#e circuit co!ductor $ +4. 1otch A witchi!" ,or other- di turba!ce of the !ormal power #olta"e tha! a half)cycle% which i i!itially of oppo ite polarity tha! ubtracted from the !ormal wa#eform i! term of the of #olta"e for up

wa#eform% la ti!" le

the wa#eform a!d i thu to a half)cycle$

pea( #alue of the di turba!ce #olta"e$ Thi i!clude complete lo

.6. & cillatory tran ient A udde!% !o! power freque!cy cha!"e i! the teady tate co!ditio! of #olta"e or curre!t that i!clude both po iti#e or !e"ati#e polarity #alue$ .1. &ver voltage Whe! u ed to de cribe a pecific type of lo!")duratio! #ariatio!% refer to a #olta"e ha#i!" a #alue of at lea t 2C perce!t abo#e the !omi!al #olta"e for a period of time "reater tha! 2 mi!$ .2. Pa ive "ilter A combi!atio! of i!ductor % capacitor % a!d re i tor de i"!ed to imply a! i!ductor

elimi!ate o!e or more harmo!ic $ The mo t commo! #ariety i compo!e!t from the y tem$

i! erie with a hu!t capacitor% which hort)circuit the ma7or di torti!" harmo!ic

.). Pha e hi"t The di placeme!t i! time of o!e #olta"e wa#eform relati#e to other #olta"e wa#eform, -$ .9. Power "actor: !i %lacement The power factor of the fu!dame!tal freque!cy compo!e!t of the #olta"e a!d curre!t wa#eform $ .+. Power "actor ,true- The ratio of acti#e power ,watt - to appare!t power ,#oltampere -$

...Plt The lo!")term flic(er e#erity le#el a defi!ed by IE+ D2CCC)9)2B% ba ed o! a! ob er#atio! period of 4 h$ ./. P t The hort)term flic(er e#erity le#el a defi!ed by IE+ D2CCC)9)2B% ba ed o! a! ob er#atio! period of 2C mi!$ A P t #alue "reater tha! 2$C corre po!d to the le#el of irritability for BC perce!t of the per o! ub7ected to the mea ured flic(er$

.2. Pul e A! abrupt #ariatio! of hort duratio! of a phy ical qua!tity followed by a rapid retur! to the i!itial #alue$ .4. Pul e(width modulation ,PW8- A commo! tech!ique u ed i! i!#erter to create a! ac wa#eform by co!trolli!" the electro!ic witch to produce #aryi!" width pul e $ &i!imi.e power freque!cy harmo!ic di tortio! i! ome applicatio! % but care mu t be ta(e! to properly filter out the witchi!" freque!cie % which are commo!ly 8 to D ('.$ /6. <eclo ing The commo! utility practice u ed o! o#erhead li!e of clo i!" the brea(er withi! a hort time after cleari!" a fault% ta(i!" ad#a!ta"e of the fact that mo t fault are tra! ie!t% or temporary$ /1. <ecovery time The time i!ter#al !eeded for the output #olta"e or curre!t to retur! to a #alue withi! the re"ulatio! pecificatio! after a tep load or li!e cha!"e$<$ Al o may i!dicate the time i!ter#al required to bri!" a y tem bac( to it operati!" co!ditio! after a! i!terruptio! or dropout$ /2. <ecovery voltage The #olta"e that occur acro the termi!al of a pole of a

circuit)i!terrupti!" de#ice upo! i!terruptio! of the curre!t$< M8$ Recti"ier A power electro!ic de#ice for co!#erti!" alter!ati!" curre!t to direct curre!t$

/9. <e onance A co!ditio! i! which the !atural freque!cie of the i!ducta!ce a!d capacita!ce i! the power y tem are eFcited a!d u tai!ed by di turbi!" phe!ome!a$ Thi ca! re ult i! eFce i#e #olta"e a!d curre!t $ Wa#eform di tortio!% whether harmo!ic or !o! harmo!ic% i probably the mo t freque!t eFcitatio! ource$ Al o% #ariou re o!a!t co!ditio! $ /+. *a"ety ground /ee equipment grounding conductor. hort)circuit a!d ope!)circuit fault ca! re ult i!

/.. *ag A decrea e to betwee! C$2 a!d C$; pu i! rm #olta"e or curre!t at the power freque!cy for duratio! of C$B cycle to 2 mi!$ //. *hield A !ormally applied to i! trume!tatio! cable % refer to a co!ducti#e heath ,u ually metallic- applied% o#er the i! ulatio! of a co!ductor or co!ductor % for the purpo e of pro#idi!" mea! to reduce coupli!" betwee! the co!ductor o hielded a!d other co!ductor that may be u ceptible,+apable of bei!" ea ily affected- to% or which may be "e!erati!"% u!wa!ted electro tatic or electroma"!etic field ,!oi e-$ /2. *hielding /hieldi!" i the u e of a co!ducti!" a!d5or ferroma"!etic barrier

betwee! a pote!tially di turbi!" !oi e ource a!d e! iti#e circuitry$ /hield are u ed to protect cable ,data a!d power- a!d electro!ic circuit $ They may be i! the form of metal barrier % e!clo ure % or wrappi!" arou!d ource circuit recei#i!" circuit $ /4. *hielding ,o" utility line - The co! tructio! of a "rou!ded co!ductor or tower o#er the li!e to i!tercept,I*TERRUPT% +APTURE- li"ht!i!" tro(e i! a! attempt to (eep the li"ht!i!" curre!t out of the power y tem$ 26. *hort(duration variation A #ariatio! of the rm #alue of the #olta"e from !omi!al #olta"e for a time "reater tha! o!e)half cycle of the power freque!cy but a!d

le

tha! or equal to 2 mi!$ U ually further de cribed u i!" a modifier i!dicati!" the

ma"!itude of a #olta"e #ariatio! ,e$"$% a"% well% or i!terruptio!- a!d po ibly a modifier i!dicati!" the duratio! of the #ariatio! ,e$"$% i! ta!ta!eou % mome!tary% or temporary-$ 21. *ignal re"erence grid ,or %lane- A y tem of co!ducti#e path amo!" i!terco!!ected equipme!t% which reduce !oi e)i!duced #olta"e to le#el that mi!imi.e improper operatio!$ +ommo! co!fi"uratio! i!clude "rid a!d pla!e $ 22. *u tained Whe! u ed to qua!tify the duratio! of a #olta"e i!terruptio!% refer to the time frame a ociated with a lo!")duratio! #ariatio! ,i$e$% "reater tha! 2 mi!-$ 2). *well A temporary i!crea e i! the rm #alue of the #olta"e of more tha! 2C perce!t of the !omi!al #olta"e% at the power freque!cy% for duratio! from C$B cycle to 2 mi!$ 29. *ym%athetic tri%%ing Whe! a circuit brea(er o! a! u! faulted feeder ectio! trip u!!ece arily due to bac( feed i!to a fault el ewhere$ &o t commo!ly occur whe! e! iti#e "rou!d fault relayi!" i employed$ 2+. *ynchronou clo ing =e!erally u ed i! refere!ce to clo i!" all three pole of a capacitor witch i! y!chro!i m with the power y tem to mi!imi.e tra! ie!t $ 2.. Tem%orary Whe! u ed to qua!tify the duratio! of a hort)duratio! #ariatio! a a modifier% refer to a time ra!"e from 8 to 2 mi!$ 2/. Total demand di tortion ,T!!- The ratio of the root mea! quare of the harmo!ic curre!t to the rm #alue of the rated or maFimum dema!d fu!dame!tal curre!t% eFpre ed a a perce!t$

22. Total di turbance level The le#el of a "i#e! electroma"!etic di turba!ce cau ed by the uperpo itio! of the emi io! of all piece of equipme!t i! a "i#e! y tem$4 24. Total harmonic di tortion ,T0!- The ratio of the root mea! quare of the harmo!ic co!te!t to the rm #alue of the fu!dame!tal qua!tity% eFpre ed a a perce!t of the fu!dame!tal$<

46. Tran ient Pertai!i!" to or de i"!ati!" a phe!ome!o! or a qua!tity that #arie betwee! two co! ecuti#e teady tate duri!" a time i!ter#al that i hort compared to the time cale of i!tere t$ A tra! ie!t ca! be a u!idirectio!al impul e of either polarity or a damped o cillatory wa#e with the fir t pea( occurri!" i! either polarity$ 41. Tri%len harmonic A term freque!tly u ed to refer to the odd multiple of the third harmo!ic% which de er#e pecial atte!tio! becau e of their !atural te!de!cy to be .ero eque!ce$ 42. =ndervoltage Whe! u ed to de cribe a pecific type of lo!")duratio! #ariatio!% refer to a mea ured #olta"e ha#i!" a #alue at lea t 2C perce!t below the !omi!al #olta"e for a period of time "reater tha! 2 mi!$ I! other co!teFt % uch a di tributed "e!eratio! protectio!% the time frame of i!tere t would be mea ured i! cycle or eco!d $ 4). Voltage change A #ariatio! of the root mea! quare or pea( #alue of a #olta"e betwee! two co! ecuti#e le#el 49. Voltage di% /ee sag. u tai!ed for defi!ite but u! pecified duratio! $D

4+. Voltage di tortion 1i tortio! of the ac li!e #olta"e$ /ee distortion.

4.. Voltage "luctuation A erie of #olta"e cha!"e or a cyclical #ariatio! of the #olta"e e!#elope$D 4/. Voltage imbalance ,unbalance- A co!ditio! i! which the three)pha e #olta"e differ i! amplitude or are di placed from their !ormal 24C de"ree pha e relatio! hip or both$ 0reque!tly eFpre ed a the ratio of the !e"ati#e eque!ce or .ero) eque!ce #olta"e to the po iti#e) eque!ce #olta"e% i! perce!t$ 42. Voltage interru%tion 1i appeara!ce of the upply #olta"e o! o!e or more pha e $ U ually qualified by a! additio!al term i!dicati!" the duratio! of the i!terruptio! ,e$"$% mome!tary% temporary% or u tai!ed-$ 44. Voltage regulation The de"ree of co!trol or tability of the rm #olta"e at the load$ Ofte! pecified i! relatio! to other parameter % uch a i!put)#olta"e cha!"e % load cha!"e % or temperature cha!"e $ 166. Voltage magni"ication The ma"!ificatio! of capacitor witchi!" o cillatory tra! ie!t #olta"e o! the primary ide by capacitor o! the eco!dary ide of a tra! former$ 161. Wave"orm di tortion A teady) tate de#iatio! from a! ideal i!e wa#e of power freque!cy pri!cipally characteri.ed by the pectral co!te!t of the de#iatio!$ 2.11 Ambiguou Term The followi!" term are mea!i!"le determi!i!" a olutio!$ Glac(out Gli!( Grow!out =litch Outa"e I!terruptio! i! term of de cribi!" a! e#e!t a!d

Gump +lea! "rou!d

Power ur"e Raw power /ur"e Wi!(

+lea! power /pi(e 1irty "rou!d 1irty power

2.12 C7E8A and $T$ Curve

O!e of the mo t freque!tly employed di play of data to repre e!t the power quality i the o)called +GE&A cur#e$ A portio! of the cur#e adapted from IEEE /ta!dard 99D; that we typically u e i! our a!aly i of power quality mo!itori!" re ult i how! i! 0i"$ 4$2B$ Thi cur#e wa ori"i!ally de#eloped by +GE&A to de cribe the tolera!ce of mai!frame computer equipme!t to the ma"!itude a!d duratio! of #olta"e #ariatio! o! the power y tem$ While ma!y moder! computer ha#e "reater tolera!ce tha! thi % the cur#e ha become a ta!dard de i"! tar"et for e! iti#e equipme!t to be applied o! the power y tem a!d a commo! format for reporti!" power quality #ariatio! data$ The aFe repre e!t ma"!itude a!d duratio! of the e#e!t$ Poi!t below the e!#elope are pre umed to cau e the load to drop out due to lac( of e!er"y$ Poi!t malfu!ctio! abo#e the e!#elope are pre umed ,A//U&E1- to cau e other uch a i! ulatio! failure% o#er #olta"e trip% a!d o#er eFcitatio!$ The

upper cur#e i actually defi!ed dow! to C$CC2 cycle where it ha a #alue of about 8MB perce!t #olta"e$ We typically employ the cur#e o!ly from C$2 cycle a!d hi"her due to limitatio! i! power quality mo!itori!" i! trume!t a!d differe!ce i! opi!io! o#er defi!i!" the ma"!itude #alue i! the ubcycle time frame$ The +GE&A or"a!i.atio! ha bee! replaced by ITI% 2C a!d a modified cur#e ha bee! de#eloped that pecifically applie to commo! 24C)I computer equipme!t , ee 0i"$ 4$2D-$ The co!cept i imilar to the +GE&A cur#e$ Althou"h de#eloped for 24C)I computer equipme!t% the cur#e ha bee! applied to "e!eral power quality e#aluatio! li(e it predece or cur#e$ Goth cur#e are u ed a a refere!ce i! thi boo( to defi!e the with ta!d capability of #ariou load a!d de#ice for protectio!

from power quality #ariatio! $ 0or di play of lar"e qua!titie of power quality mo!itori!" data% we freque!tly add a third aFi to the plot to de!ote the !umber of e#e!t withi! a certai! predefi!ed cell of ma"!itude a!d duratio!$ If re tricted to 7u t the two)dime! io!al #iew ma how! i! 0i"$ 4$2D% the plot te!d to tur! i!to a olid of poi!t o#er time% which i !ot u eful$