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THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

[39 of 1970, dt. 19-9-1970] [As amended by Patents (Amdt.) Act, 2005 (15 of 2005), dt. 4-4-2005]
An Act to amend and consolidate the law relating to patents
Be it enacted by Parliament in the Twenty first ear !f the "e#$blic !f %ndia as f!ll!ws&
CHAPTER I P"E'%(%NA" 1. Short title, extent and commencement )1* This Act may be called the Patents Act, 1970+ ),* %t e-tends t! the wh!le !f %ndia+ ).* %t shall c!me int! f!rce !n s$ch date as the Central /!0ernment may, by n!tificati!n in the 1fficial /a2ette, a##!int& P"13%4E4 that different dates may be a##!inted f!r different #r!0isi!ns !f this Act, and any reference in any s$ch #r!0isi!n t! the c!mmencement !f this Act shall be c!nstr$ed as a reference t! the c!min5 int! f!rce !f that #r!0isi!n+ 2. Definitions and interpretation )1* %n this Act, $nless the c!nte-t !therwise re6$ires,7 1 [)a* 8A##ellate 9!ard8 means the A##ellate 9!ard referred t! in secti!n 11:; )ab* 8assi5nee8 incl$des an assi5nee !f the assi5nee and the le5al re#resentati0e !f a deceased assi5nee and references t! the assi5nee !f any #ers!n incl$de references t! the assi5nee !f the le5al re#resentati0e !r assi5nee !f that #ers!n; , [)aba* 89$da#est Treaty8 means the 9$da#est Treaty !n the %nternati!nal "ec!5niti!n !f the 4e#!sit !f (icr!<!r5anisms f!r the P$r#!ses !f Patent Pr!ced$re d!ne at 9$da#est !n ,=th day !f A#ril, 1977, as amended and m!dified fr!m time t! time;> )ac* 8ca#able !f ind$strial a##licati!n8, in relati!n t! an in0enti!n, means that the in0enti!n is ca#able !f bein5 made !r $sed in an ind$stry;> )b* 8C!ntr!ller8 means the C!ntr!ller</eneral !f Patents, 4esi5ns and Trade (ar?s referred t! in secti!n 7.; )c* 8c!n0enti!n a##licati!n8 means an a##licati!n f!r a #atent made by 0irt$e !f secti!n 1.@; 1 [)d* 8c!n0enti!n c!$ntry8 means a c!$ntry !r a c!$ntry which is member !f a 5r!$# !f c!$ntries !r a $ni!n !f c!$ntries !r an %nter<5!0ernmental !r5anisati!n #referred t! as a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry in secti!n 1..;>> )e* 8district c!$rt8 has the meanin5 assi5ned t! that e-#ressi!n by the CPC, 190=; )f* 8e-cl$si0e licence8 means a licence fr!m a #atentee which c!nfers !n the licensee, !r !n the licensee and #ers!ns a$th!rised by him, t! the e-cl$si!n !f

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S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8n!tified as s$ch $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1..8 by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

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all !ther #ers!ns )incl$din5 the #atentee*, any ri5ht in res#ect !f the #atented in0enti!n, and 8e-cl$si0e licensee8 shall be c!nstr$ed acc!rdin5ly; )5* [Clause (g) omitted by the Patents (Amdt.) Act, 2005, w.e. . !"!"2005# )h* 85!0ernment $nderta?in58 means any ind$strial $nderta?in5 carried !n7 )i* by a de#artment !f the 5!0ernment; !r )ii* by a c!r#!rati!n established by a Central, Pr!0incial !r State Act, which is !wned !r c!ntr!lled by the 5!0ernment; !r )iii* by a 5!0ernment c!m#any as defined in secti!n :17 !f the C!m#anie Act, 19@:)1 !f 19@:* 1[;!r> 1 [)i0* by an instit$ti!n wh!lly !r s$bstantially financed by the /!0ernment;> [Certain words omitted by the Patents (Amdt.) Act, 2005, w.e. . !"!"2005# , [)i* 8Hi5h C!$rt8, in relati!n t! a State !r Ani!n territ!ry, means the Hi5h C!$rt ha0in5 territ!rial B$risdicti!n in that State !r Ani!n territ!ry, as the case may be;> . [)ia* 8internati!nal a##licati!n8 means an a##licati!n f!r #atent made in acc!rdance with the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty;> C [)B* 8in0enti!n8 means a new #r!d$ct !r #r!cess in0!l0in5 an in0enti0e ste# and ca#able !f ind$strial a##licati!n; , [)Ba* 8in0enti0e ste#8 means a feat$re !f an in0enti!n that in0!l0es technical ad0ance as c!m#ared t! the e-istin5 ?n!wled5e !r ha0in5 ec!n!mic si5nificance !r b!th and that ma?es the in0enti!n n!t !b0i!$s t! a #ers!n s?illed in the art;> )?* 8le5al re#resentati0e8 means a #ers!n wh! in law re#resents the estate !f a deceased #ers!n; , [)1* 8new in0enti!n8 means any in0enti!n !r techn!l!5y which has n!t been antici#ated by #$blicati!n in any d!c$ment !r $sed in the c!$ntry !r elsewhere in the w!rld bef!re the date !f filin5 !f #atent a##licati!n with c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, i+e+ the s$bBect matter has n!t fallen in #$blic d!main !r that it d!es n!t f!rm #art !f the state !f the art; )m* 8#atent8 means a #atent f!r any in0enti!n 5ranted $nder this Act;> 1 [)ia* 8#harmace$tical s$bstance8 means any new entity in0!l0in5 !ne !r m!re in0enti0e ste#s;> , [)la* 81##!siti!n 9!ard8 means an 1##!siti!n 9!ard c!nstit$ted $nder s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n ,@;> )n* 8#atent a5ent8 means a #ers!n f!r the time bein5 re5istered $nder this Act as a #atent a5ent; )!* 8#atented article8 and 8#atented #r!cess8 mean res#ecti0ely an article !r #r!cess in res#ect !f which a #atent is in f!rce; . [)!a* 8Patent C!<!#erati!n Treaty8 means the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty d!ne at Dashin5t!n !n the 19th day !f E$ne, 1970 as amended and m!dified fr!m time t! time;>

1 %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , S$bstit$ted, ibid+ . %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S1 @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ C S$bstit$ted, ibid+

SECT%1N , )#* )6* )r* )s* )t*


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THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 3

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)0* )w* )-* )y* ),* )a* )b*

8#atentee8 means the #ers!n f!r the time bein5 entered !n the re5ister as the 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f the #atent; 8#atent !f additi!n8 means a #atent 5ranted in acc!rdance with secti!n @C; 8#atent !ffice8 means the #atent !ffice referred t! in secti!n 7C; 8#ers!n8 incl$des the 5!0ernment; 8#ers!n interested8 incl$des a #ers!n en5a5ed in, !r in #r!m!tin5, research in the same field as that t! which the in0enti!n relates; 8#rescribed8 means,7 )A* in relati!n t! #r!ceedin5s bef!re a Hi5h C!$rt, #rescribed by r$les made by the Hi5h C!$rt; )9* in relati!n t! #r!ceedin5s bef!re the A##ellate 9!ard, #rescribed by r$les made by the A##ellate 9!ard; and )C* in !ther cases, #rescribed by r$les made $nder this Act;> 8#rescribed manner8 incl$des the #ayment !f the #rescribed fee; 8#ri!rity date8 has the meanin5 assi5ned t! it by secti!n 11; 8re5ister8 means the re5ister !f #atents referred t! in secti!n :7; 8tr$e and first in0ent!r8 d!es n!t incl$de either the first im#!rter !f an in0enti!n int! %ndia, !r a #ers!n t! wh!m an in0enti!n is first c!mm$nicated fr!m !$tside %ndia+ %n this Act, $nless the c!nte-t !therwise re6$ires, any reference7 t! the C!ntr!ller shall be c!nstr$ed as incl$din5 a reference t! any !fficer dischar5in5 the f$ncti!ns !f the C!ntr!ller in #$rs$ance !f secti!n 7.; t! the #atent !ffice shall be c!nstr$ed as incl$din5 a reference t! any branch !ffice !f the #atent !ffice+ C1((ENTS

Appellate Board Section 116 of the Act provides that the Appellate Board established under section 83 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999 shall be the Appellate Board for the purposes of the Act and the said Appellate Board shall exercise the urisdiction, po!er and authorit" conferred on it b" or under the Act# Section 83 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999 provides that the $entral %overn&ent shall, b" notification in the 'fficial %a(ette, establish an Appellate Board to be kno!n as the )ntellectual *ropert" Appellate Board to exercise the urisdiction, po!ers and authorit" conferred on it b" or under that Act# The provisions for co&position of the said Board are contained in section 8+ of the said Act# Ass !nee Assi,n&ent is the act of transferrin, to another all or part of one-s propert", interest or ri,hts# )t is a transfer or &akin, over to another of the !hole of an" propert", real or personal, in possession or in action, or of an" estate or ri,ht therein# )t includes transfers of all kinds of propert", includin, ne,otiable instru&ents# )n other !ords, it is the transfer b" a part" of all the ri,hts to so&e kind of propert", usuall" intan,ible propert" such as ri,hts in a lease, &ort,a,e, a,ree&ent of sale or a partnership# Tan,ible propert" is &ore often transferred b" possession and b" instru&ents conve"in, title such as a deed or a bill of sale# .Black's Law Dictionary. /Assi,n&ent/ &eans the transfer of the clai&, ri,ht or propert" to another# The $o&&issioner of Gift Tax, Madras v. N.S. Getty Chettiar, !" #$%# SC&'#(. 1 S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S1 @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

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An /assi,nee/ is a person to !ho& an assi,n&ent is &ade0 ,rantee# Assi,nee in fact is one to !ho& an assi,n&ent has been &ade in fact b" the part" havin, the ri,ht0 and assi,nee in la! is one in !ho& the la! vests the ri,ht, as an executor or ad&inistrator# Assi,nee &eans a person appointed b" another to do an" act or perfor& an" business0 also a person !ho takes so&e ri,ht, title or interest in thin,s b" an assi,n&ent fro& an assi,nor# The" are divided into.112 assi,nees b" deed, as !hen a lessee of a ter& sells or assi,ns it to another, and 132 assi,nees b" la!, as !hen propert" devolves upon an executor !ithout an" specific appoint&ent, the executor is assi,nee in la! to the testator#.)harton's Law Lexicon. "apable of nd#str al appl cat on An invention, in order to be patentable, &ust be capable of bein, &ade or used in so&e kind of industr"# )n this context, /industr"/ should be understood in its broadest sense as includin, an" useful, practical activit" as distinct fro& purel" intellectual or aesthetic activit", and does not necessaril" i&pl" the use of a &achine or the &anufacture of an article# An /invention/ !ithin the &eanin, of the Act is an invention for a &anner of ne! &anufacture that is in so&e !a" associated !ith trade and co&&erce0 &eanin, traffic in ,oods, i#e#, exchan,e of co&&odities for &one" or other co&&odities.Sri Ga*alaksh+i Ginnin, -actory Ltd. v. C!T .#$/&0 &&!T" /1& .Mad0. Trade or co&&erce is carried !ith profit &otive# The expression /invention/ has, therefore, been defined in the *atents Act, 1945 to &ean &anner of &anufacture0 &achine0 substance produced b" &anufacture# The invention relates to the skill 1art2, series of action 1process2 or the particular !a" 1&ethod2 or the !a" 1&anner2 of &akin, a product or thin,# )t also relates to &achine or apparatus b" !hich a thin, is &ade and also the product !hich is the result of act of &akin,# All these are associated !ith /&anufacture/, !hich !ord6 7 denotes either a thin, &ade !hich is useful for its o!n sake and vendible as such0 or 7 &eans an en,ine or instru&ent to be e&plo"ed either in the &akin, of so&e previousl" kno!n article or in so&e useful purpose or extendin, to ne! process to be carried on b" kno!n i&ple&ents or ele&ents actin, upon kno!n substances and ulti&atel" producin, so&e other kno!n sbstance, but producin, it in a cheaper or &ore expeditious &anner, or of a better or &ore useful kind# 8See ". v. )heeler .#2#$0 36 3 id4'/, 9uoted !ith approval in Bo+5ay ,arwal Co. v. "a+chand !" #$/4 Na,. #/'6. The focus in on /&anufacture/# "ontroller :nder section 3112 of the Trade Marks Act, 1999, the $entral %overn&ent &a", b" ;otification in the 'fficial %a(ette, appoint a person to be kno!n as the $ontroller<%eneral of *atents, =esi,ns and Trade Marks, !ho shall be the >e,istrar of Trade Marks for the purposes of that Act# The said officer shall be the $ontroller for the purposes of the *atents Act also# "on$ent on appl cat on $onvention is an a,ree&ent or co&pact0 especiall", international a,ree&ent0 e#,# %eneva $onvention# )t is an asse&bl" or &eetin, of &e&bers or representatives of political, le,islative, fraternal, etc# or,anisations# :nder section 13? of the *atents Act, !here a person has &ade an application for a patent in respect of an invention in a convention countr" and that person or the le,al representative or assi,nee of that person &akes an application under the Act for a patent !ithin 13 &onths after the date on !hich the basic application !as &ade, the priorit" date of a clai& of the co&plete specification bein, a clai& based on &atter disclosed in the basic application, is the date of the basic application# Convention country @ith re,ard to international arran,e&ents in respect of patents, !ith a vie! to the fulfil&ent of a treat", convention or arran,e&ent !ith an" countr" outside )ndia !hich affords to applicants for patents in )ndia or to citi(ens of )ndia si&ilar privile,es as are ,ranted to its o!n citi(ens in

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THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

respect of the ,rant of patents and protection of patent ri,hts, the $entral %overn&ent &a" declare such countr" to be a convention countr" for the purposes of the Act, vide section 133# % str ct "o#rt Section 31+2 of the $ode of $ivil *rocedure, 1958 sa"s that, /district/ &eans the local li&its of the urisdiction of a *rincipal $ivil $ourt of ori,inal urisdiction 1called a /=istrict $ourt/2 and includes the local li&its of the ordinar" ori,inal civil urisdiction of a Ai,h $ourt# &'cl#s $e l cence The expression /exclusive/ is explicit and si,nificant !hen the expression is explicit, it is conclusive, alike in !hat it sa"s and in !hat it does not sa"# This is corroborated b" the use of the expression /clai&/ for all purposes.Charan Lal Sah7 v. 8nion of !ndia !" #$$1 SC #'21 1)n the context of Bhopal %as Beak =isaster 1*rocessin, of $lai&s2 Act, 198?2# Cxclusive licene is the exclusive ri,ht ,ranted b" patent holder to licensee to use, &anufacture, and sell patented article# )t is the per&ission to do a thin, and contract not to ,ive leave to an" one else to do the sa&e thin,.(ver+an C7shion Tire Co. v. Goodyear Tire and "755er Co. C.C. . N. 9. /$ -. &d $$2, $$$. )t is a licence !hich binds the licensor not to enlar,e thereafter the scope of other licences alread" ,ranted, or increase the nu&ber of licences, is an exclusive licence.Mechanical !ce Tray Cor:oration v. General Motors Cor:oration, C.C. .N. 9. #'' -. &d %&1,&%/. An /exclusive licensee/ is one ,ranted exclusive ri,ht and licence to use, &anufacture, and sell patented article0 one havin, exclusive ri,htto use patented &ethod and apparatus in desi,nated territor"#.=eDteD v. Chishol+, C.C. .N.9. '& -. &d #%&, #%4; <a7l =. >awkinson Co. v. Carnell, C.C. . <a. ##$ -. &d 4$?, 4$2 (ood Eood is a nutritive &aterial absorbed or taken into the bod" of an or,anis& !hich serves for purposes of ,ro!th, !ork or repair and for the &aintenance of the vital processes#. @ebster-s !nternational Dictionary. :nder section 31v2 of the *revention of Eood Adulteration Act, 19?+, /Eood/ &eans an" article used as food or drink for hu&an consu&ption other than dru,s and !ater and includes. 1a2 an" article !hich ordinaril" enters into, or is used in the co&position or preparation of hu&an food, and 1b2 an" flavourin, &atter or condi&ents# @ithin the &eanin, of the *revention of Eood Adulteration >ules, 19??, /food/ &eans the co&posite preparations !hich nor&all" ,o to constitute a &eal#.Collector of Central =xcise v. <arle =x:orts .<vt.0 Ltd. !" #$2$ SC ?'' The expression -food- has ,enerall" been understood to &ean nutritive &aterial absorbed or taken into the bod" of an or,anis& !hich serves for purposes of ,ro!th, !ork or repair and for the &aintenance of the vital process# @hat hu&an bein,s consu&e is st"led as food and !hat ani&als consu&e is described as ani&al feed# This distinction has to be borne in &ind# Cxpression -food<stuffs- is &ade of t!o expressions, -food- plus -stuff# )n other !ords, the stuff !hich is used as food !puld be foodstuff# Therefore, foodstuff is that !hich is taken into the s"ste& to &aintain life and ,ro!th and to suppl" !aste of tissue# )f the ra! foodstuff !ith a vie! to &akin, it consu&able b" hu&an bein,s under,oes a chan,e of its conditions b" the process of cookin,, the derivative is none the less foodstuff#.)elco+e >otel v. State of ndhra <radesh, !" #$24 SC #1#/@ Eood &eans an article !hich nor&all" a &an eats or drinks to nourish his bod" and also an article !hich nor&all" is not considered food but !hich nor&all" enters into or is used in the co&position or preparation of hu&an food#.Ahedar Lal v. State of 8.<. #$2# - B #$& . ll0 Government undertaking :ndertakin, &eans business, pro ect or !orks undertaken0 so&ethin, undertaken0 a pro&<

! THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

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ise, a pled,e# :nder section 31v2 of the Monopolies and >estrictive Trade *ractices Act, 1969, /undertakin,/ &eans an undertakin, !hich is en,a,ed in the production, suppl", distribution or control of ,oods of an" description or the provision of service of an" kind# :ndertakin, &eans the entire or,ani(ation# A co&pan" !hether it has a plant or !hether it has an or,ani(ation is considered as one !hole unit, and the entire business of the ,oin, concern is e&braced !ithin the !ord -undertakin,-#."7sto+ Cavas*ee Coo:er v 8nion of !ndia !" #$%1 SC /?'@ .#$%10 # SCB /?'@ .#$%10& SC 4%. The ter& /undertakin,/ &ust be defined as an" business or an" !ork or pro ect resultin, in &aterial ,oods or &aterial services and !hich one en,a,es in or atte&pts as an enterprise analo,ous to business or trade#.Secretary, Madras Gy+khana Cl75 =+:loyees' 8nion v. Mana,e+ent of the Gy+khana Cl75, !" #$?2 SC //'. The !ord /undertakin,/ as used in Section 3?<EEE of the )ndustrial =isputes Act used its ordinar" sense, connotin, thereb" an" !ork, enterprise, pro ect or business undertakin,# )t is not intended to cover the entire industr" or business of the e&plo"er#.)ork+en of the Straw Board Man7fact7rin, Co. Ltd. v. Straw Board Man7fact7rin, Co. Ltd., !" #$%' SC ##4&. Accordin, to its dictionar" &eanin, as ,iven b" @ebster, /undertakin,/ &eans an"thin, undertaken0 an" business, !ork or pro ect !hich one en,a,es in or atte&pts0 an enterprise#.The )ork+en of !ndian Standards !nstit7tion v. The Mana,e+ent of !ndian Standards !nstit7tion, !" #$%? SC #'/. )n$ent on )nvention is the act or operation of findin, out so&ethin, ne!0 the process of contrivin, and producin, so&ethin, not previousl" kno!n or existin,, b" the exercise of independent investi,ation and experi&ent# Also the article or contrivance or co&position so invented.S+ith v. Nichols, 22 8.S. .&# )all.0 ##&, && L=d. /??; >ollister v. Mf,. Co., ##4 8.S. /$, / S.Ct. %#%, &2 L=d. $1#. )nvention is a concept0 a thin, involved in the &ind0 it is not a revelation of so&ethin, !hich exists and !as unkno!n, but is creation of so&ethin, !hich did not exist before, possessin, ele&ents of novelt" and utilit" in kind and &easure different fro& and ,reater than !hat the art &i,ht expect fro& skilled !orkers.<7rsche v. tlas Scra:er 3 =n,ineerin, Co. C. . Cal., 411 -.&d'?%, '%&. The findin, out.The contrivin,, the creatin, of so&ethin, !hich did not exist, and !as not kno!n before, and !hich can be &ade useful and advanta,eous in the pursuits of life, or !hich can add to the en o"&ent of &ankind# ;ot ever" i&prove&ent is invention0 but to entitle a thin, to protection it &ust be the product of so&e exercise of the inventive faculties and it &ust involve so&ethin, &ore than !hat is obvious to persons skilled in the art to !hich it relates# Mere adaptation of kno!n process to clearl" analo,ous use is not invention#.-irestone Tire and "755er Co. v. 8.S. "755er Co., C.C. . (hio, %$ -.&d $'2, $/&, $/4. )nventive skill has been defined as that intuitive facult" of the &ind put forth in the search for ne! results, or ne! &ethods, creatin, !hat had not before existed, or brin,in, to li,ht !hat la" hidden fro& vision0 it differs fro& a su,,estion of that co&&on experience !hich arose spontaneousl" and b" a necessit" of hu&an reasonin, in the &inds of those !ho had beco&e ac9uainted !ith the circu&stances !ith !hich the" had to deal#.>ollister v. Mf,. Co., ##4 8.S. /$, / S.Ct. %#%,&2 L.=d. $1#. )nvention, in the nature of i&prove&ents, is the double &ental act of discernin,, in existin, &achines, processes or articles, so&e deficienc", and pointin, out the &eans of overco&in, it# :nder section 3182 of the *atents and =esi,ns Act, 1911, /invention/ &eans an" &anner of ne! &anufacture and includes an i&prove&ent and an allied invention# :nlike the *atents Act, 1945, the 1911 Act does not specif" the re9uire&ent of bein, useful in the definition of /invention/# But courts have al!a"s taken the vie! that a patentable invention, apart fro& bein, a ne! &anufacture, &ust also be useful# The foundation for this udicial interpretation is to be found in the fact that section 3611 21f2 of the 1911 Act reco,nises lack of utilit" as one of the ,rounds on

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THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 7

!hich a patent can be revoked#.Bishwanath <rasad"adheyShya+ v, >ind7stan Metal !nd7stries !" #$2& SC #'''. *e!al representat $e The ter& /le,al representative/ in its broadest sense &eans one !ho stands in place of, and represents the interests, of another# Ae is a person !ho oversees the le,al affairs of another# A /le,al representative/ ordinaril" &eans a person !ho in la! represents the estate of a deceased person or a person on !ho& the estate devolves on the death of an individual#. G7*arat State "oad Trans:ort Cor:oration v. "a+an5hai <ra5hat Bhai, !" #$2% SC #?$1@ /Be,al representatives/ include heirs as !ell as persons !ho represent the state even !ithout title either as executors or ad&inistrators in possession of the estate of the deceased#.C7stodian of Branches of B NC( National 8ltra+arino v. Nalini Bai NaiC7e, !" #$2$ SC #/2$@ Be,al representative is a person !ho in la! represents the estate of a deceased person, and includes an" person !ho inter&eddles !ith the estate of the deceased and !here a part" sues or is sued in a representative character, the person on !ho& the estate devolves on the death of the part" so suin, orsued#.Civil <roced7re Code #$12, s. &.##0; r5itration ct #$'1, s. &.d0; GiftDTax ct #$/2, s. &.xvi0 .50. The ter& conceives of t!o distinct cate,ories# Eirstl", the heirs or persons, !ho in la! represent the estate of the deceased person# Ao!ever, at par !ith the& and in a class b" itself is an" person !ho inter&eddles !ith the estate of the deceased# Such a person is e9uall" a le,al representative#.S7da+a Devi v Bo,endra Cho7dh7ry !" #$2% <at &4$. Medicine or dr7, =ru, includes all &edicines for internal or external use of hu&an bein,s or ani&als and all substances intended to be used for or in the dia,nosis, treat&ent, &iti,ation or prevention of disease in hu&an bein,s or ani&als#.Sk. +ir v. State of Maharashtra !" #$%' SC '?$ :nder section 31b2 of the =ru,s and $os&etics Act, 19+5, /dru,/ includes. 1i2 all &edicines for internal or external use of hu&an bein,s or ani&als and all substances intended to be used for or in the dia,nosis, treat&ent, &iti,ation or prevention of disease in hu&an bein,s or ani&als0 and 1ii2 such substances 1other than food2 intended to affect the structure or an" function of the hu&an bod" or intended to be used for the destruction of ver&ins or insects !hich cause disease in hu&an bein,s or ani&als, as &a" be specified fro& ti&e to ti&e b" the $entral %overn&ent b" notification in the 'fficial %a(ette# -=ru,- includes. 1i2 all &edicines for internal or external use of hu&an bein,s or ani&als and all substances intended to be used for or in the treat&ent, &iti,ation or prevention of disease in hu&an bein,s or ani&als otherthan &edicines and substances exclusivel" used or prepared for use in accordance !ith the A"urvedic or :nani s"ste&s of &edicine0 and 1ii2 such substance 1other than food2 intended to affect the structure or an" function of the hu&an bod" or intended to be used for the destruction of ver&ins or insects !hich cause disease in hu&an bein,s or ani&als, as &a" be specified fro& ti&e to ti&e b" the $entral %overn&ent b" notification in the 'fficial %a(ette# =ru,s Act 19+5, s# 31b2# -=ru,-includes. 1i2 a &edicine for the internal or external use of hu&an bein,s or ani&als0 1ii2 an" substance intended to be used for or in the dia,nosis, cure, &iti,ation, treat&ent or prevention of disease in hu&an bein,s or ani&als0 1iii2 an" article, other than food, intended to affect or influence in an" !a" the structure or an" or,anic function of the bod" of hu&an bein,s or ani&als0 1iv2 an" article intended for use as a co&ponent of an" &edicine, substance or article,

" THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N ,

referred to in sub<clauses 1i2, 1ii2 and 1iii2# =ru,s and Ma,ic >e&edies 1'b ectional Advertise&ents2 Act, 19?+, s# 31b2# -=ru,- &eans an" dru, as defined in clause 1b2 of section 3 of the =ru,s Act, 19+5 1FF))) of 19+52, in respect of !hich a declaration has been &ade under s# 3# =ru,s 1$ontrol2 Act 19?5# Patent *atent is a ,rant or ri,ht to exclude others fro& &akin,, usin, or sellin, one-s invention and includes ri,ht to license others to &ake, use or sell it# )t is an official docu&ent conferrin, a ri,ht or privile,e, letters patent0 !ritin, securin, to an inventor for a ter& of "ears the exclusive ri,ht to &ake, use and sell his invention0 the &onopol" or ri,ht so ,ranted#.)e5ster's Ninth New Colle,iate Dictionary. The effect of the ,rant of patent is C7id :ro C7o, C7id'ts the kno!led,e disclosed to the public and C7o is the &onopol" ,ranted for the ter& of the patent# Section 13, *atents and =esi,ns Act sets out that a *atent once ,ranted confers upon the patentee the exclusive privile,e of &akin,, sellin, and usin, the invention throu,hout )ndia and of authorisin, others so to do# This is C7o. The C7id is co&pliance !ith the various provisions resultin, in the ,rant of patent#."a* <arkash v Man,at "a+ Cho7dhary !" #$%2 Del #@ Patentee /*atentee/ is he to !ho& a patent has been ,ranted# The ter& is usuall" applied to one !ho has obtained letters patent for a ne! invention# *atentee includes assi,nee of patent !hose na&e is entered into the re,ister of patents#. L7x+i D7tta v. Nanka7s !" #$?' ll &% Person )n ,eneral usa,e, a hu&an bein, 1i#e# natural person2, thou,h b" statute ter& &a" include labor or,ani(ations, partnerships, associations, corporations, le,al representatives, trustees, trustees in bankruptc", or receivers# -*erson- shall include an" co&pan" or association or bod" of individuals, !hether incorporated or not#.General Cla7ses ct #2$%, s. 4.'&0; !ndian <enal Code #2?1, s. ##. The definition of the ter& in the %eneral $lauses Act is not exhaustive# )t is hardl" a definition# )t onl" indicates the intention of le,islature to treat artificial persons as persons#.Ba55ar v State of 8<. !" #$?? ll /$1. Section 11, )#*#$# definin, a person includes !ithin its a&bit a co&pan" or association or bod" of persons !hether incorporated or not# )t &a" see& pri&a facie that a corporate bod" or a bod" of unincorporated persons is punishable as an ordinar" individual# But, the clause /unless there is an"thin, repu,nant to the sub ect or context/ &ust al!a"s be understood to exist in the context of the definition ,iven in *enal $ode# So a corporate bod" or a co&pan" shall not be indictable for offences !hich can be co&&itted onl" b" a hu&an individual 1e#,#, rape, bi,a&" etc#2 or for offences !hich &ust be punished b" i&prison&ent 1e#,# cheatin,2#.Sfafe of Maharashtra v Syndicate Bank !" #$?' Bo+ $/@ .#$?'0 & Cr 8 &%?. )n ,eneral, a corporation is in the sa&e position in relation to cri&inal liabilit" as a natural person and &a" be convicted of co&&on la! and statutor" offences includin, those re9uirin, +ens rea. There are, ho!ever, cri&es !hich a corporation is incapable of co&&ittin, or of !hich a corporation cannot be found ,uilt" as principal0 nor can a corporation be convicted of a cri&e for !hich death or i&prison&ent are the onl" punish&ents# $ri&inal liabilit" of a corporation arises !here an offence is co&&itted in the course of corporation-s business b" a person in control of its affairs to such a de,ree that it &a" fairl" be said to think and act throu,h hi& so that his actions and intent are the actions and intent of the corporation#.>als57ry's Laws of =n,land, 'th =d. Eol. ##, :ara 4', :. 41. :nder section 31312 of the )nco&e Tax Act, 1961 /person/ includes. 1i2 an individual,

SECT%1N .
1ii2 1iii2 1iv2 1v2 1vi2 1vii2

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 9

a Aindu undivided fa&il", a co&pan", a fir&, an association of persons or a bod" of individuals, !hether incorporated or not, a local authorit", and ever" artificial uridical person, not fallin, !ithin an" of the precedin, sub<clauses# !nco+eDtax ct #$?#, s. &.4#0. )n 'rder 35, >ule 15, $ode of $ivil *rocedure 1958, the !ord -person- does not include a co&pan", because such a construction !ill be repu,nant to the context#.Modi Eanas:ati v Ahaitan B7te Mills !" #$?$ Cat '$?. The %eneral $lauses Act, 1894 defines that /person/ shall include an" co&pan", or association or bod" of individuals !hether incorporated or not/# The !ord /person/ in section + of the )ndian *artnership Act !hich has replaced section 339 of the )ndian $ontract Act conte&plates onl" natural or artificial, that is, le,al persons and therefore a fir&, is not a person and as such is not entitled to enter into *artnership !ith another fir& or Aindu undivided fa&il" or individual#. D7lichand Lax+inarayan v. Co++issioner of !nco+e Tax, Na,:7r, !" #$/?SC 4/'@ CHAPTER II %N3ENT%1NS N1T PATENTA9'E .+ #hat are not in$entions The f!ll!win5 are n!t in0enti!ns within the meanin5 !f this Act,7 )a* an in0enti!n which is fri0!l!$s !r which claims anythin5 !b0i!$sly c!ntrary t! well established nat$ral laws; 1[)b* an in0enti!n the #rimary !r intended $se !r c!mmercial e-#l!itati!n !f which c!$ld be c!ntrary t! #$blic !rder !r m!rality !r which ca$ses seri!$s #reB$dice t! h$man, animal !r #lant life !r health !r t! the en0ir!nment;> )c* the mere disc!0ery !f a scientific #rinci#le !r the f!rm$lati!n !f an abstract the!ry ,[!r disc!0ery !f any li0in5 thin5 !r n!n<li0in5 s$bstance !cc$rrin5 innat$r;> . [)d* the mere disc!0ery !f a new f!rm !f a ?n!wn s$bstance which d!es n!t res$lt in the enhancement !f the ?n!wn efficacy !f that s$bstance !r the mere disc!0ery !f any new #r!#erty !r new $se f!r a ?n!wn s$bstance !r !f the mere $se !f a ?n!wn #r!cess, machine !r a##arat$s $nless s$ch ?n!wn #r!cess res$lts in a new #r!d$ct !r em#l!ys at least !ne new reactant+ $%planation & F!r the #$r#!ses !f this cla$se, salts, esters, ethers, #!lym!r#hs, metab!lites, #$re f!rm, #article si2e, is!mers, mi-t$res !f is!mers, c!m#le-es, c!mbinati!ns and !ther deri0ati0es !f ?n!wn s$bstance shall be c!nsidered t! be the same s$bstance, $nless they differ si5nificantly in #r!#erties with re5ard t! efficacy;> )e* a s$bstance !btained by a mere admi-t$re res$ltin5 !nly in the a55re5ati!n !f the #r!#erties !f the c!m#!nents there!f !r a #r!cess f!r #r!d$cin5 s$ch s$bstance; )f* the mere arran5ement !r re<arran5ement !r d$#licati!n !f ?n!wn de0ices each f$ncti!nin5 inde#endently !f !ne an!ther in a ?n!wn way; )5* [&mitted by Patents (Amdt.) Ad, 2002, w.e. . 20"5"200' (ide ).0.5*!($), dt. 20"5"200'#

1 S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ , %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+
3 S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

10 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 )h* )i*

SECT%1N 7

a meth!d !f a5ric$lt$re !r h!rtic$lt$re; any #r!cess f!r the medicinal, s$r5ical, c$rati0e, #r!#hylactic 1[dia5n!stic, thera#e$tic> !r !ther treatment !f h$man bein5s !r any #r!cess f!r a similar treatment !f animals ,[-----> t! render them free !f disease !r t! increase their ec!n!mic 0al$e !r that !f their #r!d$cts+ 1 [)B* #lants and animals in wh!le !r any #art there!f !ther than micr!<!r5anisms b$t incl$din5 seeds, 0arieties and s#ecies and essentially bi!l!5ical #r!cesses f!r #r!d$cti!n !r #r!#a5ati!n !f #lants and animals; )?* a mathematical !r b$siness meth!d !r a c!m#$ter #r!5ram #er se !r al5!rithms; )1* a literary, dramatic, m$sical !r artistic w!r? !r any !ther aesthetic creati!n whats!e0er incl$din5 cinematr!5ra#hic w!r?s and tele0isi!n #r!d$cti!ns; )m* a mere scheme !r r$le !r meth!d !f #erf!rmin5 mental act !r meth!d !f #layin5 5ame; )n* a #resentati!n !f inf!rmati!n; )!* t!#!5ra#hy !f inte5rated circ$its; )#* an in0enti!n which, in effect, is traditi!nal ?n!wled5e !r which is an a55re5ati!n !r d$#licati!n !f ?n!wn #r!#erties !f traditi!nally ?n!wn c!m#!nent !r c!m#!nents+> , , 4. -n$entions relatin. to atomic ener.' not patenta&le N! #atent shall be 5ranted in res#ect !f an in0enti!n relatin5 t! at!mic ener5y fallin5 within s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n ,0 !f the At!mic Ener5y Act, 19:, ).. !f 19:,*+ . [&mitted by the Patents (Amdt.) Act, 2005, w.e. . !"!"2005# CHAPTER III APP'%CAT%1NS F1" PATENTS !. (ersons entitled to appl' for patents )1* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in secti!n 1.C, an a##licati!n f!r a #atent f!r an in0enti!n may be made by any !f the f!ll!win5 #ers!ns, that is t! say,7 )a* by any #ers!n claimin5 t! be the tr$e and first in0est!r !f the in0enti!n; )b* by any #ers!n bein5 the assi5nee !f the #ers!n claimin5 t! be the tr$e and first in0ent!r in res#ect !f the ri5ht t! ma?e s$ch an a##licati!n; )c* by the le5al re#resentati0e !f any deceased #ers!n wh! immediately bef!re his death was entitled t! ma?e s$ch an a##licati!n+ ),* An a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* may be made by any !f the #ers!ns referred t! therein either al!ne !r B!intly with any !ther #ers!n+ 7. /orm of application )1* E0ery a##licati!n f!r a #atent shall be f!r !ne in0enti!n !nly and shall be made in the #rescribed f!rm and filed in the #atent !ffice+ 1 [)1A* E0ery internati!nal a##licati!n $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty f!r a #atent, as may be filed desi5natin5 %ndia shall be deemed t! be an a##licati!n $nder this Act, if a c!rres#!ndin5 a##licati!n has als! been filed bef!re the C!ntr!ller in %ndia+>

1 %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*,dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ , D!rds 8!r #lants8 !mitted, by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

SECT%1N =
1

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 11

[)19* The filin5 date !f an a##licati!n referred t! in s$b<secti!n )1A* and its c!m#lete s#ecificati!n #r!cessed by the #atent !ffice as desi5nated !ffice !r elected !ffice shall be the internati!nal filin5 date acc!rded $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty+> ),* Dhere the a##licati!n is made by 0irt$e !f an assi5nment !f the ri5ht t! a##ly f!r a #atent f!r the in0enti!n, there shall be f$rnished with the a##licati!n, !r within s$ch #eri!d as may be #rescribed after the filin5 !f the a##licati!n, #r!!f !f the ri5ht t! ma?e the a##licati!n+ ).* E0ery a##licati!n $nder this secti!n shall state that the a##licant is in #!ssessi!n !f the in0enti!n and shall name the ,[#ers!n> claimin5 t! be the tr$e and first in0ent!r; and where the #ers!n s! claimin5 is n!t the a##licant !r !ne !f the a##licants, the a##licati!n shall c!ntain a declarati!n that the a##licant belie0es the #ers!n s! named t! be the tr$e and first in0ent!r+ . [)C* E0ery s$ch a##licati!n )n!t bein5 a c!n0enti!n a##licati!n !r an a##licati!n filed $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty desi5natin5 %ndia* shall be acc!m#anied by a #r!0isi!nal !r a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n+> ". -nformation and %nderta0in. re.ardin. forei.n applications )1* Dhere an a##licant f!r a #atent $nder this Act is #r!sec$tin5 either al!ne !r B!intly with any !ther #ers!n an a##licati!n f!r a #atent in any c!$ntry !$tside %ndia in res#ect !f the same !r s$bstantially the same in0enti!n, !r where t! his ?n!wled5e s$ch an a##licati!n is bein5 #r!sec$ted by s!me #ers!n thr!$5h wh!m he claims !r by s!me #ers!n deri0in5 title fr!m him, he shall file al!n5 with his a##licati!n [!r s$bse6$ently @[within the #rescribed #eri!d as the C!ntr!ller may all!w>>7 : [)a* a statement settin5 !$t detailed #artic$lars !r s$ch a##licati!n; and> )b* an $nderta?in5 that, [$# t! the date !f 5rant !f #atent in %ndia,> he w!$ld ?ee# the C!ntr!ller inf!rmed in writin5, fr!m time t! time, !f =[detailed #artic$lars as re6$ired $nder> cla$se )a* in res#ect !f e0ery !ther a##licati!n < + relatin5 t! the same !r s$bstantially the same in0enti!n, if any, filed in any c!$ntry !$tside %ndia s$bse6$ently t! the filin5 !f the statement referred t! in the af!resaid cla$se, within the #rescribed time+ . [),* At any time after an a##licati!n f!r #atent is filed in %ndia and till the 5rant !f a #atent !r ref$sal t! 5rant !f a #atent made there!n, the C!ntr!ller may als! re6$ire the a##licant t! f$rnish details, as may be #rescribed, relatin5 t! the #r!cessin5 !f the a##licati!n in a c!$ntry !$tside %ndia, and in that e0ent the a##licant shall f$rnish t! the C!ntr!ller inf!rmati!n a0ailable t! him within s$ch #eri!d as may be #erscribed+>

1 2 3 C 5 : 7 =

-nserted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1o,nei1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1,ithin s%ch period as the 2ontroller ma', for .ood and s%fficient reasons, allo,1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1%p to the date of the acceptance of his complete specification filed in -ndia1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted f!r 8details !f the nat$re referred t! in8 by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*,dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

12 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 9.


1

SECT%1N 10

(ro$isional and complete specifications [)1* Dhere an a##licati!n f!r a #atent )n!t bein5 a c!n0enti!n a##licati!n !r an a##licati!n filed $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty desi5natin5 %ndia* is acc!m#anied by a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n, a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall be filed within twel0e G m!nths i r$m the date !f filin5 !f the a##licati!n, and if the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is n!t s! filed, the a##licati!n shall be deemed t! be aband!ned+> ),* Dhere tw! !r m!re a##licati!ns in the name !f the same a##licant are acc!m#anied by #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!ns in res#ect !f in0enti!ns which are c!5nate !r !f which !ne is a m!dificati!n !f an!ther and the C!ntr!ller is !f !#ini!n that the wh!le !f s$ch in0enti!ns are s$ch as t! c!nstit$te a sin5le in0enti!n and may #r!#erly be incl$ded in !ne #atent, he may all!w !ne c!m#lete s#ecificati!n t! be filed in res#ect !f all s$ch #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!ns& , [P"13%4E4 that the #eri!d !f time s#ecified $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall be rec?!ned fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the earliest #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n+> 1 [).* Dhere an a##licati!n f!r a #atent )n!t bein5 a c!n0enti!n a##licati!n !r an a##licati!n filed $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty desi5natin5 %ndia* is acc!m#anied by a s#ecificati!n #$r#!rtin5 t! be a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, the C!ntr!ller may, if the a##licant s! re6$ests at any time within twel0e m!nths fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the a##licati!n, direct that s$ch s#ecificati!n shall be treated, f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act, as a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n and #r!ceed with the a##licati!n acc!rdin5ly+> )C* Dhere a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n has been filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent acc!m#anied by a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n !r by a s#ecificati!n treated by 0irt$e !f a directi!n $nder s$b<secti!n ).* as a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n, the C!ntr!ller may, if the a##licant s! re6$ests at any time bef!re .[5rant !f #atent> cancel the #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n and #!st<date the a##licati!n t! the date !f filin5 !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n+ 2344567S Mere arran,e&ent or rearran,e&ent or duplication of a kno!n device cannot be patented#. Standi:ack <vt. Ltd. v. (swal Tradin, Co. Ltd. #$$$ .#$0 <TC '%$ .Del0 10. Contents of specifications )1* E0ery s#ecificati!n, whether #r!0isi!nal !r c!m#lete, shall describe the in0enti!n and shall be5in with a title s$fficiently indicatin5 the s$bBect<matter t! which the in0enti!n relates+ ),* S$bBect t! any r$les that may be made in this behalf $nder this Act, drawin5s may, and shall, if the C!ntr!ller s! re6$ires, be s$##lied f!r the #$r#!ses !f any s#ecificati!n, whether c!m#lete !r #r!0isi!nal; and any drawin5s s! s$##lied shall, $nless the C!ntr!ller !therwise directs, be deemed t! f!rm #art !f the s#ecificati!n, and references in this Act t! a s#ecificati!n shall be c!nstr$ed acc!rdin5ly+ H ).* %f, in any #artic$lar case, the C!ntr!ller c!nsiders that an a##licati!n sh!$ld be f$rther s$##lemented by a m!del !r sam#le !f anythin5 ill$stratin5 the in0enti!n !r alle5ed t! c!nstit$te an in0enti!n, s$ch m!del !r sam#le as he may re6$ire shall be

% S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* Act ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ . S$bstit$ted f!r Ithe acce#tance !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!nJ by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@ w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

SECT%1N 10

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 13

f$rnished 1[befcre the a##licati!n is f!$nd in !rder f!r 5rant !f a #atent> b$t s$ch m!del !r sam#le shall n!t be deemed t! f!rm #art !f the s#ecificati!n+ )C* E0ery c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall7 )a* f$lly and #artic$larly describe the in0enti!n and its !#erati!n !r $se and the meth!d by which it is t! be #erf!rmed; )b* discl!se the best meth!d !f #erf!rmin5 the in0enti!n which is ?n!wn t! the a##licant and f!r which he is entitled t! claim #r!tecti!n; and )c* end with a claim !r claims definin5 the sc!#e !f the in0enti!n f!r which #r!tecti!n is claimed+ , [)d* be acc!m#anied by an abstract t! #r!0ide technical inf!rmati!n !n the in0enti!n& P"13%4E4 that7 )i* the C!ntr!ller may amend the abstract f!r #r!0idin5 better inf!rmati!n t! third #arties; and )ii* if the a##licant menti!ns a bi!l!5ical material in the s#ecificati!n which may n!t be described in s$ch a way as t! satisfy cla$ses )a* and )b*, and if s$ch material is n!t a0ailable t! the #$blic, the a##licati!n shall be c!m<K8 #leted by de#!sitin5 .[the material t! an internati!nal de#!sit!ry a$th!rity $nder the 9$da#est Treaty> and by f$lfillin5 the f!ll!win5 c!nditi!ns, namely&7 C [)A* the de#!sit !f the material shall be made n!t later than the date !f filin5 the #atent a##licati!n in %ndia and a reference there!f shall be made in the s#ecificati!n within the #rescribed #eri!d;> )9* all the a0ailable characteristics !f the material re6$ired f!r it t! be c!rrectly identified !r indicated are incl$ded in the s#ecificati!n incl$din5 the name, address !f the de#!sit!ry instit$ti!n and the date and n$mber !f the de#!sit !f the material at the instit$ti!n; )C* access t! the material is a0ailable in the de#!sit!ry instit$ti!n !nly after the date !f the a##licati!n f!r #atent in %ndia !r if a #ri!rity is claimed after the date !f the #ri!rity; )4* discl!se the s!$rce and 5e!5ra#hical !ri5in !f the bi!l!5ical material in the s#ecificati!n, when $sed in an in0enti!n+> C [)CA* %n case !f an internati!nal a##licati!n desi5natin5 %ndia, the title, descri#ti!n, drawin5s, abstract and claims filed with the a##licati!n shall be ta?en as the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act+> @ [)@* The claim !r claims !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall relate t! a sin5le in0enti!n, !r t! a 5r!$# !f in0enti!ns lin?ed s! as t! f!rm a sin5le in0enti0e c!nce#t, shall be clear and s$ccinct and shall be fairly based !n the matter discl!sed in the s#ecificati!n+> ):* A declarati!n as t! the in0ent!rshi# !f the in0enti!n shall, in s$ch cases as may be #rescribed be f$rnished in the #rescribed f!rm with the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r within s$ch #eri!d as may be #rescribed after the filin5 !f that s#ecificati!n+ )7* S$bBect t! the f!re5!in5 #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n, a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n
1 , 3 4 @ S%&s, for 1&efore the acceptance of the application1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1the material to an a%thorised depositor' instit%tion as ma' &e notified &' the 2entral 8o$ernment in the 3fficial 8a9ette1 &' the (atents )*mdt+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act+ ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

14 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 11

filed after a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n may incl$de claims in res#ect !f de0el!#ments !f, !r additi!ns t! the in0enti!n which was described in the #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n, bein5 de0el!#ments !r additi!ns in res#ect !f which the a##licant w!$ld be entitled $nder the #r!0isi!ns !f secti!n : t! ma?e a se#arate a##licati!n f!r a #atent+ 2344567S @here the invention has not been properl" described and !ill not function in the !a" clai&ed b" the applicants, the opponents succeed even !hen the" fail to establish /prior publication/ as !ell as /prior public kno!led,e/ and, therefore, the application for ,rant of patent is liable to be re ected#. 5id Aa,alwala v. =d,ar >addley Co. .<0 Ltd. #$2' <TC &4' .<(0 @here the invention clai&ed b" the plaintiff involves nothin, !hich is outside the probable capabilit" of skilled crafts&an havin, re,ard to !hat !as alread" kno!n in the countr" and there bein, no ne! &anner of &anufacture or a distinctive i&prove&ent on the old contrivance involvin, novelt" or inventive step, ex parte in unction ,ranted is liable to be vacated#.S7rendra Lal Mahendra v. Bain GlaFers #$2# <TC ##& .Del0 )t is incu&bent under section 151+2 to full" and particularl" describe the invention and its operation or use and the &ethod b" !hich it is to be perfor&ed and disclose the best &ethod of perfor&in, the invention !hich is kno!n to the applicant and for !hich he is entitled to clai& protection endin, !ith a clai& or clai&s definin, the scope of the invention for !hich protection is clai&ed#."a+ Narain Aher v. +5assador !nd7stries <TC .S7::l.0 .#0 #21 .Del0. 11. Priority dates of claims of a complete specification )1* There shall be a #ri!rity date f!r each claim !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n+ ),* Dhere a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is filed in #$rs$ance !f a sin5le a##licati!n acc!m#anied by7 )a* a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n; !r )b* a s#ecificati!n which is treated by 0irt$e !f a directi!n $nder s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n 9 as a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n, and the claim is fairly based !n the matter discl!sed in the s#ecificati!n referred t! in cla$se )a* !r cla$se )b*, the #ri!rity date !f that claim shall be the date !f the filin5 !f the rele0ant s#ecificati!n+ ).* Dhere the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is filed !r #r!ceeded with in #$rs$ance !f tw! !r m!re a##licati!ns acc!m#anied by s$ch s#ecificati!ns as are menti!ned in s$b<secti!n ),* and the claim is fairly based !n the matter discl!sed7 )a* in !ne !f th!se s#ecificati!ns, the #ri!rity date !f that claim shall be the date !f filin5 !f the a##licati!n acc!m#anied by that s#ecificati!n; )b* #artly in !ne and #artly in an!ther, the #ri!rity date !f that claim shall be the date !f the filin5 !f the a##licati!n acc!m#anied by the s#ecificati!n !f the later date+ 1 [).A* Dhere a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n based !n a #re0i!$sly filed a##licati!n in %ndia has been filed within twel0e m!nths fr!m the date !f that a##licati!n and the claim is fairly based !n the matter discl!sed in the #re0i!$sly filed a##licati!n, the #ri!rity date !f that claim shall be the date !f the #re0i!$sly filed a##licati!n in which the matter was first discl!sed+> )C* Dhere the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n has been filed in #$rs$ance !f a f$rther

-nserted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N 811A

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 1

a##licati!n made by 0irt$e !f s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1: and the claim is fairly based !n the matter discl!sed in any !f the earlier s#ecificati!ns, #r!0isi!nal !r c!m#lete, as the case may be, the #ri!rity date !f that claim shall be the date !f the filin5 !f that s#ecificati!n in which the matter was first discl!sed+ )@* Dhere, $nder the f!re5!in5 #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n, any claim !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n w!$ld, b$t f!r the #r!0isi!ns !f that s$b<secti!n, ha0e tw! !r m!re #ri!rity dates, the #ri!rity date !f that claim shall be the earlier !r earliest !f th!se dates+ ):* %n any case t! which s$b<secti!ns ),*, ).*, H).A*>; )C* and )@* d! n!t a##ly, the #ri!rity date !f a claim shall, s$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f secti!n 1.7, be the date !f filin5 !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n+ )7* The reference t! the date !f+ the filin5 !f the a##licati!n !r !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n in this secti!n shall, in cases where there has been a #!st<datin5 $nder secti!n 9 !r secti!n 17 !r, as the case may be, an ante<datin5 $nder secti!n 1:, be a reference t! the date as s! #!st<dated !r ante<dated+ )=* A claim in a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !f a #atent shall n!t be in0alid by reas!n !nly !f 7 )a* the #$blicati!n !r $se !f the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in that claim !n !r after the #ri!rity date !f s$ch claim; !r )b* the 5rant !f an!ther #atent which claims the in0enti!n, s! far as claimed in the first menti!ned claim, in a claim !f the same !r a later #ri!rity date+ CHAPTER IV , [PA9'%CAT%1N AN4 ELA(%NAT%1N 1F APP'%CAT%1NS> 3 :11*. (%&lication of applications 4 :)1+ Sa0e as !therwise #r!0ided, n! a##licati!n f!r #atent shall !rdinarily be !#en t! the #$blic f!r s$ch #eri!d as may be #rescribed+ ),* The a##licant may, in the #rescribed manner, re6$est the C!ntr!ller t! #$blish his a##licati!n at any time bef!re the e-#iry !f the #eri!d #rescribed $nder s$b<secti!n )1* and s$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f s$b<secti!n ).*, the C!ntr!ller shall #$blish s$ch a##licati!n as s!!n as #!ssible+ ).* E0ery a##licati!n f!r a #atent shall, !n the e-#iry !f the #eri!d s#ecified $nder s$b< secti!n )1*, be #$blished, e-ce#t in cases where the a##licati!n7 )a* in which secrecy directi!n is im#!sed $nder secti!n .@; !r )b* has been aband!ned $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 9; !r )c* has been withdrawn three m!nths #ri!r t! the #eri!d s#ecified $nder s$b<secti!n )1*+> )C* %n case a secrecy directi!n has been 5i0en in res#ect !f an a##licati!n $nder secti!n .@, then it shall be #$blished after the e-#iry !f the #eri!d @[#rescribed $nder s$b<secti!n )1*> !r when the secrecy directi!n has creased t! !#erate, whiche0er is later+ )@* The #$blicati!n !f e0ery a##licati!n $nder this secti!n shall incl$de the

1 , . 4

-nserted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted f!r 8E-aminati!n !f A##licati!ns8 by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*,dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ %nserted, ibid+ S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1of ei.hteen months1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

1! THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 SECT%1N 119 #artic$lars !f the date !f a##licati!n, n$mber !f a##licati!n, name and address !f the a##licant identifyin5 the a##licati!n and an abstract+ ):* A#!n #$blicati!n !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent $nder this secti!n7 )a* the de#!sit!ry instit$ti!n shall ma?e the bi!l!5ical material menti!ned in the s#ecificati!n a0ailable t! the #$blic; )b* the #atent !ffice may, !n #ayment !f s$ch fee as may be #rescribed, ma?e the s#ecificati!n and drawin5s, if any, !f s$ch a##licati!n a0ailable t! the #$blic+ 1 [)7* 1n and fr!m the date !f #$blicati!n !f the a##licati!n f!r #atent and $ntil the date !f 5rant !f a #atent in res#ect !f s$ch a##licati!n, the a##licant shall ha0e the li?e #ri0ile5es and ri5hts as if a #atent f!r the in0enti!n had been 5ranted !n the date !f #$blicati!n !f the a##licati!n& P"13%4E4 that the a##licant shall n!t be entitled t! instit$te any #r!ceedin5s f!r infrin5ement $ntil the #atent has been 5ranted& P"13%4E4 FA"THE" that the ri5hts !f a #atentee in res#ect !f a##licati!ns made $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n @ bef!re the 1st day !f Ean$ary, ,00@ shall accr$e fr!m the date !f 5rant !f the #atent& P"13%4E4 A'S1 that after a #atent is 5ranted in res#ect !f a##licati!ns made $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n @, the #atent<h!lder shall !nly be entitled t! recei0e reas!nable r!yalty fr!m s$ch enter#rises which ha0e made si5nificant in0estment and were #r!d$cin5 and mar?etin5 the c!ncerned #r!d$ct #ri!r t! 1<1<,00@ and which c!ntin$e t! man$fact$re the #r!d$ct c!0ered by the #atent !n the date !f 5rant !f the #atent and n! infrin5ement #r!ceedin5s shall be instit$ted a5ainst s$ch enter#rises+> 11B. ;e<%est for examination , [)1* N! a##licati!n f!r a #atent shall be e-amined $nless the a##licant !r any !ther interested #ers!n ma?es a re6$est in the #rescribed manner f!r s$ch e-aminati!n within the #rescribed #eri!d+> . [),* ---> , [).* %n case !f an a##licati!n in res#ect !f a claim f!r a #atent filed $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n @ bef!re the 1st day !f Ean$ary, ,00@ a re6$est f!r its e-aminati!n shall be made in the #rescribed manner and within the #rescribed #eri!d by the a##licant !r any !ther interested #ers!n+> )C* %n case the a##licant !r any !ther interested #ers!n d!es n!t ma?e a re6$est f!r e-aminati!n !f the a##licati!n f!r a #atent within the #eri!d as s#ecified $nder s$b<secti!n )1* C [- - -> !r s$b<secti!n ).*, the a##licati!n shall be treated as withdrawn by the a##licant& , [P"13%4E4 that7 )i* the a##licant may, at any time after filin5 the a##licati!n b$t bef!re the 5rant !f a #atent, withdraw the a##licati!n by ma?in5 a re6$est in the #rescribed manner; and )ii* in a case where secrecy directi!n has been iss$ed $nder secti!n .@, the re6$est f!r e-aminati!n may be made within the #rescribed #eri!d fr!m the date !f re0!cati!n !f the secrecy directi!n+>

1 -nserted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . 2 S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . 3 3mitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . 4 1or s%&-section )2+1 omitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N 1.

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 17

12. 5xamination of application )1* Dhen a re6$est f!r e-aminati!n has been made in res#ect !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent in the #rescribed manner1 [$nder s$b<secti!n )1* !r s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n 119, the a##licati!n and s#ecificati!n and !ther d!c$ments related theret! shall be referred at the earliest by the C!ntr!ller> t! an e-aminer f!r ma?in5 a re#!rt t! him in res#ect !f the f!ll!win5 matters, namely,7 )a* whether the a##licati!n and the Ms#ecificati!n and !ther d!c$ments relatin5 theret!> are in acc!rdance with the re6$irements !f this Act and !f any r$les made there$nder; )b* whether there is any lawf$l 5r!$nd !f !bBecti!n t! the 5rant !f the #atent $nder this Act in #$rs$ance !f the a##licati!n; )c* the res$lt !f in0esti5ati!ns made $nder secti!n 1.; and )d* any !ther matter which may be #rescribed+ ),* The e-aminer t! wh!m the a##licati!n and the Ms#ecificati!n and !ther d!c$ments relatin5 theret!> are referred $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall !rdinarily ma?e the re#!rt t! the C!ntr!ller within [s$ch #eri!d as may be #rescribed>+ 13. Search for anticipation &' pre$io%s p%&lication and &' prior claim )1* The e-aminer t! wh!m an a##licati!n f!r a #atent is referred $nder secti!n 1, shall ma?e in0esti5ati!n f!r the #$r#!se !f ascertainin5 whether the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n7 )a* has been antici#ated by #$blicati!n bef!re the date !f filin5 !f the a##licantGs c!m#lete s#ecificati!n in any s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent made in %ndia and dated !n !r after the 1st day !f Ean$ary, 191,; )b* is claimed in any claim !f any !ther c!m#lete s#ecificati!n #$blished !n !r after the date !f filin5 !f the a##licantGs c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, bein5 a s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent made in %ndia and dated bef!re !r claimin5 the #ri!rity date earlier than that date+ ),* The e-aminer shall, in additi!n, ma?e an in0esti5ati!n [- - -> f!r the #$r#!se !f ascertainin5, whether the in0enti!n, s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, has been antici#ated by #$blicati!n in %ndia !r elsewhere in any d!c$ment !ther than th!se menti!ned in s$b<secti!n )1* bef!re the date !f filin5 !f the a##licantGs c!m#lete s#ecificati!n+ ).* Dhere a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is amended $nder the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act bef!re [the 5rant !f a #atent>, the amended s#ecificati!n shall be e-amined and in0esti5ated in li?e manner as the !ri5inal s#ecificati!n+

1 , 3 C

S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted f!r 8s#ecificati!n relatin5 theret!8 by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*,dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1a period of ei.hteen months from the date of s%ch reference1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . D!rds 8as the C!ntr!ller may direct8 !mitted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*,dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1it has &een accepted1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 +

1" THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 1:

)C* The e-aminati!n and in0esti5ati!ns re6$ired $nder secti!n 1, and this secti!n shall n!t be deemed in any way t! warrant the 0alidity !f any #atent, and n! liability shall be inc$rred by the Central /!0ernment !r any !fficer there!f by reas!n !f, !r in c!nnecti!n with, any s$ch e-aminati!n !r in0esti5ati!n !r any re#!rt !r !ther #r!ceedin5s c!nse6$ent there!n+ 2344567S Pri!r re5istrati!n !f #atent in an!ther c!$ntry #rima facie c!nstit$tes #ri!r #$blicati!n and is liable t! be reBected+7+intech $lectronics (P) +td. (. ,ar(el $ngineering Co. !--5 ('5) ./0 !! 1 :14. 2onsideration of the report of examiner &' 2ontroller Dhere, in res#ect !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent, the re#!rt !f the e-aminer recei0ed by the C!ntr!ller is ad0erse t! the a##licant !r re6$ires any amendment !f the a##licati!n, the s#ecificati!n !r !ther d!c$ments t! ens$re c!m#liance with the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act !r !f the r$les made there$nder, the C!ntr!ller, bef!re #r!ceedin5 t! dis#!se !f the a##licati!n in acc!rdance with the #r!0isi!ns hereinafter a##earin5, shall c!mm$nicate as e-#editi!$sly as #!ssible the 5ist !f the !bBecti!ns t! the a##licant and shall, if s! re6$ired by the a##licant within the #rescribed #eri!d, 5i0e him an !##!rt$nity !f bein5 heard+ 1 . (o,er of 2ontroller to ref%se or re<%ire amended applications, etc., in certain cases Dhere the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that the a##licati!n !r any s#ecificati!n !r any !ther d!c$ment filed in #$rs$ance there!f d!es n!t c!m#ly with the re6$irements !f this Act !r !f any r$les made there$nder, the C!ntr!ller may ref$se the a##licati!n !r may re6$ire the a##licati!n, s#ecificati!n !r the !ther d!c$ments, as the case may be, t! be amended t! his satisfacti!n bef!re he #r!ceeds with the a##licati!n and ref$se the a##licati!n !n fail$re t! d! s!+> 1!. (o,er of 2ontroller to ma0e orders respectin. di$ision of application )1* A #ers!n wh! has made an a##licati!n f!r a #atent $nder this Act may, at any time , [bef!re the 5rant !f the #atent>, if he s! desires, !r with a 0iew t! remedy the !bBecti!n raised by the C!ntr!ller !n the 5r!$nd that the claims !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n relate t! m!re than !ne in0enti!n, file a f$rther a##licati!n in res#ect !f an in0enti!n discl!sed in the #r!0isi!nal !r c!m#lete s#ecificati!n already filed in res#ect !f the first<menti!ned a##licati!n+ ),* The f$rther a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall be acc!m#anied by a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n b$t s$ch c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall n!t incl$de any matter n!t in s$bstance discl!sed in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f the first<menti!ned a##licati!n+ ).* The C!ntr!ller may re6$ire s$ch amendment !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f either the !ri5inal !r the f$rther a##licati!n as may be necessary t! ens$re that neither !f the said c!m#lete s#ecificati!n incl$des a claim f!r any matter claimed in the !ther+ ' [$%planation1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act, the f$rther a##licati!n and the c!m#lete

1 2 3

S%&stit%ted for existin. sections 14 and 1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1&efore the acceptance of the complete specification1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct. 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N 1=

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 19

s#ecificati!n acc!m#anyin5 it shall be deemed t! ha0e been filed !n the date !n which the first menti!ned a##licati!n had been filed, and the f$rther a##licati!n shall be #r!ceeded with as a s$bstanti0e a##licati!n and be e-amined when the re6$est f!r e-aminati!n is filed within the #rescribed #eri!d+> 17. (o,er of 2ontroller to ma0e orders respectin. datin. of application+ )1* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f secti!n -, at any time after the filin5 !f an a##licati!n and [bef!re the 5rant !f the #atent> $nder this Act, the C!ntr!ller may, at the re6$est !f the a##licant made in the #rescribed manner, direct that the a##licati!n shall be #!st<dated t! s$ch date as may be s#ecified in the re6$est, and #r!ceed with the a##licati!n acc!rdin5ly& P"13%4E4 that n! a##licati!n shall be #!st<dated $nder this s$b<secti!n t! a date later than si- m!nths fr!m the date !n which it was act$ally made !r w!$ld, b$t f!r the #r!0isi!ns !f this s$b<secti!n, be deemed t! ha0e been made+ , [),* Dhere an a##licati!n !r s#ecificati!n )incl$din5 drawin5s* !r any !ther d!c$ment is re6$ired t! be amended $nder secti!n 1@, the a##licati!n !r s#ecificati!n !r !ther d!c$ment shall, if the C!ntr!ller s! directs, be deemed t! ha0e been made !n the date !n which the re6$irement is c!m#lied with !r where the a##licati!n !r s#ecificati!n !r !ther d!c$ment is ret$rned t! the a##licant !n the date !n which it is re<filed after c!m#lyin5 with the re6$irement+> 1". (o,ers of 2ontroller in cases of anticipation )1* Dhere it a##ears t! the C!ntr!ller that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n has been antici#ated in the manner referred t! in cla$se )a* !f s$b< secti!n )1* !r s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n 1., he may ref$se .[the a##licati!n> $nless the a##licant 7 )a* sh!ws t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller that the #ri!rity date !f the claim !f his c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is n!t later than the date !n which the rele0ant d!c$ment was #$blished; !r )b* amends his c!m#lete s#ecificati!n t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller+ ),* %f it a##ears t! the C!ntr!ller that the in0enti!n is claimed in a claim !f any !ther c!m#lete s#ecificati!n referred t! in cla$se )b* !f s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1., he may, s$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns hereinafter c!ntained, direct that a reference t! that !ther s#ecificati!n shall be inserted by way !f n!tice t! the #$blic in the a##licantGs c!m#lete s#ecificati!n $nless within s$ch time as may be #rescribed7 )a* the a##licant sh!ws t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller that the #ri!rity date !f his claim is n!t later than the #ri!rity date !f the claim !f the said !ther s#ecificati!n; !r )b* the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is amended t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller; ).* %f it a##ears t! the C!ntr!ller, as a res$lt !f an in0esti5ati!n $nder secti!n 1. !r !therwise7 )a* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the a##licantGs c!m#lete

1 , 3

S%&stit%ted for 1&efore acceptance of the complete specification1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1to accept the complete specification1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

20 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N ,0

s#ecificati!n has been claimed in any !ther c!m#lete s#ecificati!n referred t! in cla$se )a* !f s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1.; and )b* that s$ch !ther c!m#lete s#ecificati!n was #$blished !n !r after the #ri!rity date !f the a##licantGs claim, then, $nless it is sh!wn t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller that the #ri!rity date !f the a##licantGs claim is n!t later than the #ri!rity date !f the claim !f that s#ecificati!n, the #r!0isi!ns !f s$b<secti!n ),* shall a##ly theret! in the same manner as they a##ly t! a s#ecificati!n #$blished !n !r after the date !f filin5 !f the a##licantGs c!m#lete s#ecificati!n+ 1 [(4 !!!" 19. (o,ers of 2ontroller in case of potential infrin.ement )1+ -f, in conse<%ence of the in$esti.ation re<%ired 2:%nder this *ct] it appears to the 2ontroller that an in$ention in respect of ,hich an application for a patent has &een made cannot &e performed ,itho%t s%&stantial ris0 of infrin.ement of a claim of an' other patent, he ma' direct that a reference to that other patent shall &e inserted in the applicant=s complete specification &' ,a' of notice to the p%&lic, %nless ,ithin s%ch time as ma' &e prescri&ed> )a+ the applicant sho,s to the satisfaction of the 2ontroller that there are reasona&le .ro%nds for contestin. the $alidit' of the said claim of the other patent? or )&+ the complete specification is amended to the satisfaction of the 2ontroller. )2+ #here, after a reference to another patent has &een inserted in a complete specification in p%rs%ance of a direction %nder s%&-section )1+> )a+ that other patent is re$o0ed or other,ise ceases to &e in force? or )&+ the specification of that other patent is amended &' the deletion of the rele$ant claim? or )c+ it is fo%nd, in proceedin.s &efore the co%rt of the 2ontroller, that the rele$ant claim of that other patent is in$alid or is not infrin.ed &' an' ,or0in. of the applicant=s in$ention. the 2ontroller ma', on the application of the applicant, delete the reference to that other patent. 20. (o,ers of 2ontroller to ma0e orders re.ardin. s%&stit%tion of applicants, etc. )1* %f the C!ntr!ller is satisfied !n a claim made in the #rescribed manner at any time bef!re a #atent has been 5ranted, that by 0irt$e !f any assi5nment !r a5reement in writin5 made by the a##licant !r !ne !f the a##licants f!r the #atent !r by !#erati!n !f law, the claimant w!$ld, if the #atent were then 5ranted, be entitled theret! !r t! the interest !f the a##licant therein, !r t! an $ndi0ided share !f the #atent !r !f that interest, the C!ntr!ller may, s$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n, direct that the a##licati!n shall #r!ceed in the name !f the claimant !r in the names !f the claimants and the a##licant !r the !ther B!int a##licant !r a##licants, acc!rdin5ly as the case may re6$ire+ ),* N! s$ch directi!n as af!resaid shall be 5i0en by 0irt$e !f any assi5nment !r

1 2

3mitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1&' the fore.oin. pro$isions of this *ct or of proceedin.s %nder section 2 1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N ,1

THE PATENTS ACT, 197A 21

a5reement made by !ne !f tw! !r m!re B!int a##licants f!r a #atent e-ce#t with the c!nsent !f the !ther B!int a##licant !r a##licants+ ).* N! s$ch directi!n as af!resaid shall be 5i0en by 0irt$e !f any assi5nment !r a5reement f!r the assi5nment !f the benefit !f an in0enti!n $nless7 )a* the in0enti!n is identified therein by reference t! the n$mber !f the a##licati!n f!r the #atent; !r )b* there is #r!d$ced t! the C!ntr!ller an ac?n!wled5ment by the #ers!n by wh!m the assi5nment !r a5reement was made that the assi5nment !r a5reement relates t! the in0enti!n in res#ect !f which that a##licati!n is made; !r )c* the ri5hts !f the claimant in res#ect !f the in0enti!n ha0e been finally established by the decisi!n !f a c!$rt; !r )d* the C!ntr!ller 5i0es directi!ns f!r enablin5 the a##licati!n t! #r!ceed !r f!r re5$latin5 the manner in which it sh!$ld be #r!ceeded with $nder s$b<secti!n )@*+ )C* Dhere !ne !f tw! !r m!re B!int a##licants f!r a #atent dies at any time bef!re the #atent has been 5ranted, the C!ntr!ller may, $#!n a re6$est in that behalf made by the s$r0i0!r !r s$r0i0!rs and with the c!nsent !f the le5al re#resentati0e !f the deceased, direct that the a##licati!n shall #r!ceed in the name !f the s$r0i0!r !r s$r0i0!rs al!ne+ )@* %f any dis#$te arises between B!int a##licants f!r a #atent whether !r in what manner the a##licati!n sh!$ld be #r!ceeded with, the C!ntr!ller;may, $#!n a##licati#n made t! him in the #rescribed manner by any !f the #arties, and after 5i0in5 t! all #arties c!ncerned an !##!rt$nity t! be heard, 5i0e s$ch directi!ns as he thin?s fit f!r enablin5 the a##licati!n t! #r!ceed in the name !f !ne !r m!re !f the #arties al!ne !r f!r re5$latin5 the manner in which it sh!$ld be #r!ceeded with, !r f!r b!th th!se #$r#!ses, as the case may re6$ire+ 1:21. 7ime for p%ttin. application in order for .rant )1* An a##licati!n f!r a #atent shall be deemed t! ha0e been aband!ned $nless, within s$ch #eri!d as may be #rescribed, the a##licant has c!m#lied with all the re6$irements im#!sed !n him by !r $nder this Act, whether in c!nnecti!n with the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r !therwise in relati!n t! the a##licati!n fr!m the date !n which the first statement !f !bBecti!ns t! the a##licati!n !r c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r !ther d!c$ments related theret! is f!rwarded t! the a##licant by the C!ntr!ller+ $%planation 1 Dhere the a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r any s#ecificati!n !r, in the case !f a c!n0enti!n a##licati!n !r an a##licati!n filed $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty desi5natin5 %ndia any d!c$ment filed as #art !f the a##licati!n has been ret$rned t! the a##licant by the C!ntr!ller in the c!$rse !f the #r!ceedin5s, the a##licant shall n!t be deemed t! ha0e c!m#lied with s$ch re6$irements $nless and $ntil he has refiled it !r the a##licant #r!0es t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller that f!r the reas!ns bey!nd his c!ntr!l s$ch d!c$ment c!$ld n!t be re<filed+ ),* %f at the e-#irati!n !f the #eri!d as #rescribed $nder s$b<secti!n )1*,7 )a* an a##eal t! the Hi5h C!$rt is #endin5 in res#ect !f the a##licati!n f!r the #atent f!r the main in0enti!n; !r )b* in the case !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !f additi!n, an a##eal t! the Hi5h

S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

22 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N ,@

C!$rt is #endin5 in res#ect !f either that a##licati!n !r the a##licati!n f!r the main in0enti!n, the time within which the re6$irements !f the C!ntr!ller shall be c!m#lied with shall, !n an a##licati!n made by the a##licant bef!re the e-#irati!n !f the #eri!d as #rescribed $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, be e-tended $ntil s$ch date as the Hi5h C!$rt may determine+ ).* %f the time within which the a##eal menti!ned in s$b<secti!n ),* may be instit$ted has n!t e-#ired, the C!ntr!ller may e-tend the #eri!d as #rescribed $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, t! s$ch f$rther #eri!d as he may determine& P"13%4E4 that if an a##eal has been filed d$rin5 the said f$rther #eri!d, and the Hi5h C!$rt has 5ranted any e-tensi!n !f time f!r c!m#lyin5 with the re6$irements !f the C!ntr!ller, then the re6$irements may be c!m#lied with within the time 5ranted by the C!$rt+> 1 :22 to 24 xxx] # [! ! !" CHAPTER V . [1PP1S%T%1N P"1CEE4%N/S T1 /"ANT 1F PATENTS> 4 :2 + 3pposition to the patent )1* Dhere an a##licati!n f!r a #atent has been #$blished b$t a #atent has n!t been 5ranted, any #ers!n may, in writin5, re#resent by way !f !##!siti!n t! the C!ntr!ller a5ainst the 5rant !f #atent !n the 5r!$nd7 )a* that the a##licant f!r the #atent !r the #ers!n $nder !r thr!$5h wh!m heG claims, wr!n5f$lly !btained the in0enti!n !r any #art there!f fr!m him !r fr!m a #ers!n $nder !r thr!$5h wh!m he claims; )b* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n has been #$blished bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the claim7 )i* in any s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent made in %ndia !n !r after the 1st day !f Ean$ary 191,; !r )ii* in %ndia !r elsewhere, in any !ther d!c$ment& P"13%4E4 that the 5r!$nd s#ecified in s$b<cla$se )ii* shall n!t be a0ailable where s$ch #$blicati!n d!es n!t c!nstit$te an antici#ati!n !f the in0enti!n by 0irt$e !f s$b<secti!n ),* !r s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n ,9; )c* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is claimed in a claim !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n #$blished !n !r after the #ri!rity date !f the a##licantGs claim and filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent in %ndia, bein5 a claim !f which the #ri!rity date is earlier than that !f the a##licantGs claim; )d* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n was #$blicly ?n!wn !r #$blicly $sed in %ndia bef!re the #ri!rity date !f that claim+ $%planation 1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this cla$se, an in0enti!n relatin5 t! a #r!cess f!r which a #atent is claimed shall be deemed t! ha0e been #$blicly ?n!wn !r #$blicly $sed in %ndia bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the claim if a

1 2 3 4

Sections 22 to 24 omitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . 2hapter -@* containin. sections 24* to 24/ omitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 13((3S-7-36 73 8;*67 3/ (*75671 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . 5xistin. sections 2 and 2! s%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N ,@2222222222222222222222222222

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 23

#r!d$ct made by that #r!cess had already been im#!rted int! %ndia bef!re N+, that date e-ce#t where s$ch im#!rtati!n has been f!r the #$r#!se !f reas!nable trial !r e-#eriment !nly; )e* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is !b0i!$s and clearly d!es n!t in0!l0e any in0enti0e ste#, ha0in5 re5ard t! the matter #$blished as menti!ned in cla$se )b* !r ha0in5 re5ard t! what & was $sed in %ndia bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the a##licantGs claim; )f* that the s$bBect !f any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is n!t an in0enti!n within the meanin5 !f this Act, !r is n!t #atentable $nder this Act; + )5* that the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n d!es n!t s$fficiently and clearly describe the in0enti!n !r the meth!d by which it is t! be #erf!rmed; )h* that the a##licant has failed t! discl!se t! the C!ntr!ller the inf!rmati!n re6$ired by secti!n = !r has f$rnished the inf!rmati!n which in any material #artic$lar was false t! his ?n!wled5e; )i* that in the case !f c!n0enti!n a##licati!n, the a##licati!n was n!t made within twel0e m!nths fr!m the date !f the first a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n f!r the in0enti!n made in a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry by the a##licant !r a #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title; )B* that the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n d!es n!t discl!se !r wr!n5ly menti!ns the s!$rce !r 5e!5ra#hical !ri5in !f bi!l!5ical material $sed f!r the in0enti!n; )?* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is antici#ated ha0in5 re5ard t! the ?n!wled5e, !ral !r !therwise, a0ailable within any l!cal !r indi5en!$s c!mm$nity in %ndia !r elsewhere, b$t !n n! !ther 5r!$nd and the C!ntr!ller shall, if re6$ested by s$ch #ers!n f!r bein5 heard, hear him and dis#!se !f s$ch re#resentati!n in s$ch manner and within s$ch #eri!d as may be #rescribed+ ),* At any time after the 5rant !f #atent b$t bef!re the e-#iry !f a #eri!d !f !ne year fr!m the date !f #$blicati!n !f 5rant !f a #atent, any #ers!n interested may 5i0e n!tice !f !##!siti!n t! the C!ntr!ller in the #rescribed manner !n any !f the f!ll!win5 5r!$nds, namely&7 )a* that the #atentee !r the #ers!n $nder !r thr!$5h wh!m the claims, wr!n5f$lly !btained the in0enti!n !r any #art there!f fr!m him !r fr!m a #ers!n $nder !r thr!$5h wh!m he claims; )b* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n has been #$blished bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the claim7 )i* in any s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent made in %ndia !n !r after the 1st day !f Ean$ary, 191,; !r )ii* in %ndia !r elsewhere, in any !ther d!c$ment& P"13%4E4 that the 5r!$nd s#ecified in s$b<cla$se )ii* shall n!t be a0ailable where s$ch #$blicati!n d!es n!t c!nstit$te an antici#ati!n !f the in0enti!n by 0irt$e !f s$b< secti!n ),* !r s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n ,9; )c* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is claimed in a claim !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n #$blished !n !r after the #ri!rity date !f the claim !f the #atentee and filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r #atent in %ndia, bein5 a claim !f which the #ri!rity date is earlier than that !f the claim !f the #atentee; )d* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n was #$blicly ?n!wn !r #$blicly $sed in %ndia bef!re the #ri!rity date !f that claim+

24 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N ,:

$%planation 1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this cla$se, an in0enti!n relatin5 t! a #r!cess f!r which a #atent is 5ranted shall be deemed t! ha0e been #$blicly ?n!wn !r #$blicly $sed in %ndia bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the claim if a #r!d$ct made by that #r!cess had already been im#!rted int! %ndia bef!re that date e-ce#t where s$ch im#!rtati!n has been f!r the #$r#!se !f reas!nable trial !r e-#eriment !nly; )e* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is !b0i!$s and clearly d!es n!t in0!l0e any in0enti0e ste#, ha0in5 re5ard t! the matter #$blished as menti!ned in cla$se )b* !r ha0in5 re5ard t! what was $sed in %ndia bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the claim; )f* that the s$bBect !f any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is n!t an in0enti!n within the meanin5 !f this Act, !r is n!t #atentable $nder this Act; )5* that the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n d!es n!t s$fficiently and clearly describe the in0enti!n !r the meth!d by which it is t! be #erf!rmed; )h* that the #atentee has failed t! discl!se t! the C!ntr!ller the inf!rmati!n re6$ired by secti!n = !r has f$rnished the inf!rmati!n which in any material #artic$lar was false t! his ?n!wled5e; )i* that in the case !f a #atent 5ranted !n c!n0enti!n a##licati!n, the a##licati!n f!r #atent was n!t made within twel0e m!nths fr!m the date !f the first a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n f!r the in0enti!n made in a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry !r in %ndia by the #atentee !r a #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title; )B* that the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n d!es n!t discl!se !r wr!n5ly menti!ns the s!$rce and 5e!5ra#hical !ri5in !f bi!l!5ical material $sed f!r the in0enti!n; )?* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n was antici#ated ha0in5 re5ard t! the ?n!wled5e, !ral !r !therwise, a0ailable within any l!cal !r indi5en!$s c!mm$nity in %ndia !r elsewhere b$t !n n! !ther 5r!$nd+ ).*)a* Dhere any s$ch n!tice !f !##!siti!n is d$ly 5i0en $nder s$b<secti!n ),*, the C!ntr!ller shall n!tify the #atentee+ )b* 1n recei#t !f s$ch n!tice !f !##!siti!n, the C!ntr!ller shall, by !rder in writin5, c!nstit$te a 9!ard t! be ?n!wn as the 1##!siti!n 9!ard c!nsistin5 !f s$ch !fficers as he may determine and refer s$ch n!tice !f !##!siti!n al!n5 with the d!c$ments t! that 9!ard f!r e-aminati!n and s$bmissi!n !f its rec!mmendati!ns t! the C!ntr!ller+ )c* E0ery 1##!siti!n 9!ard c!nstit$ted $nder cla$se )b* shall c!nd$ct the & e-aminati!n in acc!rdance with s$ch #r!ced$re as may be #rescribed+ )C* 1n recei#t !f the rec!mmendati!n !f the 1##!siti!n 9!ard and after 5i0in5 the #atentee and the !##!nent an !##!rt$nity !f bein5 heard, the C!ntr!ller shall !rder either t! maintain !r t! amend !r t! re0!?e the #atent+ )@* Dhile #assin5 an !rder $nder s$b<secti!n )C* in res#ect !f the 5r!$nd menti!ned in cla$se )d* !r cla$se )e* !f s$b<secti!n ),*, the C!ntr!ller shall n!t ta?e int! acc!$nt any #ers!nal d!c$ment !r secret trial !r secret $se+ ):* %n case the C!ntr!ller iss$es an !rder $nder s$b<secti!n )C* that the #atent shall be maintained s$bBect t! amendment !f the s#ecificati!n !r any !ther d!c$ment, the #atent shall stand amended acc!rdin5ly+ ,:+ %n cases !f 8!btainin58 C!ntr!ller may treat the #atent as the #atent !f !##!nent )1* Dhere in any !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5 $nder this Act the C!ntr!ller finds that7 )a* the in0enti!n, s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n,

SECT%1N ,=OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 2

was !btained fr!m the !##!nent in the manner set !$t in cla$se )a* !f s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n ,@ and re0!?es the #atent !n that 5r!$nd, he may, !n re6$est by s$ch !##!nent made in the #rescribed manner, direct that the #atent shall stand amended in the name !f the !##!nent; )b* a #art !f an in0enti!n described in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n was s! !btained fr!m the !##!nent, he may #ass an !rder re6$irin5 that the s#ecificati!n be amended by the e-cl$si!n !f that #art !f the in0enti!n+ ),* Dhere an !##!nent has, bef!re the date !f the !rder !f the C!ntr!ller re6$irin5 the amendment !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n referred t! in cla$se )b* !f s$b<secti!n )1*, filed an a##licati!n f!r a #atent f!r an in0enti!n which incl$ded the wh!le !r a #art !f the in0enti!n held t! ha0e been !btained fr!m him and s$ch a##licati!n is #endin5, the C!ntr!ller may treat s$ch a##licati!n and s#ecificati!n ins!far as they relate t! the in0enti!n held t! ha0e been !btained fr!m him, as ha0in5 been filed, f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act relatin5 t! the #ri!rity dates !f claims !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, !n the date !n which the c!rres#!ndin5 d!c$ment was !r was deemed t! ha0e been filed by the #atentee in the earlier a##licati!n b$t f!r all !ther #$r#!ses the a##licati!n !f the !##!nent shall be #r!ceeded with as an a##licati!n f!r a #atent $nder this Act+> l :27. x x x] 2". 4ention of in$entor as s%ch in patent )1* %f the c!ntr!ller is satisfied, $#!n a re6$est !r claim made in acc!rdance with the #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n7 )a* that the #ers!n in res#ect !f !r by wh!m the re6$est !r claim is made is theG in0ent!r !f an in0enti!n in res#ect !f which a##licati!n f!r a #atent has been made, !r !f a s$bstantial #art !f that in0enti!n; and )b* that the a##licati!n f!r the #atent is a direct c!nse6$ence !f his bein5 the in0ent!r, the C!ntr!ller shall, s$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n, ca$se him t! be menti!ned as in0ent!r in any #atent 5ranted in #$rs$ance !f the a##licati!n in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n and in the re5ister !f #atents& P"13%4E4 that the menti!n !f any #ers!n as in0ent!r $nder this secti!n shall n!t c!nfer !r der!5ate fr!m any ri5hts $nder the #atent+ ),* A re6$est that any #ers!n shall be menti!ned as af!resaid may be made in the #rescribed manner by the a##licant f!r the #atent !r )where the #ers!n alle5ed t! be the in0ent!r is n!t the a##licant !r !ne !f the a##licants* by the a##licant and that #ers!n+ ).* %f any #ers!n [!ther than a #ers!n in res#ect !f wh!m a re6$est in relati!n t! the a##licati!n in 6$esti!n has been made $nder s$b<secti!n ),*,> desires t! be menti!ned as af!resaid, he may ma?e a claim in the #rescribed manner in that behalf+ , [)C* A re6$est !r claim $nder the f!re5!in5 #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n shall be made bef!re the 5rant !f #atent+> 1[)@* ---> . ):* [Dhere> a claim is made $nder s$b<secti!n ).*, the C!ntr!ller shall 5i0e n!tice !f the claim t! e0ery a##licant f!r the #atent )n!t bein5 the claimant* and t! any !ther #ers!n wh!m the C!ntr!ller may c!nsider t! be interested; and bef!re decidin5 $#!n
1 2 3 3mitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1S%&Aect to the pro$isions of s%&-section ) +, ,here1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

2!. THE PATENTS ACT, 1970OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO

SECT%1N .0

any re6$est !r claim made $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !r s$b<secti!n ).*, the C!ntr!ller shall, if re6$ired, hear the #ers!n in res#ect !f !r by wh!m the re6$est !r claim is made, and, in the case !f a claim $nder s$b<secti!n ).*, any #ers!n t! wh!m n!tice !f the claim has been 5i0en as af!resaid+ )7* Dhere any #ers!n has been menti!ned as in0ent!r in #$rs$ance !f this secti!n, any !ther #ers!n wh! alle5es that he !$5ht n!t t! ha0e been s! menti!ned may at any time a##ly t! the C!ntr!ller f!r a certificate t! that effect, and the C!ntr!ller may, after hearin5, if re6$ired, any #ers!n wh!m he may c!nsider t! be interested, iss$e s$ch a certificate, and if he d!es s!, he shall rectify the s#ecificati!n and the re5ister acc!rdin5ly+ CHAPTER VI ANT%C%PAT%1N 29. *nticipation &' pre$io%s p%&lication )1* An in0enti!n claimed in a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall n!t be deemed t! ha0e been ant+; ci#ated by reas!n !nly that the in0enti!n was #$blished in a s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent made in %ndia and dated bef!re the 1st day !f Ean$ary, 191,+ ),* S$bBect as hereinafter #r!0ided, an in0enti!n claimed in a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall n!t be deemed t! ha0e been antici#ated by reas!n !nly that the in0enti!n was #$blished bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the rele0ant claim !f the s#ecificati!n, if the #atentee !r the a##licant f!r the #atent #r!0es7 )a* that the matter #$blished was !btained fr!m him, !r )where he is n!t himself the tr$e and first in0ent!r* fr!m any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title and was #$blished with!$t his c!nsent !r the c!nsent !f any s$ch #ers!n; and )b* where the #atentee !r the a##licant f!r the #atent !r any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title learned !f the #$blicati!n bef!re the date !f the a##licati!n f!r the #atent, !r in the case !f a c!n0enti!n a##licati!n, bef!re the date !f the a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n in a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry, that the a##licati!n !r the a##licati!n in the c!n0enti!n c!$ntry, as the case may be, was made as s!!n, as reas!nably #racticable thereafter& P"13%4E4 that this s$b<secti!n shall n!t a##ly if the in0enti!n was bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the claim c!mmercially w!r?ed in %ndia, !therwise than f!r the #$r#!se !f reas!nable trial, either by the #atentee !r the a##licant f!r the #atent !r any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title !r by any !ther #ers!n with the c!nsent !f the #atentee !r the a##licant f!r the #atent !r any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title+ ).* Dhere a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent made by a #ers!n bein5 the tr$e and first in0ent!r !r deri0in5 title fr!m him, an in0enti!n claimed in that s#ecificati!n shall n!t be deemed t! ha0e been antici#ated by reas!n !nly !f any !ther a##licati!n f!r a #atent in res#ect !f the same in0enti!n made in c!ntra0enti!n !f the ri5hts !f that #ers!n, !r by reas!n !nly that after the date !f filin5 !f that !ther a##licati!n the in0enti!n was $sed !r #$blished, with!$t the c!nsent !f that #ers!n, by the a##licant in res#ect !f that !ther a##licati!n, !r by any !ther #ers!n in c!nse6$ence !f any discl!s$re !f any in0enti!n by that a##licant+ 30. *nticipation &' pre$io%s comm%nication to .o$ernment An in0enti!n claimed in a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall n!t be deemed t! ha0e been antici#ated by reas!n !nly !f the c!mm$nicati!n !f the in0enti!n t! the 5!0ernment !r t! any #ers!n a$th!rised by the 5!0ernment t! in0esti5ate the in0enti!n !r its merits, !r !f anythin5 d!ne, in c!nse6$ence !f s$ch a c!mm$nicati!n, f!r the #$r#!se !f the in0esti5ati!n+

SECT%1N ..

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 27

31. *nticipation &' p%&lic displa', etc. An in0enti!n claimed in a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall n!t be deemed t! ha0e been antici#ated by reas!n !nly !f7 )a* the dis#lay !f the in0enti!n with the c!nsent !f the tr$e and first in0ent!r !r a #ers!n deri0in5 title fr!m him at an ind$strial !r !ther e-hibiti!n t! which the #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n ha0e been e-tended by the Central /!0ernment by n!tificati!n, in the 1fficial /a2ette, !r the $se there!f with his c!nsent f!r the #$r#!se !f s$ch an e-hibiti!n in the #lace where it is held; !r )b* the #$blicati!n !f any descri#ti!n !f the in0enti!n in c!nse6$ence !f the dis#lay !r $se !f the in0enti!n at any s$ch e-hibiti!n as af!resaid; !r )c* the $se !f the in0enti!n, after it has been dis#layed !r $sed at any s$ch e-hibiti!n as af!resaid and d$rin5 the #eri!d !f the e-hibiti!n, by any #ers!n with!$t the c!nsent !f the tr$e and first in0ent!r !r a #ers!n deri0in5 title fr!m him; !r )d* the descri#ti!n !f the in0enti!n in a #a#er read by the tr$e and first in0ent!r bef!re a learned s!ciety !r #$blished with his c!nsent in the transacti!ns !f s$ch a s!ciety, if the a##licati!n f!r the #atent is made by the tr$e and first in0ent!r !r a #ers!n deri0in5 title fr!m him -[n!t later than twel0e m!nths> after the !#enin5 !f the e-hibiti!n !r the readin5 !r #$blicati!n !f the #a#er, as the case may be+ 32. *nticipation &' p%&lic ,or0in. An in0enti!n claimed in a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall n!t be deemed t! ha0e been antici#ated by reas!n !nly that at any time within !ne year bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the rele0ant claim !f the s#ecificati!n, the in0enti!n was #$blicly w!r?ed in %ndia7 )a* by the #atentee !r a##licant f!r the #atent !r any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title; !r )b* by any !ther #ers!n with the c!nsent !f the #atentee !r a##licant f!r the #atent !r any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title, if the w!r?in5 was effected f!r the #$r#!se !f reas!nable trial !nly and if it was reas!nably necessary, ha0in5 re5ard t! the nat$re !f the in0enti!n, that the w!r?in5 f!r that #$r#!se sh!$ld be effected in #$blic+ 33. *nticipation &' %se and p%&lication after pro$isional specification )1* Dhere a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is filed !r #r!ceeded with in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n which was acc!m#anied by a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n !r where a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n filed al!n5 with an a##licati!n is treated by 0irt$e !f a directi!n $nder s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n 9 as a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n, then, n!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in this Act, the C!ntr!ller shall n!t ref$se t! 5rant the #atent, and the #atent shall n!t be re0!?ed !r in0alidated, by reas!n !nly that any matter described in the #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n !r in the s#ecificati!n treated as af!resaid as a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n was $sed in %ndia !r #$blished in %ndia !r elsewhere at any time after the date !f the filin5 !f that s#ecificati!n+ ),* Dhere a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is filed in #$rs$ance !f a c!n0enti!n a##licati!n, then, n!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in this Act, the C!ntr!ller shall n!t ref$se t! 5rant the #atent, and the #atent shall n!t be re0!?ed !r in0alidated, by reas!n

S%&stit%ted for 1not later than six months1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

2" THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N .:

!nly that any matter discl!sed in any a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n in a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry $#!n which the c!n0enti!n a##licati!n is f!$nded was $sed in %ndia !r #$blished in %ndia !r elsewhere at any time after the date !f that a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n+ 34. 6o anticipation if circ%mstances are onl' as descri&ed in sections 29,30,31 and 32 N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in this Act, the C!ntr!ller shall n!t ref$se 1[- -> t! 5rant a #atent, and a #atent shall n!t be re0!?ed !r in0alidated by reas!n !nly !f any circ$mstances which, by 0irt$e !f secti!n ,9 !r secti!n .0 !r secti!n .1 !r secti!n ., d! n!t c!nstit$te an antici#ati!n !f the in0enti!n claimed in the s#ecificati!n+ CHAPTER VII P"13%S%1NS F1" SEC"EC 1F CE"TA%N %N3ENT%1NS 3 . Secrec' directions relatin. to in$entions rele$ant for defence p%rposes )1* Dhere, in res#ect !f an a##licati!n made bef!re !r after the c!mmencement !f this Act f!r a #atent, it a##ears t! the C!ntr!ller that the in0enti!n is !ne !f a class n!tified t! him by the Central /!0ernment as rele0ant f!r defence #$r#!ses, !r, where !therwise the in0enti!n a##ears t! him t! be s! rele0ant, he may 5i0e directi!ns f!r #r!hibitin5 !r restrictin5 the #$blicati!n !f inf!rmati!n with res#ect t! the in0enti!n !r the c!mm$nicati!n !f s$ch inf!rmati!n ,[--->+ ),* Dhere the C!ntr!ller 5i0es any s$ch directi!ns as are referred t! in s$b<secti!n )1*, he shall 5i0e n!tice !f the a##licati!n and !f the directi!ns t! the Central /!0ernment, and the Central /!0ernment shall, $#!n recei#t !f s$ch n!tice, c!nsider whether the #$blicati!n !f the in0enti!n w!$ld be #reB$dicial t! the defence !f %ndia, and if $#!n s$ch c!nsiderati!n, it a##ears t! it that the #$blicati!n !f the in0enti!n w!$ld n!t s! #reB$dice, 5i0e n!tice t! the C!ntr!ller t! that effect, wh! shall there$#!n re0!?e the directi!ns and n!tify the a##licant acc!rdin5ly+ ).* Dith!$t #reB$dice t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in s$b<secti!n )1*, where the Central /!0ernment is !f !#ini!n that an in0enti!n in res#ect !f which the C!ntr!ller has n!t 5i0en any directi!ns $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, is rele0ant f!r defence #$r#!ses, it may at any time bef!re . [5rant !f #atent> n!tify the C!ntr!ller t! that effect, and there$#!n the #r!0isi!ns !f that s$b< secti!n shall a##ly as if the in0enti!n were !ne !f the class n!tified by the Central /!0ernment !f the directi!ns iss$ed by him+ .:+ Secrecy directi!ns t! be #eri!dically re0iewed C [)1* The 6$esti!n whether an in0enti!n in res#ect !f which directi!ns ha0e been 5i0en $nder secti!n .@ c!ntin$es t! be rele0ant f!r defence #$r#!ses shall be re<c!nsidered by the Central /!0ernment at inter0als !f [si-> m!nths !r !n a re6$est made by the a##licant which is f!$nd t! be reas!nable by the C!ntr!ller, and if, !n s$ch re<c!nsiderati!n, it a##ears t! the Central /!0ernment that the #$blicati!n !f the in0enti!n w!$ld n! l!n5er be #reB$dicial t! the defence !f %ndia !r in case !f an a##licati!n filed by a f!rei5n a##licant it is f!$nd that the in0enti!n is #$blished !$tside %ndia it shall
1 , 3 C #ords 1to accept complete specification for a patent or1 omitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , $$.e.f. 1-1-200 + D!rds 8t! any #ers!n !r class !f #ers!ns s#ecified in the directi!ns8 !mitted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1acceptance of the complete specification1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1t,el$e1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N .9

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 29

f!rthwith 5i0e n!tice t! the C!ntr!ller t! re0!?e the directi!n and the C!ntr!ller shall there$#!n re0!?e the directi!ns #re0i!$sly 5i0en by him+> ),* The res$lt !f e0ery re<c!nsiderati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, shall be c!mm$nicated t! the a##licant within s$ch time and in s$ch manner as may be #rescribed+ 37. 2onse<%ences of secrec' directions )1* S! l!n5 as any directi!ns $nder secti!n .@ are in f!rce in res#ect !f an a##licati!n7 )a* the C!ntr!ller shall n!t #ass an !rder ref$sin5 1[t! 5rant> the same; and )b* n!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in this Act, n! a##eal shall lie fr!m any !rder !f the C!ntr!ller #assed in res#ect there!f& , [P"13%4E4 that the a##licati!n may, s$bBect t! the directi!ns, #r!ceed $#t! the sta5e !f 5rant !f the #atent, b$t the a##licati!n and the s#ecificati!n f!$nd t! be in !rder f!r 5rant !f the #atent shall n!t be #$blished, and n! #atent shall be 5ranted in #$rs$ance !f that a##licati!n+> ),* Dhere a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent f!r an in0enti!n in res#ect !f which directi!ns ha0e been 5i0en $nder secti!n .@ [is f!$nd t! be in !rder f!r 5rant !f the #atent> d$rin5 the c!ntin$ance in f!rce !f the directi!ns, then7 )a* if, d$rin5 the c!ntin$ance in f!rce !f the directi!ns; any $se !f the in0enti!n is made by !r !n behalf !f, !r t! the !rder !f the 5!0ernment, the #r!0isi!ns !f secti!ns 100,101 and 10. shall a##ly in relati!n t! that $se as if the #atent had been 5ranted f!r the in0enti!n; and )b* if it a##ears t! the Central /!0ernment that the a##licant f!r the #atent has s$ffered hardshi# by reas!n !f the c!ntin$ance in f!rce !f the directi!ns the Central /!0ernment may ma?e t! him s$ch #ayment )if any* by way !f s!lati$m as a##ears t! the Central /!0ernment t! be reas!nable ha0in5 re5ard t! the n!0elty and $tility !f the in0enti!n and the #$r#!se f!r which it is desi5ned, and t! any !ther rele0ant circ$mstances+ ).* Dhere a #atent is 5ranted in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n in res#ect !f which directi!ns ha0e been 5i0en $nder secti!n .@, n! renewal fee shall be #ayable in res#ect !f any #eri!d d$rin5 which th!se directi!ns were in f!rce+ 3". ;e$ocation of secrec' directions and extension of time Dhen any directi!n 5i0en $nder secti!n .@ is re0!?ed by the C!ntr!ller, then, n!twithstandin5 any #r!0isi!ns !f this Act s#ecifyin5 the time within which any ste# sh!$ld be ta?en !r any act d!ne in c!nnecti!n with an a##licati!n f!r the #atent, the C!ntr!ller may, s$bBect t! s$ch c!nditi!ns, if any, as he thin?s fit t! im#!se, e-tend the time f!r d!in5 anythin5 re6$ired t! be d!ne by !r $nder this Act in c!nnecti!n with the a##licati!n, whether !r n!t that time has #re0i!$sly e-#ired+ 2 :39. ;esidents not to appl' for patents o%tside -ndia ,itho%t prior permission )1* N! #ers!n resident in %ndia shall, e-ce#t $nder the a$th!rity !f a written #ermit s!$5ht in the manner #rescribed and 5ranted by !r !n behalf !f the C!ntr!ller, ma?e !r ca$se t! be made any a##licati!n !$tside %ndia f!r the 5rant !f a #atent f!r an in0enti!n $nless7

1 S%&stit%ted for 1to accept1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . 2 S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . 3 S%&stit%ted for 1is accepted1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

30 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOSECT%1N C. an a##licati!n f!r a #atent f!r the same in0enti!n has been made in %ndia, n!t less than si- wee?s bef!re the a##licati!n !$tside %ndia; and )b* either n! directi!n has been 5i0en $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n .@ in relati!n t! the a##licati!n in %ndia, !r all s$ch directi!ns ha0e been re0!?ed+ ),* The C!ntr!ller shall dis#!se !f e0ery s$ch a##licati!n within s$ch #eri!d as may be #rescribed& P"13%4E4 that if the in0enti!n is rele0ant f!r defence #$r#!se !r at!mic ener5y, the C!ntr!ller shall n!t 5rant #ermit with!$t the #ri!r c!nsent !f the Central /!0ernment+ ).* This secti!n shall n!t a##ly in relati!n t! an in0enti!n f!r which an a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n has first been filed in a c!$ntry !$tside %ndia by a #ers!n resident !$tside %ndia+> 40. Bia&ilit' for contra$ention of section 3 or section 39 Dith!$t #reB$dice t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in Cha#ter LL, if in res#ect !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent any #ers!n c!ntra0enes any directi!n as t! secrecy 5i0en by the C!ntr!ller $nder secti!n .@, !r ma?es !r ca$ses t! be made an a##licati!n f!r 5rant !f a #atent !$tside %ndia in c!ntra0enti!n !f secti!n .9 the a##licati!n f!r #atent $nder this Act shall be deemed t! ha0e been aband!ned and the #atent 5ranted, if any, shall be liable t! be re0!?ed $nder secti!n :C+ 41. /inalit' of orders of 2ontroller and 2entral 8o$ernment All !rders !f the C!ntr!ller 5i0in5 directi!ns as t! secrecy as well as all !rders !f the Central /!0ernment $nder this Cha#ter shall be final and shall n!t be called in 6$esti!n in any c!$rt !n any 5r!$nd whats!e0er+ 42. Sa$in. respectin. disclos%re to .o$ernment N!thin5 in this Act shall be held t! #re0ent the discl!s$re by the C!ntr!ller !f inf!rmati!n c!ncernin5 an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r a s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance there!f t! the Central /!0ernment f!r the #$r#!se !f the a##licati!n !r s#ecificati!n bein5 e-amined f!r c!nsiderin5 whether an !rder $nder this Cha#ter sh!$ld be made !r whether an !rder s! made sh!$ld be re0!?ed+ CHAPTER VIII 1 [/"ANT 1F PATENTS AN4 "%/HTS C1NFE""E4 THE"E9 > 2 :43. 8rant of patents )1* Dhere an a##licati!n f!r a #atent has been f!$nd t! be in !rder f!r 5rant !f the #atent and either7 )a* the a##licati!n has n!t been ref$sed by the C!ntr!ller by 0irt$e !f any #!wer 0ested in him by this Act; !r )b* the a##licati!n has n!t been f!$nd t! be in c!ntra0enti!n !f any !f the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act,the #atent shall be 5ranted as e-#editi!$sly as #!ssible t! the a##licant !r, in the case !f a B!int a##licati!n, t! the a##licants B!intly, with the seal !f the #atent !ffice and the date !n which the #atent is 5ranted shall be entered in the re5ister+ ),* 1n the 5rant !f #atent, the C!ntr!ller shall #$blish the fact that the #atent has been 5ranted and there$#!n the a##licati!n, s#ecificati!n and !ther d!c$ments related theret! shall be !#en f!r #$blic ins#ecti!n+> )a*

1 2

S%&stit%ted for 18;*67 *6D S5*B-68 3/ (*7567S *6D ;-8C7S 236/5;;5D 7C5;5BD1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N C7

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 31

44. *mendment of patent .ranted to deceased applicant Dhere, at any time after a #atent has been 1[5ranted> in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n $nder this Act, the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that the #ers!n t! wh!m the #atent was 5ranted had died, !r, in the case !f a b!dy c!r#!rate, had ceased t! e-ist, bef!re the #atent was 1[5ranted>, the C!ntr!ller may amend the #atent by s$bstit$tin5 f!r the name !f that #ers!n the name !f the #ers!n t! wh!m the #atent !$5ht t! ha0e been 5ranted, and the #atent shall be deemed always t! ha0e had effect, acc!rdin5ly+ 4 . Date of patent , [)1* S$bBect t! the !ther #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this Act, e0ery #atent shall be dated as !f the date !n which the a##licati!n f!r #atent was filed+> ),* The date !f e0ery #atent be entered in the re5ister+ ).* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in this secti!n, n! s$it !r !ther #r!ceedin5 shall be c!mmenced !r #r!sec$ted in res#ect !f an infrin5ement c!mmitted bef!re .[the date !f #$blicati!n !f the a##licati!n>+ 4!. /orm, extent and effect of patent )1* E0ery #atent shall be in the #rescribed f!rm and shall ha0e effect thr!$5h!$t %ndia+ ),* A #atent shall be 5ranted f!r !ne in0enti!n !nly& P"13%4E4 that it shall n!t be c!m#etent f!r any #ers!n in a s$it !r !ther #r!ceedin5 t! ta?e any !bBecti!n t! a #atent !n the 5r!$nd that it has been 5ranted f!r m!re than !ne in0enti!n+ 47. 8rant of patents to &e s%&Aect to certain conditions The 5rant !f a #atent $nder this Act shall be s$bBect t! the c!nditi!n that7 )1* any machine, a##arat$s !r !ther article in res#ect !f which the #atent is 5ranted !r any article made by $sin5 a #r!cess in res#ect !f which the #atent is 5ranted, may be im#!rted !r made by !r !n behalf !f the 5!0ernment f!r the #$r#!se merely !f its !wn $se; ),* any #r!cess in res#ect !f which the #atent is 5ranted may be $sed by !r !n behalf !f the 5!0ernment f!r the #$r#!se merely !f its !wn $se; ).* any machine, a##arat$s !r !ther article in res#ect !f which the #atent is 5ranted !r any article made by the $se !f the #r!cess in res#ect !f which the #atent is 5ranted, may be made !r $sed, and any #r!cess in res#ect !f which the #atent is 5ranted may be $sed, by any #ers!n, f!r the #$r#!se merely !f e-#eriment !r research incl$din5 the im#artin5 !f instr$cti!ns t! #$#ils; and )C* in the case !f a #atent in res#ect !f any medicine !r dr$5, the medicine !r dr$5 may be im#!rted by the 5!0ernment f!r the #$r#!se merely !f its !wn $se !r f!r distrib$ti!n in any dis#ensary, h!s#ital !r !ther medical instit$ti!n maintained by !r !n behalf !f the 5!0ernment !r any !ther dis#ensary, h!s#ital !r medical instit$ti!n which the Central /!0ernment may, ha0in5 re5ard t! the #$blic ser0ice that s$ch dis#ensary, h!s#ital !r medical instit$ti!n renders, s#ecify in this behalf by n!tificati!n in the 1fficial /a2ette+
1 , 3 S%&stit%ted for 1sealed1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1the date of ad$ertisement of the acceptance of the complete specification1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ Act, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

32 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970


1

SECT%1N @0

:4". ;i.hts of patentees S$bBect t! the !ther #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this Act and the c!nditi!ns s#ecified in secti!n C7, a #atent 5ranted $nder this Act shall c!nfer $#!n the #atentee7 )a* where the s$bBect matter !f the #atent is a #r!d$ct, the e-cl$si0e ri5ht t! #re0ent third #arties, wh! d! n!t ha0e his c!nsent, fr!m the act !f ma?in5, $sin5, !fferin5 f!r sale, sellin5 !r im#!rtin5 f!r th!se #$r#!ses that #r!d$ct in %ndia& )b* where the s$bBect matter !f the #atent is a #r!cess the e-cl$si0e ri5ht t! #re0ent third #arties, wh! d! n!t ha0e his c!nsent, fr!m the act !f $sin5 that #r!cess, and fr!m the act !f $sin5, !fferin5 f!r sale, sellin5 !r im#!rtin5 f!r th!se #$r#!ses the #r!d$ct !btained directly by that #r!cess in %ndia& 2 :x x x] 49. (atent ri.hts not infrin.ed ,hen %sed on forei.n $essels, etc. temporaril' or accidentall' in -ndia )1* Dhere a 0essel !r aircraft re5istered in a f!rei5n c!$ntry !r a land 0ehicle !wned by a #ers!n !rdinarily resident in s$ch c!$ntry c!mes int! %ndia )incl$din5 the territ!rial waters there!f* tem#!rarily !r accidentally !nly, the ri5hts c!nferred by a #atent f!r an in0enti!n shall n!t be deemed t! be infrin5ed by the $se !f the in0enti!n7 )a* in the b!dy !f the 0essel !r in the machinery, tac?le, a##arat$s !r !ther < access!ries there!f, s! far as the in0enti!n is $sed !n b!ard the 0essel and f!r its act$al needs !nly; !r )b* in the c!nstr$cti!n !r w!r?in5 !f the aircraft !r land 0ehicle !r !f the access!ries there!f, as the case may be+ ),* This secti!n shall n!t e-tend t! 0essels, aircraft !r land 0ehicles !wned by #ers!ns !rdinarily resident in a f!rei5n c!$ntry the law !f which d! n!t c!nfer c!rres#!ndin5 ri5hts with res#ect t! the $se !f in0enti!ns in 0essels, aircraft !r land 0ehicles !wned by #ers!ns !rdinarily resident in %ndia while in the #!rts !r within the territ!rial waters !f that f!rei5n c!$ntry !r !therwise within the B$risdicti!n !f its c!$rts+ 0. ;i.hts of co-o,ners of patents )1* Dhere a #atent is 5ranted t! tw! !r m!re #ers!ns, each !f th!se #ers!ns shall, $nless an a5reement t! the c!ntrary is in f!rce, be entitled t! an e6$al $ndi0ided share in the #atent+ ),* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this secti!n and in secti!n @1, where tw! !r m!re #ers!ns are re5istered as 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f a #atent, then, $nless an a5reement t! the c!ntrary is in f!rce, each !f th!se #ers!ns shall be entitled, by himself !r his a5ents, t! .[the ri5hts c!nferred by secti!n C=> f!r his !wn benefit with!$t acc!$ntin5 t! the !ther #ers!n !r #ers!ns+ ).* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this secti!n and in secti!n @1 and t! any a5reement f!r the time bein5 in f!rce, where tw! !r m!re #ers!ns are re5istered as 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f a #atent, then, a licence $nder the #atent shall n!t be 5ranted and a share in the #atent shall n!t be assi5ned by !ne !f s$ch #ers!ns e-ce#t with the c!nsent !f the !ther #ers!n !r #ers!ns+
1
2

S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S1 @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+
(ro$iso omitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

S$bstit$ted f!r 8ma?e, $se, e-ercise and sell the #atented in0enti!n8 by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+0+@:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

SECT%1N @,

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 33

)C* Dhere a #atented article is s!ld by !ne !f tw! !r m!re #ers!ns re5istered as 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f a #atent, the #$rchaser and any #ers!n claimin5 thr!$5h him shall be entitled t! deal with the article in the same manner as if the article had been s!ld by a s!le #atentee+ )@* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this secti!n, the r$les !f law a##licable t! the !wnershi# and de0!l$ti!n !f m!0able #r!#erty 5enerally shall a##ly in relati!n t! #atents, and n!thin5 c!ntained in s$b<secti!n )1* !r s$b<secti!n ),* shall affect the m$t$al ri5hts !r !bli5ati!ns !f tr$stees !r !f the le5al re#resentati0es !f a deceased #ers!n !r their ri5hts !r !bli5ati!ns as s$ch+ ):* N!thin5 in this secti!n shall affect the ri5hts !f the assi5nees !f a #artial interest in a #atent created bef!re the c!mmencement !f this Act+ 1. (o,er of 2ontroller to .i$e directions to co-o,ners )1* Dhere tw! !r m!re #ers!ns are re5istered as 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f a #atent, the C!ntr!ller may, $#!n a##licati!n made t! him in the #rescribed manner by any !f th!se #ers!ns, 5i0e s$ch directi!ns in acc!rdance with the a##licati!n as t! the sale !r lease !f the #atent !r any interest therein, the 5rant !f licence $nder the #atent, !r the e-ercise !f any ri5ht $nder secti!n @0 in relati!n theret!, as he thin?s fit+ ),* %f any #ers!n re5istered as 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f a #atent fails t! e-ec$te any instr$ment !r t! d! any !ther thin5 re6$ired f!r the carryin5 !$t !f any directi!n 5i0en $nder this secti!n within f!$rteen days after bein5 re6$ested in writin5 s! t! d! by any !f the !ther #ers!ns s! re5istered, the C!ntr!ller may $#!n a##licati!n made+t! him in the #rescribed manner by any s$ch !ther #ers!n 5i0e directi!ns em#!werin5 any #ers!n t! e-ec$te that instr$ment !r t! d! that in the name and !n behalf !f the #ers!n in defa$lt+ ).* 9ef!re 5i0in5 any directi!ns in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n $nder this secti!n, the C!ntr!ller shall 5i0e an !##!rt$nity t! be heard7 )a* in the case !f an a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, t! the !ther #ers!n !r #ers!ns re5istered as 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f the #atent; )b* in the case !f an a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n ),*, t! the #ers!n in defa$lt+ )C* N! directi!n shall be 5i0en $nder this secti!n s! as t! affect the m$t$al ri5hts !r !bli5ati!ns !f tr$stees !r !f the le5al re#resentati0es !f a deceased #ers!n !r !f their ri5hts !r !bli5ati!ns as s$ch, !r which is inc!nsistent with the terms !f any a5reement between #ers!ns re5istered as 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f the #atent+ 2. 8rant of patent to tr%e and first in$entor ,here it has &een o&tained &' another in fra%d of him 1 )1* [Dhere the #atent has been re0!?ed $nder secti!n :C> !n the 5r!$nd that the #atent was !btained wr!n5f$lly and in c!ntra0enti!n !f the ri5hts !f the #etiti!ner !r any #ers!n $nder !r thr!$5h wh!m he claims, !r, where in a #etiti!n f!r re0!cati!n, the ,[A##ellate 9!ard !r c!$rt>, instead !f re0!?in5 the #atent, directs the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n t! be amended by the e-cl$si!n !f a claim !r claims in c!nse6$ence !f a findin5 that the in0enti!n c!0ered by s$ch claim !r claims had been !btained fr!m the #etiti!ner, the ,[A##ellate 9!ard !r c!$rt> may, by !rder #assed in the same #r!ceedin5, #ermit the 5rant t! the #etiti!ner !f the wh!le !r s$ch #art !f the in0enti!n which the
1 2 S%&stit%ted for 1#here a patent has &een re$o0ed1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1co%rt1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , effecti$e date to &e notified.

34 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N @C

c!$rt finds has been wr!n5f$lly !btained by the #atentee, in lie$ !f the #atent s! re0!?ed !r is e-cl$ded by amendment+ ),* Dhere any s$ch !rder is #assed, the C!ntr!ller shall, !n re6$est by the #etiti!ner made in the #rescribed manner 5rant t! him7 )i* in cases where the 1[A##ellate 9!ard !r c!$rt> #ermits the wh!le !f the #atent t! be 5ranted, a new #atent bearin5 the same date and n$mber as the #atent re0!?ed; )ii* in cases where the 1[A##ellate 9!ard !r c!$rt> #ermits a #art !nly !f the #atent t! be 5ranted, a new #atent f!r s$ch #art bearin5 the same date as the #atent re0!?ed and n$mbered in s$ch manner as may be #rescribed& P"13%4E4 that the C!ntr!ller may, as a c!nditi!n !f s$ch 5rant, re6$ire the #etiti!ner t! file a new and c!m#lete s#ecificati!n t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller describin5 and claimin5 that #art !f the in0enti!n f!r which the #atent is t! be 5ranted+ ).* N! s$it shall be br!$5ht f!r any infrin5ement !f a #atent 5ranted $nder this secti!n c!mmitted bef!re the act$al date !n which s$ch #atent was 5ranted+ 3. 7erm of patent , [)1* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act, the term !f e0ery #atent 5ranted, after the c!mmencement !f the Patents )Amendment* Act, ,00,, and the term !f e0ery #atent which has n!t e-#ired and has n!t ceased t! ha0e effect, !n the date !f s$ch c!mmencement, $nder this Act, shall be twenty years fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the a##licati!n f!r the #atent+> .[$%planation 1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this s$b<secti!n, the term !f #atent in case !f %nternati!nal a##licati!ns filed $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty desi5natin5 %ndia, shall be twenty years fr!m the internati!nal filin5 date acc!rded $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty+> ),* A #atent shall cease t! ha0e effect n!twithstandin5 anythin5 therein !r in this Act !n the e-#irati!n !f the #eri!d #rescribed f!r the #ayment !f any renewal fee, if that fee is n!t #aid within the #rescribed #eri!d C[!r within s$ch e-tended #eri!d as may be #rescribed>+ ? 8132 xxxG : [)C* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in any !ther law f!r the time bein5 in f!rce, !n cessati!n !f the #atent ri5ht d$e t! n!n<#ayment !f renewal fee !r !n the e-#iry !f the term !f #atent, the s$bBect matter c!0ered by the said #atent shall n!t be entitled t! any #r!tecti!n+> CHAPTER I$ PATENTS 1F A44%T%1N 4. (atents of addition )1* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this secti!n, where an a##licati!n is made f!r a #atent in res#ect !f any im#r!0ement in !r m!dificati!n !f an in0enti!n

1 , 3 4

S%&stit%ted for 1co%rt1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , effecti$e date to &e notified. S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ -nserted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1or ,ithin that period as extended %nder this section1 &' the (atents )*mdt+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . 3mitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . : %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

SECT%1N @:

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 3

described !r discl!sed in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n filed theref!r )in this Act referred t! as the 8main in0enti!n8* and the a##licant als! a##lies !r has a##lied f!r a #atent f!r that in0enti!n !r is the #atentee in res#ect there!f, the C!ntr!ller may, if the a##licant s! re6$ests, 5rant the #atent f!r the im#r!0ement !r m!dificati!n as a #atent !f additi!n+ ),* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this secti!n, when an in0enti!n, bein5 an im#r!0ement in !r m!dificati!n !f an!ther in0enti!n, is the s$bBect !f an inde#endent #atent and the #atentee in res#ect !f that #atent is als! the #atentee in res#ect !f the #atent f!r the main in0enti!n, the C!ntr!ller may, if the #atentee s! re6$ests, by !rder, re0!?e the #atent f!r the im#r!0ement !r m!dificati!n and 5rant t! the #atentee a #atent !f additi!n in res#ect there!f, bearin5 the same date as the date !f the #atent s! re0!?ed+ ).* A #atent shall n!t be 5ranted as a #atent !f additi!n $nless the date !f filin5 !f the l [a##licati!n> was the same as !r later than the date !f filin5 !f the 1[a##licati!n> in res#ect !f the main in0enti!n+ , [)C* A #atent !f additi!n shall n!t be 5ranted bef!re 5rant !f the #atent f!r the main in0enti!n+> . 7erm of patents of addition )1* A #atent !f additi!n shall be 5ranted f!r a term e6$al t! that !f the #atent f!r the main in0enti!n, !r s! m$ch there!f as has n!t e-#ired, and shall remain in f!rce d$rin5 that term !r $ntil the #re0i!$s cesser !f the #atent f!r the main in0enti!n and n! l!n5er& P"13%4E4 that if the #atent f!r the main in0enti!n is re0!?ed $nder this Act, the c!$rt, !r, as the case may be, the C!ntr!ller, !n re6$est made t! him by the #atentee in the #rescribed manner, may !rder that the #atent !f additi!n shall bec!me an inde#endent #atent f!r the remainder !f the term f!r the #atent f!r the main in0enti!n and there$#!n the #atent shall c!ntin$e in f!rce as an inde#endent #atent acc!rdin5ly+ ),* N! renewal fees shall be #ayable in res#ect !f a #atent !f additi!n, b$t if any s$ch #atent bec!mes an inde#endent #atent $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, the same fees shall thereafter be #ayable, $#!n the same dates, as if the #atent had been !ri5inally 5ranted as an inde#endent #atent+ !. @alidit' of patents of addition )1* The 5rant !f a #atent !f additi!n shall n!t be ref$sed, and a #atent 5ranted as a #atent !f additi!n shall n!t be re0!?ed !r in0alidated, !n the 5r!$nd !nly that the in0enti!n claimed in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n d!es n!t in0!l0e any in0enti0e ste# ha0in5 re5ard t! any #$blicati!n !r $se !f7 )a* the main in0enti!n described in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n relatin5 theret!; !r + )b* any im#r!0ement in !r m!dificati!n !f the main in0enti!n described in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !f a #atent !f additi!n t! the #atent f!r the main in0enti!n !r !f an a##licati!n f!r s$ch a #atent !f additi!n, and the 0alidity !f a #atent !f additi!n shall n!t be 6$esti!ned !n the 5r!$nd that the in0enti!n !$5ht t! ha0e been the s$bBect !f an inde#endent #atent+ ),* F!r the rem!0al !f d!$bts it is hereby declared that in determinin5 the n!0elty !f the in0enti!n claimed in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !f additi!n re5ard shall be had als! t! the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n in which the main in0enti!n is described+
1 2 S%&stit%ted for 1complete specification1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

3! THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

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CHAPTER $ A(EN4(ENT 1F APP'%CAT%1NS AN4 SPEC%F%CAT%1NS 7. *mendment of application and specification &efore 2ontroller )1* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f secti!n @9, the C!ntr!ller may, $#!n a##licati!n made $nder this secti!n in the #rescribed manner by an a##licant f!r a #atent !r by a #atentee, all!w the a##licati!n f!r the #atent !r the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n l[!r any d!c$ment relatin5 theret!> t! be amended s$bBect t! s$ch c!nditi!ns, if any, as the C!ntr!ller thin?s fit& P"13%4E4 that the C!ntr!ller shall n!t #ass any !rder all!win5 !r ref$sin5 an a##licati!n t! amend an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r a s#ecificati!n l[!r any d!c$ment relatin5 theret!> $nder this secti!n while any s$it bef!re a c!$rt f!r the infrin5ement !f the #atent !r any #r!ceedin5 bef!re the Hi5h C!$rt f!r the re0!cati!n !f the #atent is #endin5, whether the s$it !r #r!ceedin5 c!mmenced bef!re !r after the filin5 !f the a##licati!n t! amend+ ),* E0ery a##licati!n f!r lea0e t! amend an a##licati!n f!r a #atent ,[!r a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r any d!c$ment relatin5 theret!> $nder this secti!n shall state the nat$re !f the #r!#!sed amendment, and shall 5i0e f$ll #artic$lars !f the reas!ns f!r which the a##licati!n is made+ . [).* Any a##licati!n f!r lea0e t! amend an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r a d!c$ment related theret! $nder this secti!n made after the 5rant !f #atent and the nat$re !f the #r!#!sed amendment may be #$blished+> )C* Dhere an a##licati!n is C[#$blished> $nder s$b<secti!n ).*, any #ers!n interested may, within the #rescribed #eri!d after the @[#$blicati!n> there!f, 5i0e n!tice t! the C!ntr!ller !f !##!siti!n theret!; and where s$ch a n!tice is 5i0en within the #eri!d af!resaid, the C!ntr!ller shall n!tify the #ers!n by wh!m the a##licati!n $nder this secti!n is made and shall 5i0e t! the #ers!n and t! the !##!nent an !##!rt$nity t! be heard bef!re he decides the case+ )@* An amendment $nder this secti!n !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n may be, !r incl$de, an amendment !f the #ri!rity date !f a claim+ . [):* The #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n shall be with!$t #reB$dice t! the ri5ht !f an a##licant f!r a #atent t! amend his s#ecificati!n !r any !ther d!c$ment related theret! t! c!m#ly with the directi!ns !f the C!ntr!ller iss$ed bef!re the 5rant !f a #atent+> ! : ". *mendment of specification &efore *ppellate Board or Ci.h 2o%rt )1* %n any #r!ceedin5 bef!re the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt f!r the re0!cati!n !f a #atent, the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt, as the case may be, may, s$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in secti!n @9, all!w the #atentee t! amend his c!m#lete s#ecificati!n in s$ch manner and s$bBect t! s$ch terms as t! c!sts, ad0ertisement !r !therwise, as the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt may thin? fit, and if, in any #r!ceedin5s f!r re0!cati!n, the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt decides that the
1 %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8!r a s#ecificati!n8, by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ 3 S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200S, ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . 4 S%&stit%ted for 1ad$ertised1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1ad$ertisement1 &' the (atent )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .
! S%&stit%ted, i&id, ,.e.f. the date to &e notified.

SECT%1N @9

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 37

#atent is in0alid, it may all!w the s#ecificati!n t! be amended $nder this secti!n instead !f re0!?in5 the #atent+ ),* Dhere an a##licati!n f!r an !rder $nder this secti!n is made t! the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt, the a##licant shall 5i0e n!tice !f the a##licati!n t! the C!ntr!ller, and the C!ntr!ller shall be entitled t! a##ear and be heard, and shall a##ear if s! directed by the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt+ ).* C!#ies !f all !rders !f the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt all!win5 the #atentee t! amend the s#ecificati!n shall be transmitted by the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt t! the C!ntr!ller wh! shall, !n recei#t there!f, ca$se an entry there!f and reference theret! t! be made in the re5ister+> 9. S%pplementar' pro$isions as to amendment of application or specification 1 [)l* N! amendment !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r any d!c$ment relatin5 theret! shall be made e-ce#t by way !f disclaimer, c!rrecti!n !r e-#lanati!n, and n! amendment there!f shall be all!wed, e-ce#t f!r the #$r#!se !f inc!r#!rati!n !f act$al fact, and n! amendment !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n shall be all!wed, the effect !f which w!$ld be that the s#ecificati!n as amended w!$ld claim !r describe matter n!t in s$bstance discl!sed !r sh!wn in the s#ecificati!n bef!re the amendment, !r that any claim !f the s#ecificati!n as amended w!$ld n!t fall wh!lly within the sc!#e !f a claim !f the s#ecificati!n bef!re the amendment+> , [),* Dhere after the date !f 5rant !f #atent any amendment !f the s#ecificati!n !r any !ther d!c$ments related theret! is all!wed by the C!ntr!ller !r by the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt, as the case may be,7 )a* the amendment shall f!r all #$r#!ses be deemed t! f!rm #art !f the s#ecificati!n al!n5 with !ther d!c$ments related theret!; )b* the fact that the s#ecificati!n !r any !ther d!c$ments related theret! has been amended shall be #$blished as e-#editi!$sly as #!ssible; and )c* the ri5ht !f the a##licant !r #atentee t! ma?e amendment shall n!t be called in 6$esti!n e-ce#t !n the 5r!$nd !f fra$d+> ).* %n c!nstr$in5 the s#ecificati!n as amended, reference may be made t! the s#ecificati!n as !ri5inally acce#ted+ CHAPTER $I "EST1"AT%1N 1F 'APSE4 PATENTS !0. *pplications for restoration of lapsed patents )1* Dhere a #atent has ceased t! ha0e effect by reas!n !f fail$re t! #ay any renewal fee within the .[#eri!d #rescribed $nder secti!n @. !r within s$ch #eri!d as may be all!wed $nder s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n 1C,>, the #atentee !r his le5al re#resentati0e, and where the #atent was held by tw! !r m!re #ers!ns B!intly, then, with the lea0e !f the C!ntr!ller, !ne !r m!re !f them with!$t B!inin5 the !thers, may, within C[ei5hteen m!nths> fr!m the date !n which the #atent ceased t! ha0e effect, ma?e an a##licati!n f!r the rest!rati!n !f the #atent+ [&mitted by Patents (Arndt.) Act, 2002, w.e. . 20"5"200' (ide ).0.5*!($), dt. 20"5"200'#
1 2 3 C S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. the date to &e notified. S%&stit%ted for 1prescri&ed period or ,ithin that period as extended %nder s%&-section )3+ of section 31 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted f!r 8!ne year8 by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

3" THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N :.

).* An a##licati!n $nder this secti!n shall c!ntain a statement, 0erified in the #rescribed manner, f$lly settin5 !$t the circ$mstances which led t! the fail$re t! #ay the #rescribed fee, and the C!ntr!ller may re6$ire fr!m the a##licant s$ch f$rther e0idence as he may thin? necessary+ !1. (roced%re for disposal of applications for restoration of lapsed patents )1* %f, alter hearin5 the a##licant in cases where the a##licant s! desires !r the C!ntr!ller thin?s fit, the C!ntr!ller is #rima facie satisfied that the fail$re t! #ay the renewal fee was $nintenti!nal and that there has been n! $nd$e delay in the ma?in5 !f the a##licati!n, he shall 1 [$blish> the a##licati!n in the #rescribed manner; and within the #rescribed #eri!d any #ers!n interested may 5i0e n!tice t! the C!ntr!ller !f !##!siti!n theret! !n either !r b!th !f the f!ll!win5 5r!$nds, that is t! say7 )a* that the fail$re t! #ay the renewal fee was n!t $nintenti!nal; !r ; )b* that there has been $nd$e delay in the ma?in5 !f the a##licati!n+ ),* %f n!tice !f !##!siti!n is 5i0en within the #eri!d af!resaid, the C!ntr!ller shall n!tify the a##licant and shall 5i0e t! him and t! the !##!nent an !##!rt$nity t! be heard bef!re he decides the case+ ).* %f n! n!tice !f !##!siti!n is 5i0en within the #eri!d af!resaid !r if in the case !f !##!siti!n, the decisi!n !f the C!ntr!ller is in fa0!$r !f the a##licant, the C!ntr!ller shall, $#!n #ayment !f any $n#aid renewal fee and s$ch additi!nal fee as may be #rescribed, rest!re the #atent and any #atent !f additi!n s#ecified in the a##licati!n which has ceased t! ha0e effect !n the cesser, !f that #atent+ )C* The C!ntr!ller may, if he thin?s fit, as a c!nditi!n !f rest!rin5 the #atent, re6$ire that an entry shall be made in the re5ister !f any d!c$ment !r matter which, $nder the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act, has t! be entered in the re5ister b$t which has n!t been s! entered+ !2. ;i.hts of patentees of lapsed patents ,hich ha$e &een restored )1* #here a patent is restored, the ri.hts of the patentee shall &e s%&Aect to s%ch pro$isions as ma' &e prescri&ed and to s%ch other pro$isions as the 2ontroller thin0s fit to impose for the protection or compensation of persons ,ho ma' ha$e &e.%n to a$ail themsel$es of, or ha$e ta0en definite steps &' contract or other,ise to a$ail themsel$es of, the patented in$ention &et,een the date ,hen the patent ceased to ha$e effect and the date of the 2:p%&lication] of the application for restoration of the patent %nder this chapter+ ),* N! s$it !r !ther #r!ceedin5 shall be c!mmenced !r #r!sec$ted in res#ect !f an infrin5ement !f a #atent c!mmitted between the date !n which the #atent ceased t! ha0e effect and the date !f ,[#$blicati!n> !f the a##licati!n f!r rest!rati!n !f the #atent+ CHAPTER $II SA""EN4E" AN4 "E31CAT%1N 1F PATENTS !3. S%rrender of patents )1* A #atentee may, at any time by 5i0in5 n!tice in the #rescribed manner t! the C!ntr!ller, !ffer t! s$rrender his #atent+ ),* Dhere s$ch an !ffer is made, the C!ntr!ller shall l[#$blish> the !ffer in the #rescribed manner, and als! n!tify e0ery #ers!n !ther than the #atentee wh!se name a##ears in the re5ister as ha0in5 an interest in the #atent+ ).* Any #ers!n interested may, within the #rescribed #eri!d after s$ch ,[#$bli<
1 2 S%&stit%ted for 1ad$ertise1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1ad$ertisement1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N :C

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 39

cati!n>, 5i0e n!tice t! the C!ntr!ller !f !##!siti!n t! the s$rrender, and where any s$ch n!tice is 5i0en the C!ntr!ller shall n!tify the #atentee+ )C* %f the C!ntr!ller is satisfied after hearin5 the #atentee and any !##!nent, if desir!$s !f bein5 heard, that the #atent may #r!#erly be s$rrendered, he may acce#t the !ffer and, by !rder, re0!?e the #atent+ :C+ "e0!cati!n !f #atents )1* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this Act, a #atent, whether 5ranted bef!re !r after the c!mmencement !f this Act, may, 1[be re0!?ed !n a #etiti!n !f any #ers!n interested !r !f the Central /!0ernment by the A##ellate 9!ard !r !n a c!$nterclaim in a s$it f!r infrin5ement !f the #atent by the Hi5h C!$rt> !n any !f the f!ll!win5 5r!$nds, that is t! say7 )a* that the in0enti!n, s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, was claimed in a 0alid claim !f earlier #ri!rity date c!ntained in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !f an!ther #atent 5ranted in %ndia; )b* that the #a tent was 5ranted !n the a##licati!n !f a #ers!n n!t entitled $nder the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act t! a##ly theref!r& ,[----> )c* that the #atent was !btained wr!n5f$lly in c!ntra0enti!n !f the ri5hts !f the #etiti!ner !r any #ers!n $nder !r thr!$5h wh!m he claims; )d* that the s$bBect !f any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is n!t an in0enti!n within the meanin5 !f this Act; )e* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is n!t new, ha0in5 re5ard t! what was #$blicly ?n!wn !r #$blicly $sed in %ndia bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the claim !r t! what was #$blished in %ndia !r elsewhere in any !f the d!c$ments referred t! in secti!n 1. & , [----> )f* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is !b0i!$s !r d!es n!t in0!l0e any in0enti0e ste#, ha0in5 re5ard t! what was #$blicly ?n!wn !r #$blicly $sed in %ndia !r what was #$blished in %ndia !r elsewhere bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the claim; ,[---> )5* that the in0enti!n, s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, is n!t $sef$l; )h* that the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n d!es n!t s$fficiently and fairly describe the in0enti!n and the meth!d by which it is t! be #erf!rmed, that is t! say, that the descri#ti!n !f the meth!d !r the instr$cti!ns f!r the w!r?in5 !f the in0enti!n, as c!ntained in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n are n!t by themsel0es s$fficient t! enable a #ers!n in %ndia #!ssessin5 a0era5e s?ill in, and a0era5e ?n!wled5e !f, the art t! which the in0enti!n relates, t! w!r? the in0enti!n, !r that it d!es n!t discl!se the best meth!d !f #erf!rmin5 it which was ?n!wn t! the a##licant f!r the #atent and f!r which he was entitled t! claim #r!tecti!n; )i* that the sc!#e !f any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is n!t s$fficiently

1 S%&stit%ted for 1on the petition of an' person interested or of the 2entral 8o$ernment or on a co%nter-claim in a s%it for infrin.ement of the patent, &e re$o0ed &' the Ci.h 2o%rt1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. the date to &e notified. , Pr!0is! !mitted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+0+@:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

40 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N :C

and clearly defined !r that any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is n!t fairly, based !n the matter discl!sed in the s#ecificati!n; )B* that the #atent was !btained !n a false s$55esti!n !r re#resentati!n; )?* that the s$bBect !f any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n is n!t #atentable $nder this Act; )l* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n was secretly $sed in %ndia, !therwise than as menti!ned in s$b<secti!n ).*, bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the claim; )m* that the a##licant f!r the #atent has failed t! discl!se t! the C!ntr!ller the inf!rmati!n re6$ired by secti!n = !r has f$rnished inf!rmati!n which in any material #artic$lar was false t! his ?n!wled5e; )n* that the a##licant c!ntra0ened any directi!n f!r secrecy #assed $nder secti!n .@ 1[!r made !r ca$sed t! be made an a##licati!n f!r the 5rant !f a #atent !$tside %ndia in c!ntra0enti!n !f secti!n .9;> )!* that lea0e t! amend the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n $nder secti!n @7 !r secti!n @= was !btained by fra$d+ 1 [)#* that the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n d!es n!t discl!se !r wr!n5ly menti!ns the s!$rce !r 5e!5ra#hical !ri5in !f bi!l!5ical material $sed f!r the in0enti!n; )6* that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n was antici#ated ha0in5 re5ard t! the ?n!wled5e, !ral !r !therwise, a0ailable within any l!cal !r indi5en!$s c!mm$nity in %ndia !r elsewhere+>G ),* F!r the #$r#!ses !f cla$ses )e* and )f* !f s$b<secti!n )1*,7 )a* n! acc!$nt shall be ta?en !f ,[#ers!nal d!c$ment !r secret trial !r secret $se>; and )b* where the #atent is f!r a #r!cess !r f!r a #r!d$ct as made by a #r!cess described !r claimed, the im#!rtati!n int! %ndia !f the #r!d$ct made abr!ad by that #r!cess shall c!nstit$te ?n!wled5e !r $se in %ndia !f the in0enti!n !n the date !f the im#!rtati!n, e-ce#t where s$ch im#!rtati!n has been f!r the #$r#!se !f reas!nable trial !r e-#eriment !nly+ ).* F!r the #$r#!se !f cla$se )1* !f s$b<secti!n )1*, n! acc!$nt shall be ta?en !f any $se !f the in0enti!n7 )a* f!r the #$r#!se !f reas!nable trial !r e-#eriment !nly; !r )b* by the 5!0ernment !r by any #ers!n a$th!rised by the 5!0ernment !r by a 5!0ernment $nderta?in5, in c!nse6$ence !f the a##licant f!r the #atent !r any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title ha0in5 c!mm$nicated !r discl!sed the in0enti!n directly !r indirectly t! the 5!0ernment !r #ers!n a$th!ri2ed as af!resaid !r t! the 5!0ernment $nderta?in5s; !r )c* by any !ther #ers!n, in c!nse6$ence !f the a##licant f!r the #atent !r any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title ha0in5 c!mm$nicated !r discl!sed the , in0enti!n, and with!$t the c!nsent !r ac6$iescence !f the a##licant !r !f any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title+

1 ,

%nserted by Patents )Amdt* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+0+@:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8secret $se8, ibid+

SECT%1N :@

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 41

)4+ #itho%t preA%dice to the pro$isions contained in s%&-section )1+, a patent ma' &e re$o0ed &' the Ci.h 2o%rt on the petition of the 2entral 8o$ernment, if the Ci.h 2o%rt is satisfied that the patentee has ,itho%t reasona&le ca%se failed to compl' ,ith the re<%est of the 2entral 8o$ernment to ma0e, %se or exercise the patented in$ention for the p%rposes of .o$ernment ,ithin the meanin. of section 99 %pon reasona&le terms. )@* A n!tice !f any #etiti!n f!r re0!cati!n !f a #atent $nder this secti!n shall be ser0ed !n all #ers!ns a##earin5 fr!m the re5ister t! be #r!#riet!rs !f that #atent !r t! ha0e shares !r interest therein and it shall n!t be necessary t! ser0e a n!tice !n any !ther #ers!n+ 2344567S To be entitled to the ,rant of an ad interi& in unction, the plaintiff has to sho! existence of a pri&a facie case, balance of convenience in his favour, and irreparable in ur"# Sec# 154 of the Act clearl" provides that in an" suit for in unction, ever" ,round on !hich it &a" be revoked shall be available as a ,round of defence#.-ranF Gaver >7e+er v. New 9esh =n,ineers #$$? <TC .#?0 .Del0 #?' To satisf" the re9uire&ent of bein, publicl" kno!n as used in clauses 1e2 and 1f2 of s# 6+112, it is not necessar" that it should be !idel" used to the kno!led,e of the consu&er public# )t is sufficient if it is kno!n to the persons !ho are en,a,ed in the pursuit of the kno!led,e of the patented product or process either as &en of science or &en of co&&erce or consu&ers#. Monsanto Co+:any v. Cora+andal !nda, <rod7cts .<0 Ltd. !" #$2? SC %#& There is a distinction &aintained as bet!een the defence raised to a suit for infrin,e&ent of a patent 1vide s# 1542 on the one hand and the revocation sou,ht of a patent on the other 1vide s# 6+2# The ,rounds &a" be the sa&e, but still there is no inconsistenc" on account of the suit bein, defended as liable to dis&issal in a particular case and a case !here the defendant seeks also that the patent asserted b" the plaintiff be revoked# )t is onl" !hen there is a counterclai& seekin, revocation of the patent that the urisdiction of the =istrict $ourt is ousted# The proviso to s# 15+ bein, in the nature of an exception to the ,eneral rule, it has to be strictl" construed# There is no express clai& on the part of the defendant for revocation !hereof infrin,e&ent is alle,ed b" the plaintiff# That the defendant pleads that the patent set up b" the plaintiff is invalid a&ounts onl" to the defendant raisin, a ,round for the relief sou,ht b" the plaintiff bein, declined0 it does not follo! necessaril" that the defendant also seeks b" !a" of a counterclai& that the patent be revoked# The defendant has not asserted in the pleadin,s an"!here that the" are the patentee or that the" are entitled to be re,istered as such# The ,rounds raised are cu&ulativel" and also individuall" b" !a" of defence to the plaintiff-s action#. -a5con Cor:oration v. !nd7strial =n,ineerin, Cor:oration !" #$2% ll 442 )n "a+ Narain Aher v. +5assador !nd7stries <TC .S7::l.0 .#0 #21 .Del0, the defendant pleaded that the invention and the advanta,es clai&ed b" the plaintiff had not been ade9uatel" described in the patent and ade9uatel" clai&ed in the clai& to brin, it !ithin the a&bit of the ter& /invention/ !ithin the &eanin, of the Act# The Ai,h $ourt held that the defendants havin, specificall" raised the ,round that clai&s &ade b" the plaintiff in the patent !ere va,ue and did not describe the invention clearl" and properl", are co&petent to clai& revocation of the patent on that ,round in the ter&s of section 6+112 of the Act# 1 :! . ;e$ocation of patent or amendment of complete specification on directions from 8o$ernment in cases relatin. to atomic ener.' )1* Dhere at any time after 5rant !f a #atent, the Central /!0ernment is satisfied that a #atent is f!r an in0enti!n relatin5 t! at!mic ener5y f!r which n! #atent can be

S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

42 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N :7

5ranted $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n ,0 !f the At!mic Ener5y Act, 19:, ).. !f 19:,*, it may direct the C!ntr!ller t! re0!?e the #atent, and there$#!n the C!ntr!ller, after 5i0in5 n!tice, t! the #atentee and e0ery !ther #ers!n wh!se name has been entered in the re5ister as ha0in5 an interest in the #atent, and after 5i0in5 them an !##!rt$nity !f bein5 heard, may re0!?e the #atent+ ),* %n any #r!ceedin5s $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, the C!ntr!ller may all!w the #atentee t! amend the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n in s$ch manner as he c!nsiders necessary instead !f re0!?in5 the #atent+> !!. ;e$ocation of patent in p%&lic interest Dhere the Central /!0ernment is !f !#ini!n that a #atent !r the m!de in which it is e-ercised is mischie0!$s t! the State !r 5enerally #reB$dicial t! the #$blic, it may, after 5i0in5 the #atentee an !##!rt$nity t! be heard, ma?e a declarati!n t! that effect in the 1fficial /a2ette and there$#!n the #atent shall be deemed t! be re0!?ed+ CHAPTER $III "E/%STE" 1F PATENTS !7. ;e.ister of patents and partic%lars to &e entered therein )1* There shall be ?e#t at the #atent !ffice a re5ister !f #atents, wherein shall be entered 7 )a* the names and addresses !f 5rantees !f #atents; )b* n!tificati!ns !f assi5nments and !f transmissi!ns !f #atents, !f<licences $nder #atents, and !f amendments, and re0!cati!ns !f #atents; and )c* #artic$lars !f s$ch !ther matters affectin5 the 0alidity !r #r!#riet!rshi# !f #atents as may be #rescribed+ ),* N! n!tice !f any tr$st, whether e-#ress, im#lied !r c!nstr$cti0e, shall be entered in the re5ister, and the C!ntr!ller shall n!t be affected by any s$ch n!tice+ ).* S$bBect t! the s$#erintendence and directi!n !f the Central /!0ernment, the re5ister shall be ?e#t $nder the c!ntr!l and mana5ement !f the C!ntr!ller+ 1 [)C* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<secti!n )1*, it shall be lawf$l f!r the C!ntr!ller t! ?ee# the re5ister !f #atents !r any #art there!f in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm s$bBect t! s$ch safe5$ards as may be #rescribed+ )@* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in the %ndian E0idence Act, 1=7,, a c!#y !f, !r e-tracts fr!m, the re5ister !f #atents, certified t! be a tr$e c!#y $nder the hand !f the C!ntr!ller !r any !fficer d$ly a$th!rised by the C!ntr!ller in this behalf shall, in all le5al #r!ceedin5s, be admissible in e0idence+ ):* %n the e0ent the re5ister is ?e#t wh!lly !r #artly in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm,7 )a* reference in this Act t! an entry in the re5ister shall be deemed t! incl$de reference t! a rec!rd !f #artic$lars ?e#t in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r c+ any !ther electr!nic f!rm and c!m#risin5 the re5ister !r #art !f the re5ister; )b* references in this Act t! #artic$lars bein5 re5istered !r entered in the re5ister shall be deemed t! incl$de references t! the ?ee#in5 !f rec!rd !f th!se

1 S$bstit$ted f!r e-istin5 s$b<sec+ )C* by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

SECT%1N :9

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 43

#artic$lars c!m#risin5 the re5ister !r #art !f the re5ister in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm; and )c* references in this Act t! the rectificati!n !f the re5ister are t! be read as incl$din5 references t! the rectificati!n !f the rec!rd !f #artic$lars ?e#t in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm and c!m#risin5 the re5ister !r #art !f the re5ister+> 1 :!". *ssi.nments, etc. not to &e $alid %nless in ,ritin. and d%l' exec%ted An assi5nment !f a #atent !r !f a share in a #atent, a m!rta5e, licence !r the creati!n !f any !ther interest in a #atent shall n!t be 0alid $nless the same were in writin5 and the a5reement between the #arties c!ncerned is red$ced t! the f!rm !f a d!c$ment emb!dyin5 all the terms and c!nditi!ns 5!0ernin5 their ri5hts and !bli5ati!ns and d$ly e-ec$ted+> !9. ;e.istration of assi.nments, transmissions, etc. )1* Dhere any #ers!n bec!mes entitled by assi5nment, transmissi!n !r !#erati!n !f law t! a #atent !r t! a share in a #atent !r bec!mes entitled as a m!rt5a5ee, licensee !r !therwise t! any !ther interest in a #atent, he shall a##ly in writin5 in the #rescribed manner t! the C!ntr!ller f!r the re5istrati!n !f his title !r, as the case may be !f n!tice !f his interest in the re5ister+ ),* Dith!$t #reB$dice t! the #r!0isi!ns !f s$b<secti!n )1*, an a##licati!n f!r the re5istrati!n !f the title !f any #ers!n bec!min5 entitled by assi5nment t! a #atent !r a share in a #atent !r bec!min5 entitled by 0irt$e !f a m!rt5a5e, licence !r !ther instr$ment t! any !ther interest in a #atent may be made in the #rescribed manner by the assi5n!r, m!rt5a5!r, licens!r !r !ther #arty t! that instr$ment, as the case may be+ ).* Dhere an a##licati!n is made $nder this secti!n f!r the re5istrati!n !f the title !f any #ers!n, the C!ntr!ller shall, $#!n #r!!f !f title t! his satisfacti!n,7 )a* where that #ers!n is entitled t! a #atent !r a share in a #atent, re5ister him in the re5ister as #r!#riet!r !r c!<#r!#riet!r !f the #atent, and enter in the re5ister #artic$lars !f the instr$ment !r e0ent by which he deri0es title; !r , )b* where that #ers!n is entitled t! any !ther interest in the #atent, enter in the re5ister n!tice !f his interest, with #artic$lars !f the instr$ment, if any, creatin5 it& P"13%4E4 that if there is any dis#$te between the #arties whether the assi5nment, m!rt5a5e, licence, transmissi!n, !#erati!n !f law !r any !ther s$ch transacti!n has 0alidly 0ested in s$ch #ers!n a title t! the #atent !r any share !r interest therein, the C!ntr!ller may ref$se t! ta?e any acti!n $nder cla$se )a*, !r, as the case may be, $nder cla$se )b*, $ntil the ri5hts !f the #arties ha0e been determined by a c!m#etent c!$rt+ )C* There shall be s$##lied t! the C!ntr!ller in the #rescribed manner f!r bein5 filed in the #atent !ffice c!#ies !f all a5reements, licences and !ther d!c$ments affectin5 the title t! any #atent !f any licence there$nder a$thenticated in the #rescribed manner and als! s$ch !ther d!c$ments as may be #rescribed rele0ant t! the s$bBect<matter& P"13%4E4 that in the case !f a licence 5ranted $nder a #atent, the C!ntr!ller shall, if s! re6$ested by the #atentee !r licensee, ta?e ste#s f!r sec$rin5 that the terms !f the licence are n!t discl!sed t! any #ers!n e-ce#t $nder the !rder !f a c!$rt+ )@* E-ce#t f!r the #$r#!ses !f an a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !r !f an a##licati!n

S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

44 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 7,

t! rectify the re5ister, a d!c$ment in res#ect !f which n! entry has been made in the re5ister $nder s$b<secti!n ).* shall n!t be admitted by the C!ntr!ller !r by any c!$rt as e0idence !f the title !f any #ers!n t! a #atent !r t! a share !r interest therein $nless the C!ntr!ller !r the c!$rt, f!r reas!ns t! be rec!rded in writin5, !therwise directs+ 70. (o,er of re.istered .rantee or proprietor to deal ,ith patent S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this Act relatin5 t! c!<!wnershi# !f #atents and s$bBect als! t! any ri5hts 0ested in any !ther #ers!n !f which n!tice is entered in the re5ister, the #ers!n !r #ers!ns re5istered as 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f #atent shall ha0e #!wer t! assi5n, 5rant licences $nder, !r !therwise deal with the #atent and t! 5i0e effect$al recei#ts f!r c!nsiderati!n f!r any s$ch assi5nment, licence !r dealin5& P"13%4E4 that any e6$ities in res#ect !f the #atent may be enf!rced in li?e manner as in res#ect !f any !ther m!0able #r!#erty+ 71. ;ectification of re.ister &' 1:*ppellate Board] )1* The 1[A##ellate 9!ard> may, !n the a##licati!n !f any #ers!n a55rie0ed7 )a*< by the absence !r !missi!n fr!m the re5ister !f any entry; !r )b* by any entry made in the re5ister with!$t s$fficient ca$se; !r )c* by any entry wr!n5ly remainin5 !n the re5ister; !r )d* by any err!r !r defect in any entry in the re5ister, ma?e s$ch !rder f!r the ma?in5, 0ariati!n !r deleti!n, !f any entry therein as it may thin? fit+ ),* %n any #r!ceedin5 $nder this secti!n the 1[A##ellate 9!ard> may decide any 6$esti!n that may be necessary !r e-#edient t! decide in c!nnecti!n with the rectificati!n !f the re5ister+ ).* N!tice !f any a##licati!n t! the 1[A##ellate 9!ard> $nder this secti!n shall be 5i0en in the #rescribed manner t! the C!ntr!ller wh! shall be entitled t! a##ear and be heard !n the a##licati!n, and shall a##ear if s! directed by the ,[9!ard>+ )C* Any !rder !f the 1[A##ellate 9!ard> $nder this secti!n rectifyin5 the re5ister shall direct that n!tice !f the rectificati!n shall be ser0ed $#!n the C!ntr!ller in the #rescribed manner wh! shall $#!n recei#t !f s$ch n!tice rectify the re5ister acc!rdin5ly+ 72. ;e.ister to &e open for inspection )1* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this Act and any r$les made there$nder, the re5ister shall at all c!n0enient times be !#en t! ins#ecti!n by the #$blic; and certified c!#ies, sealed with the seal !f the #atent !ffice, !f any entry in the re5ister shall be 5i0en t! any #ers!n re6$irin5 them !n #ayment !f the #rescribed fee+ ),* The re5ister shall be #rima facie e0idence !f any matters re6$ired !r a$th!rised by !r $nder this Act t! be entered therein+ . [).* %f the rec!rd !r #artic$lars is ?e#t in c!m#$ter fl!##ies !r dis?ettes !r in any !ther electr!nic f!rm, s$b<secti!ns )1* and ),* shall be deemed t! ha0e been c!m#lied with if the #$blic is 5i0en access t! s$ch c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm !r #rint!$ts !f s$ch rec!rd !f #artic$lars f!r ins#ecti!n+>

1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8Hi5h C!$rt8 by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8C!$rt8, ibid+ . %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

SECT%1N 7@

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 4 CHAPTER $IV PATENT 1FF%CE AN4 %TS ESTA9'%SH(ENT

73. 2ontroller and other officers )1* The C!ntr!ller /eneral !f Patents, 4esi5ns and Trade (ar?s a##!inted $nder s$b< secti!n )1* !f 1[secti!n . !f the Trade (ar?s Act, 1999> shall be the C!ntr!ller !f Patents f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act+ ),* F!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act the Central /!0ernment may a##!int as many e-aminers and !ther !fficers and with s$ch desi5nati!ns as it thin?s fit+ ).* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act, the !fficers a##!inted $nder s$b<secti!n ),* shall dischar5e $nder the s$#erintendence and directi!ns !f the C!ntr!ller s$ch f$ncti!ns !f the C!ntr!ller $nder this Act as he may, fr!m time t! time, by 5eneral !r s#ecial !rder in writin5, a$th!rise them t! dischar5e+ )C* Dith!$t #reB$dice t! the 5enerality !f the #r!0isi!ns !f s$b<secti!n ).*, the C!ntr!ller may, by !rder in writin5 and f!r reas!ns t! be rec!rded therein withdraw any matter #endin5 bef!re an !fficer a##!inted $nder s$b<secti!n ),* and deal with s$ch matter himself either de n!0! !r fr!m the sta5e it was s! withdrawn !r transfer the same t! an!ther !fficer a##!inted $nder s$b<secti!n ),* wh! may, s$bBect t! s#ecial directi!ns in the !rder !f transfer, #r!ceed with the matter either de n!0! !r fr!m the sta5e it was s! transferred+ 74. (atent office and its &ranches )1* F!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act, there shall be an !ffice which shall be ?n!wn as the #atent !ffice+ , [),* The Central /!0ernment may, by n!tificati!n in the 1fficial /a2ette, s#ecify the name !f the Patent 1ffice+> ).* The head !ffice !f the #atent !ffice shall be at s$ch #lace as the Central /!0ernment may s#ecify, and f!r the #$r#!se !f facilitatin5 the re5istrati!n !f #atents there may be established, at s$ch !ther #laces as the Central /!0ernment may thin? fit, branch !ffices !f the #atent !ffice+ )C* There shall be a seal !f the #atent !ffice+ 7 . ;estriction on emplo'ees of patent office as to ri.ht or interest in patents All !fficers and em#l!yees !f the #atent !ffice shall be inca#able, d$rin5 the #eri!d f!r which they h!ld their a##!intments, t! ac6$ire !r ta?e, directly !r indirectly, e-ce#t by inheritance !r be6$est, any ri5ht !r interest in any #atent iss$ed by that !ffice+

1 2

S$bstit$ted f!r 8secti!n C !f the Trade and (erchandise (ar?s Act, 19@=8, by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+@:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

4! THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 7=

7!. 3fficers and emplo'ees not to f%rnish information, etc+ An !fficer !r em#l!yee in the #atent !ffice shall n!t, e-ce#t when re6$ired !r a$th!rised by this Act !r $nder a directi!n in writin5 !f the 1[Central /!0ernment !r A##ellate 9!ard> !r the C!ntr!ller !r by !rder !f a c!$rt7 )a* f$rnish inf!rmati!n !n a matter which is bein5, !r has been, dealt with $nder this Act ,[- - ->; !r )b* #re#are t! assist in the #re#arati!n !f a d!c$ment re6$ired !r #ermitted by !r $nder this Act ,[- - -> t! be l!d5ed in the #atent !ffice; !r )c* c!nd$ct a search in the rec!rds !f the #atent !ffice+ CHAPTER $V P1DE"S 1F C1NT"1''E" /ENE"A'' 77. 2ontroller to ha$e certain po,ers of a ci$il co%rt )1* S$bBect t! any r$les made in this behalf, the C!ntr!ller in any #r!ceedin5s bef!re him $nder this Act ha0e the #!wers !f a ci0il c!$rt while tryin5 a s$it $nder the C!de !f Ci0il Pr!ced$re, 190= )@ !f 190=* in res#ect !f the f!ll!win5 matters, namely,7 )a* s$mm!nin5 and enf!rcin5 the attendance !f any #ers!n and e-aminin5 him !n !ath; )b* re6$irin5 the disc!0ery and #r!d$cti!n !f any d!c$ment; )c* recei0in5 e0idence !n affida0its; )d* iss$in5 c!mmissi!ns f!r the e-aminati!n !f witnesses !f d!c$ments; )e* awardin5 c!sts; )f* re0iewin5 his !wn decisi!n !n a##licati!n made within the #rescribed time and in the #rescribed manner; )5* settin5 aside an !rder #assed e- #arte !n a##licati!n made within the #rescribed time and in the #rescribed manner; )h* any !ther matter which may be #rescribed+ ),* Any !rder f!r c!sts awarded by the C!ntr!ller in e-ercise !f the #!wers c!nferred $#!n him $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall be e-ec$table as a decree !f a ci0il c!$rt+ 7". (o,er of 2ontroller to correct clerical errors, etc. )1* Dith!$t #reB$dice t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in secti!ns @7 and @9 as re5ards amendment !f a##licati!ns f!r #atents !r c!m#lete s#ecificati!ns .[!r !ther d!c$ments relatin5 theret!> and s$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f secti!n CC, the C!ntr!ller may, in acc!rdance with the #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n, c!rrect any clerical err!r in any #atent !r in any s#ecificati!n !r !ther d!c$ment filed in #$rs$ance !f s$ch a##licati!n !r in any a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r any clerical err!r in any matter which is entered in the re5ister+ ),* A c!rrecti!n may be made in #$rs$ance !f this secti!n either $#!n a re6$est in writin5 made by any #ers!n interested and acc!m#anied by the #rescribed fee, !r with!$t s$ch a re6$est+ ).* Dhere8 the C!ntr!ller #r!#!ses t! ma?e any s$ch c!rrecti!n as af!resaid !therwise than in #$rs$ance !f a re6$est made $nder this secti!n, he shall 5i0e n!tice

1 , .

S$bstit$ted f!r 8Central /!0ernment8 by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ D!rds 8!r $nder the %ndian Patents and 4esi5ns Act, 19118 !mitted, ibid+ %nserted, ibid+

SECT%1N =,

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 47

!f the #r!#!sal t! the #atentee !r the a##licant f!r the #atent, as the case may be, and t! any !ther #ers!n wh! a##ears t! him t! be c!ncerned, and shall 5i0e them an !##!rt$nity t! be heard bef!re ma?in5 the c!rrecti!n+ )C* Dhere a re6$est is made $nder this secti!n f!r the c!rrecti!n !f any err!r in a #atent !r a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r any d!c$ment filed in #$rs$ance !f s$ch an a##licati!n, and it a##ears t! the C!ntr!ller that the c!rrecti!n w!$ld materially alter the meanin5 !r sc!#e !f the d!c$ment t! which the re6$est relates and !$5ht n!t t! be made with!$t n!tice t! #ers!ns affected thereby, he shall re6$ire n!tice !f the nat$re !f the #r!#!sed c!rrecti!n t! be 1 [#$blished> in the #rescribed manner+ )@* Dithin the #rescribed time after any s$ch ,[#$blicati!n> as af!resaid any #ers!n interested may 5i0e n!tice t! the C!ntr!ller !f !##!siti!n t! the re6$est, and, where s$ch n!tice !f !##!siti!n is 5i0en, the C!ntr!ller shall 5i0e n!tice there!f t! the #ers!n by wh!m the re6$est was made, and shall 5i0e t! him and t! the !##!nent an !##!rt$nity t! be heard bef!re he decides the case+ 79. 5$idence ho, to &e .i$en and po,ers of 2ontroller in respect thereof S$bBect t! any r$les made in this behalf, in any #r!ceedin5 $nder this Act bef!re the C!ntr!ller, e0idence shall be 5i0en by affida0it in the absence !f directi!ns by the C!ntr!ller t! the c!ntrary, b$t in any case in which the C!ntr!ller thin?s it ri5ht s! t! d!, he may ta?e !ral e0idence in lie$ !f, !r in additi!n t!, e0idence by affida0it, !r may all!w any #arty t! be cr!ss< e-amined !n the c!ntents !f his affida0it+ "0. 5xercise of discretionar' po,ers &' 2ontroller Dith!$t #reB$dice t! any #r!0isi!n c!ntained in this Act re6$irin5 the C!ntr!ller t! hear any #arty t! the #r!ceedin5s there$nder !r t! 5i0e any s$ch #arty an !##!rt$nity t! be heard, the C!ntr!ller shall 5i0e t! any a##licant f!r a #atent, !r f!r amendment !f a s#ecificati!n )if within the #rescribed time the a##licant s! re6$ires* an !##!rt$nity t! be heard bef!re e-ercisin5 ad0ersely t! the a##licant any discreti!n 0ested in the C!ntr!ller by !r $nder this Act& . [P"13%4E4 that the #arty desirin5 a hearin5 ma?es the re6$est f!r s$ch hearin5 t! the C!ntr!ller at least ten days in ad0ance !f the e-#iry !f the time<limit s#ecified in res#ect !f the #r!ceedin5+> "1. Disposal &' 2ontroller of applications for extension of time Dhere $nder the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act !r the r$les made there$nder the C!ntr!ller may e-tend the time f!r d!in5 any act, n!thin5 in this Act shall be deemed t! re6$ire him t! 5i0e n!tice t! !r hear the #arty interested in !##!sin5 the e-tensi!n, n!r shall any a##eal lie fr!m any !rder !f the C!ntr!ller 5rantin5 s$ch e-tensi!n+ 4 [CHAPTER $VI D1"P%N/ 1F PATENTS, C1(PA'S1" '%CENCES AN4 "E31CAT%1N "2. Definitions of 1patented articles1 and 1patentee1 %n this Cha#ter, $nless the c!nte-t !therwise re6$ires,7 )a* 8#atented article8 incl$des any article made by a #atented #r!cess; and )b* 8#atentee8 incl$des an e-cl$si0e licensee+
1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8ad0ertised8 by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ 2 S%&stit%ted for 1ad$ertisement1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . . %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+0+@:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ C S$bstit$ted, ibid+

4" THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 SECT%1N =C "3. 8eneral principles applica&le to ,or0in. of patented in$entions Dith!$t #reB$dice t! the !ther #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this Act, in e-ercisin5 the #!wers c!nferred by this Cha#ter, re5ard shall be had t! the f!ll!win5 5eneral c!nsiderati!ns, namely,7 )a* that #atents are 5ranted t! enc!$ra5e in0enti!ns and t! sec$re that the in0enti!ns are w!r?ed in %ndia !n a c!mmercial scale and t! the f$llest e-tent that is reas!nably #racticable with!$t $nd$e delay; )b* that they are n!t 5ranted merely t! enable #atentees t! enB!y a m!n!#!ly f!r the im#!rtati!n !f the #atented article; )c* that the #r!tecti!n and enf!rcement !f #atent ri5hts c!ntrib$te t! the #r!m!ti!n !f techn!l!5ical inn!0ati!n and t! the transfer and disseminati!n !f techn!l!5y, t! the m$t$al ad0anta5e !f #r!d$cers and $sers !f techn!l!5ical ?n!wled5e and in a manner c!nd$ci0e t! s!cial and ec!n!mic welfare, and t! a balance !f ri5hts and !bli5ati!ns; )d* that #atents 5ranted d! n!t im#ede #r!tecti!n !f #$blic health and n$triti!n and sh!$ld act as instr$ment t! #r!m!te #$blic interest s#ecially in sect!rs !f 0ital im#!rtance f!r s!ci!<ec!n!mic and techn!l!5ical de0el!#ment !f %ndia; )e* that #atents 5ranted d! n!t in any way #r!hibit Central /!0ernment in ta?in5 meas$res t! #r!tect #$blic health; )f* that the #atent ri5ht is n!t ab$sed by the #atentee !r #ers!n deri0in5 title !r interest !n #atent fr!m the #atentee, and the #atentee !r a #ers!n deri0in5 title !r interest !n #atent fr!m the #atentee d!es n!t res!rt t! #ractices which $nreas!nably restrain trade !r ad0ersely affect the internati!nal transfer !f techn!l!5y; and )5* that #atents are 5ranted t! ma?e the benefit !f the #atented in0enti!n a0ailable at reas!nably aff!rdable #rices t! the #$blic+ "4. 2omp%lsor' licences )1* At any time after the e-#irati!n !f three years fr!m the date !f the 1[5rant> !f a #atent, any #ers!n interested may ma?e an a##licati!n t! the C!ntr!ller f!r 5rant !f c!m#$ls!ry licence !n #atent !n any !f the f!ll!win5 5r!$nds, namely&7 )a* that the reas!nable re6$irements !f the #$blic with res#ect t! the #atented in0enti!n ha0e n!t been satisfied, !r )b* that the #atented in0enti!n is n!t a0ailable t! the #$blic at a reas!nably aff!rdable #rice, !r )c* that the #atented in0enti!n is n!t w!r?ed in the territ!ry !f %ndia+ ),* An a##licati!n $nder this secti!n may be made by any #ers!n n!twithstandin5 that he is already the h!lder !f a licence $nder the #atent and n! #ers!n shall be est!##ed fr!m alle5in5 that the reas!nable re6$irements !f the #$blic with res#ect t! the #atended in0enti!n are n!t satisfied !r that the #atented in0enti!n is n!t w!r?ed in the territ!ry !f %ndia !r that the #atented in0enti!n is n!t a0ailable t! the #$blic at a reas!nably aff!rdable #rice by reas!n !f any admissi!n made by him, whether in s$ch a licence !r !therwise !r by reas!n !f his ha0in5 acce#ted s$ch a licence+ ).* E0ery a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall c!ntain a statement settin5 !$t the nat$re !f the a##licantGs interest t!5ether with s$ch #artic$lars as may be #rescribed and the facts $#!n which the a##licati!n is based+
1 S%&stit%ted for 1sealin.1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N =C

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 49

)C* The C!ntr!ller, if satisfied that the reas!nable re6$irements !f the #$blic with res#ect t! the #atented in0enti!n ha0e n!t been satisfied !r that the #atented in0enti!n is n!t w!r?ed in the territ!ry !f %ndia !r that the #atented in0enti!n is n!t a0ailable t! the #$blic at a reas!nably #rice, may 5rant a licence $#!n s$ch terms as he may deem fit+ )@* Dhere the C!ntr!ller directs the #atentee t! 5rant a licence he may, as incidental theret!, e-ercise the #!wers set !$t in secti!n ==+ ):* %n c!nsiderin5 the a##licati!n filed $nder this secti!n, the C!ntr!ller shall ta?e int! acc!$nt,7 )i* the nat$re !f the in0enti!n, the time which has ela#sed since the sealin5 !f the #atent and the meas$res already ta?en by the #atentee !r any licensee t! ma?e f$ll $se !f the in0enti!n; )BB* the ability !f the a##licant t! w!r? the in0enti!n t! the #$blic ad0anta5e; )iii* the ca#acity !f the a##licant t! $nderta?e the ris? in #r!0idin5 ca#ital and w!r?in5 the in0enti!n, if the a##licati!n were 5ranted; )i0* as t! whether the a##licant has made eff!rts t! !btain a licence fr!m the #atentee !n reas!nable terms and c!nditi!ns and s$ch eff!rts ha0e n!t been s$ccessf$l within a reas!nable #eri!d as the C!ntr!ller may deem fit& P"13%4E4 that this cla$se shall n!t be a##licable in case !f nati!nal emer5ency !r !ther circ$mstances !f e-treme $r5ency !r in case !f #$blic n!n<c!mmercial $se !r !n establishment !f a 5r!$nd !f anti<c!m#etiti0e #ractices ad!#ted by the #atentee, b$t shall n!t be re6$ired t! ta?e int! acc!$nt matters s$bse6$ent t! the ma?in5 !f the a##licati!n+ 1 [$%planation 1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f cla$se )i0*, 8reas!nable #eri!d8 shall be c!nstr$ed as a #eri!d n!t !rdinarily e-ceedin5 a #eri!d !f si- m!nths+> )7* F!r the #$r#!ses !f this Cha#ter, the reas!nable re6$irements !f the #$blic shall be deemed n!t t! ha0e been satisfied7 )a* if, by reas!n !f the ref$sal !f the #atentee t! 5rant a licence !r licences !n reas!nable terms,7 )i* an e-istin5 trade !r ind$stry !r the de0el!#ment there!f !r the establishment !f any new trade !r ind$stry in %ndia !r the trade !r ind$stry in %ndia !r the trade !r ind$stry !f any #ers!n !r class !f #ers!ns tradin5 !r man$fact$rin5 in %ndia is #reB$diced; !r )ii* the demand f!r the #atented article has n!t been met t! an ade6$ate e-tent !r !n reas!nable terms; !r )iii* a mar?et f!r e-#!rt !f the #atented article man$fact$red in %ndia is n!t bein5 s$##lied !r de0el!#ed; !r )i0* the establishment !r de0el!#ment !f c!mmercial acti0ities in %ndia is #reB$diced; !r )b* if, by reas!n !f c!nditi!ns im#!sed by the #atentee $#!n the 5rant !f licences $nder the #atent !r $#!n the #$rchase, hire !r $se !f the #atented article !r #r!cess, the man$fact$re, $se !r sale !f materials n!t #r!tected by the #atent, !r the establishment !r de0el!#ment !f any trade !r ind$stry in %ndia, is #reB$diced; !r

-nserted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

0 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970


)c*

SECT%1N =:

if the #atentee im#!ses a c!nditi!n $#!n the 5rant !f licences $nder the #atent t! #r!0ide e-cl$si0e 5rant bac?, #re0enti!n t! challen5es t! the 0alidity !f #atent !r c!erci0e #ac?a5e licensin5; !r )d* if the #atented in0enti!n is n!t bein5 w!r?ed in the territ!ry !f %ndia !n a c!mmercial scale t! an ade6$ate e-tent !r is n!t bein5 s! w!r?ed t! the f$llest e-tent that is reas!nably #racticable; !r )e* if the ,or0in. of the patented in$ention in the territor' of -ndia on a commercial scale is &ein. pre$ented or hindered &' the importation from a&road of the patented article &'> )i+ the patentee or persons claimin. %nder him? or )ii+ persons directl' or indirectl' p%rchasin. from him? or )iii+ other persons a.ainst ,hom the patentee is not ta0in. or has not ta0en proceedin.sfor infrin.ement. " . ;e$ocation of patents &' the 2ontroller for non-,or0in. )1* Dhere, in res#ect !f a #atent, a c!m#$ls!ry licence has been 5ranted, the Central /!0ernment !r any #ers!n interested may, after the e-#irati!n !f tw! years fr!m the date !f the !rder 5rantin5 the first c!m#$ls!ry licence, a##ly t! the C!ntr!ller f!r an !rder re0!?in5 the #atent !n the 5r!$nd that the #atented in0enti!n has n!t been w!r?ed in the territ!ry !f %ndia !r that reas!nable re6$irements !f the #$blic with res#ect t! the #atented in0enti!n ha0e n!t been satisfied !r that the #atented in0enti!n is n!t a0ailable t! the #$blic at a reas!nably aff!rdable #rice+ ),* E0ery a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall c!ntain s$ch #artic$lars as may be #rescribed, the facts $#!n which the a##licati!n is based, and, in the case !f an a##licati!n !ther than by the Central /!0ernment, shall als! set !$t the nat$re !f the a##licantGs interest+ )3+ 7he 2ontroller, if satisfied that the reasona&le re<%irements of the p%&lic ,ith respect to the patented in$ention ha$e not &een satisfied or that patented in$ention has not &een ,or0ed in the territor' of -ndia or that the patented in$ention is not a$aila&le to the p%&lic at a reasona&l' afforda&le price, ma' ma0e an order re$o0in. the patent+ )C* E0ery a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall !rdinarily be decided within !ne year !f its bein5 #resented t! the C!ntr!ller+ "!. (o,er of 2ontroller to adAo%rn applications for comp%lsor' licences, etc., in certain cases )1* Dhere an a##licati!n $nder secti!n =C !r secti!n =@, as the case may be, is made !n the 5r!$nds that the #atented in0enti!n has n!t been w!r?ed in the territ!ry !f %ndia !r !n the 5r!$nd menti!ned in cla$se )d* !f s$b<secti!n )7* !f secti!n =C and the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that the time which has ela#sed since the sealin5 !f the #atent has f!r any reas!n been ins$fficient t! enable the in0enti!n t! be w!r?ed !n a c!mmercial scale t! an ade6$ate e-tent !r t! enable the in0enti!n t! be s! w!r?ed t! the f$llest e-tent that is reas!nably #racticable, he may, by !rder, adB!$rn the f$rther hearin5 !f the a##licati!n f!r s$ch #eri!d n!t e-ceedin5 twel0e m!nths in the a55re5ate as a##ears t! him t! be s$fficient f!r the in0enti!n t! be s! w!r?ed& P"13%4E4 that in any case where the #atentee establishes that the reas!n why a #atented in0enti!n c!$ld n!t be w!r?ed as af!resaid bef!re the date !f the a##licati!n was d$e t! any State !r Central Act !r any r$le !r re5$lati!n made there$nder !r any !rder !f the /!0ernment im#!sed !therwise than by way !f a c!nditi!n f!r the w!r?in5 !f the in0enti!n in the territ!ry !f %ndia !r f!r the dis#!sal !f the #atented articles !r !f the articles made by the #r!cess !r by the $se !f the #atented #lant, machinery, !r a##arat$s, then, the #eri!d !f adB!$rnment !rdered $nder this s$b<secti!n shall be

SECT%1N ==

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 1

rec?!ned fr!m the date !n which the #eri!d d$rin5 which the w!r?in5 !f the in0enti!n was #re0ented by s$ch Act, r$le !r re5$lati!n !r !rder !f /!0ernment as c!m#$ted fr!m the date !f the a##licati!n, e-#ires+ ),* N! adB!$rnment $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall be !rdered $nless the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that the #atentee has ta?en with #r!m#tit$de ade6$ate !r reas!nable ste#s t! start the w!r?in5 !f the in0enti!n in the territ!ry !f %ndia !n a c!mmercial scale and t! an ade6$ate e-tent+ "7. (roced%re for dealin. ,ith applications %nder sections "4 and " )1* Dhere the C!ntr!ller is satisfied, $#!n c!nsiderati!n !f an a##licati!n $nder secti!n =C, !r secti!n =@, that a prima acie case has been made !$t f!r the ma?in5 !f an !rder, he shall direct the a##licant t! ser0e c!#ies !f the a##licati!n $#!n the #atentee and any !ther #ers!n a##earin5 fr!m the re5ister t! be interested in the #atent in res#ect !f which the a##licati!n is made, and 1[shall #$blish the a##licati!n in the 1fficial B!$rnal>+ ),* The #atentee !r any !ther #ers!n desirin5 t! !##!se the a##licati!n may, within s$ch time as may be #rescribed !r within s$ch f$rther time as the C!ntr!ller may !n a##licati!n )made either bef!re !r after the e-#irati!n !f the #rescribed time* all!w, 5i0e t! the C!ntr!ller n!tice !f !##!siti!n+ ).* Any s$ch n!tice !f !##!siti!n shall c!ntain a statement settin5 !$t the 5r!$nds !n which the a##licati!n is !##!sed+ )C* Dhere any s$ch n!tice !f !##!siti!n is d$ly 5i0en, the C!ntr!ller shall n!tify the a##licant, and shall 5i0e t! the a##licant and the !##!nent an !##!rt$nity t! be heard bef!re decidin5 the case+ "". (o,ers of 2ontroller in .rantin. comp%lsor' licences )1* Dhere the C!ntr!ller is satisfied !n an a##licati!n made $nder secti!n =C that the man$fact$re, $se !r sale !f materials n!t #r!tected by the #atent is #reB$diced by reas!n !f c!nditi!ns im#!sed by the #atentee $#!n the 5rant !f licences $nder the #atent, !r $#!n the #$rchase, hire !r $se !f the #atented article !r #r!cess, he may, s$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f that secti!n, !rder the 5rant !f licences $nder the #atent t! s$ch c$st!mers !f the a##licant as he thin?s fit as well as t! the a##licant+ ),* Dhere an a##licati!n $nder secti!n =C is made by a #ers!n bein5 the h!lder !f a licence $nder the #atent, the C!ntr!ller may, if he ma?es an !rder f!r the 5rant !f a licence t! the a##licant, !rder the e-istin5 licence t! be cancelled, !r may, if the thin?s fit, instead !f ma?in5 an !rder f!r the 5rant !f a licence t! the a##licant, !rder the e-istin5 licence t! be amended+ ).* Dhere tw! !r m!re #atents are held by the same #atentee and an a##licant f!r a c!m#$ls!ry licence establishes that the reas!nable re6$irements !f the #$blic ha0e n!t been satisfied with res#ect t! s!me !nly !f the said #atents, then, if the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that the a##licant cann!t efficiently !r satisfact!rily w!r? the licence 5ranted t! him $nder th!se #atents with!$t infrin5in5 the !ther #atents held by the #atentee and if th!se #atents in0!l0e im#!rtant technical ad0ancement !r c!nsiderable ec!n!mic si5nificance in relati!n t! the !ther #atents, he may, by !rder, direct the 5rant !f a licence in res#ect !f the !ther #atents als! t! enable the licensee t! w!r? the #atent !r #atents in re5ard t! which a licence is 5ranted $nder secti!n =C+

1 S%&stit%ted for 1shall ad$ertise the application in the 3fficial 8a9ette1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

2 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 90

)C* Dhere the terms and c!nditi!ns !f a licence ha0e been settled by the C!ntr!ller, the licensee may, at any time after he has w!r?ed the in0enti!n !n a c!mmercial scale f!r a #eri!d !f n!t less than twel0e m!nths, ma?e an a##licati!n t! the C!ntr!ller f!r the re0isi!n !f the terms and c!nditi!ns !n the 5r!$nd that the terms and c!nditi!ns settled ha0e #r!0ed t! be m!re !ner!$s than !ri5inally e-#ected and that in c!nse6$ence there!f the licensee is $nable t! w!r? the in0enti!n e-ce#t at a l!ss& P"13%4E4 that n! s$ch a##licati!n shall be entertained a sec!nd time+ "9. 8eneral p%rposes for .rantin. comp%lsor' licences The #!wers !f the C!ntr!ller $#!n an a##licati!n made $nder secti!n =C shall be e-ercised with a 0iew t! sec$rin5 the f!ll!win5 5eneral #$r#!ses, that is t! say,7 )a* that #atented in0enti!ns are w!r?ed !n a c!mmercial scale in the territ!ry !f %ndia with!$t $nd$e delay and t! the f$llest e-tent that is reas!nably #racticable; )b* that the interests !f any #ers!n f!r the time bein5 w!r?in5 !r de0el!#in5 an in0enti!n in the territ!ry !f %ndia $nder the #r!tecti!n !f a #atent are n!t $nfairly #reB$diced+ 90+ Terms and c!nditi!ns !f c!m#$ls!ry licences )1* %n settlin5 the terms and c!nditi!ns !f a licence $nder secti!n =C, the C!ntr!ller shall endea0!$r t! sec$re7 )i* that the r!yalty and !ther rem$nerati!n, if any, reser0ed t! the #atentee !r !ther #ers!n beneficially entitled t! the #atent, is reas!nable, ha0in5 re5ard t! the nat$re !f the in0enti!n, the e-#endit$re inc$rred by the #atentee in ma?in5 the in0enti!n !r in de0el!#in5 it and !btainin5 a #atent and ?ee#in5 it in f!rce and !ther rele0ant fact!rs; )ii* that the #atented in0enti!n is w!r?ed t! the f$llest e-tent by the #ers!n t! wh!m the licence is 5ranted and with reas!nable #r!fit t! him; )iii* that the #atented articles are made a0ailable t! the #$blic at reas!nably aff!rdable #rices; )i0* that the licence 5ranted is a n!n<e-cl$si0e licence; )0* that the ri5ht !f the licensee is n!n<assi5nable; )0i* that the licence is f!r the balance term !f the #atent $nless a sh!rter term is c!nsistent with #$blic interest; 1 [)0ii* that the licence is 5ranted with a #red!minant #$r#!se !f s$##ly in the %ndian mar?et and that the licensee may als! e-#!rt the #atented #r!d$ct, if need be in acc!rdance with the #r!0isi!ns !f s$b<cla$se )iii* !f cla$se )a* !f s$b<secti!n )7* !f secti!n =C; )0iii* that in the case !f semi<c!nd$ct!r techn!l!5y, the licence 5ranted is t! w!r? the in0enti!n f!r #$blic n!n<c!mmercial $se; )i-* that in case the licence is 5ranted t! remedy a #ractice determined after B$dicial !r administrati0e #r!cess t! be anti<c!m#etiti0e, the licensee shall be #ermitted t! e-#!rt the #atented #r!d$ct, if need be+>

),* N! licence 5ranted by the C!ntr!ller shall a$th!rise the licensee t! im#!rt the #atented article !r an article !r s$bstance made by a #atented #r!cess fr!m abr!ad where

S$bstit$ted f!r the e-istin5 cla$se )0ii* by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

SECT%1N 9,

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 @.

s$ch im#!rtati!n w!$ld, b$t f!r s$ch a$th!risati!n, c!nstit$te an infrin5ement !f the ri5hts !f the #atentee+ ).* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<secti!n ),*, the Central /!0ernment may, if in its !#ini!n it is necessary s! t! d!, in the #$blic interest, direct the C!ntr!ller at any time t! a$th!rise any licensee in res#ect !f a #atent t! im#!rt the #atented article !r an article !r s$bstance made by a #atented #r!cess fr!m abr!ad )s$bBect t! s$ch c!nditi!ns as it c!nsiders necessary t! im#!se relatin5 am!n5 !ther matters t! the r!yalty and !ther rem$nerati!n, if any, #ayable t! the #atentee, the 6$ant$m !f im#!rt, the sale #rice !f the im#!rted article and the #eri!d !f im#!rtati!n*, and there$#!n the C!ntr!ller shall 5i0e effect t! the directi!ns+ 91. Bicensin. of related patents )1* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in the !ther #r!0isi!ns !f this Cha#ter, at any time after the sealin5 !f a #atent, any #ers!n wh! has the ri5ht t! w!r? any !ther #atented in0enti!n either as #atentee !r as licensee there!f, e-cl$si0e !r !therwise, may a##ly t! the C!ntr!ller f!r the 5rant !f a licence !f the first menti!ned #atent !n the 5r!$nd that he is #re0ented !r hindered with!$t s$ch licence fr!m w!r?in5 the !ther in0enti!n efficiently !r t! the best ad0anta5e #!ssible+ ),* N! !rder $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall be made $nless the C!ntr!ller is satisfied7 )i* that the a##licant is able and willin5 t! 5rant, !r #r!c$re the 5rant t! the ; #atentee and his licensees if they s! desire, !f a licence in res#ect !f the !ther in0enti!n !n reas!nable terms; and )ii* that the !ther in0enti!n has made a s$bstantial c!ntrib$ti!n t! the establishment !r de0el!#ment !f c!mmercial !r ind$strial acti0ities in the territ!ry !f %ndia+ ).* Dhen the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that the c!nditi!ns menti!ned in s$b<secti!n )1* ha0e been established by the a##licant, he may ma?e an !rder !n s$ch terms as he thin?s fit 5rantin5 a licence $nder the first menti!ned #atent and a similar !rder $nder the !ther #atent if s! re6$ested by the #r!#riet!r !f the first menti!ned #atent !r his licensee& P"13%4E4 that the licence 5ranted by the C!ntr!ller shall be n!n<assi5nable e-ce#t with the assi5nment !f the res#ecti0e #atents+ )C* The #r!0isi!ns !f secti!ns =7, ==, =9 and 90 shall a##ly t! licences 5ranted $nder this secti!n as they a##ly t! licences 5ranted $nder secti!n =C+ 92. Special pro$ision for comp%lsor' licences on notifications &' 2entral 8o$ernment )1* %f the Central /!0ernment is satisfied, in res#ect !f any #atent in f!rce in circ$mstances !f nati!nal emer5ency !r in circ$mstances !f e-treme $r5ency !r in case !f #$blic n!n<c!mmercial $se, that it is necessary that c!m#$ls!ry licenses sh!$ld be 5ranted at any time after the sealin5 there!f t! w!r? the in0enti!n, it may ma?e a declarati!n t! that effect, by n!tificati!n in the 1fficial /a2ette, and there$#!n the f!ll!win5 #r!0isi!ns shall ha0e effect, that is t! say7 )i* the C!ntr!ller shall, !n a##licati!n made at any time after the n!tificati!n by any #ers!n interested, 5rant t! the a##licant a licence $nder the #atent !n s$ch terms and c!nditi!ns as he thin?s fit; )ii* in settlin5 the terms and c!nditi!ns !f a licence 5ranted $nder this secti!n, the C!ntr!ller shall endea0!$r t! sec$re that the articles man$fact$red $nder the #atent shall be a0ailable t! the #$blic at the l!west #rices

4 THE PATENTS ACT, 197A

SECT%1N 9C

c!nsistent with the #atentees deri0in5 a reas!nable ad0anta5e fr!m their #atent ri5hts+ ),* The #r!0isi!ns !f sees+ =.,=7,==,=9 and 90 shall a##ly in relati!n t! the 5rant !f licences $nder this secti!n as they a##ly in relati!n t! the 5rant !f licences $nder sec+ =C+ ).* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<secti!n ),*, where the C!ntr!ller is satisfied !n c!nsiderati!n !f the a##licati!n referred t! in cla$se )i* !f s$b<secti!n )1* that it is necessary in7 )i* a circ$mstance !f nati!nal emer5ency; !r )ii* a circ$mstance !f e-treme $r5ency; !r )iii* a case !f #$blic n!n<c!mmercial $se, which may arise !r is re6$ired, as the case may be, incl$din5 #$blic health crises, relatin5 t! Ac6$ired %mm$n! 4eficiency Syndr!me, h$man imm$n!deficiency0ir$s, t$berc$l!sis, malaria !r !ther e#idemics, he shall n!t a##ly any #r!ced$re s#ecified in secti!n =7 in relati!n t! that a##licati!n f!r 5rant !f licence $nder this secti!n& P"13%4E4 that the C!ntr!ller shall, as s!!n as may be #racticable, inf!rm the #atentee !f the #atent relatin5 t! the a##licati!n f!r s$ch n!n<a##licati!n !f secti!n =7+ 1 :92*. 2omp%lsor' licence for export of patented pharmace%tical prod%cts in certain exceptional circ%mstances )1* C!m#$ls!ry licence shall be a0ailable f!r man$fact$re and e-#!rt !f #atented #harmace$tical #r!d$ct t! any c!$ntry ha0in5 ins$fficient !r n! man$fact$rin5 ca#acity in the #harmace$tical sect!r f!r the c!ncerned #r!d$ct t! address #$blic health #r!blems, #r!0ided c!m#$ls!ry licence has been 5ranted by s$ch c!$ntry !r s$ch c!$ntry has, by n!tificati!n !r !therwise, all!wed im#!rtati!n !f the #atented #harmace$tical #r!d$cts fr!m %ndia+ ),* The C!ntr!ller shall, !n recei#t !f an a##licati!n in the #rescribed manner, 5rant a c!m#$ls!ry licence s!lely f!r man$fact$re and e-#!rt !f the c!ncerned #harmace$tical #r!d$ct t! s$ch c!$ntry $nder s$ch terms and c!nditi!ns as may be s#ecified and #$blished by him+ ).* The #r!0isi!ns !f s$b<secti!ns )1* and ),* shall be with!$t #reB$dice t! the e-tent t! which #harmace$tical #r!d$cts #r!d$ced $nder a c!m#$ls!ry licence can be e-#!rted $nder any !ther #r!0isi!n !f this Act+ $%planation1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this secti!n, G#harmace$tical #r!d$ctsG means any #atented #r!d$ct, !r #r!d$ct man$fact$red thr!$5h a #atented #r!cess, !f the #harmace$tical sect!r needed t! address #$blic health #r!blems and shall be incl$si0e !f in5redients necessary f!r their man$fact$re and dia5n!stic ?its re6$ired f!r their $se+> 93. 3rder for licence to operate as a deed &et,een parties concerned Any !rder f!r the 5rant !f a licence $nder this Cha#ter shall !#erate as if it were a deed 5rantin5 a licence e-ec$ted by the #atentee and all !ther necessary #arties emb!dyin5 the terms and c!nditi!ns, if any, settled by the C!ntr!ller+ 94. 7ermination of comp%lsor' licence )1* 1n an a##licati!n made by the #atentee !r any !ther #ers!n deri0in5 title !r interest in the #atent, a c!m#$ls!ry licence 5ranted $nder secti!n =C may be terminated by the C!ntr!ller, if and when the circ$mstances that 5a0e rise t! the 5rant there!f n! l!n5er e-ist and s$ch circ$mstances are $nli?ely t! rec$r&

-nserted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N 100

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

P"13%4E4 that the h!lder !f the c!m#$ls!ry licence shall ha0e the ri5ht t! !bBect t! s$ch terminati!n+ ),* Dhile c!nsiderin5 an a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, the C!ntr!ller shall ta?e int! acc!$nt that the interest !f the #ers!n wh! had #re0i!$sly been 5ranted the licence is n!t $nd$ly #reB$diced+> CHAPTER $VII ASE 1F %N3ENT%1NS F1" PA"P1SES 1F /13E"N(ENT AN4 ACQA%S%T%1N 1F %N3ENT%1NS 9 CENT"A' /13E"N(ENT 99. 4eanin. of %se of in$ention for p%rposes of .o$ernment )1* F!r the #$r#!ses !f this cha#ter, an in0enti!n is said t! be $sed f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment if it is made, $sed, e-ercised !r 0ended f!r the #$r#!ses !f the Central /!0ernment, a State /!0ernment !r a 5!0ernment $nderta?in5. l ))2+ xxx] ).* N!thin5 c!ntained in this Cha#ter shall a##ly in res#ect !f any s$ch im#!rtati!n ma?in5 !r $sin5 !f any machine, a##arat$s, !r !ther article !r !f any s$ch $sin5 !f any #r!cess !r !f any s$ch im#!rtati!n, $sin5 !r distrib$ti!n !f any medicine !r dr$5, as may be made by 0irt$e !f !ne !r m!re !f the c!nditi!ns s#ecified in secti!n C7+ 100. (o,er of 2entral 8o$ernment to %se in$entions for p%rposes of .o$ernment )1* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in this Act, at any time after an a##licati!n f!r a #atent has been filed at the #atent !ffice !r a #atent has been 5ranted, the Central /!0ernment and any #ers!n a$th!rised in writin5 by it may $se the in0enti!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment in acc!rdance with the #r!0isi!ns !f this cha#ter+ ),* Dhere an in0enti!n has, bef!re the #ri!rity date !f the rele0ant claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, been d$ly rec!rded in a d!c$ment, !r tested !r tried, by !r !n behalf !f the 5!0ernment !r a 5!0ernment $nderta?in5, !therwise than in c!nse6$ence !f the c!mm$nicati!n !f the in0enti!n directly !r indirectly, by the #atentee !r by a #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title, any $se !f the in0enti!n by the Central /!0ernment !r any #ers!n a$th!rised in writin5 by it f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment may be made free !f any r!yalty !r !ther rem$nerati!n t! the #atentee+ ).* %f and s! far as the in0enti!n has n!t been s! rec!rded !r tried !r tested as af!resaid, any $se !f the in0enti!n made by the Central /!0ernment !f any #ers!n a$th!rised by it $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, at any time after ,[5rant !f the #atent> !r in c!nse6$ence !f any s$ch c!mm$nicati!n as af!resaid, shall be made $#!n terms as may be a5reed $#!n either bef!re !r after the $se, between the Central /!0ernment !r any #ers!n a$th!rised $nder s$b<secti!n )1* and the #atentee, !r, as may in defa$lt !f a5reement be determined by the Hi5h C!$rt !n a reference $nder secti!n 10.& . [P"13%4E4 that in case !f any s$ch $se !f any #atent, the #atentee shall be #aid n!t m!re than ade6$ate rem$nerati!n in the circ$mstances !f each case, ta?in5 int! acc!$nt the ec!n!mic 0al$e !f the $se !f the #atent+> )C* The a$th!risati!n by the Central /!0ernment in res#ect !f an in0enti!n may be 5i0en $nder this secti!n, either bef!re !r after the #atent is 5ranted and either bef!re !r after the acts in res#ect !f which s$ch a$th!risati!n is 5i0en !r d!ne, and may be
1 2 . 1mitted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1the acceptance of the complete specification in respect of the patent1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

! THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 101

5i0en t! any #ers!n, whether !r n!t he is a$th!rised directly !r indirectly by the a##licant !r the #atentee t! ma?e, $se, e-ercise !r 0end the in0enti!n !r im#!rt the machine, a##arat$s !r !ther article !r medicine !r dr$5 c!0ered by s$ch #atent+ )@* Dhere an in0enti!n has been $sed by !r with the a$th!rity !f the Central /!0ernment f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment $nder this secti!n, then 1[e-ce#t in case !f nati!nal emer5ency !r !ther circ$mstances !f e-treme $r5ency !r f!r n!n<c!mmercial $se>, the 5!0ernment shall n!tify the #atentee as s!!n as #racticable !f the fact and f$rnish him with s$ch inf!rmati!n as t! the e-tent !f the $se !f the in0enti!n as he may, fr!m time t! time, reas!nably re6$ire; and where the in0enti!n has been f!r the #$r#!ses !f a 5!0ernment $nderta?in5, the Central /!0ernment may call f!r s$ch inf!rmati!n as may be necessary f!r this #$r#!se fr!m s$ch $nderta?in5+ ):* The ri5ht t! ma?e, $se, e-ercise and 0end an in0enti!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment $nder s$b<secti!n )1* shall incl$de the ,[ri5ht t! sell !n n!n<c!mmercial basis, the 5!!ds> which ha0e been made in e-ercise !f that ri5ht, and a #$rchaser !f 5!!ds s! s!ld, and a #ers!n claimin5 thr!$5h him, shall ha0e the #!wer t! deal with the 5!!ds as if the Central /!0ernment !r the #ers!n a$th!rised $nder s$b<secti!n )1* were the #atentee !f the in0enti!n+ )7* Dhere in res#ect !f a #atent which has been the s$bBect !f an a$th!risati!n $nder this secti!n, there is an e-cl$si0e licensee as is referred t! in s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n ).* !f secti!n 101, !r where s$ch #atent has been assi5ned t! the #atentee in c!nsiderati!n !f r!yalties !r !ther benefits determined by reference t! the $se !f the in0enti!n )incl$din5 #ayments by way !f minim$m r!yalty*, the n!tice directed t! be 5i0en $nder s$b<secti!n )@* shall als! be 5i0en t! s$ch e-cl$si0e licensee !r assi5n!r, as the case may be, and the reference t! the #atentee in s$b<secti!n ).* shall be deemed t! incl$de a reference t! s$ch assi5n!r !r e-cl$si0e licensee+ 101. ;i.ht of third parties in respect of %se of in$ention for p%rposes of .o$ernment )1* %n relati!n t! any $se !f a #atented in0enti!n, !r an in0enti!n in res#ect !f which an a##licati!n f!r a #atent is #endin5, made f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment )a* by the Central /!0ernment !r any #ers!n a$th!rised by the Central /!0ernment $nder secti!n 100; !r )b* by the #atentee !r a##licant f!r the #atent t! the !rder made by the Central /!0ernment, the #r!0isi!ns !f any licence, assi5nment !r a5reement #ranted !r made, .[---> between the #atentee !r a##licant f!r the #atent )!r any #ers!n wh! deri0es title fr!m him !r fr!m wh!m he deri0es title* and any #ers!n !ther than the Central /!0ernment shall be !f n! effect s! far as th!se #r!0isi!ns7 )i* restrict !r re5$late the $se f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment !f the in0enti!n, !r !f any m!del, d!c$ment !r inf!rmati!n relatin5 theret!, !r )ii* #r!0ide f!r the ma?in5 !f #ayments in res#ect !f any $se !f the in0enti!n !r !f the m!del, d!c$ment !r inf!rmati!n relatin5 theret! f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment C[- - ->,
1 , . C S$bstit$ted f!r 8$nless it a##ears t! the /!0t+ that it w!$ld be c!ntrary t! the #$blic interest s! t! d!8 by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8ri5ht t! sell the 5!!ds8, ibid+ D!rds 8whether bef!re !r after the c!mmencement !f this Act8 !mitted, ibid+ 9rac?et and w!rds 8)incl$din5 #ayments by way !f minim$m r!yalty*8 !mitted, ibid+

SECT%1N 10,

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 7

and the re#r!d$cti!n !r #$blicati!n !f any m!del !r d!c$ment in c!nnecti!n with the said $se f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment shall n!t been deemed t! be an infrin5ement !f any c!#yri5ht s$bsistin5 in the m!del !r d!c$ment+ ),* Dhere the #atent, !r the ri5ht t! a##ly f!r !r !btain the #atent, has been assi5ned t! the #atentee in c!nsiderati!n !f r!yalties !r !ther benefits determined by reference t! the $se !f the in0enti!n 1[- - -> then, in relati!n t! any $se !f the in0enti!n made f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment by the #atentee t! the !rder !f the Central /!0ernment, s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n 100 shall ha0e effect as if that $se were made by 0irt$e !f an a$th!rity 5i0en $nder that secti!n, and any $se !f the in0enti!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment by 0irt$e !f s$b<secti!n ).* !f that secti!n shall ha0e effect as if the reference t! the #atentee incl$ded a reference t! the assi5n!r !f the #atent, and any s$m #ayable by 0irt$e !f that s$b<secti!n shall be di0ided between the #atentee and the assi5n!r in s$ch #r!#!rti!n as may be a5reed $#!n between them !r as may in defa$lt !f a5reement be determined by the Hi5h C!$rt !n a reference $nder secti!n 10.+ ).* Dhere by 0irt$e !f s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n 100, #ayments are re6$ired t! be made by the Central /!0ernment !r #ers!ns a$th!rised $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f that secti!n in res#ect !f the $se !f an in0enti!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment, and where in res#ect !f s$ch #atent there is an e-cl$si0e licensee a$th!rised $nder his licence t! $se the in0enti!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment, s$ch s$m shall be shared by the #atentee and s$ch licensee in s$ch #r!#!rti!ns, if any, as may be a5reed $#!n between them !r as may in defa$lt !f a5reement be determined by the Hi5h C!$rt !n a reference $nder secti!n 10. t! be B$st, ha0in5 re5ard t! any e-#endit$re inc$rred by the licensee7 )a* in de0el!#in5 the said in0enti!n; !r )b* in ma?in5 #ayments t! the #atentees !ther than r!yalties !r !ther benefits determined by reference t! the $se !f the in0enti!n 1[- - -> in c!nsiderati!n !f the licence+ 102. *c<%isition of in$entions and patents &' the 2entral 8o$ernment )1* The Central /!0ernment may, if satisfied that it is necessary that an in0enti!n which is the s$bBect !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r a #atent sh!$ld be ac6$ired fr!m the a##licant !r the #atentee f!r a #$blic #$r#!se, #$blish a n!tificati!n t! that effect in the 1fficial /a2ette, and there$#!n the in0enti!n !r #atent and all ri5hts in res#ect !f the in0enti!n !r #atent shall, by f!rce !f this secti!n, stand transferred t! and be 0ested in the Central /!0ernment+ ),* N!tice !f the ac6$isiti!n shall be 5i0en t! the a##licant, and, where a #atent has been 5ranted, t! the #atentee and !ther #ers!ns, if any, a##earin5 in the re5ister as ha0in5 an interest in the #atent+ ).* The Central /!0ernment shall #ay t! the a##licant, !r as the case may be, the #atentee and !ther #ers!ns a##earin5 !n the re5ister as ha0in5 an interest in the #atent s$ch !ther c!m#ensati!n as may be a5reed $#!n between the Central /!0ernment and the a##licant !r the #atentee and !ther #ers!ns; !r, as may, in defa$lt !f a5reement, be determined by the Hi5h C!$rt !n a reference $nder secti!n 10. t! be B$st ha0in5 re5ard t! the e-#endit$re inc$rred in c!nnecti!n with the in0enti!n and, in the case !f a #atent, the term there!f, the #eri!d d$rin5 which and the manner in which it has already been

1 9rac?ets and w!rds 8)incl$din5 #ayments by way !f minim$m r!yalty*8 !mitted, by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

" THE PATEsNTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 10.

w!r?ed )incl$din5 the #r!fits made d$rin5 s$ch #eri!d by the #atentee !r by his licensee whether e-cl$si0e !r !therwise* and !ther rele0ant fact!rs+ 103. ;eference to Ci.h 2o%rt of disp%tes as to %se for p%rposes of .o$ernment )1* Any dis#$te as t! the e-ercise by the Central /!0ernment !r a #ers!n a$th!rised by it !f the #!wers c!nferred by secti!n 100, !r as t! terms f!r the $se !f an in0enti!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment there$nder !r as t! the ri5ht !f any #ers!n t! recei0e any #art !f a #ayment made in #$rs$ance !f s$b<secti!n ).* !f that secti!n !r as t! the am!$nt !f c!m#ensati!n #ayable f!r the ac6$isiti!n !f an in0enti!n !r a #atent $nder secti!n 10,, may be referred t! the Hi5h C!$rt by either #arty t! the dis#$te in s$ch manner as may be #rescribed by the r$les !f the Hi5h C!$rt+ ),* %n any #r!ceedin5s $nder this secti!n t! which the Central /!0ernment is a #arty, the Central /!0ernment may7 )a* if the #atentee is a #arty t! the #r!ceedin5s, #etiti!n by way !f c!$nter<claim f!r re0!cati!n !f the #atent !n any 5r!$nd $#!n which a #atent may be re0!?ed $nder secti!n :C; and )b* whether a #atentee is !r is n!t a #arty t! the #r!ceedin5s, #$t in iss$e the 0alidity !f the #atent with!$t #etiti!nin5 f!r its re0!cati!n+ ).* %f in s$ch #r!ceedin5s as af!resaid any 6$esti!n arises whether an in0enti!n has been rec!rded, tested !r tried as is menti!ned in secti!n 100, and the discl!s$re !f any d!c$ment re5ardin5 the in0enti!n, !r !f any e0idence !f the test !r trial there!f, w!$ld, in the !#ini!n !f the Central /!0ernment, be #reB$dicial t! the #$blic interest, the discl!s$re may be made c!nfidentially t! the ad0!cate !f the !ther #arty !r t! an inde#endent e-#ert m$t$ally a5reed $#!n+ )C* %n determinin5 $nder this secti!n any dis#$te between the Central /!0ernment and any #ers!n as t! terms f!r the $se !f an in0enti!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment, the Hi5h C!$rt shall ha0e re5ard t! any benefit !r c!m#ensati!n which that #ers!n !r any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title, may ha0e recei0ed, !r may be entitled t! recei0e, directly !r indirectly in res#ect !f the $se !f the in0enti!n in 6$esti!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f 5!0ernment+ )@* %n any #r!ceedin5s $nder this secti!n, the Hi5h C!$rt may at any time !rder the wh!le #r!ceedin5s !r any 6$esti!n !r iss$e !f fact arisin5 therein t! be referred t! an !fficial referee, c!mmissi!ner !r an arbitrat!r !n s$ch terms as the Hi5h C!$rt may direct, and references t! the Hi5h C!$rt in the f!re5!in5 #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n shall be c!nstr$ed acc!rdin5ly+ ):* Dhere the in0enti!n claimed in a #atent was made by a #ers!n wh! at time it was made was in the ser0ice !f the Central /!0ernment !r !f a State /!0ernment !r was an em#l!yee !f a 5!0ernment $nderta?in5 and the s$bBect<matter !f the in0enti!n is certified by the rele0ant 5!0ernment !r the #rinci#al !fficer !f the 5!0ernment $nderta?in5 t! be c!nnected with the w!r? d!ne in the c!$rse !f the n!rmal d$ties !f the 5!0ernment ser0ant !r em#l!yee !f the 5!0ernment $nderta?in5, then, n!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in this secti!n, any dis#$te !f the nat$re referred t! in s$b<secti!n )1* relatin5 t! the in0enti!n shall be dis#!sed !f by the Central /!0ernment c!nf!rmably t! the #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n s! far as may be a##licable, b$t bef!re d!in5 s! the Central /!0ernment shall 5i0e an !##!rt$nity t! the #atentee and s$ch !ther #arties as it c!nsiders ha0e an interest in the matter t! be heard+

SECT%1N 10@

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 9 CHAPTER $VIII SA%TS C1NCE"N%N/ %NF"%N/E(ENT 1F PATENTS

104. E%risdiction 6o s%it for a declaration %nder section 10 or for an' relief %nder section 10! or for infrin.ement of a patent shall &e instit%ted in an' co%rt inferior to a district co%rt ha$in. A%risdiction to tr' the s%itF (;3@-D5D that ,here a co%nter-claim for re$ocation of the patent is made &' the defendant, the s%it, alon. ,ith the co%nter-claim, shall &e transferred to the Ci.h 2o%rt for decision. 2344567S There is a distinction &aintained as bet!een the defence raised to a suit for infrin,e&ent of a patent 1vide s# 1542 on the one hand and the revocation sou,ht of a patent on the other 1vide s# 6+2# The ,rounds &a" be the sa&e, but still there is no inconsistenc" on account of the suit bein, defended as liable to dis&issal in a particular case and a case !here the defendant seeks also that the patent asserted b" the plaintiff be revoked# )t is onl" !hen there is a counter clai& seekin, revocation of the patent that the urisdiction of the =istrict $ourt is ousted# The proviso to s# 15+ bein, in the nature of an exception to the ,eneral rule, it has to be strictl" construed# There is no express clai& on the part of the defendant for revocation of the patent !hereof infrin,e&ent is alle,ed b" the plaintiff# That the defendant pleads that the patent set up b" the plaintiff is invalid a&ounts onl" to the defendant raisin, a ,round for the relief sou,ht b" the plaintiff bein, declined0 it does not follo! necessaril" that the defendant also seeks b" !a" of a counterclai& that the patent be revoked# The defendant has not asserted in the pleadin,s an"!here that the" are the patentee or that the" are entitled to be re,istered as such# The ,rounds raised are cu&ulativel" and also individuall" b" !a" of defence to the plaintiff-s action#.Eabcon $orporation v# )ndustrial Cn,ineerin, $orporation A)> 1984 All 338 1 [104A. %&rden of proof in case of s&its concernin' infrin'ement )1* %n any s$it f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent, where the s$bBect matter !f #atent is a #r!cess f!r !btainin5 a #r!d$ct, the c!$rt may direct the defendant t! #r!0e that the #r!cess $sed by him t! !btain the #r!d$ct, identical t! the #r!d$ct !f the #atented #r!cess, is different fr!m the #atented #r!cess if,7 )a* the s$bBect matter !f the #atent is a #r!cess f!r !btainin5 a new #r!d$ct; !r )b* there is a s$bstantial li?elih!!d that the identical #r!d$ct is made by the #r!cess, and the #atentee !r a #ers!n deri0in5 title !r interest in the #atent fr!m him, has been $nable thr!$5h reas!nable eff!rts t! determine the #r!cess act$ally $sed& P"13%4E4 that the #atentee !r a #ers!n deri0in5 title !r interest in the #atent fr!m him, first #r!0es that the #r!d$ct is identical t! the #r!d$ct directly !btained by the #atented #r!cess+ ),* %n c!nsiderin5 whether a #arty has dischar5ed the b$rden im#!sed $#!n him by s$b< secti!n )1*, the c!$rt shall n!t re6$ire him t! discl!se any man$fact$rin5 !r c!mmercial secrets, if it a##ears t! the c!$rt that it w!$ld be $nreas!nable t! d! s!+> 10@+ (o,er of co%rt to ma0e declaration as to non-infrin.ement )1* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in secti!n .C !f the S#ecific "elief Act,
1 %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+@:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

!0 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 107

19:., )C7 !f 19:.*, any #ers!n may instit$te a s$it f!r a declarati!n that the $se by him !f any #r!cess, !r the ma?in5, $se !r sale !f any article by him d!es n!t, !r w!$ld n!t, c!nstit$te an infrin5ement !f a claim !f a #atent a5ainst the #atentee !r the h!lder !f an e-cl$si0e licence $nder the #atent, n!twithstandin5 that n! asserti!n t! the c!ntrary has been made by the #atentee !r the licensee, if it is sh!wn7 )a* that the #laintiff has a##lied in writin5 t! the #atentee !r e-cl$si0e licensee f!r a written ac?n!wled5ment t! the effect !f the declarati!n claimed and has f$rnished him with f$ll #artic$lars in writin5 !f the #r!cess !r article in 6$esti!n; and )b* that the #atentee !r licensee has ref$sed !r ne5lected t! 5i0e s$ch an ac?n!wled5ment+ ),* The c!sts !f all #arties in a s$it f!r a declarati!n br!$5ht by 0irt$e !f this secti!n shall, $nless f!r s#ecial reas!ns the c!$rt thin?s fit t! !rder !therwise, be #aid by the #laintiff+ ).* The 0alidity !f a claim !f the s#ecificati!n !f a #atent shall n!t be called in 6$esti!n in a s$it f!r declarati!n br!$5ht by 0irt$e !f this secti!n, and acc!rdin5ly the ma?in5 !r ref$sal !f s$ch a declarati!n in the case !f a #atent shall n!t be deemed t! im#ly that the #atent is 0alid !r in0alid+ )C* A s$it f!r a declarati!n may be br!$5ht by 0irt$e !f this secti!n at any time 1[after the #$blicati!n !f 5rant !f a #atent>, and references in this secti!n t! the #atentee shall be c!nstr$ed acc!rdin5ly+ 10!. (o,er of co%rt to .rant relief in cases of .ro%ndless threats of infrin.ement proceedin.s )1* Dhere any #ers!n )whether entitled t! !r interested in a #atent !r an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r n!t* threatens any !ther #ers!n by circ$lars !r ad0ertisements !r by c!mm$nicati!ns, !ral !r in writin5 addressed t! that !r any !ther #ers!n, with #r!ceedin5s f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent, any #ers!n a55rie0ed thereby may brin5 a s$it a5ainst him #rayin5 f!r the f!ll!win5 reliefs, that is t! say7 )a* a declarati!n t! the effect that the threats are $nB$stifiable; )b* an inB$ncti!n a5ainst the c!ntin$ance !f the threats; and )c* s$ch dama5es, if any, as he has s$stained thereby+ ),* Anless in s$ch s$it the defendant #r!0es that the acts in res#ect !f which the #r!ceedin5s were threatened c!nstit$te !r, if d!ne, w!$ld c!nstit$te, an infrin5ement !f a #atent !r !f ri5hts arisin5 fr!m the #$blicati!n !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n in res#ect !f a claim !f the s#ecificati!n n!t sh!wn by the #laintiff t! be in0alid, the c!$rt may 5rant t! the #laintiff all !r any !f the reliefs #rayed f!r+ $%planation 1 A mere n!tificati!n !f the e-istence !f a #atent d!es n!t c!nstit$te a threat !f #r!ceedin5 within the meanin5 !f this secti!n+ 107. Defences, etc. in s%its for infrin.ement )1* %n any s$it f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent, e0ery 5r!$nd !n which it may be re0!?ed $nder secti!n :C shall be a0ailable as a 5r!$nd f!r<defence+ ),* %n any s$it f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent by the ma?in5, $sin5 !r im#!rtati!n !f any machine, a##arat$s !r !ther article !r by the $sin5 !f any #r!cess !r by the

S%&stit%ted for Gafter the date of ad$ertisement of acceptance of the complete specification of a patentH &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N 10=

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 !1

im#!rtati!n, $se !r distrib$ti!n !f any medicine !r dr$5, it shall be a 5r!$nd f!r defence that s$ch ma?in5, $sin5, im#!rtati!n !r distrib$ti!n is in acc!rdance with any !ne !r m!re !f the c!nditi!ns s#ecified in secti!n C7+ C1((ENTS There is a distinction &aintained as bet!een the defence raised to a suit for infrin,e&ent of a patent 1vide s# 1542 on the one hand and the revocation sou,ht of a patent on the other 1vide s# 6+2# The ,rounds &a" be the sa&e, but still there is no inconsistenc" on account of the suit bein, defended as liable to dis&issal in a particular case and a case !here the defendant seeks also that the patent asserted b" the plaintiff be revoked# )t is onl" !hen there is a counter clai& seekin, revocation of the patent that the urisdiction of the =istrict $ourt is ousted# The proviso to s# 15+ bein, in the nature of an exception to the ,eneral rule, it has to be strictl" construed# There is no express clai& on the part of the defendant for revocation of the patent !hereof infrin,e&ent is alle,ed b" the plaintiff# That the defendant pleads that the patent set up b" the plaintiff is invalid a&ounts onl" to the defendant raisin, a ,round for the relief sou,ht b" the plaintiff bein, declined0 it does not follo! necessaril" that the defendant also seeks b" !a" of a counterclai& that the patent be revoked# The defendant has not asserted in the pleadin,s an"!here that the" are the patentee or that the" are entitled to be re,istered as such# The ,rounds raised are cu&ulativel" and also individuall" b" !a" of defence to the plaintiff-s action#.Eabcon $orporation v# )ndustrial Cn,ineerin, $orporation A)> 1984 All 338 @here the defendant neither clai&s to be the o!ner of the patent nor has it filed an" petition or counter<clai&, it cannot plead that the plaintiff has no locus standi to institute proceedin, for infrin,e&ent of patent, &erel" raisin, the plea that the plaintiff-s re,istration is i&proper#.SchnieDder =lectric !nd7stries S v. Tele+ecaniC7e and Controls .!0 Ltd. .! No. 2/&&0 &111 .&10 <TC ?&1 .Del0. 1 [10(A. Certain acts not to )e considered as infrin'ement F!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act,7 )a* any art !f ma?in5, c!nstr$ctin5, ,[$sin5, sellin5 !r im#!rtin5> a #atented in0enti!n s!lely f!r $ses reas!nably relatin5 t! the de0el!#ment and s$bmissi!n !f inf!rmati!n re6$ired $nder any law f!r the time bein5 in f!rce, in %ndia, !r in a c!$ntry !ther than %ndia, that re5$lates the man$fact$re, c!nstr$cti!n, .[$se, sale !r im#!rt> !f any #r!d$ct; )b* im#!rtati!n !f #atented #r!d$cts by any #ers!n fr!m a #ers!n C [wh! is d$ly a$th!rised $nder the law t! #r!d$ce and sell !r distrib$te the #r!d$ct>, shall n!t be c!nsidered as an infrin5ement !f #atent ri5hts+> 10". ;eliefs in s%its for infrin.ement @ [)1*> The reliefs which a c!$rt may 5rant in any s$it f!r infrin5ement incl$de an inB$ncti!n )s$bBect t! s$ch terms, if any, as the c!$rt thin?s fit* and, at the !#ti!n !f the #laintiff either dama5es !r an acc!$nt !f #r!fits+> 1 [),* The c!$rt may als! !rder that the 5!!ds which are f!$nd t! be infrin5in5 and
1 2 3 4 @ %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted for 1%sin. or sellin.1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1%se or sale1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1,ho is d%l' a%thorised &' the patentee to sell or distri&%te the prod%ct1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . E-istin5 secti!n 10= ren$mbered as s$b<secti!n )1* there!f by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

:, THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 111

materials and im#lement, the #red!minant $se !f which is in the creati!n !f infrin5in5 5!!ds shall be sei2ed, f!rfeited !r destr!yed, as the c!$rt deems fit $nder the circ$mstances !f the case with!$t #ayment !f any c!m#ensati!n+> 109. ;i.ht of excl%si$e licensee to ta0e proceedin.s a.ainst infrin.ement )1* The h!lder !f an e-cl$si0e licence shall ha0e the li?e ri5ht as the #atentee t! instit$te a s$it in res#ect !f any infrin5ement !f the #atent c!mmitted after the date !f the licence, and in awardin5 dama5es !r an acc!$nt !f #r!fits !r 5rantin5 any !ther relief in any s$ch s$it the c!$rt shall ta?e int! c!nsiderati!n any l!ss s$ffered !r li?ely t! be s$ffered by the e-cl$si0e licensee as s$ch !r, as the case may be, the #r!fits earned by means !f the infrin5ement s! far as it c!nstit$tes an infrin5ement !f the ri5hts !f the e-cl$si0e licensee as s$ch+ ),* %n any s$it f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent by the h!lder !f an e-cl$si0e licence $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, the #atentee shall, $nless he has B!ined as a #laintiff in the s$it, be added as a defendant, b$t a #atentee s! added as defendant shall n!t be liable f!r any c!sts $nless he enters an a##earance and ta?es #art in the #r!ceedin5s+ 110. ;i.ht of licensee %nder section "4 to ta0e proceedin.s a.ainst infrin.ement Any #ers!n t! wh!m a licence has been 5ranted $nder secti!n =C shall be entitled t! call $#!n the #atentee t! ta?e #r!ceedin5s t! #re0ent any infrin5ement !f the #atent, and, if the #atentee ref$ses !r ne5lects t! d! s! within tw! m!nths after bein5 s! called $#!n, the licensee may instit$te #r!ceedin5s f!r the infrin5ement in his !wn name as th!$5h he were the #atentee, ma?in5 the #atentee a defendant; b$t a #atentee s! added as defendant shall n!t be liable f!r any c!sts $nless he enters an a##earance and ta?es #art in the #r!ceedin5s+ 111. ;estriction on po,er of co%rt to .rant dama.es or an acco%nt of profits for infrin.ement )1* %n a s$it f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent, dama5es !r an acc!$nt !f #r!fits shall n!t be 5ranted a5ainst the defendant wh! #r!0es that at the date !f the infrin5ement he was n!t aware and had n! reas!nable 5r!$nds f!r belie0in5 that the #atent e-isted+ $%planation 1 A #ers!n shall n!t be deemed t! ha0e been aware !r t! ha0e had reas!nable 5r!$nds f!r belie0in5 that a #atent e-ists by reas!n !nly !f the a##licati!n t! an article !f the w!rd 8#atent8, 8#atented8 !r any w!rd !r w!rds e-#ressin5 !r im#lyin5 that a #atent has been !btained f!r the article, $nless the n$mber !f the #atent acc!m#anies the w!rd !r w!rds in 6$esti!n+ ),* %n any s$it f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent the c!$rt may, if it thin?s fit, ref$se t! 5rant any dama5es !r an acc!$nt !f #r!fits in res#ect !f any infrin5ement c!mmitted after a fail$re t! #ay any renewal fee within the #rescribed #eri!d and bef!re any e-tensi!n !f that #eri!d+ ).* Dhere an amendment !f a s#ecificati!n by way !f disclaimer, c!rrecti!n !r e-#lanati!n has been all!wed $nder this Act after the #$blicati!n !f the s#ecificati!n, n! dama5es !r acc!$nt !f #r!fits shall be 5ranted in any #r!ceedin5 in res#ect !f the $se !f the in0enti!n bef!re the date !f the decisi!n all!win5 the amendment, $nless the c!$rt is satisfied that the s#ecificati!n as !ri5inally #$blished was framed in 5!!d faith and with reas!nable s?ill and ?n!wled5e+ )C* N!thin5 in this secti!n shall affect the #!wer !f the c!$rt t! 5rant an inB$ncti!n in any s$it f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent+

SECT%1N 11@
1

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 !3

:112. x x x] 113. 2ertificate of $alidit' of specification and costs of s%&se<%ent s%its for infrin.ement thereof , [)1* %f in any #r!ceedin5s bef!re the A##ellate 9!ard !r a Hi5h C!$rt f!r the re0!cati!n !f a #atent $nder secti!n :C and secti!n 10C, as the case may be, the 0alidity !f any claim !f a s#ecificati!n is c!ntested and that claim is f!$nd by the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt t! be 0alid, the A##ellate 9!ard !r the Hi5h C!$rt may certify that the 0alidity !f that claim was c!ntested in th!se #r!ceedin5s and was $#held+> ),* Dhere any s$ch certificate has been 5ranted, then, if any s$bse6$ent s$it bef!re a c!$rt f!r infrin5ement !f that claim !f the #atent !r in any s$bse6$ent #r!ceedin5 f!r re0!cati!n !f the #atent in s! far as it relates t! that claim, the #atentee !r !ther #ers!n relyin5 !n the 0alidity !f the claim !btains a final !rder !r B$d5ment in his fa0!$r, he shall be entitled t! an !rder f!r the #ayment !f his f$ll c!sts, char5es and e-#enses !f and incidental t! any s$ch s$it !r #r!ceedin5 #r!#erly inc$rred s! far as they c!ncern the claim in res#ect !f which the certificate was 5ranted, $nless the c!$rt tryin5 the s$it !r #r!ceedin5 !therwise directs& P"13%4E4 that the c!sts as s#ecified in this s$b<secti!n shall n!t be !rdered when the #arty dis#$tin5 the 0alidity !f the claim satisfies the c!$rt that he was n!t aware !f the 5rant !f the certificate when he raised the dis#$te and withdrew f!rthwith s$ch defence when he became aware !f s$ch a certificate+ , [).* N!thin5 c!ntained in this secti!n shall be c!nstr$ed as a$th!risin5 the c!$rts !r the A##ellate 9!ard hearin5 a##eals fr!m decrees !r !rders in s$its f!r infrin5ement !r #etiti!ns f!r re0!cati!n, as the case may be, t! #ass !rders f!r c!sts !n the scale referred t! therein+> 114. ;elief for infrin.ement of partiall' $alid specification )1* %f in #r!ceedin5s f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent it is f!$nd that any claim !f the s#ecificati!n, bein5 a claim in res#ect !f which infrin5ement is alle5ed, is 0alid b$t that any !ther claim is in0alid, the c!$rt may 5rant relief in res#ect !f any 0alid claim which is infrin5ed& P"13%4E4 that the c!$rt shall n!t 5rant relief e-ce#t by way !f inB$ncti!n sa0e in the circ$mstances menti!ned in s$b<secti!n ),*+ ),* Dhere the #laintiff #r!0es that the in0alid claim was framed in 5!!d faith and with reas!nable s?ill and ?n!wled5e, the c!$rt shall 5rant relief in res#ect !f any 0alid claim which is infrin5ed s$bBect t! the discreti!n !f the c!$rt as t! c!sts and as t! the date fr!m which dama5es !r an acc!$nt !f #r!fits sh!$ld be rec?!ned, and in e-ercisin5 s$ch discreti!n the c!$rt may ta?e int! c!nsiderati!n the c!nd$ct !f the #arties in insertin5 s$ch in0alid claim in the s#ecificati!n !r #ermittin5 them t! remain there+ 11 . Scientific ad$isers )1* %n any s$it f!r infrin5ement !r in any #r!ceedin5 bef!re a c!$rt $nder this Act, the c!$rt may at any time, and whether !r n!t an a##licati!n has been made by any #arty f!r that #$r#!se a##!int an inde#endent scientific ad0iser t! assist the c!$rt !r t! in6$ire and re#!rt $#!n any s$ch 6$esti!n !f fact !r !f !#ini!n )n!t in0!l0in5 a 6$esti!n !f inter#retati!n !f law* as it may f!rm$late f!r the #$r#!se+

1 2

1mitted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. the date to &e notified.

!4 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 117A

),* The rem$nerati!n !f the scientific ad0iser shall be fi-ed by the c!$rt and shall incl$de the c!sts !f ma?in5 a re#!rt and a #r!#er daily fee f!r any day !n which the scientific ad0iser may be re6$ired t! attend bef!re the c!$rt, and s$ch rem$nerati!n shall be defrayed !$t !f m!neys #r!0ided by Parliament by law f!r the #$r#!se+ 1 [CHAPTER $I$ APPEA'S T1 THE APPE''ATE 91A"4 11!. *ppellate Board )1* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act, the A##ellate 9!ard established $nder secti!n =. !f the Trade (ar?s Act, 1999 shall be the A##ellate 9!ard f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act and the said A##ellate 9!ard shall e-ercise the B$risdicti!n, #!wer and a$th!rity c!nferred !n it by !r $nder this Act& P"13%4E4 that the Technical (ember !f the A##ellate 9!ard f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act shall ha0e the 6$alificati!ns s#ecified in s$b<secti!n ),*+ ),* A #ers!n shall n!t be 6$alified f!r a##!intment as a Technical (ember f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act $nless he7 )a* has at least fi0e years held the #!st !f C!ntr!ller $nder this Act !r has e-ercised the f$ncti!ns !f the C!ntr!ller $nder this Act f!r at least fi0e years; !r )b* has been f!r at least ten years f$ncti!ned as a "e5istered Patent A5ent and #!ssesses a de5ree in en5ineerin5 !r techn!l!5y !r a masters de5ree in science fr!m any Ani0ersity established $nder law f!r the time bein5 in f!rce !r e6$i0alent; !r , [)c* ---> 2344567S >efusal of $ontroller to proceed !ith an application under section 1? not bein, an order, appeal therea,ainst is &aintainable#.Danieli C (fficcine Meccaniche S< v. Controller of <atents &111 .&10 <TC &#$ .Call0 11(. *taff of Appellate %oard. )1* The Central /!0ernment shall determine the nat$re and cate5!ries !f the !fficers and !ther em#l!yees re6$ired t! assist the A##ellate 9!ard in the dischar5e !f its f$ncti!ns $nder this Act and #r!0ide the A##ellate 9!ard with s$ch !fficers and !ther em#l!yees as it may thin? fit+ ),* The salaries and all!wances and c!nditi!ns !f ser0ice !f the !fficers and !ther em#l!yees !f the A##ellate 9!ard shall be s$ch as may be #rescribed+ ).* The !fficers and !ther em#l!yees !f the A##ellate 9!ard shall dischar5e their f$ncti!ns $nder the 5eneral s$#erintendence !f the Chairman !f the A##ellate 9!ard in the manner as may be #rescribed+ 117*. *ppeals to *ppellate Board )1* Sa0e as !therwise e-#ressly #r!0ided in s$b<secti!n ),*, n! a##eal shall lie fr!m any decisi!n, !rder !r directi!n made !r iss$ed $nder this Act by the Central /!0ernment, !r fr!m any act !r !rder !f the C!ntr!ller f!r the #$r#!se !f 5i0in5 effect t! any s$ch decisi!n, !rder !r directi!n+
1 2 S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ 2la%se )c+ omitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. the date to &e notified+

SECT%1N 117E

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 !

),* An a##eal shall lie t! the A##ellate 9!ard fr!m any decisi!n, !rder !r directi!n !f the C!ntr!ller !r Central /!0ernment $nder secti!n 1@, secti!n 1:, secti!n 17, secti!n 1=, secti!n 19, 1[secti!n ,0, s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n ,@, secti!n ,=>, secti!n @1, secti!n @C, secti!n @7, secti!n :0, secti!n :1, secti!n :., secti!n ::, s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n :9, secti!n 7=, s$b< secti!ns )1* t! )@* !f secti!n =C, secti!n =@, secti!n ==, secti!n 91, secti!n 9, and secti!n 9C+ ).* E0ery a##eal $nder this secti!n shall be in the #rescribed f!rm and shall be 0erified in s$ch manner as may be #rescribed and shall be acc!m#anied by a c!#y !f the decisi!n, !rder !r directi!n a##ealed a5ainst and by s$ch fees as may be #rescribed+ )C* E0ery a##eal shall be made within three m!nths fr!m the date !f the decisi!n, !rder !r directi!n, as the case may be, !f the C!ntr!ller !r the Central /!0ernment !r within s$ch f$rther time as the A##ellate 9!ard may, in acc!rdance with the r$les made by it, all!w+ 117B. (roced%re and po,ers of *ppellate Board. The #r!0isi!ns !f s$b<secti!ns ),* t! ):* !f secti!n =C, secti!n =7, secti!n 9,, secti!n 9@ and secti!n 9: !f the Trade (ar?s Act, 1999 shall a##ly t! the A##ellate 9!ard in the dischar5e !f its f$ncti!ns $nder this Act as they a##ly t! it in the dischar5e !f its f$ncti!ns $nder the Trade (ar?s Act, 1999+ 1172. Bar of A%risdiction of co%rts, etc N! c!$rt !r !ther a$th!rity shall ha0e !r, be entitled t!, e-ercise any B$risdicti!n, #!wers !r a$th!rity in relati!n t! the matters referred t! in s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n 117A !r secti!n 1174+ 117D. (roced%re for application for rectification, etc., &efore *ppellate Board )1* An a##licati!n ,[f!r re0!cati!n !f a #atent bef!re the A##ellate 9!ard $nder secti!n :C and an a##licati!n f!r rectificati!n !f the re5ister> made t! the A##ellate 9!ard $nder secti!n 71 shall be in s$ch f!rm as may be #rescribed+ ),* A certified c!#y !f e0ery !rder !r B$d5ment !f the A##ellate 9!ard relatin5 t! a #atent $nder this Act shall be c!mm$nicated t! the C!ntr!ller !f the 9!ard and the C!ntr!ller shall 5i0e effect t! the !rder !f the 9!ard and shall, when s! directed, amend the entries in, !r rectify, the re5ister in acc!rdance with s$ch !rder+ 1175. *ppearance of 2ontroller in le.al proceedin.s )1* The C!ntr!ller shall ha0e the ri5ht t! a##ear and be heard7 )a* in any le5al #r!ceedin5s bef!re the A##ellate 9!ard in which the relief s!$5ht incl$des alterati!n !r rectificati!n !f the re5ister !r in which any 6$esti!n relatin5 t! the #ractice !f the #atent !ffice is raised; )b* in any a##eal t! the A##ellate 9!ard fr!m an !rder !f the C!ntr!ller !n an a##licati!n f!r 5rant t! a #atent7 )i* which is n!t !##!sed, and the a##licati!n is either ref$sed by the C!ntr!ller !r is acce#ted by him s$bBect t! any amendments, m!dificati!ns, c!nditi!ns !r limitati!ns, !r

1 2

S%&stit%ted for 1section 20, section 2 , section 27, section 2"1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. the date to &e notified. S%&stit%ted for 1for rectification of the re.ister1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. the date to &e notified.

!! THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 1,0

)ii* which has been !##!sed and the C!ntr!ller c!nsiders that his a##earance is necessary in the #$blic interest, and the C!ntr!ller shall a##ear in any case if s! directed by the A##ellate 9!ard+ ),* Anless the A##ellate 9!ard !therwise directs, the C!ntr!ller may, in lie$ !f a##earin5, s$bmit a statement in writin5 si5ned by him, 5i0in5 s$ch #artic$lars as he thin?s #r!#er !f the #r!ceedin5s bef!re him relatin5 t! the matter in iss$e !r !f the 5r!$nds !f any decisi!n 5i0en by him !r !f the #ractice !f the #atent !ffice in li?e cases, !r !f !ther matters rele0ant t! the iss$es and within his ?n!wled5e as the C!ntr!ller may deem it necessary, and s$ch statement shall be e0idence in the #r!ceedin5s+ 117/. 2osts of 2ontroller in proceedin.s &efore *ppellate Board %n all #r!ceedin5s $nder this Act bef!re the A##ellate 9!ard, the c!sts !f the C!ntr!ller shall be in the discreti!n !f the 9!ard, b$t the C!ntr!ller shall n!t be !rdered t! #ay the c!sts !f any !f the #arties+ 1 :1178. 7ransfer of pendin. proceedin.s to *ppellate Board All cases !f a##eals a5ainst any !rder !r decisi!n !f the C!ntr!ller and all cases #ertainin5 t! re0!cati!n !f #atent !ther than !n a c!$nter<claim in a s$it f!r infrin5ement and rectificati!n !f re5ister #endin5 bef!re any Hi5h C!$rt, shall be transferred t! the A##ellate 9!ard fr!m s$ch date as may be n!tified by the Central /!0ernment in the 1fficial /a2ette and the A##ellate 9!ard may #r!ceed with the matter either de no(o !r fr!m the sta5e it was s! transferred+> 117C. (o,er of *ppellate Board to ma0e r%les The A##ellate 9!ard may ma?e r$les c!nsistent with this Act as t! the c!nd$ct and #r!ced$re in res#ect !f all #r!ceedin5s bef!re it $nder this Act+> CHAPTER $$ PENA'T%ES 11". 2ontra$ention of secrec' pro$isions relatin. to certain in$entions %f any #ers!n fails t! c!m#ly with any directi!n 5i0en $nder secti!n .@, ,[!r ma?es !r ca$ses t! be made an a##licati!n f!r the 5rant !f a #atent in c!ntra0enti!n !f secti!n .9> he shall be #$nishable with im#ris!nment f!r a term which may e-tend t! tw! years, !r with fine, !r with b!th+ 119. /alsification of entries in re.ister, etc. %f any #ers!n ma?es, !r ca$ses t! be made, a false entry in any re5ister ?e#t $nder this Act, !r a writin5 falsely #$r#!rtin5 t! be a c!#y !f an entry in s$ch a re5ister, !r #r!d$ces !r tenders, !r ca$ses t! be #r!d$ced !r tendered, in e0idence any s$ch writin5 ?n!win5 the entry !r writin5 t! be false, he shall be #$nishable with im#ris!nment f!r a term which may e-tend t! tw! years, !r with fine, !r with b!th+ 120. Ina%thorised claim of patent ri.hts %f any #ers!n falsely re#resents that any article s!ld by him is #atented in %ndia !r is the s$bBect !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent in %ndia, he shall be #$nishable with fine which may e-tend t! .[!ne la?h> r$#ees+ $%planation ! 1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this secti!n, a #ers!n shall be deemed t! re#resent 7
1 S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. the date to &e notified. , %nserted, by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ 3 S%&stit%ted for 1ten tho%sand1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N 1,C

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 !7

)a* that an article is #atented in %ndia if there is stam#ed, en5ra0ed !r im#ressed !n, !r !therwise a##lied t!, the article the w!rd 8#atent8 !r 8#atented8 !r s!me !ther w!rd e-#ressin5 !r im#lyin5 that a #atent f!r the article has been !btained in %ndia; )b* that an article is the s$bBect !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent in %ndia if there are stam#ed, en5ra0ed !r im#ressed !n, !r !therwise a##lied t!, the article the w!rds 8#atent a##lied f!r8, 8#atent #endin58, !r s!me !ther w!rds im#lyin5 that an a##licati!n f!r a #atent f!r the article has been made in %ndia+ $%planation 21 The $se !f w!rds 8#atent8, 8#atented8, 8#atent a##lied f!r8, 8#atent #endin58 !r !ther w!rds e-#ressin5 !r im#lyin5 that an article is #atended !r that a #atent has been a##lied f!r shall be deemed t! refer t! a #atent in f!rce in %ndia, !r t! a #endin5 a##licati!n f!r a #atent in %ndia, as the case may be, $nless there is an acc!m#anyin5 indicati!n that the #atent has been !btained !r a##lied f!r in any c!$ntry !$tside %ndia+ 121. #ron.f%l %se of ,ords, 1patent office1 %f any #ers!n $ses !n his #lace !f b$siness !r any d!c$ment iss$ed by him !r !therwise the w!rds 8#atent !ffice8 !r any !ther w!rds which w!$ld reas!nably lead t! the belief that his #lace !f b$siness is !r is !fficially c!nnected with, the #atent !ffice, he shall be #$nishable with im#ris!nment f!r a term which may e-tend t! si- m!nths, !r with fine, !r with b!th+ 122. ;ef%sal or fail%re to s%ppl' information )1* %f any #ers!n ref$ses !r fails t! f$rnish7 )a* t! the Central /!0ernment any inf!rmati!n which he is re6$ired t! f$rnish $nder s$b<secti!n )@* !f secti!n 100, )b* t! the C!ntr!ller any inf!rmati!n !r statement which he is re6$ired t! f$rnish by !r $nder secti!n 1C:+ he shall be #$nishable with fine which may e-tend t! 1[ten la?h r$#ees> ),* %f any #ers!n, bein5 re6$ired t! f$rnish any s$ch inf!rmati!n as is referred t! in s$b< secti!n )1*, f$rnishes inf!rmati!n !r statement which is false and which he either ?n!ws !r has reas!n t! belie0e t! be false !r d!es n!t belie0e t! be tr$e, he shall be #$nishable with im#ris!nment which may e-tend t! si- m!nths, !r with fine, !r with b!th+ 123. (ractice &' non-re.istered patent a.ents %f any #ers!n c!ntra0enes the #r!0isi!ns !f secti!n 1,9, he shall be #$nishable with fine which may e-tend t! ,[!ne la?h r$#ees in the case !f a first !ffence and fi0e la?h r$#ees> in the case !f a sec!nd !r s$bse6$ent !ffence+ 124. 3ffences &' companies )1* %f the #ers!n c!mmittin5 an !ffence $nder this Act is a c!m#any, the c!m#any as well as e0ery #ers!n in char5e !f, and res#!nsible t!, the c!m#any f!r the c!nd$ct !f its b$siness at the time !f the c!mmissi!n !f the !ffence shall be deemed t! be 5$ilty !f the !ffence and shall be liable t! be #r!ceeded a5ainst and #$nished acc!rdin5ly&

1 2

S%&stit%ted for 1t,ent' tho%sand r%pees1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S%&stit%ted for 1ten tho%sand r%pees in the case of a first offence and fort' tho%sand r%pees1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

!" THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 1,:

P"13%4E4 that n!thin5 c!ntained in this s$b<secti!n shall render any s$ch #ers!n liable t! any #$nishment if he #r!0es that the !ffence was c!mmitted with!$t his ?n!wled5e !r that he e-ercised all d$e dili5ence t! #re0ent the c!mmissi!n !f s$ch !ffence+ ),* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<secti!n )1*, where an !ffence $nder this Act has been c!mmitted by a c!m#any and it is #r!0ed that the !ffence has been c!mmitted with the c!nsent !r c!nni0ance !f, !r that the c!mmissi!n !f the !ffence is attrib$table t! any ne5lect !n the #art !f any direct!r, mana5er, secretary !r !ther !fficer !f the c!m#any, s$ch direct!r, mana5er, secretary !r !ther !fficer shall als! be deemed t! be 5$ilty !f that !ffence and shall be liable t! be #r!ceeded a5ainst and #$nished acc!rdin5ly+ $%planation 1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this secti!n7 )a* 8c!m#any8 means any b!dy c!r#!rate and incl$des a firm !r !ther ass!ciati!n !f indi0id$als; and )b* 8direct!r8, in relati!n t! a firm, means a #artner in the firm+ 2C*(75; JJPATENT A/ENTS 1 :12 . ;e.ister of patent a.ents )1* The C!ntr!ller shall maintain a re5ister t! be called the re5ister !f #atent a5ents in which shall be entered the names, addresses and !ther rele0ant #artic$lars, as may be #rescribed, !f all #ers!ns 6$alified t! ha0e their names s! entered $nder secti!n 1,:+ ),* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<secti!n )1*, it shall be lawf$l f!r the C!ntr!ller t! ?ee# the re5ister !f #atent a5ents in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm s$bBect t! s$ch safe5$ards as may be #rescribed+> 12!. K%alifications for re.istration as patent a.ents )1* A #ers!n shall be 6$alified t! ha0e his name entered in the re5ister !f #atent a5ents if he f$lfils the f!ll!win5 c!nditi!ns, namely,7 )a* he is a citi2en !f %ndia; )b* he has c!m#leted the a5e !f ,1 years; )c* he has !btained a ,[de5ree in science, en5ineerin5 !r techn!l!5y fr!m any Ani0ersity established $nder law f!r the time bein5 in f!rce> in the territ!ry !f %ndia !r #!ssesses s$ch !ther e6$i0alent 6$alificati!ns as the Central /!0ernment may s#ecify in this behalf, and, in additi!n7 . [)i* ---> )ii* has #assed the 6$alifyin5 e-aminati!n #rescribed f!r the #$r#!se; C[!r> C [)iii* has, f!r a t!tal #eri!d !f n!t less than ten years, f$ncti!ned either as an e-aminer !r dischar5ed the f$ncti!ns !f the C!ntr!ller $nder secti!n 7. !r b!th, b$t ceased t! h!ld any s$ch ca#acity at the time !f ma?in5 the a##licati!n f!r re5istrati!n+>

1 S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8de5ree fr!m any $ni0ersity8, ibid+ 3 S%&-cla%se )i+ omitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . C %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

SECT%1N 1.0

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 !9

)d* he has #aid s$ch fee as may be #rescribed+ 1 [),* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<secti!n )1*, a #ers!n wh! has been re5istered as a #atent a5ent bef!re the c!mmencement !f ,[the Patents )Amendment* Act, ,00@> shall be entitled t! c!ntin$e t! be, !r when re6$ired t! be re<re5istered, as a #atent a5ent, !n #ayment !f the fee as may be #rescribed>+ 127. ;i.hts of patent a.ents S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this Act and t! any r$les made there$nder, e0ery #atent a5ent wh!se name is entered in the re5ister shall be entitled7 )a* t! #ractise bef!re the C!ntr!ller; and )b* t! #re#are all d!c$ments, transact all b$siness and dischar5e s$ch !ther f$ncti!ns as may be #rescribed in c!nnecti!n with any #r!ceedin5s bef!re the C!ntr!ller $nder this Act+ 12". S%&scription and $erification of certain doc%ments &' patent a.ents )1* All a##licati!ns and c!mm$nicati!ns t! the C!ntr!ller $nder his Act may be si5ned by a #atent a5ent a$th!rised in writin5 in this behalf by the #ers!n c!ncerned+ + [(# !!!" 129. ;estrictions on practice as patent a.ents )1* N! #ers!n, either al!ne !r in #artnershi# with any !ther #ers!n, shall #ractise, describe !r h!ld himself !$t as a #atent a5ent !r #ermit himself t! be s! described !r held !$t, $nless he is re5istered as #atent a5ent !r, as the case may be, $nless he and all his #artners are s! re5istered+ ),* N! c!m#any !r !ther b!dy c!r#!rate shall #ractise, describe itself !r h!ld itself !$t as #atent a5ents !r #ermit itself t! be s! described !r held !$t+ $%planation 1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this secti!n, #ractise, as a #atent a5ent incl$des any !f the f!ll!win5 acts, namely,7 )a* a##lyin5 f!r !r !btainin5 #atents in %ndia !r elsewhere; )b* #re#arin5 s#ecificati!ns !r !ther d!c$ments f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act !r !f the #atent law !f any !ther c!$ntry; )c* 5i0in5 ad0ice !ther than !f scientific !r technical nat$re as t! the 0alidity !f #atents !r their infrin5ement+ 130. ;emo$al from re.ister of patent a.ents and restoration )1* The C[C!ntr!ller> may rem!0e the name !f any #ers!n fr!m the re5ister when it is satisfied, after 5i0in5 that #ers!n a reas!nable !##!rt$nity !f bein5 heard and after s$ch f$rther in6$iry, if any, as @[he> thin?s fit t! ma?e7 )i* that his name has been entered in the re5ister by err!r !r !n acc!$nt !f misre#resentati!n !r s$##ressi!n !f material fact; !r )ii* that he has been c!n0icted !f any !ffence and sentenced t! a term !f im#ris!nment !r has been 5$ilty !f misc!nd$ct in his #r!fessi!nal ca#acity

1 S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+
2 S%&stit%ted for 1the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 20021 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

. 1mitted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ C S$bstit$ted f!r 8Central /!0ernment8, ibid+ @ S$bstit$ted f!r 8it8, ibid+

70 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970


1

SECT%1N 1.C

which in the !#ini!n !f the 1[C!ntr!ller> renders him $nfit t! be ?e#t in the re5ister+ ),* The [C!ntr!ller> may, !n a##licati!n and !n s$fficient ca$se bein5 sh!wn, rest!re t! the re5ister the name !f any #ers!n rem!0ed therefr!m+ 131. (o,er of 2ontroller to ref%se to deal ,ith certain a.ents )1* S$bBect t! any r$les made in this behalf, the C!ntr!ller may ref$se t! rec!5nise as a5ent in res#ect !f any b$siness $nder this Act7 )a* any indi0id$al wh!se name has been rem!0ed fr!m, and n!t rest!red t!, the re5ister; )b* any #ers!n wh! has been c!n0icted !f an !ffence $nder secti!n 1,.; , )c* any #ers!n, n!t bein5 re5istered as a #atent a5ent, wh! in the !#ini!n !f the 1 [C!ntr!ller> is en5a5ed wh!lly !r mainly in actin5 as a5ent in a##lyin5 f!r #atents in %ndia !r elsewhere in the name !r f!r the benefit !f the #ers!n by wh!m he is em#l!yed; )d* any c!m#any !r firm, if any #ers!n wh!m the 1[C!ntr!ller> c!$ld ref$se t! rec!5nise as a5ent in res#ect !f any b$siness $nder this Act, is actin5 as a direct!r !r mana5er !f the c!m#any !r is a #artner in the firm+ ),* The 1[C!ntr!ller> shall ref$se t! rec!5nise as a5ent in res#ect !f any b$siness $nder this Act any #ers!n wh! neither resides n!r has a #lace !f b$siness in %ndia+ 132. Sa$in. in respect of other persons a%thorised to act as a.ents N!thin5 in this cha#ter shall be deemed t! #r!hibit7 )a* the a##licant f!r a #atent ,[- - -> fr!m draftin5 any s#ecificati!n !r a##earin5 !r actin5 bef!re the C!ntr!ller; !r )b* an ad0!cate, n!t bein5 a #atent a5ent, fr!m ta?in5 #art in any .[hearin5 bef!re the C!ntr!ller !n behalf !f a #arty wh! is ta?in5 #art in any #r!ceedin5 $nder this Act>+ CHAPTER $$II %NTE"NAT%1NA' A""AN/E(ENTS 4 :133. 2on$ention co%ntries Any c!$ntry, which is a si5nat!ry !r #arty !r a 5r!$# !f c!$ntries, $ni!n !f c!$ntries !r inter<5!0ernmental !r5ani2ati!ns which are si5nat!ries !r #arties t! an internati!nal, re5i!nal !r bi<lateral treaty, c!n0enti!n !r arran5ement t! which %ndia is als! a si5nat!ry !r #arty and which aff!rds t! the a##licants f!r #atents in %ndia !r t! citi2ens !f %ndia similar #ri0ile5es as are 5ranted t! their !wn citi2ens !r citi2ens t! their member c!$ntries in res#ect !f the 5rant !f #atents and #r!tecti!n !f #atent ri5hts shall be a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry !r c!n0enti!n c!$ntries f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act+> 134. 6otification as to co%ntries not pro$idin. for reciprocit' Dhere any c!$ntry s#ecified by the Central /!0ernment in this behalf by n!tificati!n in the 1fficial /a2ette d!es n!t acc!rd t! citi2ens !f %ndia the same ri5hts in res#ect !f the 5rant !f #atents and the #r!tecti!n !f #atent ri5hts as it acc!rds t! its !wn
1 , . 4 S$bstit$ted f!r 8Central 5!0t+8 by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+0+@:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ D!rds 8!r any #ers!n, n!t bein5 a #atent a5ent wh! is d$ly a$th!rised by the a##licant8 !mitted, by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8#r!ceedin5s $nder this Act !therwise than by way !f draftin5 any s#ecificati!n8, ibid+ S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

SECT%1N 1.:

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 71

nati!nals, n! nati!nal !f s$ch c!$ntry shall be entitled, either s!lely !r B!intly with any !ther #ers!n7 )a* t! a##ly f!r the 5rant !f a #atent !r be re5istered as the #r!#riet!r !f a #atent; )b* t! be re5istered as the assi5nee !f the #r!#riet!r !f a #atent; !r )c* t! a##ly f!r a licence !r h!ld any licence $nder a #atent 5ranted $nder this Act+ 13 . 2on$ention applications )1* Dith!$t #reB$dice t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in secti!n :, where a #ers!n has made an a##licati!n f!r a #atent in res#ect !f an in0enti!n in a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry )hereinafter referred t! as the 8basic a##licati!n8*, and that #ers!n !r the le5al re#resentati0e !r assi5nee !f that #ers!n ma?es an a##licati!n $nder this Act f!r a #atent within twel0e m!nths after the date !n which the basic a##licati!n was made, the #ri!rity date !f a claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, bein5 a claim based !n matter discl!sed in the basic a##licati!n, is the date !f ma?in5 !f the basic a##licati!n+ $%planation 1 Dhere a##licati!ns ha0e been made f!r similar #r!tecti!n in res#ect !f an in0enti!n in tw! !r m!re c!n0enti!n c!$ntries, the #eri!d !f twel0e m!nths referred t! in this s$b<secti!n shall be rec?!ned fr!m the date !n which the earlier !r earliest !f the said a##licati!ns was made+ ),* Dhere a##licati!ns f!r #r!tecti!n ha0e been made in !ne !r m!re c!n0enti!n c!$ntries in res#ect !f tw! !r m!re in0enti!ns which are c!5nate !r !f which !ne is a m!dificati!n !f an!ther, a sin5le c!n0enti!n a##licati!n may, s$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in secti!n 10, be made in res#ect !f th!se in0enti!ns at any time within twel0e m!nths fr!m the date !f the earliest !f the said a##licati!ns f!r #r!tecti!n& P"13%4E4 that the fee #ayable !n the ma?in5 !f any s$ch a##licati!n shall be the same as if se#arate a##licati!ns ha0e been made in res#ect !f each !f the said in0enti!ns, and the re6$irements !f cla$se )b* !f s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1.: shall, in the case !f any s$ch a##licati!n, a##ly se#arately t! the a##licati!ns f!r #r!tecti!n in res#ect !f the said in0enti!ns+ 1 [).* %n case !f an a##licati!n filed $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty desi5natin5 %ndia and claimin5 #ri!rity fr!m a #re0i!$sly filed a##licati!n in %ndia, the #r!0isi!ns !f s$b< secti!ns )1* and ),* shall a##ly as if the #re0i!$sly filed a##licati!n were the basic a##licati!n& P"13%4E4 that a re6$est f!r e-aminati!n $nder secti!n 119 shall be made !nly f!r !ne !f the a##licati!ns filed in %ndia+> 13!. Special pro$isions relatin. to con$ention applications )1* E0ery c!n0enti!n a##licati!n shall7 )a* be acc!m#anied by a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n; and )b* s#ecify the date !n which and the c!n0enti!n c!$ntry in which the a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n, !r as the case may be, the first !f s$ch a##licati!ns was made; and )c* state that n! a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n in res#ect !f the in0enti!n had been made in a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry bef!re that date by the a##licant !r by any #ers!n fr!m wh!m he deri0es title+

%nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

72 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 1.=

),* S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in secti!n 10, a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n filed with a c!n0enti!n a##licati!n may incl$de claims in res#ect !f de0el!#ments !f, !r additi!ns t!, the in0enti!n in res#ect !f which the a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n was made in a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry, bein5 de0el!#ments !r additi!ns in res#ect !f which the a##licant w!$ld be entitled $nder the #r!0isi!ns !f secti!n : t! ma?e a se#arate a##licati!n f!r a #atent+ ).* A c!n0enti!n a##licati!n shall n!t be #!st<dated $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 17 t! a date later than the date !n which $nder the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act the a##licati!n c!$ld ha0e been made+ 137. 4%ltiple priorities )1* Dhere tw! !r m!re a##licati!ns f!r #atents in res#ect !f in0enti!ns ha0e been made in !ne !r m!re c!n0enti!n c!$ntries and th!se in0enti!ns are s! related as t! c!nstit$te !ne in0enti!n, !ne a##licati!n may be made by any !r all !f the #ers!ns referred t! in s$b< secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1.@ within twel0e m!nths fr!m the date !n which the earlier !r earliest !f th!se a##licati!ns was made, in res#ect !f the in0enti!ns discl!sed in the s#ecificati!ns which acc!m#anied the basic a##licati!ns+ ),* The #ri!rity date !f a claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, bein5 a claim based !n matters discl!sed in !ne !r m!re !f the basic a##licati!ns, is the date !n which that matter was first s! discl!sed+ ).* F!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act, a matter shall be deemed t! ha0e been discl!sed in a basic a##licati!n f!r #r!tecti!n in a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry if it was claimed !r discl!sed )!therwise than by way !f disclaimer !r ac?n!wled5ment !f a #ri!r art* in that a##licati!n, !r any d!c$ments s$bmitted by the a##licant f!r #r!tecti!n in s$##!rt !f and at the same time as that a##licati!n, b$t n! acc!$nt shall be ta?en !f any discl!s$re effected by any s$ch d!c$ment $nless a c!#y !f the d!c$ment is filed at the #atent !ffice with the c!n0enti!n a##licati!n !r within s$ch #eri!d as may be #rescribed after the filin5 !f that a##licati!n+ 13". S%pplementar' pro$isions as to con$ention applications 1 [)1* Dhere a c!n0enti!n a##licati!n is made in acc!rdance with the #r!0isi!ns !f this Cha#ter, the a##licant shall f$rnish, when re6$ired by the C!ntr!ller, in additi!n t! the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, c!#ies !f the s#ecificati!ns !r c!rres#!ndin5 d!c$ments filed !r de#!sited by the a##licant in the #atent !ffice !f the c!n0enti!n c!$ntry as referred t! in secti!n 1.. 0erified t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller, within the #rescribed #eri!d fr!m the date !f c!mm$nicati!n by the C!ntr!ller+> ),* %f any s$ch s#ecificati!n !r !ther d!c$ment is in a f!rei5n lan5$a5e, a translati!n int! En5lish !f the s#ecificati!n !r d!c$ment, 0erified by affida0it !r !therwise t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller, shall be ,[f$rnished when re6$ired by the C!ntr!ller>+ ).* F!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act, the date !n which an a##licati!n was made in a c!n0enti!n c!$ntry is s$ch date as the C!ntr!ller is satisfied, by certificate !f the !fficial chief !r head !f the #atent !ffice !f the c!n0enti!n c!$ntry !r !therwise is the date !n which the a##licati!n was made in that c!n0enti!n c!$ntry+

1 S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . , S$bstit$ted f!r 8anne-ed t! the s#ecificati!n !r d!c$ment8, by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

SECT%1N 1C0
1

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 73

[)C* An internati!nal a##licati!n filed $nder the Patent C!<!#erati!n Treaty des< i5natin5 %ndia shall ha0e effect !f filin5 an a##licati!n f!r #atent $nder secti!n 3, secti!n @C and secti!n 1.@, as the case may be, and the title, descri#ti!n, claim and abstract and drawin5s, if any, filed in the internati!nal a##licati!n shall be ta?en as c!m#lete s#ecificati!n f!r the #$r#!ses !f this Act+ )@* The filin5 date !f an a##licati!n f!r #atent and its c!m#lete s#ecificati!n #r!cessed by the #atent !ffice as desi5nated !ffice shall be the internati!nal filin5 date acc!rded $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty+ ):* Amendment, if any, #r!#!sed by the a##licant f!r an internati!nal a##licati!n desi5natin5 %ndia !r desi5natin5 and electin5 %ndia bef!re internati!nal searchin5 a$th!rity !r #reliminary e-aminati!n a$th!rity shall, if the a##licant s! desires, be ta?en as an amendment made bef!re the #atent !ffice+> 139. 3ther pro$isions of *ct to appl' to con$ention applications Sa0e as !therwise #r!0ided in this cha#ter, all the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act shall a##ly in relati!n t! c!n0enti!n a##licati!n and a #atent 5ranted in #$rs$ance there!f as they a##ly in relati!n t! an !rdinary a##licati!n and a #atent 5ranted in #$rs$ance there!f+ CHAPTER $$III (%SCE''ANE1AS 140. *$oidance of certain restricti$e conditions )1* %t shall n!t be lawf$l t! insert7 )i* in any c!ntract f!r !r in relati!n t! the sale !r lease !f a #atented article !r an article made by a #atented #r!cess; !r )ii* in a licence t! man$fact$re !r $se a #atented article; !r )iii* in a licence t! w!r? any #r!cess #r!tected by a #atent, a c!nditi!n the effect !f which may be7 )a* t! re6$ire the #$rchaser, lessee, !r licensee t! ac6$ire fr!m the 0end!r, less!r, !r licens!r, !r his n!minees, !r t! #r!hibit him fr!m ac6$irin5 !r t! restrict in any manner !r t! any e-tent his ri5ht t! ac6$ire fr!m any #ers!n !r t! #r!hibit him fr!m ac6$irin5 e-ce#t fr!m the 0end!r, less!r, !r licens!r !r his n!minees, any article !ther than the #atented article !r an article !ther than that made by the #atented #r!cess; !r )b* t! #r!hibit the #$rchaser, lessee !r licensee fr!m $sin5, !r t! restrict in any manner !r t! any e-tent the ri5ht !f the #$rchaser, lessee !r licensee, t! $se an article !ther than the #atented article !r an article !ther than that made by the #atented #r!cess, which is n!t s$##lied by the 0end!r, less!r !r licens!r !r his n!minee; !r )c* t! #r!hibit the #$rchaser, lessee !r licensee fr!m $sin5 !r t! restrict in any manner !r t! any e-tent the ri5ht !f the #$rchaser, lessee !r licensee t! $se any #r!cess !ther than the #atented #r!cess, and any s$ch c!nditi!n shall be 0!id+ l [)d* t! #r!0ide e-cl$si0e 5rant bac?, #re0enti!n t! challen5es t! 0alidity !f #atent and c!erci0e #ac?a5e licensin5+> ),* A c!nditi!n !f the nat$re referred t! in cla$se )a* !r cla$se )b* !r cla$se )c* !f s$b< secti!n )1* shall n!t cease t! be a c!nditi!n fallin5 within that s$b<secti!n merely
1 %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

74 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 1C,

by reas!n !f the fact that the a5reement c!ntainin5 it has been entered int! se#arately, whether bef!re !r after the c!ntract relatin5 t! the sale, lease !r licence !f the #atented article !r #r!cess+ ).* %n #r!ceedin5s a5ainst any #ers!n f!r the infrin5ement !f a #atent, it shall be a defence t! #r!0e that at the time !f the infrin5ement there was in f!rce a c!ntract relatin5 t! the #atent and c!ntainin5 a c!nditi!n declared $nlawf$l by this secti!n& P"13%4E4 that this s$b<secti!n shall n!t a##ly if the #laintiff is n!t a #arty t! the c!ntract and #r!0es t! the satisfacti!n !f the c!$rt that the restricti0e c!nditi!n was inserted in the c!ntract with!$t his ?n!wled5e and c!nsent, e-#ress !r im#lied+ )C* N!thin5 in this secti!n shall7 )a* affect a c!nditi!n in a c!ntract by which a #ers!n is #r!hibited fr!m sellin5 5!!ds !ther than th!se !f a #artic$lar #ers!n; )b* 0alidate a c!ntract which, b$t f!r this secti!n, w!$ld be in0alid; )c* affect a c!nditi!n in a c!ntract f!r the lease !f, !r licence t! $se, a #atented article, by which the less!r !r licens!r reser0es t! himself !r his n!minee the ri5ht t! s$##ly s$ch new #arts !f the #atented article as may be re6$ired !r t! #$t !r ?ee# it in re#air+ 1 [)@* ---> 141. Determination of certain contracts )1* Any c!ntract f!r the sale !r lease !f a #atented article !r f!r licence t! man$fact$re, $se !r w!r? a #atented article !r #r!cess, !r relatin5 t! any s$ch sale, lease !r licence, ,[- - ->, may at any time after the #atent !r all the #atents by which the article !r #r!cess was #r!tected at the time !f the ma?in5 !f the c!ntract has !r ha0e ceased t! be in f!rce, and n!twithstandin5 anythin5 t! the c!ntrary in the c!ntract !r in any !ther c!ntract, be determined by the #$rchaser, lessee, !r licensee, as the case may be, !f the #atent !n 5i0in5 three m!nthsG n!tice in writin5 t! the !ther #arty+ ),* The #r!0isi!ns !f this secti!n shall be with!$t #reB$dice t! any ri5ht !f determinin5 a c!ntract e-ercisable a#art fr!m this secti!n+ 142. /ees )1* There shall be #aid in res#ect !f the 5rant !f #atents and a##licati!ns theref!r, and in res#ect !f !ther matters in relati!n t! the 5rants !f #atents $nder this Act, s$ch fees as may be #rescribed by the Central /!0ernment+ ),* Dhere a fee is #ayable in res#ect !f the d!in5 !f an act by the C!ntr!ller, the C!ntr!ller shall n!t d! that act $ntil the fee has been #aid+ . [).* Dhere a fee is #ayable in res#ect !f the filin5 !f a d!c$ment at the #atent !ffice, the fee shall be #aid al!n5 with the d!c$ment !r within the #rescribed time and the d!c$ment shall be deemed n!t t! ha0e been filed at the !ffice if the fee has n!t been #aid within s$ch time+>

1 1mitted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ , D!rds 8whether made bef!re !r after the c!mmencement t! this Act8 !mitted, ibid+ . S$bstit$ted, ibid+

SECT%1N 1C:

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 7

)C* Dhere a #rinci#al #atent is 5ranted later than tw! years fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the 1[the a##licati!n>, the fees which ha0e bec!me d$e in the meantime may be #aid within a term !f three m!nths fr!m the date !f the rec!rdin5 !f the #atent in the re5ister ,[!r within the e-tended #eri!d n!t later than nine m!nths fr!m the date !f rec!rdin5+> .[1C.+ "estricti!ns $#!n #$blicati!n !f s#ecificati!n S$bBect t! the #r!0isi!ns !f Cha#ter 3%%, an a##licati!n f!r a #atent, and any s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance there!f, shall n!t, e-ce#t with the c!nsent !f the a##licant, be #$blished by the C!ntr!ller bef!re the e-#irati!n !f the #eri!d #rescribed $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 11A !r bef!re the same is !#en t! #$blic ins#ecti!n in #$rs$ance !f s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n 11A !r secti!n C.+> 144. ;eports of examiners to &e confidential The re#!rts !f e-aminers t! the C!ntr!ller $nder this Act shall n!t be !#en t! #$blic ins#ecti!n !r be #$blished by the C!ntr!ller; and s$ch re#!rts shall n!t be liable t! #r!d$cti!n !r ins#ecti!n in any le5al #r!ceedin5 $nless the c!$rt certifies that the #r!d$cti!n !r ins#ecti!n is desirable in the interest !f B$stice, and !$5ht t! be all!wed+ 3 :14 . (%&lication of official Ao%rnal The C!ntr!ller shall #$blish #eri!dically an !fficial B!$rnal which shall c!ntain s$ch inf!rmati!n as may be re6$ired t! be #$blished by !r $nder the #r!0isi!ns !f this Act !r any r$le made there$nder+> 14!. (o,er of 2ontroller to call for information from patentees )1* The C!ntr!ller may, at any time d$rin5 the c!ntin$ance !f the #atent, by n!tice in writin5, re6$ire a #atentee !r a licensee, e-cl$si0e !r !therwise, t! f$rnish t! him within tw! m!nths fr!m the date !f s$ch n!tice !r within s$ch f$rther time as the C!ntr!ller may all!w, s$ch inf!rmati!n !r s$ch #eri!dical statements as t! the e-tent t! which the #atented in0enti!n has been c!mmercially w!r?ed in %ndia as may be s#ecified in the n!tice+ ),* Dith!$t #reB$dice t! the #r!0isi!ns !f s$b<secti!n )1*, e0ery #atentee and e0ery licensee )whether e-cl$si0e !r !therwise* shall f$rnish in s$ch manner and f!rm and at s$ch inter0als )n!t bein5 less than si- m!nths* as may be #rescribed statements as t! the e-tent t! which the #atented in0enti!n has been w!r?ed !n a c!mmercial scale in %ndia+ ).* The C!ntr!ller may #$blish the inf!rmati!n recei0ed by him $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !r s$b<secti!n ),* in s$ch manner as may be #rescribed+ 147. 5$idence of entries, doc%ments, etc. )1* A certificate #$r#!rtin5 t! be si5ned by the C!ntr!ller as t! any entry, matter !r thin5 which he is a$th!rised by this Act !r any r$les made there$nder t! ma?e !r d!, shall be #rima facie e0idence !f the entry ha0in5 been made and !f the c!ntents there!f and !f the matter !r thin5 ha0in5 been d!ne !r !mitted t! be d!ne+ ),* A c!#y !f any entry in any re5ister !r !f any d!c$ment ?e#t in the #atent !ffice !r !f any #atent, !r an e-tract fr!m any s$ch re5ister !r d!c$ment, #$r#!rtin5 t! be certified by the C!ntr!ller and sealed with the seal !f the #atent !ffice shall be admitted

1 S%&stit%ted for 1complete specification1 &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . , %nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ 3 S%&stit%ted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

7! THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 1@1

in e0idence in all c!$rts, and in all #r!ceedin5s, with!$t f$rther #r!!f !r #r!d$cti!n !f the !ri5inal+ ).* The C!ntr!ller !r any !ther !fficer !f the #atent !ffice shall n!t, in any le5al #r!ceedin5s t! which he is n!t a #arty, be c!m#ellable t! #r!d$ce the re5ister !r any !ther d!c$ment in his c$st!dy, the c!ntents !f which can be #r!0ed by the #r!d$cti!n !f a certified c!#y iss$ed $nder this Act !r t! a##ear as a witness t! #r!0e the matters therein rec!rded $nless by !rder !f the c!$rt made f!r s#ecial ca$ses+ 14". Declaration &' infant, l%natic, etc. )1* %f any #ers!n is, by reas!n !f min!rity, l$nacy !r !ther disability, inca#able !f ma?in5 any statement !r d!in5 anythin5 re6$ired !r #ermitted by !r $nder this Act the lawf$l 5$ardian, c!mmittee !r mana5er )if any* !f the #ers!n s$bBect t! the disability, !r if there be n!ne, any #ers!n a##!inted by any c!$rt #!ssessin5 B$risdicti!n in res#ect !f his #r!#erty, may ma?e s$ch statement !r a statement as nearly c!rres#!ndin5 theret! as circ$mstances #ermit, and d! s$ch thin5 in the name and !n behalf !f the #ers!n s$bBect t! the disability+ ),* An a##!intment may be made by the c!$rt f!r the #$r#!ses !f this secti!n $#!n the #etiti!n !f any #ers!n actin5 !n behalf !f the #ers!n s$bBect t! the disability !r !f any #ers!n interested in the ma?in5 !f the statement !r the d!in5 !f the thin5+ 149. Ser$ice of notices, etc. &' post Any n!tice re6$ired !r a$th!rised t! be 5i0en by !r $nder this Act, and any a##licati!n !r !ther d!c$ment s! a$th!rised !r re6$ired t! be made !r filed, may be 5i0en, made !r filed by #!st+ 1 0. Sec%rit' for costs %f any #arty by wh!m n!tice !f any !##!siti!n is 5i0en $nder this Act !r by wh!m a##licati!n is made t! the C!ntr!ller f!r the 5rant !f a licence $nder a #atent neither resides n!r carries !n b$siness in %ndia, the C!ntr!ller may re6$ire him t! 5i0e sec$rity f!r the c!st !f the #r!ceedin5s, and in defa$lt !f s$ch sec$rity bein5 5i0en may treat the !##!siti!n !r a##licati!n as aband!ned+ 1 1. 7ransmission of orders of co%rts to 2ontroller )1* E0ery !rder !f 1[the Hi5h C!$rt !r the A##ellate 9!ard> !n a #etiti!n f!r re0!cati!n, incl$din5 !rders 5rantin5 certificates !f 0alidity !f any claim, shall be transmitted by 1[the Hi5h C!$rt !r the A##ellate 9!ard> t! the C!ntr!ller wh! shall ca$se an entry there!f and reference theret! t! be made in the re5ister+ ),* Dhere in any s$it f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent !r in any s$it $nder secti!n 10: the 0alidity !f any claim !r a s#ecificati!n is c!ntested and that claim is f!$nd by the c!$rt t! be 0alid !r n!t 0alid, as the case may be, the c!$rt shall transmit a c!#y !f its B$d5ment and decree t! the C!ntr!ller wh! shall !n recei#t there!f ca$se an entry in relati!n t! s$ch #r!ceedin5 t! be made in the #rescribed manner in a s$##lemental rec!rd+ ).* The #r!0isi!ns !f s$b<secti!ns )1* and ),* shall als! a##ly t! the c!$rt t! which a##eals are #referred a5ainst decisi!ns !f the ,[A##ellate 9!ard !r the C!$rts> referred t! in th!se s$b<secti!ns+

1 ,

S$bstit$ted f!r 8the Hi5h C!$rt8 by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ the date t! be n!tified+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8c!$rts8 by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ the date t! be n!tified+

SECT%1N 1@=
1

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 77

81?3# xxxG 1 3. -nformation relatin. to patents A #ers!n ma?in5 a re6$est t! the C!ntr!ller in the #rescribed manner f!r inf!rmati!n relatin5 t! any s$ch matters as may be #rescribed as res#ects any #atent s#ecified in the re6$est !r as res#ects any a##licati!n f!r a #atent s! s#ecified shall be entitled, s$bBect t! the #ayment !f the #rescribed fee t! ha0e inf!rmati!n s$##lied t! him acc!rdin5ly+ 1 4. Boss or destr%ction of patents %f a #atent is l!st !r destr!yed, !r its n!n<#r!d$cti!n is acc!$nted f!r t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller, the C!ntr!ller may at any time, !n a##licati!n made in the #rescribed manner and !n #ayment !f the #rescribed fee, ca$se a d$#licate there!f t! be sealed and deli0ered t! the a##licant+ 1 . ;eports of 2ontroller to &e placed &efore (arliament The Central /!0ernment shall ca$se t! be #laced bef!re b!th H!$ses !f Parliament !nce a year a re#!rt res#ectin5 the e-ec$ti!n !f this Act by !r $nder the C!ntr!ller+ 1 !. (atent to &ind .o$ernment S$bBect t! the !ther #r!0isi!ns c!ntained in this Act, a #atent shall ha0e t! all intents the li?e effect as a5ainst 5!0ernment as it has a5ainst any #ers!n+ 1 7. ;i.ht of .o$ernment to sell or %se forfeited articles N!thin5 in this Act shall affect the #!wer !f the 5!0ernment !r !f any #ers!n deri0in5 title directly !r indirectly fr!m the 5!0ernment t! sell !r $se any articles f!rfeited $nder any law f!r the time bein5 in f!rce+ 2 :1 7*. (rotection of sec%rit' of -ndia N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in this Act, the Central /!0ernment shall 7 )a* n!t discl!se any inf!rmati!n relatin5 t! any #atentable in0enti!n !r any a##licati!n relatin5 t! the 5rant !f #atent $nder this Act, which it c!nsiders #reB$dicial t! the interest !f the sec$rity !f %ndia; )b* ta?e any acti!n incl$din5 the re0!cati!n !f any #atent which it c!nsiders necessary in the interest !f the sec$rity !f %ndia by iss$e !f a n!tificati!n in the !fficial 5a2ette t! that effect+ $%planation 1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this secti!n, the e-#ressi!n 8sec$rity !f %ndia8 incl$des any acti!n necessary f!r the sec$rity !f %ndia which 7 )i* relates t! fissi!nable materials !r the materials fr!m which they are deri0ed; !r )ii* relates t! the traffic in arms, amm$niti!n and im#lements !f war <and t! s$ch traffic in !ther 5!!ds and materials as is carried !n directly !r indirectly f!r the #$r#!se !f s$##lyin5 a military establishment; !r )iii* is ta?en in time !f war !r !ther emer5ency in internati!nal relati!ns+> 1 ". (o,er of Ci.h 2o%rts to ma0e r%les The Hi5h C!$rt may ma?e r$les c!nsisent with this Act as t! the c!nd$ct and #r!ced$re in res#ect !f all #r!ceedin5s bef!re it $nder this Act+

1 ,

3mitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 . S$bstit$ted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1 )E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

7" THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 1@9

1 9. (o,er of 2entral 8o$ernment to ma0e r%les )1* The Central /!0ernment may, by n!tificati!n !n the 1fficial /a2ette, ma?e r$les f!r carryin5 !$t the #$r#!ses !f this Act+ ),* Dith!$t #reB$dice t! the 5enerality !f the f!r5!in5 #!wer, the Central /!0< ernment may ma?e r$les t! #r!0ide f!r all !r any !f the f!ll!win5 matters, namely,7 )i* the f!rm and manner in which any a##licati!n f!r a #atent, any s#ecificati!ns !r drawin5s and any !ther a##licati!n !r d!c$ment may be filed in the #atent !ffice; 1 [)ia*the #eri!d which the C!ntr!ller may all!w the filin5 !f statement and $nderta?in5 f!r in res#ect !f a##licati!ns $nder s$b<secti!n )1*, the #eri!d within which the details relatin5 t! #r!cessin5 !f a##licati!ns may be filed bef!re the C!ntr!ller and the details t! be f$rnished by the a##licant t! the C!ntr!ller $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n =; )ib* the #eri!d within which a reference t! the de#!sit !f materials shall be made in the s#ecificati!n $nder s$b<cla$se )A* !f cla$se )ii* !f the #r!0is! t! s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n 10; )ic* the #eri!d f!r which a##licati!n f!r #atent shall n!t be !#en t! the #$blic $nder s$b<secti!n )1* and the manner in which the a##licant may ma?e a re6$est t! the C!ntr!ller t! #$blish his a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n 11A; )id* the manner !f ma?in5 the re6$est f!r e-aminati!n f!r an a##licati!n f!r #atent and the #eri!d within which s$ch e-aminati!n shall be made $nder s$b<secti!ns )1* and ).* !f secti!n 119; )ie* the manner in which an a##licati!n f!r withdrawal !f an a##licati!n f!r 5rant !f a #atent shall be made and the #eri!d within which a re6$est f!r e-aminati!n fr!m the date !f re0!cati!n !f secrecy directi!ns shall be made $nder the #r!0is! t! s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n 119+> )ii* the time within which any act !r thin5 may be d!ne $nder this Act, incl$din5 the manner in which and the time within which any matter may be ,[#$blished> $nder this Act; )iii* the fees which may be #ayable $nder this Act and the manner and time !f #ayment !f s$ch fees; )i0* the matters in res#ect !f which the e-aminer may ma?e a re#!rt t! the C!ntr!ller; . [)0*the manner in which and the #eri!d within which the C!ntr!ller shall c!nsider and dis#!se !ff a re#resentati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n ,@; )0a* the #eri!d within which the C!ntr!ller is re6$ired t! dis#!se !ff an a##licati!n $nder secti!n .9;> )0i* the f!rm and manner in which and the time within which any n!tice may be 5i0en $nder this Act; )0ii* the #r!0isi!ns which may be inserted in an !rder f!r rest!rati!n !f a #atent

1 E-istin5 cla$ses )ia* and )ib* s$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8ad0ertised8 by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ . S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

SECT%1N 1:0

THE PATENTS ACT, 1970 79

f!r the #r!tecti!n !f #ers!ns wh! may ha0e a0ailed themsel0es !f the s$bBect< matter !f the #atent after the #atent had ceased; )0iii* the establishment !f branch !ffices !f the #atent !ffice, and the re5$lati!n 5enerally !f the b$siness !f the #atent !ffice, incl$din5 its branch !ffices; )i-* the maintenance !f the re5ister !f #atents 1[and the safe5$ards t! be !bser0ed in the maintenance !f s$ch re5ister in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm> and the matters t! be entered therein; )-* the matters in res#ect !f which the C!ntr!ller shall ha0e #!wers !f a ci0il c!$rt; )-i* the time when and the manner in which the re5ister and any !ther d!c$ment !#en t! ins#ecti!n may be ins#ected $nder this Act; )-ii* the 6$alificati!ns !f, and the #re#arati!n !f a r!ll !f, scientific ad0isers f!r the #$r#!se !f secti!n 11@; 1 [)-iia* the salaries and all!wances and !ther c!nditi!ns !f ser0ice !f the !fficers and !ther em#l!yees !f the A##ellate 9!ard $nder s$b<secti!n ),*, and the manner in which the !fficers and !ther em#l!yees !f the A##ellate 9!ard shall dischar5e their f$ncti!ns $nder s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n 117; )-iib* the f!rm !f ma?in5 an a##eal, the manner !f 0erificati!n and the fee #ayable $nder s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n 117A; )-iic* the f!rm in which, and the #artic$lars t! be incl$ded in, the a##licati!n t! the A##ellate 9!ard $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1174;> )-iii* the manner in which any c!m#ensati!n f!r ac6$isiti!n by 5!0ernment !f an in0enti!n may be #aid; )-i0* the manner in which the re5ister !f #atent a5ents may be maintained 1[$nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1,@ and the safe5$ards t! be !bser0ed in the maintenance !f s$ch re5ister !f #atent a5ents !n c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f that secti!n;> the c!nd$ct !f 6$alifyin5 e-aminati!ns f!r #atent a5ents; and matters c!nnected with their #ractice and c!nd$ct, incl$din5 the ta?in5 !f disci#linary #r!ceedin5s a5ainst #atent a5ents f!r misc!nd$ct; )-0* the re5$lati!n !f the ma?in5, #rintin5, #$blishin5 and sellin5 !f inde-es t!, and abrid5ments !f s#ecificati!ns and !ther d!c$ments in the #atent !ffice, and the ins#ecti!n !f inde-es and abrid5ments and !ther d!c$ments; )-i0* any !ther matter which has t! be !r may be #rescribed+ ).* The #!wer t! ma?e r$les $nder this secti!n shall be s$bBect t! c!nditi!n !f the r$les bein5 made after #re0i!$s #$blicati!n& , [P"13%4E1 that the Central /!0ernment may, if it is satisfied that circ$mstances e-ist which render it #ractically n!t #!ssible t! c!m#ly with s$ch c!nditi!n !f #re0i!$s #$blicati!n, dis#ense with s$ch c!m#liance+> 1!0. ;%les to &e placed &efore (arliament E0ery r$le made $nder this Act shall be laid, as s!!n as may be after it is made, bef!re each H!$se !f Parliament while it is in sessi!n f!r a t!tal #eri!d !f thirty days which may be c!m#rised in !ne sessi!n !r in tw! !r m!re s$ccessi0e sessi!ns and, if bef!re the e-#iry !f the sessi!n imediately f!ll!win5 the sessi!n !r the s$ccessi0e sessi!ns af!resaid b!th H!$ses a5ree that the r$le sh!$ld n!t be made, the r$le shall

1 ,

%nserted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

"0 THE PATENTS ACT, 1970

SECT%1N 1:,

thereafter ha0e effect !nly in s$ch m!dified f!rm !r be !f n! effect, as the case may be; s!, h!we0er, that any s$ch m!dificati!n !r ann$lment shall be with!$t #reB$dice t! the 0alidity !f anythin5 #re0i!$sly d!ne $nder that r$le+ 1[1:1+ x x xG 1!2. ;epeal of *ct 2 of 1911 insofar as it relates to patents and sa$in. )1* The %ndian Patents and 4esi5ns Act, 1911, in s! far as it relates t! #atents, is hereby re#ealed, that is t! say, the said Act shall be amended in the manner s#ecified in the sched$le+ 3 8x x xG )C* The menti!n !f #artic$lar matters in this secti!n shall n!t #reB$dice the 5eneral a##licati!n !f the /eneral Cla$ses Act, 1=97, )10 !f 1=97* with res#ect t! re#eals+ )@* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in this Act, any s$it f!r infrin5ement !f a #atent !r any #r!ceedin5 f!r re0!cati!n !f a #atent, #endin5 in any c!$rt at the c!mmencement !f this Act, may be c!ntin$ed and dis#!sed !f, as if this Act had n!t been #assed+ . [1:.+ --->

1 1mitted by Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00,, w+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S+1+ @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+ , S$b<secti!ns ),* R ).* !mitted, ibid+ 3 5xistin. section 1!3 omitted &' the (atents )*mdt.+ *ct, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

7C5 (*7567S ;IB5S, 2003


:6otification 6o. S3 493)5+, dt. 2- -2003] )*s amended by t+e Patents (Amdt.) ,#les, 200-, ..e.f. 5-5-200-)

Dhereas certain draft r$les were #$blished in e-ercise !f the #!wers c!nferred by secti!n 1@9 !f the Patents Act, 1970 0ide N!ti+ !f the /!0t+ !f %ndia in (inistry !f C!mmerce and %nd$stry )4e#t+ !f %ndl+ P!licy and Pr!m!ti!n* 0ide N$mber S1 101=)E*, dt+ ,0<9<,00,, in Part %%, secti!n ., s$b<secti!n )ii* !f the /a2ette !f %ndia )E-tra+*, dt+ ,0<9<,00,, f!r in0itin5 !bBecti!ns and s$55esti!ns fr!m #ers!ns li?ely t! be affected thereby bef!re e-#iry !f a #eri!d !f thirty days fr!m the date !n which c!#ies !f the /a2ette c!ntainin5 the N!tificati!n were made a0ailable t! the #$blic; And whereas the c!#ies !f the /a2ette c!ntainin5 the said N!tificati!n were made a0ailable t! the #$blic !n .<10<,00,; And whereas !bBecti!ns and s$55esti!ns recei0ed fr!m the #$blic !n the said draft r$les ha0e been c!nsidered by the Central /!0ernment; N!w, theref!re, in e-ercise !f the #!wers c!nferred by secti!n 1@9 !f the Patents Act, 1970 and in s$#ersessi!n !f the Patents "$les, 197, #$blished in the /a2ette !f %ndia, 0ide S+1+.01)E*, dt+ ,0<C<197, in Part %%, secti!n ., s$b<secti!n )ii*, e-ce#t as res#ect thin5s d!ne !r !mitted t! be d!ne bef!re s$ch s$#ersessi!n, Central /!0ernment hereby ma?es the f!ll!win5 r$les, namely&7 CHAPTER I P"E'%(%NA" 1. Short title and commencement )1* These r$les may be called the Patents "$les, ,00.+ ),* They shall c!me int! f!rce !n the date !n which the Patents )Amendment* Act, ,00, c!mes int! f!rce1+ 2. Definitions %n these r$les, $nless the c!nte-t !therwise re6$ires,7 )a* 8Act8 means the Patents Act, 1970 ).9 !f 1970*; )b* 8a##r!#riate !ffice8 means the a##r!#riate !ffice !f the #atent !ffice as s#ecified in r$le C; )c* 8article8 incl$des any s$bstance !r material, and any #lant, machinery !r a##arat$s, whether affi-ed t! land !r n!t; )d* 8F!rm8 means a F!rm s#ecified in the Sec!nd Sched$le; )e* 8Sched$le8 means Sched$le t! these r$les; )f* 8secti!n8 means a secti!n !f the Act; )5* w!rds and e-#ressi!ns $sed, b$t n!t defined in these r$les, shall ha0e the meanin5s res#ecti0ely assi5ned t! them in the Act+

D+e+f+ ,0<@<,00. 0ide S1 @:1)E*, dt+ ,0<@<,00.+

"2 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. "A'E : 3. (rescri&ed partic%lars Sa0e as !therwise #r!0ided in these r$les, the #artic$lars c!ntained in a F!rm are hereby #rescribed as the #artic$lars, if any, re6$ired $nder the rele0ant #r!0isi!n !r #r!0isi!ns !f the Act+ 4. *ppropriate office )1* The a##r!#riate !ffice !f the #atent !ffice shall7 )i* f!r all the #r!ceedin5s $nder the Act, 1[- - -> be the head !ffice !f the #atent !ffice !r the branch !ffice, as the case may be, within wh!se territ!rial limits7 )a* the a##licant !r first menti!ned a##licant in case !f B!int a##licants f!r a #atent, n!rmally resides !r has his d!micile !r has a #lace !f b$siness !r the #lace fr!m where the in0enti!n act$ally !ri5inated; !r )b* the a##licant f!r a #atent !r #arty in a #r!ceedin5 if he has n! #lace !f b$siness !r d!micile in %ndia, the address f!r ser0ice in %ndia 5i0en by s$ch a##licant !r #arty is sit$ated; and , [)ii* ---> ),* The a##r!#riate !ffice !nce decided in res#ect !f any #r!ceedin5s $nder the Act shall n!t !rdinarily be chan5ed+ . *ddress for ser$ice E0ery #ers!n, c!ncerned in any #r!ceedin5s t! which the Act !r these r$les relate and e0ery #atentee, shall f$rnish t! the C!ntr!ller and address f!r ser0ice in %ndia and that address may be treated f!r all #$r#!ses c!nnected with s$ch #r!ceedin5s !r #atent as the address !f the #ers!n c!ncerned in the #r!ceedin5s !r !f the #atentee+ Anless s$ch an address is 5i0en, the C!ntr!ller shall be $nder n! !bli5ati!n either t! #r!ceed !r deal with any #r!ceedin5, !r #atent !r t! send any n!tice that may be re6$ired t! be 5i0en $nder the Act !r these r$les .[and the C!ntr!ller may ta?e s$! m!t$ decisi!n in the matter>+ !. Bea$in. and ser$in. doc%ments C [)1* Any a##licati!n, n!tice !r !ther d!c$ment a$th!ri2ed !r re6$ired t! be filed, left, made !r 5i0en at the #atent !ffice, !r t! the C!ntr!ller !r t! any !ther #ers!n $nder the Act !r these r$les, may be tendered by hand !r sent by a latter addressed t! the C!ntr!ller at the a##r!#riate !ffice !r t! that #ers!n thr!$5h #!st !r re5istered #!st !r s#eed #!st !r c!$rier ser0ice !r by electr!nic transmissi!n d$ly a$thenticated+ %f it is sent by #!st !r re5istered #!st !r s#eed #!st !r c!$rier ser0ice !r by electr!nic transmissi!n d$ly a$thenticated, it shall be deemed t! ha0e been filed, left, made !r 5i0en at the time when the mail c!ntainin5 the same w!$ld ha0e been deli0ered in the !rdinary c!$rse !f #!st !r re5istered #!st !r s#eed #!st !r c!$rier ser0ice, !r by electr!nic transmissi!n d$ly a$thenticated, as the case may be+ %n #r!0in5 s$ch sendin5, it shall be s$fficient t! sh!w that the mail was #r!#erly addressed and transmitted+

1 D!rds and fi5$res 8!ther than th!se $nder secti!ns .9,:@ and 1,@8 !mitted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ Earlier, fi5$res and letters 8,CA, ,C9, ,CC,8 !mitted by the Patents )Amdt* "$les ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , Cla$se )ii* !mitted, ibid+ . %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

E-istin5 s$b<secti!n )1* and #r!0is! s$bstit$ted, ibid+

"A'E 7 "3
l

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

[---> ),* Any written c!mm$nicati!n addressed t! a #atentee at his address as it a##ears !n the re5ister !f #atents !r at his address f!r ser0ice 5i0en $nder r$le @, !r t! any a##licant !r !##!nent in any #r!ceedin5s $nder the Act !r these r$les, at the address a##earin5 !n the a##licati!n !r n!tice !f !##!siti!n, !r 5i0en f!r ser0ice, shall be deemed t! be #r!#erly addressed+ ).* All n!tices and all written c!mm$nicati!ns addressed t! a #atentee, !r t! any a##licant !r !##!nent in any #r!ceedin5s $nder the Act !r these r$les, and all d!c$ments f!rwarded t! the #atentee !r t! the said a##licant !r !##!nent, shall, e-ce#t when they are sent by s#ecial messen5er, be sent by re5istered #!st !r s#eed #!st !r c!$rier ser0ice !r by electr!nic transmissi!n d$ly a$thenticated+ )C* The date !f a n!tice !r a written c!mm$nicati!n addressed t! a #atentee !r t! any a##licant !r !##!nent in any #r!ceedin5s $nder the Act and these r$les shall be the date !f dis#atch !f the said n!tice !r written c!mm$nicati!n, by re5istered #!st !r s#eed #!st !r c!$rier !r fa- !r electr!nic transmissi!n d$ly a$thenticated, as the case may be, $nless !therwise s#ecified $nder the Act !r these r$les+ )@* %n case !f delay in recei#t !f a d!c$ment !r a c!mm$nicati!n sent by the #atent !ffice t! a #arty t! any #r!ceedin5s $nder the Act !r these r$les, the delay in transmittin5 !r res$bmittin5 a d!c$ment t! the #atent !ffice !r d!in5 any act by the #arty may be c!nd!ned by the C!ntr!ller if a #etiti!n f!r s$ch c!nd!nati!n !f delay is made by the #arty t! the C!ntr!ller immediately after the recei#t !f the d!c$ment !r a c!mm$nicati!n al!n5 with a statement re5ardin5 the circ$mstances !f the fact and e0idence in s$##!rt !f the statement& P"13%4E4 that the delay c!nd!ned by the C!ntr!ller shall n!t e-ceed the #eri!d between the date !n which the #arty was s$##!sed t! ha0e recei0ed the d!c$ment !r c!mm$nicati!n by !rdinary c!$rse !f mail !r electr!nic transmissi!n and the act$al date !f recei#t !f the same+ 7. /ees )1* The fees #ayable $nder secti!n 1C, in res#ect !f the 5rant !f #atents and a##licati!ns theref!r, and in res#ect !f !ther matters f!r which fees are re6$ired t! be #ayable $nder the Act shall be as s#ecified in the First Sched$le+ ),*)a* The fees #ayable $nder the Act may either be #aid in cash ,[!r thr!$5h electr!nic means> !r may be sent by ban? draft !r che6$e #ayable t! the C!ntr!ller !f Patents and drawn !n a sched$led ban? at the #lace where the a##r!#riate !ffice is sit$ated+ %f the draft !r che6$e is sent by #!st, the fees shall be deemed t! ha0e been #aid !n the date !n which the draft !r che6$e w!$ld ha0e reached the C!ntr!ller in the !rdinary c!$rse !f mail+ )b* Che6$es !r drafts n!t incl$din5 the c!rrect am!$nt !f c!mmissi!n and che6$es !n which the f$ll 0al$e s#ecified therein cann!t be c!llected in cash .[- - ->, shall be acce#ted !nly at the discreti!n !f the C!ntr!ller
1 Pr!0is! !mitted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ Pri!r t! !missi!n, it st!!d as $nder&7 8P"13%4E4 that any a##licati!n, n!tice !r the d!c$ment sent thr!$5h fa- !r by electr!nic transmissi!n d$ly a$thenticated, shall als! be deemed t! ha0e been filed, left, made !r 5i0en if the same is clear and f$lly le5ible and its !ri5inal !r #a#er c!#y, as the case may be, is s$bmitted t! the a##r!#riate !ffice within !#en m!nth fr!m the date !f recei#t !f the s$ch fa- !r by electr!nic transmissi!n d$ly a$thenticated+8 , %nserted, ibid+

D!rds 8within the time all!wed f!r #ayment !f the fees8 !mitted, ibid+

"4 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. 9


1

"A'E

[)c* Dhere a fee is #ayable in res#ect !f a d!c$ment, the entire fee shall acc!m#any the d!c$ment+> ).* %n case an a##licati!n #r!cessed by a nat$ral #ers!n is f$lly !r #artly transferred t! a #ers!n !ther than a nat$ral #ers!n, the difference, if any, in the scale !f fee)s* between the fee)s* char5ed fr!m a nat$ral #ers!n and the fee)s* char5eable fr!m the #ers!n !ther than the nat$ral #ers!n in the same matter shall be #aid by the new a##licant with the re6$est f!r transfer+ , [)C* Fees !nce #aid in res#ect !f any #r!ceedin5 shall n!t !rdinarily be ref$nded irres#ecti0e !f whether the #r!ceedin5 has ta?en #lace !r n!t+> )@*)i* S$bBect t! the a##r!0al !f the C!ntr!ller, any #ers!n may de#!sit m!ney in ad0ance and re6$est the C!ntr!ller !r realise any fee #ayable by him fr!m the said de#!sit and in s$ch case the date !f the recei#t !f the re6$est t! realise the fee !r the date !n which the re6$est t! realise the fee is deemed t! ha0e been recei0ed, whiche0er is earlier, shall be ta?en as the date !f #ayment !f the fee& P"13%4E4 that the re6$isite am!$nt !f m!ney is a0ailable at the credit !f the #ers!n ma?in5 s$ch re6$est+ )ii* S$bBect t! the a##r!0al !f the C!ntr!ller, any #ers!n may disc!ntin$e the de#!sit !f m!ney in ad0ance and in s$ch case the balance, if any, shall be ref$nded+ ". /orms )1* The F!rms set f!rth in the Sec!nd Sched$le with s$ch 0ariati!ns as the circ$m< stances !f each case may re6$ire shall be $sed f!r the #$r#!ses menti!ned therein+ ),* Dhere n! F!rm is s! s#ecified f!r any #$r#!se, the a##licant may ad!#t any F!rm s#ecified in the Sec!nd Sched$le with s$ch m!dificati!ns and 0ariati!ns as may be re6$ired+ 9. Si9e etc. of doc%ments )1* All d!c$ments and c!#ies !f d!c$ments, e-ce#t affida0its and drawin5s, sent t! !r left at the #atent !ffice !r !therwise f$rnished t! the C!ntr!ller shall be written !r ty#erwritten !r #rinted either in Hindi !r in En5lish lan5$a5e )$nless !therwise directed !r all!wed by the C!ntr!ller* in lar5e and le5ible characters with dee# indelible in? with lines widely s#aced $#!n !ne side !nly !f str!n5 white #a#er !f a si2e AC !f a##r!-imately ,9+7 centimeters by ,1 centimeters with a mar5in !f at least C centimeters !n the t!# and left hand #art and . cm !n the b!tt!m and ri5ht hand #art there!f+ Any si5nat$re which is n!t le5ible !r which is written in a scri#t !ther than Hindi !r En5lish shall be acc!m#anied by a transcri#ti!n !f the name either in Hindi !r in En5lish in bl!c? letters& P"13%4E4 that any d!c$ment incl$din5 drawin5, if any, may als! be filed in electr!nic f!rm al!n5 with a c!#y !f it !n white #a#er& P"13%4E4 FA"THE" that in case the a##licati!n f!r #atent discl!ses se6$ence listin5 !f n$cle!tides andS!r amin! acids, the same shall be filed in electr!nic f!rm+
1 S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ Pri!r t! s$bstit$ti!n cla$se )c* read as $nder&7 8)c* Dhere a fee is #ayable in res#ect !f a d!c$ment, the entire fee shall acc!m#any the d!c$ment !r shall be #aid within !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the d!c$ment& P"13%4E4 that the C!ntr!ller may acce#t the fee in #art and all!w remainin5 #art !f the fee t! be #aid at any time within !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the d!c$ment n!twithstandin5 the e-#iry !f the d$e date f!r filin5 !f s$ch d!c$ment and !n s$ch #ayment the d!c$ment shall be ta?en !n rec!rd fr!m the date !f its filin5+8

S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

"A'E 1, "

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

),* Additi!nal c!#ies !f all d!c$ments shall be filed at the a##r!#riate !ffice, if re6$ired by the C!ntr!ller+ ).* Names and addresses !f a##licants and !ther #ers!ns shall be 5i0en in f$ll t!5ether with their nati!nality and s$ch !ther #artic$lars, if any, as are necessary f!r identificati!n+ CHAPTER II APP'%CAT%1N F1" PATENTS 10. (eriod ,ithin ,hich proof of the ri.ht %nder section 7)2+ to ma0e the application shall &e f%rnished Dhere, in an a##licati!n f!r a #atent made by 0irt$e !f an assi5nment !f the ri5ht t! a##ly f!r the #atent f!r the in0enti!n, if the #r!!f !f the ri5ht t! ma?e the a##licati!n is n!t f$rnished with the a##licati!n, the a##licant shall within a #eri!d !f 1[si- m!nths> after the filin5 !f s$ch a##licati!n f$rnish s$ch #r!!f+ $%planation 1 F!r the #$r#!ses !f this r$le, the 1[si- m!nths> #eri!d in case !f an a##licati!n c!rres#!ndin5 t! an internati!nal a##licati!n in which %ndia is desi5nated shall be rec?!ned fr!m the act$al date !n which the c!rres#!ndin5 a##licati!n is filed in %ndia+ 11. 3rder of recordin. applications The a##licati!ns filed in a year shall c!nstit$te a series identified by the year !f s$ch filin5+ %n case !f an a##licati!n filed c!rres#!ndin5 t! an internati!nal a##licati!n in which %ndia is desi5nated, s$ch a##licati!n shall c!nstit$te a series distinct fr!m the rest !f the a##licati!ns identified by the year !f filin5 !f c!rres#!ndin5 a##licati!ns in %ndia+ 12. Statement and %nderta0in. re.ardin. forei.n applications )1* The statement and $nderta?in5 re6$ired t! be filed by an a##licant f!r a #atent $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n = shall be made in F!rm .+ , [)1A* The #eri!d within which the a##licant shall file the statement and $nderta?in5 $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n = shall be 1[si- m!nths> fr!m the date !f filin5 the a##licati!n+ $%planation 1 F!r the #$r#!se !f this r$le, the #eri!d !f 1[si- m!nths> in case !f an a##licati!n c!rres#!ndin5 t! an internati!nal a##licati!n in which %ndia is desi5nated shall be rec?!ned fr!m the act$al date !n which the c!rres#!ndin5 a##licati!n is filed in %ndia+> ),* The time within which the a##licant f!r a #atent shall ?ee# the C!ntr!ller inf!rmed !f the details in res#ect !f !ther a##licati!ns filed in any c!$ntry in the $nderta?in5 t! be 5i0en by him $nder cla$se )b* !f s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n = shall be 1[si- m!nths>> fr!m the date !f s$ch filin5+ . [).* Dhen s! re6$ired by the C!ntr!ller $nder s$b<secti!n ),* secti!n =, the a##licant shall f$rnish inf!rmati!n relatin5 t! !bBecti!ns, if any, in res#ect !f n!0elty and #atentability !f the in0enti!n and any !ther #artic$lars as the C!ntr!ller may re6$ire which may incl$de claims !f a##licati!n all!wed within 1[si- m!nths> fr!m the date !f s$ch c!mm$nicati!n by the C!ntr!ller+>

1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8three m!nths8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ , %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

. S$bstit$ted f!r e-istin5 s$b<r$les ).* R )C*, ibid+

"! THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. 1.

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13. Specifications )1* E0ery s#ecificati!n, whether #r!0isi!nal !r c!m#lete, shall be made in F!rm ,+ ),* A s#ecificati!n in res#ect !f a di0isi!nal a##licati!n $nder secti!n 1: shall c!ntain s#ecific reference t! the n$mber !f the !ri5inal a##licati!n fr!m which the di0isi!nal a##licati!n is made+ ).* A s#ecificati!n in res#ect !f a #atent !f additi!n $nder secti!n @C shall c!ntain a s#ecific reference t! the n$mber !f the main #atent, !r the a##licati!n f!r the main #atent, as the case may be, and a definite statement that the in0enti!n c!m#rises an im#r!0ement in, !r a m!dificati!n !f, the in0enti!n claimed in the s#ecificati!n !f the main #atent 5ranted !r a##lied f!r+ )C* Dhere the in0enti!n re6$ires e-#lanati!n thr!$5h drawin5s, s$ch drawin5s shall be #re#ared in acc!rdance with the #r!0isi!ns !f r$le 1@ and shall be s$##lied with, and referred t! in detail, in the s#ecificati!n& P"13%4E4 that in the case !f a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, if the a##licant desires t! ad!#t the drawin5s filed with his #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n as the drawin5s !r #art !f the drawin5s f!r the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, it shall be s$fficient t! refer t! them in the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n as th!se left with the #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n+ )@* %rrele0ant !r !ther matter, n!t necessary, in the !#ini!n !f the C!ntr!ller, f!r el$cidati!n !f the in0enti!n, shall be e-cl$ded fr!m the title, descri#ti!n, claims and drawin5s+ 1 [):* E-ce#t in the case !f an a##licati!n )!ther than a c!n0enti!n a##licati!n !r an a##licati!n filed $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty desi5natin5 %ndia* which is acc!m#anied by a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, a declarati!n as t! the in0ent!rshi# !f the in0enti!n shall be filed in F!rm @ with the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r at any time bef!re the e-#irati!n !f !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, as the C!ntr!ller may all!w !n an a##licati!n made in F!rm C+> )7*)a*The abstract as s#ecified $nder cla$se )d* !f s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n 10, acc!m#anyin5 the s#ecificati!n shall c!mmence with the title !f the in0enti!n+ The title !f the in0enti!n shall discl!se the s#ecific feat$res !f the in0enti!n n!rmally in n!t m!re than fifteen w!rds+ )b* The abstract shall c!ntain a c!ncise s$mmary !f the matter c!ntained in the s#ecificati!n+ The s$mmary shall indicate clearly the technical field t! which the in0enti!n bel!n5s, technical #r!blem t! which the in0enti!n relates and the s!l$ti!n t! the #r!blem thr!$5h the in0enti!n and #rinci#al $se !r $ses !f the in0enti!n+ Dhere necessary, the abstract shall c!ntain the chemical f!rm$la, which characterises the in0enti!n+ )c* The abstract may n!t c!ntain m!re than !ne h$ndred and fifty w!rds+ )d* %f the s#ecificati!n c!ntains any drawin5, the a##licant shall indicate !n the abstract the fi5$re, !r e-ce#ti!nally, the fi5$res !f the drawin5s which may acc!m#any the abstract when #$blished+ Each main feat$re menti!ned in the abstract and ill$strated by a drawin5 shall be f!ll!wed by the reference si5n $sed in that drawin5+ )e* The abstract shall be s! drafted that it c!nstit$tes an efficient instr$ment f!r the #$r#!ses !f searchin5 in the #artic$lar technical field, in #artic$lar by

S%&stit%ted for existin. s%&-section )!+ and 5xplanation &' the (atents )*mdt.+ ;%les, 200 , ,.e.f. 1-1-200 .

"A'E 17 "7

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

ma?in5 it #!ssible t! assess whether there is a need t! c!ns$lt the s#ecificati!n itself+ 1 )=* The #eri!d within which reference t! the de#!sit shall be made in the s#ecificati!n $nder s$b<cla$se )A* !f cla$se )ii* !f s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n 10 shall be three m!nths fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the a##licati!n+> 2 :14. *mendments to specifications )1* Dhen a #r!0isi!nal !r c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r any drawin5 acc!m#anyin5 it has been recei0ed by the a##licant !r his a5ent f!r amendment, and amendment is d$ly made there!n, the #a5e inc!r#!ratin5 s$ch amendment shall be rety#ed and s$bmitted t! f!rm a c!ntin$!$s d!c$ment+ Amendments shall n!t be made by sli#s #asted !n, !r as f!!tn!tes !r by writin5 in the mar5in !f any !f the said d!c$ments+ ),* The amended d!c$ments shall be ret$rned t! the C!ntr!ller t!5ether with the s$#erseded #a5es !r drawin5s, if any, d$ly mar?ed, cancelled and initialled by the a##licant !r his a5ent+ C!#ies !f any #a5es that ha0e been rety#ed !r added and !f any drawin5 that has been added !r s$bstantially amended shall be sent in d$#licate+> 1 . Dra,in.s )1* 4rawin5s, when f$rnished $nder secti!n 10 by the a##licants !therwise than !n re6$isiti!n made by the C!ntr!ller, shall acc!m#any the s#ecificati!ns t! which they relate+ ),* N! drawin5s !r s?etch, which w!$ld re6$ire a s#ecial ill$strati!n !f the s#ecificati!n, shall a##ear in the s#ecificati!n itself+ ).* At least !ne c!#y !f the drawin5 shall be #re#ared neatly and clearly !n a d$rable #a#er sheet+ )C* 4rawin5s shall be !n standard AC si2e sheets with a clear mar5in !f at least C cm !n the t!# and left hand and . cm at the b!tt!m and ri5ht hand !f e0ery sheet+ )@* 4rawin5s shall be !n a scale s$fficiently lar5e t! sh!w the in0enti!ns clearly and dimensi!ns shall n!t be mar?ed !n the drawin5s+ ):* 4rawin5 shall be se6$entially !r systematically n$mbered and shall bear7 )i* in the left hand t!# c!rner the name !f the a##licant; )ii* in the ri5ht hand t!# c!rner, the n$mber !f the sheets !f drawin5s, and the c!nsec$ti0e n$mber !f each sheet; and )iii* in the ri5ht hand b!tt!m c!rner, the si5nat$re !f the a##licant !r his a5ent+ )7* N! descri#ti0e matter shall a##ear !n the drawin5s e-ce#t in the fl!w dia5rams+ 1!. 4odels (!dels !r sam#les shall be f$rnished $nder secti!n 10 !nly when re6$ired by the C!ntr!ller+ CHAPTER III %NTE"NAT%1NA' APP'%CAT%1NS AN4E" PATENT C11PE"AT%1N T"EAT )PCT* 17. Definitions %n this Cha#ter, $nless the c!nte-t !therwise re6$ires,7 )a* 8Article8 means an Article !f the Treaty;

1 ,

%nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

"" THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. ,0

"A'E

)b* 8Treaty8 !r 8PCT8 means the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty; )c* All !ther w!rds and e-#ressi!ns $sed herein and n!t defined b$t defined in the PCT shall ha0e the same meanin5 as assi5neeN t! them in that Treaty+ 1". *ppropriate office in relation to international applications )1* The recei0in5 !ffice, desi5nated !ffice and elected !ffice f!r the #$r#!ses !f internati!nal a##licati!ns filed $nder the Treaty shall be the a##r!#riate !ffice in acc!rdance with r$le C+ ),* The head !ffice !f the #atent !ffice shall be the a##r!#riate !ffice f!r dealin5 with the %nternati!nal 9$rea$ !f the D!rld %ntellect$al Pr!#ertyS1r5anisati!n, %nternati!nal Searchin5 A$th!rities and %nternati!nal Preliminary E-aminin5 A$th!rities+ ).* An internati!nal a##licati!n $nder the Treaty shall be filed at and #r!cessed by the a##r!#riate !ffice in acc!rdance with the #r!0isi!ns !f this Cha#ter, the Treaty and the re5$lati!ns established $nder the PCT+ )C* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<r$le ),*, !n recei#t !f an internati!nal a##licati!n, the a##r!#riate !ffice shall transmit !ne c!#y as rec!rd c!#y !f s$ch a##licati!n t! %nternati!nal 9$rea$ !f the D!rld %ntellect$al Pr!#erty 1r5anisati!n and an!ther c!#y as search c!#y t! C!m#etent %nternati!nal Searchin5 A$th!rity+ The a##r!#riate !ffice shall sim$ltane!$sly f$rnish c!m#lete details !f s$ch a##licati!n t! the head !ffice !f the #atent !ffices+ 19. -nternational applications filed ,ith appropriate office as recei$in. office 1 [)1* An internati!nal a##licati!n shall be filed with the a##r!#riate !ffice in tri#licate either in En5lish !r in Hindi 'an5$a5e+> ),* The fees #ayable in res#ect !f an internati!nal a##licati!n filed with the a##r!#riate !ffice shall be, in additi!n t! the fees as s#ecified in the re5$lati!ns $nder the Treaty, the fees as s#ecified in the First Sched$le+ ).* Dhere an internati!nal a##licati!n filed with the a##r!#riate !ffice has n!t been filed as s#ecified $nder s$b<r$le )1* and the a##licant desires that the a##r!#riate !ffice sh!$ld #re#are the additi!nal c!#ies re6$ired, the fee f!r ma?in5 s$ch c!#ies shall be #aid by the a##licant+ )C* 1n recei#t !f a re6$est fr!m the a##licant and !n #ayment !f the #rescribed fee by him, the a##r!#riate !ffice shall #re#are a certified c!#y !f the #ri!rity d!c$ment and #r!m#tly transmit the same t! the %nternati!nal 9$rea$ !f the D!rld %ntellect$al Pr!#erty 1r5anisati!n f!r the #$r#!se !f an internati!nal a##licati!n filed with the a##r!#riate !ffice with an intimati!n t! the a##licant and the head !ffice+ 20. -nternational applications desi.natin. or desi.natin. and electin. -ndia )1* An a##licati!n c!rres#!ndin5 t! an internati!nal a##licati!n $nder the Patent C!!#erati!n Treaty $nder secti!n 7)1A* may be made in ,[F!rm 1>+ ),* The Patent 1ffice shall n!t c!mmence #r!cessin5 !f an a##licati!n filed c!rre< s#!ndin5 t! internati!nal a##licati!n desi5natin5 %ndia bef!re the e-#irati!n !f the time<limit #rescribed $nder . [s$b<r$le )C*)i*>+ ).* An a##licant in res#ect !f an internati!nal a##licati!n desi5natin5 %ndia shall, bef!re the time<limit #rescribed in .[s$b<r$le )C*)i*>,7
1 S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8F!rm 1A8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

. S$bstit$ted f!r 8s$b<r$le )C*8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

"A'E ,1

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. "9

)a* #ay the #rescribed nati!nal fee and !ther fees t! the #atent !ffice in the manner #rescribed $nder these r$les and $nder the re5$lati!ns made $nder the Treaty; )b* and where the internati!nal a##licati!n was either n!t filed !r has n!t been #$blished in En5lish, file with the #atent !ffice, a translati!n !f the a##licati!n in En5lish, d$ly 0erified by the a##licant 1[!r the #ers!n d$ly a$th!ri2ed by him> that the c!ntents there!f are c!rrect and c!m#lete+ , [)C*)i* The time limit referred t! in s$b<r$le ),* shall be thirty<!ne m!nths fr!m the #ri!rity date as referred t! in Article ,)-i*; )ii* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in cla$se )i*, the Patent 1ffice may, !n the e-#ress re6$est filed in F!rm 1= al!n5 with the fee s#ecified in First Sched$le, #r!cess !r e-amine the a##licati!n at any time bef!re thirty<!ne m!nths+> )@* The translati!n !f the internati!nal a##licati!n referred t! in s$b<r$le ).* shall incl$de a translati!n in En5lish !f,7 )i* the descri#ti!n; )ii* the claims as filed; )iii* any te-t matter !f the drawin5s; )i0* the abstract; )0* in case the a##licant has n!t elected %ndia and if the claims ha0e been amended $nder Article 19, then the amended claims t!5ether with any statement filed $nder the said Article; and )0i* in case the a##licant has elected %ndia and any amendments t! the descri#ti!n, the claims and te-t matter !f the drawin5s that are anne-ed t! the internati!nal #reliminary e-aminati!n re#!rt+ ):* %f the a##licant fails t! file a translati!n !f the amended claims and anne-$res referred t! in s$b<r$le )@*, e0en after in0itati!n fr!m the a##r!#riate !ffice t! d! s!, within a time limit as may be fi-ed by that !ffice ha0in5 re5ard t! the time left f!r meetin5 the re6$irements, the amended claims and anne-$res shall be disre5arded in the c!$rse !f f$rther #r!cessin5 the a##licati!n by the a##r!#riate !ffice+ )7* The a##licant in res#ect !f an internati!nal a##licati!n desi5natin5 %ndia shall when c!m#lyin5 with s$b<r$le ).*, #referably $se F!rms set !$t in the Sec!nd Sched$le bef!re the a##r!#riate !ffice as desi5nated !ffice+ 21. /ilin. of priorit' doc%ment )1* Dhere the a##licant in res#ect !f an internati!nal a##licati!n desi5natin5 %ndia has n!t c!m#lied with the re6$irements !f #ara5ra#h )a* !r #ara5ra#h )b* !f r$le 17+1 !f the re5$lati!ns $nder the Treaty, the a##licant shall file with the #atent !ffice the #ri!rity d!c$ment referred t! in that r$le bef!re the e-#irati!n !f the time limit referred t! in s$b<r$le )C* !f r$le ,0+ ),* Dhere #ri!rity d!c$ment referred t! in s$b<r$le )1* is n!t in the En5lish lan5$a5e, an En5lish translati!n there!f d$ly 0erified by the a##licant 1[!r the #ers!n d$ly a$th!rised by him> shall be filed within the time limit s#ecified in s$b<r$le )C* !f r$le ,0+

1 ,

%nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

90 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

"A'E ,C9

).* Dhere the a##licant d!es n!t c!m#ly with the re6$irements !f s$b<r$le )1* !r s$b< r$le ),*, the a##r!#riate !ffice shall in0ite the a##licant t! file the #ri!rity d!c$ment !r the translati!n there!f, as the case maybe, within three m!nths fr!m the date !f s$ch in0itati!n, and if the a##licant fails t! d! s!, the claim !f a##licant f!r the #ri!rity shall be disre5arded f!r the #$r#!ses !f the Act+ 22. 5ffect of non-compliance ,ith certain re<%irements An internati!nal a##licati!n desi5natin5 %ndia shall be deemed t! be withdrawn if the a##licant d!es n!t c!m#ly with the re6$irements !f r$le ,0+ 23. 7he re<%irements %nder this 2hapter to &e s%pplemental of the re.%lations, etc., %nder the 7reat' )1* The #r!0isi!ns !f this Cha#ter shall be s$##lemental t! the PCT and the re5$lati!n and the administrati0e instr$cti!ns made there$nder+ ),* %n case !f a c!nflict between any #r!0isi!ns !f the r$les c!ntained in this Cha#ter and #r!0isi!ns !f the Treaty and the re5$lati!ns and the administrati0e instr$cti!ns made there$nder, the #r!0isi!ns !f the Treaty and the re5$lati!ns and administrati0e instr$cti!ns made there$nder shall a##ly in relati!n t! internati!nal a##licati!ns+ CHAPTER IV PA9'%CAT%1N AN4 ELA(%NAT%1N 1F APP'%CAT%1NS 1 :24. (%&lication of application The #eri!d f!r which an a##licati!n f!r #atent shall n!t !rdinarily be !#en t! #$blic $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 11A shall be ei5hteen m!nths fr!m the date !f filin5 !f a##licati!n !r the date !f #ri!rity !f the a##licati!n, whiche0er is earlier& , [P"13%4E4 that the #eri!d within which the C!ntr!ller shall #$blish the a##licati!n in the E!$rnal shall !rdinarily be !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f e-#iry !f said #eri!d, !r !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f re6$est f!r #$blicati!n $nder r$le ,CA+> 24*. ;e<%est for p%&lication
A re6$est f!r #$blicati!n $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n 11A shall be made in F!rm 9+

24B. 5xamination of application )l*)i* A re6$est f!r e-aminati!n $nder secti!n 119 shall be made in F!rm 1= .[within f!rty<ei5ht m!nths> fr!m the date !f #ri!rity !f the a##licati!n !r fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the a##licati!n, whiche0er is earlier; C [)ii* The #eri!d within which the re6$est f!r e-aminati!n $nder s$b<sec+ ).* !f sec+ 119 t! be made shall be f!rty<ei5ht m!nths fr!m the date !f #ri!rity, if a##licable, !r f!rty<ei5ht m!nths fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the a##licati!n; )iii* The re6$est f!r e-aminati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n 119 shall be made within f!rty<ei5ht m!nths fr!m the date !f #ri!rity !r fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the a##licati!n, !r within si- m!nths fr!m the date !f re0!cati!n !f the secrecy directi!n, whiche0er is later; )i0* The re6$est f!r e-aminati!n !f a##licati!n as filed acc!rdin5 t! the GE-#lanati!nG $nder s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n 1: shall be made within
1 S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ . S$bstit$ted f!r 8after the #$blicati!n !f the a##licati!n b$t within thirty<si- m!nths8, ibid+ C S$bstit$ted, ibid+

"A'E ,7 91

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f!rty<ei5ht m!nths fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the a##licati!n !r fr!m the date !f #ri!rity !f the first menti!ned a##licati!n !r within si- m!nths fr!m the date !f filin5 !f the f$rther a##licati!n, whiche0er is later;> )0* The #eri!d f!r ma?in5 re6$est f!r e-aminati!n $nder secti!n 119, !f the a##licati!ns filed bef!re the 1st day !f Ean$ary, ,00@ shall be 1[the #eri!d s#ecified $nder secti!n 119 bef!re the c!mmencement !f the Patents )Amdt+* Act, ,00@ !r> the #eri!d s#ecified $nder these r$les, whiche0er e-#ires later+ ),*,[)i* The #eri!d within which the C!ntr!ller shall refer the a##licati!n and s#ecificati!n and !ther d!c$ments t! the e-aminer in res#ect !f the a##licati!ns where the re6$est f!r e-aminati!n has been recei0ed shall !rdinarily be !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f its #$blicati!n !r !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f the re6$est f!r e-aminati!n whiche0er is later& P"13%4E4 that s$ch reference shall be made in !rder in which the re6$est is filed $nder s$b<r$le )1*+> )ii* The #eri!d within which the e-aminer shall ma?e the re#!rt $nder s$b<sec+ ),* !f sec+ 1,, shall !rdinarily be !ne m!nth b$t n!t e-ceedin5 three m!nths fr!m the date !f reference !f the a##licati!n t! him by the C!ntr!ller+ . [)iii* The #eri!d within which the C!ntr!ller shall dis#!se !ff the re#!rt !f the e-aminer shall !rdinarily be !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f the recei#t !f the s$ch re#!rt by the C!ntr!ller+> ).* A first e-aminati!n re#!rt al!n5 with the a##licati!n and s#ecificati!n shall be sent t! the a##licant !r C[his a$th!rised a5ent !rdinarily within si- m!nths fr!m the date !f the re6$est f!r e-aminati!n !r si- m!nths fr!m the date !f #$blicati!n, whiche0er is later>+ %n case !ther interested #ers!n files the re6$est f!r e-aminati!n, an intimati!n !f s$ch e-aminati!n may be sent t! s$ch interested #ers!n+ , [)C* The time f!r #$ttin5 an a##licati!n in !rder f!r 5rant $nder secti!n ,1 shall be twel0e m!nths fr!m the date !n which the first statement !f !bBecti!n is iss$ed t! the a##licant t! c!m#ly with the re6$irements+> 2 . -dentification of p%&lished applications P$blicati!n !f a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!ns ),* and )@* !f secti!n 11A shall be identified by the letter GAG al!n5 with the n$mber !f a##licati!n+ 2!. ;e<%est for ,ithdra,al @ [- - -> A re6$est f!r withdrawin5 the a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n 119 shall be made in writin5+ : [),*---> 7 :27. -nspection and s%ppl' of p%&lished doc%ments After the date !f #$blicati!n !f the a##licati!n $nder secti!n 11 A, the a##licati!n t!5ether with the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n and #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n, if any, the

1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8the #eri!d s#ecified $nder secti!n 119 !r8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ , S$bstit$ted, ibid+ . %nserted, ibid+ C S$bstit$ted f!r 8his a$th!rised a5ent8, ibid+ @ Fi5$re and brac?ets 8)1*8 !mitted, ibid+ : S$b<r$le ),* !mitted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ 7 S$bstit$ted, ibid+

92 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. ,9

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drawin5, if any, and the abstract filed in res#ect !f the a##licati!n may be ins#ected at the a##r!#riate !ffice by ma?in5 a written re6$est t! the C!ntr!ller !n #ayment !f the fee in that behalf and c!#ies there!f may be !btained !n #ayment !f fees s#ecified in the First Sched$le+> 2". (roced%re in case of anticipation &' prior p%&lication )1* %f the C!ntr!ller is satisfied after in0esti5ati!n $nder secti!n 1. that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n has been #$blished in any s#ecificati!n !r !ther d!c$ment referred t! in cla$se )a* !f s$b<secti!n )1* !r s$b<secti!n ),* !f the said secti!n, the C!ntr!ller shall c!mm$nicate the 5ist !f s#ecific !bBecti!ns and the basis there!f t! the a##licant and the a##licant shall be aff!rded an !##!rt$nity t! amend his s#ecificati!n+ ),* %f the a##licant c!ntests any !f the !bBecti!ns c!mm$nicated t! him by the C!ntr!ller $nder s$b<r$le )1*, !r if he refiles his s#ecificati!n al!n5 with his !bser0ati!ns as t! whether !r n!t the s#ecificati!n is t! be amended, he shall be 5i0en an !##!rt$nity t! be heard in the matter if he s! re6$ests& P"13%4E4 that s$ch re6$est shall be made !n a date earlier than ten days !f the final date !f the #eri!d 1[referred t!> $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n ,1& P"13%4E4 FA"THE" that a re6$est f!r hearin5 may be all!wed t! be filed within s$ch sh!rter #eri!d as the C!ntr!ller may deem fit in the circ$mstances !f the case+ ).* %f the a##licant re6$ests f!r a hearin5 $nder s$b<r$le ),* within a #eri!d !f !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f c!mm$nicati!n !f the 5ist !f !bBecti!ns, !r, the C!ntr!ller, c!nsiders it desirable t! d! s!, whether !r n!t the a##licant has refiled his a##licati!n, he shall f!rthwith fia date and time f!r hearin5 ha0in5 re5ard t! the #eri!d remainin5 f!r #$ttin5 the a##licati!n in !rder !r t! the !ther circ$mstances !f the case+ )C* The a##licant shall be 5i0en ten daysG n!tice !f any s$ch hearin5 !r s$ch sh!rter n!tice as a##ears t! the C!ntr!ller t! be reas!nable in the circ$mstances !f the case and the a##licant shall, as s!!n as #!ssible, n!tify the C!ntr!ller whether he will attend the hearin5+ )@* After hearin5 the a##licant, !r with!$t a hearin5 if the a##licant has n!t attended !r has n!tified that he d!es n!t desire t! be heard, the C!ntr!ller may s#ecify !r #ermit s$ch amendment !f the s#ecificati!n as he thin?s fit t! be made and may ref$se t! ,[5rant the #atent> $nless the amendment s! s#ecified !r #ermitted is made within s$ch #eri!d as may be fi-ed+ 3 :2"*. (roced%re in relation to consideration of report of examiner %nder section 14 %n case the a##licant c!ntests any !f the !bBecti!ns c!mm$nicated t! him, the #r!ced$re s#ecified $nder r$le ,= may a##ly+> 29. (roced%re in case of anticipation &' prior claimin. )1* Dhen it is f!$nd that the in0enti!n s! far as claimed in any claim !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, is claimed in any claim !f any !ther s#ecificati!n fallin5 within cla$se )b* !f s$b< secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1., the a##licant shall be s! inf!rmed and shall be aff!rded an !##!rt$nity t! amend his s#ecificati!n+ C [),* %f the a##licantGs s#ecificati!n is !therwise in !rder f!r 5rant and an !bBecti!n $nder cla$se )b* !f s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1. is !$tstandin5, the C!ntr!ller may

1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8s#ecified8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8acce#t the s#ecificati!n8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ . %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

C S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

"A'E .@ 93

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

#!st#!ne the 5rant !f #atent and all!w a #eri!d !f tw! m!nths f!r rem!0in5 the !bBecti!n+> 30. *mendment of the complete specification in case of anticipation )1* %f the a##licant s! re6$ests at any time, !r if the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that the !bBecti!n has n!t been rem!0ed within the #eri!d referred t! in s$b<cla$se ),* !f r$le ,9, a date f!r hearin5 the a##licant shall be fi-ed f!rthwith and the a##licant shall be 5i0en at least ten daysG n!tice !f the date s! fi-ed+ The a##licant shall, as s!!n as #!ssible, n!tify the C!ntr!ller whether he will attend the hearin5+ ),* After hearin5 the a##licant, !r with!$t a hearin5 if the a##licant has n!t attended !r has n!tified that he d!es n!t desire t! be heard, the C!ntr!ller may s#ecify !r #ermit s$ch amendment !f the s#ecificati!n as will be t! his satisfacti!n t! be made and may direct that reference t! s$ch !ther s#ecificati!n, as he shall menti!n shall be inserted in the a##licantGs s#ecificati!n $nless the amendment is made !r a5reed t! within s$ch #eri!d as he may fi-+ 31. /orm of reference to another specification Dhen in #$rs$ance !f r$le .0, the C!ntr!ller directs that a reference t! an!ther s#ecificati!n shall be inserted in the a##licantGs c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, s$ch reference shall be inserted after the claims and shall be in the f!ll!win5 f!rm, namely&7 8"eference has been directed, in #$rs$ance !f secti!n 1=),* !f the Patents Act, 1970, t! the s#ecificati!n filed in #$rs$ance !f a##licati!n N!+++++++++8 .,+ (roced%re in case of potential infrin.ement %f in c!nse6$ence !f an in0esti5ati!n made $nder secti!n 1. l[% % ->, it a##ears t! the C!ntr!ller that the a##licantGs in0enti!n cann!t be #erf!rmed with!$t s$bstantial ris? !f infrin5ement !f a claim !f an!ther #atent, the a##licant shall be s! inf!rmed and the #r!ced$re #r!0ided in r$le ,9 shall, s! far as may be necessary, be a##licable+ ..+ /orm of reference to another patent Dhere the C!ntr!ller directs that a reference t! an!ther #atent shall be inserted in the a##licantGs c!m#lete s#ecificati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 19, s$ch reference shall be inserted after the claims in the f!ll!win5 f!rm, namely7 8"eference has been directed, in #$rs$ance !f secti!n 19)1* !f the Patents Act, 1970, t! Patent N!+++++++8 .C+ 4anner in ,hich a claim %nder section 20)1+ shall &e made )1* A claim $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n ,0 shall be made in F!rm :+ ),* The !ri5inal assi5nment !r a5reement !r an !fficial c!#y !r n!tari2ed c!#y there!f shall als! be #r!d$ced f!r the C!ntr!llerGs ins#ecti!n and the C!ntr!ller may call f!r s$ch !ther #r!!f !f tile !r written c!nsent as he may re6$ire+ 3 . 4anner in ,hich a re<%est ma' &e made %nder section 20)4+ )1* A re6$est $nder s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n ,0 shall be made in F!rm :+ ),* The re6$est shall be acc!m#anied by #r!!f !f death !f the B!int a##licant and a certified c!#y !f the #r!bate !f the will !f the deceased !r letters !f administrati!n in res#ect !f his estate !r any !ther d!c$ment t! #r!0e that the #ers!n wh! 5i0es the c!nsent is the le5al re#resentati0e !f the deceased a##licant+

8!r secti!n ,@8 !mitted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

94 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. @@

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3!. 4anner of application %nder section 20) + )1* An a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )@* !f secti!n ,0 shall be made in F!rm : in d$#licate and shall be acc!m#anied by a statement settin5 !$t f$lly the facts $#!n which the a##licant relies and the directi!ns which he see?s+ ),* A c!#y !f the a##licati!n and statement shall be sent by the C!ntr!ller t! e0ery !ther B!int a##licant+ 1 :37. 6%m&erin. of applications on the .rant of patent 1n the 5rant !f a #atent, the a##licati!n shall be acc!rded a n$mber )called serial n$mber* in the series !f n$mbers acc!rded t! #atents $nder the %ndian Patents and 4esi5ns Act, 1911 ), !f 1911* which shall be the n$mber !f the #atent s! 5ranted+> , [.=+ ---> CHAPTER V ELC'AS%3E (A"PET%N/ "%/HTS , [.9+ t! @C+ ---> CHAPTER VI . [1PP1S%T%1N P"1CEE4%N/S T1 /"ANT 1F PATENT> 4 : . :3pposition to the patent] : [)1* "e#resentati!n f!r !##!siti!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n ,@ shall be filed at the a##r!#riate !ffice and shall incl$de a statement and e0idence, if any, in s$##!rt !f the re#resentati!n and a re6$est f!r hearin5 if s! desired+ )1A* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<r$le )1*, n! #atent shall be 5ranted bef!re the e-#iry !f a #eri!d !f si- m!nths fr!m the date !f #$blicati!n !f the a##licati!n $nder secti!n 11 A+> ),* The C!ntr!ller shall c!nsider s$ch re#resentati!n !nly when a re6$est f!r e-aminati!n !f the a##licati!n has been filed+ ).* 1n c!nsiderati!n !f the re#resentati!n if the C!ntr!ller is !f the !#ini!n that a##licati!n f!r #atent shall be ref$sed !r the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n re6$ires amendment, he shall 5i0e a n!tice t! the a##licant t! that 7[effeet al!n5 with a c!#y !f s$ch re#resentati!n>+ )C* 1n recei0in5 the n!tice $nder s$b<r$le ).*, the a##licant shall, if he s! desires, file his statement and e0idence, if any in s$##!rt !f his a##licati!n within =[three m!nths> fr!m the date !f the n!tice+ )@* 1n c!nsiderati!n !f the statement and e0idence filed by the a##licant, the C!ntr!ller may either ref$se t! 5rant a #atent !n the a##licati!n !r re6$ire the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n t! be amended t! his satisfacti!n bef!re the #atent is 5ranted+ :* After c!nsiderin5 the re#resentati!n and s$bmissi!n made d$rin5 the hearin5 if s! re6$ested, the C!ntr!ller shall #r!ceed f$rther sim$ltane!$sly either reBectin5 the re#resentati!n and 5rantin5 the #atent !r acce#tin5 the re#resentati!n and ref$sin5 the
1 S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , 1mitted, ibid+ . S$bstit$ed f!r 81PP1S%T%1N P"1CEE4%N/S8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ Earlier, the headin5 81PP1S%T%1N T1/"ANT1F PATENTS8 was s$bs, by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ C S$bstit$ted f!r e-istin5 r$les @@ t! @7 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ @ S$bstit$ted f!r the mar5inal headin5 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ : S$bstit$ted, ibid+ 7 S$bstit$ted f!r the w!rd 8effect8, ibid+

= S$bstit$ted f!r the w!rds 8!ne m!nth8, ibid+

"A'E :0 9

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

5rant !f #atent !n that a##licati!n, !rdinarily within !ne m!nth fr!m the c!m#leti!n !f ab!0e #r!ceedin5s+ *. /ilin. of notice of opposition The n!tice !f !##!siti!n t! be 5i0en $nder Ms$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n ,@> shall be made in F!rm 7 and sent t! the C!ntr!ller in d$#licate at the a##r!#irate !ffice+ !. 2onstit%tion of 3pposition Board and its proceedin. )1* 1n recei#t !f ,[n!tice !f !##!siti!n $nder r$le @@A>, the C!ntr!ller shall, by !rder, c!nstit$te an 1##!siti!n 9!ard c!nsistin5 !f three members and n!minate !ne !f the members as the Chairman !f the 9!ard+ ),* An e-aminer a##!inted $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n 7. shall be eli5ible t! be a member !f the 1##!siti!n 9!ard+ ).* The e-aminer, wh! has dealt with the a##licati!n f!r #atent d$rin5 the #r!ceedin5 f!r 5rant !f #atent there!n shall n!t be eli5ible as member !f 1##!siti!n 9!ard as s#ecified in s$b<r$le ),* f!r that a##licati!n+ )C* The 1##!siti!n 9!ard shall c!nd$ct the e-aminati!n !f the n!tice !f !##!siti!n al!n5 with d!c$ments filed $nder r$le @7 t! :0 referred t! $nder .[s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n ,@>, s$bmit a re#!rt with reas!ns !n each 5r!$nd ta?en in the n!tice !f !##!siti!n with its B!int rec!mmendati!n within three m!nths fr!m the date !n which the d!c$ments were f!rwarded t! them+ 7. /ilin. of ,ritten statement of opposition and e$idence The !##!nent shall send a written statement in d$#licate settin5 !$t the nat$re !f the !##!nentGs interest, the facts $#!n which he bases his case and relief which he see?s and e0idence, if any, al!n5 with n!tice !f !##!siti!n and shall deli0er t! the #atentee a c!#y !f the statement and the e0idence, if any+> ". /ilin. of repl' statement and e$idence )1* %f the C[#atentee> desires t! c!ntest the !##!siti!n, he shall lea0e at the a##r!#riate !ffice a re#ly statement settin5 !$t f$lly the 5r!$nds $#!n which the !##!siti!n is c!ntested and e0idence if any, in s$##!rt !f his case within a #eri!d !f tw! m!nths fr!m the date !f recei#t !f the c!#y !f the written statement and !##!nentGs e0idence, if any by him $nder r$le @7 and deli0er t! the !##!nent a c!#y there!f+ @ [),* %f the #atentee d!es n!t desire t! c!ntest !r lea0e his re#ly and e0idence within the #eri!d as s#ecified in s$b<r$le )1*, the #atent shall be deemed t! ha0e been re0!?ed+> 9. /ilin. of repl' e$idence &' opponent The !##!nent may, within !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f deli0ery t! him !f a c!#y !f the : [#atenteeGs> re#ly statement and e0idence $nder r$le @=, lea0e at the a##r!#riate !ffice e0idence in re#ly strictly c!nfined t! matters in the :[#atenteeGs> e0idence and shall deli0er t! the C [#atentee> a c!#y !f s$ch e0idence+ !0. /%rther e$idence to &e left ,ith the lea$e of the 2ontroller N! f$rther e0idence shall be deli0ered by either #arty e-ce#t with the lea0e !r directi!ns !f the C!ntr!ller&
1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n ,@8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8n!tice !f !##!siti!n8, ibid+ . S$bstit$ted f!r 8s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n ,@8, ibid+ C S$bstit$ted f!r 8a##licant8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ @ S$bstit$ted, ibid+

: S$bstit$ted f!r 8a##licantGs8, ibid+

9! THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. ::

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P"13%4E4 that s$ch lea0e !r directi!n is #rayed bef!re the C!ntr!ller has fi-ed the hearin5 $nder r$le :,+ !1. 2opies of doc%ments to &e s%pplied )1* C!#ies !f all d!c$ments referred t! in the n!tice !f !##!siti!n !r in any statement !r e0idence filed in c!nnecti!n with the !##!siti!n and a$thenticated t! the satisfacti!n !f the C!ntr!ller, shall be sim$ltane!$sly f$rnished in d$#licate $nless the C!ntr!ller !therwise directs+ ),* Dhere a s#ecificati!n !r !ther d!c$ment in a lan5$a5e !ther than En5lish is referred t! in the n!tice, statement !r e0idence, an attested translati!n there!f, in d$#licate, in En5lish shall be f$rnished al!n5 with s$ch n!tice, statement !r e0idence, as the case may be+ !2. Cearin. 1 [)1* 1n the c!m#leti!n !f the #resentati!n !f e0idence, if any, and !n recei0in5 the rec!mmendati!n !f 1##!siti!n 9!ard !r at s$ch !ther time as the C!ntr!ller may thin? fit, he shall fi- a date and time f!r the hearin5 !f the !##!siti!n and shall 5i0e the #arties n!t less than ten daysG n!tice !f s$ch hearin5 and may re6$ire members !f 1##!siti!n 9!ard t! be #resent in the hearin5+> ),* %f either #arty t! the #r!ceedin5 desires t! be heard, he shall inf!rm the C!ntr!ller by a n!tice al!n5 with the fee as s#ecified in the First Sched$le+ ).* The C!ntr!ller may ref$se t! hear any #arty wh! has n!t 5i0en n!tice $nder s$b< r$le ),*+ )C* %f either #arty intends t! rely !n any #$blicati!n at the hearin5 n!t already menti!ned in the n!tice, statement !r e0idence, he shall 5i0e t! the !ther #arty and t! the C!ntr!ller n!t less than fi0e daysG n!tice !f his intenti!n, t!5ether with details !f s$ch #$blicati!n+ 1 [)@* After hearin5 the #arty !r #arties desir!$s !f bein5 heard, !r if neither #arty desires t! be heard, then with!$t a hearin5, and after ta?in5 int! c!nsiderati!n the rec!mmendati!n !f 1##!siti!n 9!ard, the C!ntr!ller shall decide the !##!siti!n and n!tify his decisi!n t! the #arties 5i0in5 reas!ns theref!r+> 1 :!3. Determination of costs )1* %f the #atentee n!tifies the C!ntr!ller that he desires t! withdraw the #atent after n!tice !f !##!siti!n is 5i0en, the C!ntr!ller, de#endin5 !n the merits !f the case, may decide whether c!sts sh!$ld be awarded t! the !##!nent+> 2 :!3*. ;e<%est made %nder section 2!)1+ )1* "e6$est $nder secti!n ,:)1* shall be made !n F!rm 1, within three m!nths fr!m the date !f the !rder !f the C!ntr!ller and shall be acc!m#anied by a statement settin5 !$t the facts $#!n which the #etiti!ner relies and relief he claims+> 3 :!4. xxx] 3 :! . xxx] !!. /orm of ma0in. a re<%est %nder section 2")2+ A re6$est $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n ,= shall be made in F!rm =+

1 S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , %nserted, ibid+

. 1mitted, ibid+

"A'E 7, 97

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

!7 /orm of ma0in. a claim %nder section 2")3+. )1* A claim $nder s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n ,= shall be made in F!rm =, and shall be acc!m#anied by a statement settin5 !$t the circ$mstances $nder which the claim is made+ ),* A c!#y !f the claim and the statement shall be sent by the C!ntr!ller t! e0ery a##licant f!r the #atent )n!t bein5 the claimant* and t! any !ther #ers!n wh!m the C!ntr!ller may c!nsider t! be interested+ !". /orm of application to &e made %nder section 2")7+ )1* An a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )7* !f secti!n ,= shall be made in F!rm = and shall be acc!m#anied by a statement settin5 !$t the circ$mstances $nder which the a##licati!n is made+ ),* A c!#y !f the a##licati!n and the statement shall be sent by the C!ntr!ller t! each #atentee !r the a##licant f!r #atent, as the case may be, and t! any !ther #ers!n wh!m the C!ntr!ller may c!nsider t! be interested+ 1 :!9. (roced%re for the hearin. of claim or an application %nder section 2" The #r!ced$re s#ecified in r$les @@A and @7 t! :. relatin5 t! the filin5 !f n!tice !f !##!siti!n, written statement, re#ly statement, lea0in5 e0idence, hearin5 and c!st shall, s! far as may be, a##ly t! the hearin5 !f a claim !r an a##licati!n $nder secti!n ,= as they a##ly t! the !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5s s$bBect t! the m!dificati!n that reference t! #atentee shall be c!nstr$ed as the #ers!n ma?in5 the claim, !r an a##licati!n, as the case may be+> 70. 4ention of in$entor Any menti!n !f the in0ent!r $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n ,= shall be made in the rele0ant d!c$ments in the f!ll!win5 f!rm, namely&7 8The in0ent!r !f this in0enti!nSs$bstantial #art !f this in0enti!n within the meanin5 !f secti!n ,= !f the Patents Act, 1970, is ++++++ !f+++++++8+ CHAPTER VII S52;52D D-;527-36S 1 :71. (ermission for ma0in. patent application o%tside -ndia %nder section 39 )1* The re6$est f!r #ermissi!n f!r ma?in5 #atent a##licati!n !$tside %ndia shall be made in F!rm ,@+ , [),* The time within which the C!ntr!ller dis#!ses !f the re6$est made $nder s$b< r$le )1*, e-ce#t in case !f in0enti!ns relatin5 t! defence and at!mic ener5y a##licati!ns, shall !rdinarily be within a #eri!d !f twenty<!ne days fr!m the date !f filin5 !f s$ch re6$est+> 72. 2omm%nication of res%lt of reconsideration %nder section 3!)2+ )1* The res$lt !f e0ery rec!nsiderati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n .: shall be c!mm$nicated t! the a##licant f!r #atent within fifteen days !f the recei#t !f the n!tice by the C!ntr!ller+ ),* $%tension o time on re(ocation o secrecy directions under section '45 The e-tensi!n !f time t! be 5i0en f!r d!in5 anythin5 re6$ired !r a$th!rised t! be d!ne $nder secti!n .= shall n!t e-ceed the #eri!d !f which directi!ns 5i0en by the Central /!0ernment $nder s$b< secti!n )1* !f secti!n .@ were in f!rce+

1 ,

S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+

9"
"A'E

THE

PATENTS

"A'ES,

,00.

79
CHAPTER VIII
1

[/"ANT 1F PATENTS

# 3

[(+. !!!" :74. /onn of patent )1* A #atent shall be in the f!rm as s#ecified in the Third Sched$le with s$ch m!dificati!ns as the circ$mstances !f each case may re6$ire and shall bear the n$mber acc!rded t! the a##licati!n $nder r$le .7+ ),* The #atent certificate shall !rdinarily be iss$ed within se0en days fr!m the date !f 5rant !f #atent $nder secti!n C.+> 4 :74*. -nspection of doc%ments related to .rant of patent After the date !f #$blicati!n !f a 5rant !f a #atent, the a##licati!n t!5ether with the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n and #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n, if any, the drawin5 if any, abstract and !ther d!c$ments related theret! maybe ins#ected at the a##r!#riate !ffice by ma?in5 a written re6$est t! the C!ntr!ller and !n #ayment !f fee and may !btain c!#ies !n #ayment !f fee s#ecified in the First Sched$le+> 7 . *mendment of patent %nder section 44 An a##licati!n $nder secti!n CC f!r the amendment !f a #atent shall be made in F!rm 10 al!n5 with s$bstantiatin5 e0idence and be acc!m#anied by the #atent+ 7!. 4anner of appl'in. for direction %nder section 1)1+ )1* An a##licati!n f!r directi!ns $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n @1 shall be made in F!rm 11 and shall be acc!m#anied by a statement settin5 !$t the facts $#!n which the a##licant relies+ ),* A c!#y !f the a##licati!n and !f the statement shall be sent by the C!ntr!ller t! e0ery !ther #ers!n re5istered as 5rantee !r #r!#riet!r !f the #atent+ 77. 4anner of application %nder section 1)2+ )1* An a##licati!n f!r directi!ns $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n @1 shall be made in F!rm 11 and shall be acc!m#anied by a statement settin5 !$t the facts $#!n which the a##licant relies+ ),* A c!#y !f the a##licati!n and statement shall be sent by the C!ntr!ller t! the #ers!n in defa$lt+ :7". (roced%re for the hearin. of proceedin.s %nder section 1 The #r!ced$re s#ecified in r$les @@A and @7 t! :. relatin5 t! the filin5 !f n!tice !f !##!siti!n, written statement, re#ly statement, lea0in5 e0idence, hearin5 and c!sts shall, s! far as may be, a##ly t! the hearin5 !f an a##licati!n $nder secti!n @1 as they a##ly t! the hearin5 !f an !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5+> 79. ;e<%est %nder section 2)2+ )1* A re6$est $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n @, shall be made in F!rm 1, within three m!nths fr!m the date !f the !rder !f the C[A##ellate 9!ard !r> c!$rt referred t! in s$b< secti!n )1* !f the said secti!n and shall be acc!m#anied by a statement settin5 !$t

1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8SEA'%N/ 1F PATEN1S8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , 1m itted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ . S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+

C %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ @ S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

"A'E =, 99

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

the facts $#!n which the #etiti!ner relies and the relief he claims and a certified c!#y !f the !rder !f the l[A##ellate 9!ard !r> c!$rt+ ),* Dhere the l[A##ellate 9!ard !r> c!$rt has !rdered the 5rant !f #atent t! the a##licant !nly f!r a #art !f the in0enti!n, the new #atent 5ranted shall be acc!rded a n$mber in the same series !f n$mbers acc!rded t! the c!m#lete s#ecificati!ns acce#ted !n the same day as the #atent is 5ranted+ "0. ;ene,al fees %nder section 3 )1* T! ?ee# a #atent in f!rce, the renewal fees s#ecified in the First Sched$le shall be #ayable at the e-#irati!n !f the sec!nd year fr!m the date !f the #atent !r !f any s$cceedin5 year and the same shall be remitted t! the #atent !ffice bef!re the e-#irati!n !f the sec!nd !r the s$cceedin5 year+ 1 [)1A* The #eri!d f!r #ayment !f renewal fees s! s#ecified in s$b<r$le )1* may be e-tended t! s$ch #eri!d n!t bein5 m!re than si- m!nths if the re6$est f!r s$ch e-tensi!n !f time is made in F!rm C with the fee s#ecified in the First Sched$le+> ),* Dhile #ayin5 the renewal fee, the n$mber and date !f the #atent c!ncerned and the year in res#ect !f which the fee is #aid shall be 6$!ted+ ).* The ann$al renewal fees #ayable in res#ect !f tw! !r m!re years may be #aid in ad0ance+ )C* The C!ntr!ller shall, after ma?in5 s$ch en6$iry as he may deem necessary, credit any renewal fee and iss$e a certificate that the fee has been #aid+ CHAPTER I$ A(EN4(ENT 1F APP'%CAT%1N, SPEC%F%CAT%1N 1" AN 41CA(ENT "E'AT%N/ THE"ET1 "1. *mendment of application, specification or an' doc%ment relatin. thereto )1* An a##licati!n $nder secti!n @7 f!r the amendment !f an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r any d!c$ment related theret! shall be made in F!rm 1.+ ),* %f the a##licati!n f!r amendment $nder s$b<r$le )1* relates t! an a##licati!n f!r a #atent which has n!t been ,[5ranted>, the C!ntr!ller shall determine whether and s$bBect t! what c!nditi!ns, if any, the amendment shall be all!wed+ . [).*)a* %f the a##licati!n f!r amendment $nder s$b<r$le )1* is made after 5rant !f #atent and the nat$re !f the #r!#!sed amendment is s$bstanti0e, the a##licati!n shall be #$blished+ )b* Any #ers!n interested in !##!sin5 the a##licati!n f!r amendment shall 5i0e a n!tice !f !##!siti!n in F!rm 1C within three m!nths fr!m the date !f #$blicati!n !f the a##licati!n+ )c* The #r!ced$re s#ecified in r$les @7 t! :. relatin5 t! the filin5 !f written statement, re#ly statement, lea0in5 e0idence, hearin5 and c!sts shall, s! far as may be, a##ly t! the hearin5 !f the !##!siti!n $nder secti!n @7 as they a##ly t! the hearin5 !f an !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5+> "2. (reparation of amended specifications, etc. Dhere the C!ntr!ller all!ws the a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n !r any !ther d!c$ment t! be amended, the a##licant shall, if the C!ntr!ller s!
1 %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8acce#ted8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

. S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

100 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. =7

"A'E

re6$ires and within the time t! be s#ecified by him, lea0e at the a##r!#riate !ffice an amended a##licati!n !r the s#ecificati!n !r the !ther d!c$ment, as the case may be, in acc!rdance with the #r!0isi!ns !f these r$les+ 1 :"3. (%&lication of the amendment allo,ed The amendments all!wed after a #atent has been 5ranted, shall be #$blished+> CHAPTER $ "EST1"AT%1N 1F PATENTS "4. ;estoration of patents )1* An a##licati!n f!r the rest!rati!n !f a #atent $nder secti!n :0 shall be made in F!rm 1@+ ),* Dhere the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that a #rima facie case f!r the rest!rati!n !f any #atent has n!t been made !$t, he shall intimate the a##licant acc!rdin5ly and $nless the a##licant ma?es a re6$est t! be heard in the matter within !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f s$ch intimati!n the C!ntr!ller shall ref$se the a##licati!n+ 1 [).*Dhere a##licant re6$ests f!r a hearin5 within the time all!wed and the C!ntr!ller, after 5i0in5 the a##licant s$ch a hearin5 is prima acie satisfied that the fail$re t! #ay the renewal fees was $nintenti!nal, he shall #$blish the a##licati!n+> 1 :" . 3pposition to restoration %nder section !1 )1* At any time, within tw! m!nths fr!m the date !f #$blicati!n !f the a##licati!n $nder s$b<r$le ).* !f r$le =C, any #ers!n interested may 5i0e n!tice !f !##!siti!n theret! in F!rm 1C+ ),* A c!#y !f the n!tice !f !##!siti!n shall be sent by the C!ntr!ller t! the a##licant+ ).* The #r!ced$re s#ecified in r$les @7 t! :. relatin5 t! the filin5 !f written statement, re#ly statement, lea0in5 e0idence, hearin5 and c!sts shall, s! far as may be, a##ly t! the hearin5 !f the !##!siti!n $nder secti!n :0 as they a##ly t! the hearin5 in the !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5+> "!. (a'ment of %npaid rene,al fees )1* Dhere the C!ntr!ller decides in fa0!$r !f the a##licant, the a##licant shall #ay the $n#aid renewal fees and the additi!nal fee s#ecified in the First Sched$le, within a m!nth fr!m the date !f the !rder !f the C!ntr!ller all!win5 the a##licati!n f!r rest!rati!n+ l [),* The C!ntr!ller shall #$blish his decisi!n+> 2C*(75; JSA""EN4E" 1F PATENTS 1 :"7. S%rrender of (atents )1* The C!ntr!ller shall #$blish the n!tice !f an !ffer 5i0en $nder secti!n :.+ ),* Any #ers!n interested may, within three m!nths fr!m the date !f #$blicati!n !f the n!tice, 5i0e n!tice !f !##!siti!n t! the C!ntr!ller in F!rm 1C in d$#licate+ ).* The #r!ced$re s#ecified in r$les @7 t! :. relatin5 t! the filin5 !f written statement, re#ly statement, lea0in5 e0idence, hearin5 and c!sts shall, s! far as may be, a##ly t! the hearin5 !f the !##!siti!n $nder secti!n :. as they a##ly t! the hearin5 in !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5+

S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

"A'E 9,

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. 101

)C* %f the C!ntr!ller acce#ts the #atenteeGs !ffer t! s$rrender the #atent, he may direct the #atentee t! ret$rn the #atent, and !n recei#t !f s$ch #atent, the C!ntr!ller shall by !rder re0!?e it and #$blish the re0!cati!n !f the #atent+> CHAPTER $II "E/%STE" 1F PATENTS "". ;e.ister of patents %nder section !7 )1* A#!n the 1[5rant> !f a #atent, the C!ntr!ller shall enter in the re5ister !f #atents at each a##r!#riate !ffice, the name, address and nati!nality !f the 5rantee as the #atentee there!f, the title !f the in0enti!n )incl$din5 the cate5!ries t! which the in0enti!n relates*, the date !f the #atent and the date !f 1[5rant> there!f t!5ether with the address f!r ser0ice !f the #atentee+ ),* The C!ntr!ller shall als! enter in the re5ister !f #atents #artic$lars re5ardin5 #r!ceedin5s $nder the Act bef!re the C!ntr!ller ,[!r A##ellate 9!ard> !r the c!$rts in res#ect !f e0ery #atent+ ).* Dhere the re5ister !f #atents !r any #art there!f is in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm it shall be maintained and accessed !nly by the #ers!n wh! is d$ly a$th!rised by the C!ntr!ller and n! entry !r alterati!n !f any entry !r rectificati!n !f any entry in the said re5ister shall be made by any #ers!n wh! is n!t s! a$th!rised by the C!ntr!ller+ 3 :"9. xxx] 90. ;e.istration of title and interest in patents )1* An a##licati!n referred t! in s$b<secti!n )1* !r s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n :9 shall be made in C[F!rm 1:>+ ),* An a##licati!n f!r an entry in the re5ister !f #atents !f any !ther d!c$ment #$r#!rtin5 t! affect the #r!#riet!rshi# !f the #atent by the #ers!n benefitin5 $nder the d!c$ment shall be made in [F!rm 1:>+ 91. (resentation of assi.nment, etc. of patent to 2ontroller E0ery assi5nment and e0ery !ther d!c$ment 5i0in5 effect t! !r bein5 e0idence !f the transfer !f a #atent !r affectin5 the #r!#riet!rshi# there!f !r creatin5 an interest therein as claimed in s$ch a##licati!n, shall, $nless the C!ntr!ller !therwise directs, be #resented t! him t!5ether with the a##licati!n which shall be acc!m#anied by tw! c!#ies !f the assi5nment !r !ther d!c$ment certified t! be tr$e c!#ies by the a##licant !r his a5ent and the C!ntr!ller may call f!r s$ch !ther #r!!f !f title !r written c!nsent as he may re6$ire+ 92. ;e.istration of title or interest in a patent After the recei#t !f an a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !r s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n :9, the C!ntr!ller shall re5ister the title !f the #ers!n c!ncerned !r his interest in a #atent, as the case maybe, and an entry in the f!ll!win5 f!rm shall be made in the re5ister, namely&7 8%n #$rs$ance !f an a##licati!n recei0ed !n the Propr etor *ssi.nment re5istered as licencee by 0irt$e !f licence ,ortgagee etc. ,ortgage deed etc.

1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8sealin58 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ , %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ . 1mitted, ibid+ C S$bstit$ted f!r IF!rm 17T, ibid+

102 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. 97

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dated and made between !f the !ne #art and !f the !ther #art8+ 93. 5ntr' of rene,al fee A#!n recei#t !f the #ayment !f the #rescribed renewal fee in res#ect !f a #atent, the C!ntr!ller shall enter in the re5ister !f #atents the fact that the fee has been #aid and the date !f #ayment !f s$ch fee and iss$e a certificate !f the #ayment+ 94. *lteration of address )1* A #atentee may ma?e a re6$est in writin5 al!n5 with fee #ayable t! the C!ntr!ller f!r the alterati!n !f his name, nati!nality, address !r address f!r ser0ice as entered in the re5ister !f #atents in res#ect !f any #atent 5ranted t! him+ The C!ntr!ller may re6$ire s$ch #r!!f !f the alterati!n as he may thin? fit bef!re actin5 !n a re6$est t! alter the name !r nati!nality+ ),* %f the C!ntr!ller all!ws a re6$est made $nder s$b<r$le )1*, he shall ca$se the entries in the re5ister t! be altered acc!rdin5ly+ ).* %f a #atentee ma?es a re6$est in writin5 al!n5 with fee #ayable f!r enterin5 an additi!nal address f!r ser0ice in %ndia and if the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that the re6$est sh!$ld be all!wed, he shall ha0e the additi!nal address f!r ser0ice entered in the re5ister+ 9 . -nspection of re.ister of patents %nder section 72 and fees pa'a&le therefor )1* The re5ister !f #atents shall be !#en f!r #$blic ins#ecti!n d$rin5 !ffice h!$rs !n #ayment !f the fees s#ecified theref!r in the First Sched$le+ ),* Dhen re5ister !f #atents !r any #art there!f is in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm the #ers!n a$th!rised by the C!ntr!ller $nder s$b<r$le ).* !f r$le == shall #r!0ide access t! the c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r !ther electr!nic f!rm !r #rint!$ts !f the rec!rds there!f+ CHAPTER $III C1(PA'S1" '%CENCE AN4 "E31CAT%1N 1F PATENT 1 :9!. *pplication for comp%lsor' licence, etc. An a##licati!n t! the C!ntr!ller f!r an !rder $nder secti!n =C, secti!n =@, secti!n 91 !r secti!n 9, !r secti!n 9,A shall be in F!rm 17, !r F!rm 19, as the case may be+ E-ce#t in the case !f an a##licati!n made by the Central /!0ernment, the a##licati!n shall set !$t the nat$re !f the a##licantGs interest and terms and c!nditi!ns !f the licence the a##licant is willin5 t! acce#t+> 97. #hen a prima facie case is not made o%t )1* %f, $#!n c!nsiderati!n !f the e0idence, the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that a #rima facie case has n!t been made !$t f!r the ma?in5 !f an !rder $nder any !f the secti!ns referred t! in r$le 9:, he shall n!tify the a##licant acc!rdin5ly, and $nless the a##licant re6$ests t! be heard in the matter, within !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f s$ch n!tificati!n, the C!ntr!ller shall ref$se the a##licati!n+ ),* %f the a##licant re6$ests f!r a hearin5 within the time all!wed $nder s$b<r$le )1*, the C!ntr!ller shall, after 5i0in5 the a##licant an !##!rt$nity !f bein5 heard, determine whether the a##licati!n may be #r!ceeded with !r whether it shall be ref$sed+

S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

"A'E 101 103

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

9". 6otice of opposition %nder section =7),* )1* A n!tice !f !##!siti!n $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n =7 shall be 5i0en in F!rm 1C and shall be sent t! the C!ntr!ller within tw! m!nths fr!m the date !f the 1[#$blicati!n> !f the a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f the said secti!n+ ),* The n!tice !f !##!siti!n referred t! in s$b<r$le )1* shall incl$de the terms and c!nditi!ns !f the licence, if any, the !##!nent is #re#ared t! 5rant t! the a##licant and shall be acc!m#anied by e0idence in s$##!rt !f the !##!siti!n+ ).* The !##!nent shall ser0e a c!#y !f his n!tice !f !##!siti!n and e0idence !n the a##licant and n!tify the C!ntr!ller when s$ch ser0ice has been effected+ )C* N! f$rther statement !r e0idence shall be deli0ered by either #arty e-ce#t with the lea0e !f !r !n re6$isiti!n by the C!ntr!ller+ )@* The C!ntr!ller shall f!rthwith fi- a date and time f!r the hearin5 !f the case and shall 5i0e the #arties n!t less then ten daysG n!tice !f s$ch hearin5+ ):* The #r!ced$re s#ecified in s$b<r$les ),* t! )@* !f r$le :,, shall, s! far as may be, a##ly t! the #r!ced$re f!r hearin5 $nder this r$le as they a##ly t! the hearin5 ,[in !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5s>+ 3 :99. 4anner of p%&lication of the re$ocation order The C!ntr!ller shall #$blish the !rder made by him $nder s$b<secti!n ).* !f secti!n =@ re0!?in5 a #atent+> 100. *pplication %nder section ==)C* )1* An a##licati!n $nder s$b<secti!n )C* !f secti!n == f!r the re0isi!n !f the terms and c!nditi!ns !f a licence which ha0e been settled by the C!ntr!ller shall be in C[F!rm ,0> and shall state the facts relied $#!n by the a##licant and the relief he see?s and shall be acc!m#anied by e0idence in s$##!rt !f the a##licati!n+ ),* %f the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that a #rima facie case has n!t been made !$t f!r the re0isi!n !f the terms and c!nditi!ns !f the licence, he may n!tify the a##licant acc!rdin5ly and $nless within a m!nth the a##licant re6$ests t! be heard in the matter, the C!ntr!ller may ref$se the a##licati!n+ ).* The C!ntr!ller, after 5i0in5 the a##licant an !##!rt$nity !f bein5 heard, shall determine whether the a##licati!n shall be #r!ceeded with !r whether the a##licati!n shall be ref$sed+ 101. (roced%re to &e follo,ed in case of applications %nder section ==)C* )1* %f the C!ntr!ller all!ws the a##licati!n t! be #r!ceeded with, he shall direct the a##licant t! ser0e c!#ies !f the a##licati!n and !f the e0idence in s$##!rt there!f $#!n the #atentee !r any !ther #ers!n a##earin5 in the re5ister t! be interested in the #atent !r $#!n any !ther #ers!n !n wh!m, in his !#ini!n s$ch c!#ies sh!$ld be s! ser0ed+ ),* The a##licant shall inf!rm the C!ntr!ller the date !n which the ser0ice !f c!#ies !f a##licati!n and !f the e0idence !n the #atentee and !ther #ers!ns referred t! in s$b<r$le )1* has been effected+ ).* The #atentee !r any !ther #ers!n !n wh!m c!#ies !f the a##licati!n and !f the e0idence ha0e been ser0ed, may 5i0e t! the C!ntr!ller n!tice !f !##!siti!n in F!rm 1C
1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8ad0ertisement8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@ + , S$bstit$ted f!r 8!f !##!siti!n t! the 5rant !f #atents8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ . S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

C S$bstit$ted f!r 8F!rm ,18, ibid+

104 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. 10,

"A'E

within !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f s$ch ser0ice+ S$ch n!tice shall c!ntain the 5r!$nds relied $#!n by the !##!nent and shall be acc!m#anied by e0idence in s$##!rt !f the !##!siti!n+ )C* The !##!nent shall ser0e c!#ies !f the n!tice !f !##!siti!n and his e0idence !n the a##licant and inf!rm the C!ntr!ller the date !n which s$ch ser0ice has been effected+ )@* N! f$rther e0idence !r statement shall be filed by either #arty e-ce#t with s#ecial lea0e !f !r !n re6$isiti!n by the C!ntr!ller+ ):* 1n c!m#leti!n !f the ab!0e #r!ceedin5s, the C!ntr!ller shall f!rthwith fi- a date and the time f!r the hearin5 !f the case and shall 5i0e the #arties n!t less than ten daysG n!tice !f s$ch hearin5+ )7* The #r!ced$re s#ecified in s$b<r$les ),* t! )@* !f r$le :, shall, s! far as may be, a##ly t! the #r!ced$re f!r hearin5 $nder this r$le as they a##ly t! the hearin5 1[in !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5s>+ )=* %f the c!ntr!ller decides t! re0ise the terms and c!nditi!ns !f licence he shall f!rthwith amend the licence 5ranted t! the a##licant in s$ch manner, as he may deem necessary+ 102. *pplication for termination of comp%lsor' licence %nder section 94 )1* An a##licati!n f!r terminati!n !f c!m#$ls!ry licence $nder secti!n 9C)1* shall be made in ,[F!rm ,1> by the #atentee !r any !ther #ers!n deri0in5 title !r interest in the #atent+ The a##licati!n shall be acc!m#anied by the e0idence in s$##!rt !f the a##licati!n+ ),* The a##licant shall ser0e a c!#y !f the a##licati!n and e0idence !n the h!lder !f the c!m#$ls!ry licence and shall inf!rm the C!ntr!ller the date !n which the ser0ice has been effected+ ).* The h!lder !f the c!m#$ls!ry licence may file his !bBecti!n al!n5 with e0idence, if any, t! the a##licati!n within !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f recei#t !f the a##licati!n and e0idence by him t! the C!ntr!ller and ser0e a c!#y there!f t! the a##licant+ )C* N! f$rther e0idence !r statement shall be filed by either #arty e-ce#t with s#ecial lea0e !f !r !n re6$isiti!n by the C!ntr!ller+ )@* 1n c!m#leti!n !f the ab!0e #r!ceedin5s, the C!ntr!ller shall f!rthwith fi- a date and the time f!r the hearin5 !f the case and shall 5i0e the #arties n!t less than ten daysG n!tice !f s$ch hearin5+ ):* The #r!ced$re s#ecified in s$b<r$les ),* t! )@* !f r$le :, s! far as may be, a##ly t! the #r!ced$re f!r hearin5 $nder this r$le as they a##ly t! the hearin5 !f .[in !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5>+ )7* %f the C!ntr!ller decides t! terminate the c!m#$ls!ry licence he shall f!rthwith iss$e an !rder 5i0in5 terms and c!nditi!ns, if any, !f s$ch terminati!n and ser0e c!#ies !f the !rder t! b!th the #arties+

1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8!f !##!siti!n t! the 5rant !f #atenst8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8F!rm ,,8, ibid+

. S$bstit$ted f!r 8!f !##!siti!n t! the 5rant !f a #atent, ibid+

"A'E 107 10 CHAPTER $IV SC%ENT%F%C A43%SE"S

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

103. ;oll of scientific ad$isers )1* The C!ntr!ller shall maintain a r!ll !f scientific ad0isers f!r the #$r#!se !f secti!n 11@+ The r!ll shall be $#dated ann$ally+ The r!ll shall c!ntain the 1[names, addresses, s#ecimen si5nat$res and #h!t!5ra#hs> !f scientific ad0isers, their desi5nati!ns, inf!rmati!n re5ardin5 their ed$cati!nal 6$alificati!ns, the disci#lines !f their s#ecialisati!n and their technical, #ractical and research e-#erience+ ),* A #ers!n shall be 6$alified t! ha0e his name entered in the r!ll !f scientific ad0isers, if he7 )i* h!lds a de5ree in science, en5ineerin5, techn!l!5y !r e6$i0alent; )ii* has at least fifteen yearsG #ractical !r research e-#erience; and )iii* he h!lds !r has held a res#!nsible #!st in a scientific !r technical de#artment !f the Central !r State /!0ernment !r in any !r5anisati!n+ 104. 4anner of application for incl%sion in the roll of scientific ad$isers Any interested #ers!n may a##ly t! the C!ntr!ller f!r incl$si!n !f his name in the r!ll !f scientific ad0isers f$rnishin5 his bi!<data+ 10 . -ncl%sion of the name of an' other person in the roll of scientific ad$isers The C!ntr!ller may, n!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in r$les 10. and 10C, enter the name !f any #ers!n in the r!ll !f scientific ad0isers, if he is !f the !#ini!n after s$ch in6$iry as he deems fit, that s$ch #ers!n sh!$ld be entered in the r!ll !f scientific ad0isers+ 10!. (o,er to relax Dhere the C!ntr!ller is !f the !#ini!n that it is necessary !r e-#edient s! t! d!, he may, by !rder, f!r reas!ns t! be rec!rded in writin5, rela- any !f the 6$alificati!ns s#ecified in s$b<r$le ),* !f r$le 10. with res#ect t! any #ers!n, if s$ch #ers!n is !therwise well 6$alified+ 107. ;emo$al of names from the roll of scientific ad$isers The C!ntr!ller may rem!0e the name !f any #ers!n fr!m the r!ll !f scientific ad0isers, if7 )a* s$ch #ers!n ma?es a re6$est f!r s$ch rem!0al; !r )b* the C!ntr!ller is satisfied that his name has been entered in the r!ll by err!r !r acc!$nt !f misre#resentati!n !r s$##ressi!n !f any material fact; !r )c* s$ch #ers!n has been c!n0icted !f an !ffence and sentenced t! a term !f im#ris!nment !r has been 5$ilty !f misc!nd$ct in his #r!fessi!nal ca#acity and the C!ntr!ller is !f the !#ini!n that his name sh!$ld be rem!0ed fr!m the r!ll& P"13%4E4 that, bef!re rem!0in5 the name !f any #ers!n fr!m the r!ll !f scientific ad0isers $nder this r$le, s$ch #ers!n shall be 5i0en a reas!nable !##!rt$nity !f bein5 heard+

S$bstit$ted f!r 8names and addresses8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

10! THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. 111

"A'E

CHAPTER $V PATENT A/ENTS 10". (artic%lars to &e contained in the re.ister of patent a.ents )1* The re5ister !f #atent a5ents maintained $nder secti!n 1,@ shall c!ntain the name, nati!nality, address !f the #rinci#al #lace !f b$siness, addresses !f branch !ffices, if any, the 6$alificati!ns and the date !f re5istrati!n !f e0ery re5istered #atent a5ent+ ),* Dhere the re5ister !f #atent a5ents is in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm, it shall be maintained and accessed !nly by the #ers!n wh! is d$ly a$th!rised by the C!ntr!ller and n! entry !r alterati!n !f any entry !r rectificati!n !f any entry in the said re5ister shall be made by any #ers!n wh! is n!t s! a$th!rised by the C!ntr!ller+ 1 [).*)i* C!#ies !f re5ister !f #atent a5ents shall be maintained in each !f the branch !ffices; )ii* The re5ister !f #atent a5ents shall als! c!ntain s#ecimen si5nat$res and #h!t!5ra#hs !f the #ers!ns re5istered as #atent a5ents+> 109. *pplication for re.istration of patent a.ents )1* E0ery #ers!n wh! desires t! be re5istered as a #atent a5ent shall ma?e an a##licati!n in ,[F!rm ,,>+ ),* The a##licant shall f$rnish s$ch !ther inf!rmati!n as may be re6$ired by the C!ntr!ller+ ).* A #ers!n desir!$s t! a##ear in the 6$alifyin5 e-aminati!n $nder r$le 110 shall ma?e a re6$est t! the C!ntr!ller al!n5 with the fee as s#ecified in the First Sched$le+ 110. (artic%lars of the <%alif'in. examination for patent a.ents )1* The 6$alifyin5 e-aminati!n referred t! in cla$se )c*)ii* !f s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1,: shall c!nsist !f a written test and a 0i0a 0!ce e-aminati!n+ ),* The 6$alifyin5 e-aminati!n shall c!nsist !f the f!ll!win5 #a#ers and mar?s, namely& Pa#er % < Patents Act and "$les 100 Pa#er %% < 4raftin5 and inter#retati!n !f #atent s#ecificati!ns and !ther d!c$ments 100 3i0a 3!ce 100 . [).* The 6$alifyin5 mar?s f!r each written #a#er and f!r the 0i0a 0!ce e-aminati!n shall be fifty #er cent each, !f t!tal mar?s and a candidate shall be declared t! ha0e #assed the e-aminati!n !nly if he !btains an a55re5ate !f si-ty #er cent !f the t!tal mar?s+> 111. ;e.istration of patent a.ents After a candidate #asses the 6$alifyin5 e-aminati!n s#ecified in r$le 110 and after !btainin5 any f$rther inf!rmati!n which the C!ntr!ller c!nsiders necessary he shall, !n recei#t !f the fee s#ecified theref!r in the First Sched$le, enter the candidateGs name in the re5ister !f #atent a5ents and iss$e t! him a certificate !f re5istrati!n as a #atent a5ent+

1 %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8F!rm ,.8, ibid+ . S$bstit$ted, ibid+

"A'E 11: 107


1

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

:111*. -ss%e of d%plicate certificate of patent a.ents The C!ntr!ller may iss$e a d$#licate certificate !f re5istrati!n as #atent a5ent !n a re6$est made by the #ers!n s! re5istered as #atent a5ent al!n5 with fee s#ecified in the First Sched$le and c!ntain a statement settin5 !$t the circ$mstances in which the !ri5inal certificate iss$ed $nder r$le 111 was l!st, destr!yed and cann!t be #r!d$ced+> 112. Details to &e incl%ded in an application for the re.istration of a patent a.ent An a##licati!n by a #ers!n entitled t! be re5istered as a #atent a5ent $nder s$b< secti!n ),* !f secti!n 1,: shall als! be made in ,[F!rm ,,>+ 113. ;e.istration of patent a.ents %nder section 12!)2+ 1n recei#t !f an a##licati!n f!r the re5istrati!n !f a #ers!n as a #atent a5ent $nder r$le 11,, the C!ntr!ller may if he is satisfied that the said #ers!n f$lfils the c!nditi!ns s#ecified in s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n 1,: enter his name in the re5ister !f #atent a5ents+ 114. Dis<%alifications for re.istration as a patent a.ent A #ers!n shall n!t be eli5ible t! be re5istered as a #atent a5ent, if he 7 )i* has been adB$d5ed by a c!m#etent c!$rt t! be !f $ns!$nd mind; )ii* is an $ndischar5ed ins!l0ent; )iii* bein5 a dischar5ed ins!l0ent, has n!t !btained fr!m the c!$rt a certificate t! the effect that his ins!l0ency was ca$sed by misf!rt$ne with!$t any misc!nd$ct !n his #art; )i0* has been c!n0icted by a c!m#etent c!$rt, whether within !r !$tside %ndia !f an !ffence t! $nder5! a term !f im#ris!nment, $nless the !ffence !f which he has been c!n0icted has been #ard!ned !r $nless !n an a##licati!n made by him, the Central /!0ernment has, by !rder in this behalf, rem!0ed the disability; )0* bein5 a le5al #ractiti!ner has been 5$ilty !f #r!fessi!nal misc!nd$ct; !r )0i* bein5 a chartered acc!$ntant, has been 5$ilty !f ne5li5ence !r misc!nd$ct+ 11 . (a'ment of fees The c!ntin$ance !f a #ers!nGs name in the re5ister !f #atent a5ents shall be s$bBect t! the #ayment !f the fees s#ecified theref!r in the First Sched$le+ 11!. ;emo$al of a name from the re.ister of patent a.ents )1* The C!ntr!ller may delete fr!m the re5ister !f #atent a5ents, the name !f any #atent a5ent 7 )a* fr!m wh!m a re6$est has been recei0ed t! that effect; !r )b* when he is dead; !r )c* when the C!ntr!ller has rem!0ed the name !f a #ers!n $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1.0; !r )d* if he has defa$lted in the #ayment !f fees s#ecified in r$le 11@, by m!re than three m!nths after they are d$e+ ),* The rem!0al !f the name !f any #ers!n fr!m the re5ister !f #atent a5ents shall be . [#$blished> and shall be, where rele0ant f!rthwith c!mm$nicated t! the #ers!n c!ncerned+

1 %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , S$bstit$ted f!r 8F!rm ,.8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

. S$bstit$ted f!r 8n!tified in the 1fficial /a2ette8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

10" THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. 1,,

"A'E

117. ;estoration of name of persons remo$ed from the re.ister of patent a.ents )1* An a##licati!n f!r the rest!rati!n !f the name !f any #ers!n rem!0ed fr!m the re5ister !f #atent a5ents $nder s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n 1.0 shall be made in 1[F!rm ,.> within tw! m!nths fr!m the date !f s$ch rem!0al+ ),* %f the name !f a #ers!n is rest!red t! the re5ister !f #atent a5ents, his name shall be c!ntin$ed therein f!r a #eri!d !f !ne year fr!m the date !n which his last ann$al fee became d$e+ ).* The rest!rati!n !f name t! the re5ister !f #atent a5ents shall be ,[#$blished> and c!mm$nicated t! the #ers!n c!ncerned+ 11". *lteration of names etc. in the re.ister of patent a.ents )1* A #atent a5ent may a##ly f!r the alterati!n !f his name, address !f the #rinci#al #lace !f b$siness and branch !ffices, if any, !r the 6$alificati!ns entered in the re5ister !f #atent a5ents+ 1n recei#t !f s$ch a##licati!n and the fee s#ecified theref!r in the First Sched$le, the C!ntr!ller shall ca$se the necessary alterati!ns t! be made in the re5ister !f #a tents a5ents+ ),* E0ery alterati!n made in the re5ister !f #atent a5ents shall be .[#$blished>+ 119. ;ef%sal to reco.nise as patent a.ent %f the C!ntr!ller is !f the !#ini!n that any #ers!n sh!$ld n!t be rec!5nised as a #atent a5ent in res#ect !f any b$siness $nder the Act as #r!0ided in s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1.1 there!f, he shall c!mm$nicate his reas!ns t! that #ers!n and direct him t! sh!w<ca$se why he sh!$ld n!t ref$se t! rec!5nise him as s$ch a5ent, within s$ch time as he may all!w, and after c!nsiderin5 the re#ly, if any, !f that #ers!n and 5i0in5 him an !##!rt$nity !f bein5 heard, the C!ntr!ller may #ass s$ch !rders as he may deem fit+ 120. (%&lication of the names of patent a.ents, re.istered %nder the *ct The names and addreses !f #ers!ns re5istered as #atent a5ents shall fr!m time t! time be #$blished C[- - -> CHAPTER $VI 4-S25BB*653IS :121. (eriod ,ithin ,hich copies of specification, etc. are to &e filed The #eri!d within which c!#ies !f s#ecificati!n !r c!rres#!ndin5 d!c$ments t! be filed by the a##licant $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 1.= shall be three m!nths fr!m the date !f c!mm$nicati!n by the C!ntr!ller+ 121*. *ddress of comm%nications All c!mm$nicati!ns in relati!n t! any #r!ceedin5 $nder the Act !r these r$les shall be addressed t! the C!ntr!ller at the a##r!#riate !ffice+ 122. 2orrection of clerical errors A re6$est f!r the c!rrecti!n !f a clerical err!r in any d!c$ment referred t! in secti!n 7= shall be acc!m#anied by a c!#y !f the d!c$ment hi5hli5htin5 the c!rrecti!ns clearly al!n5 with the fees #ayable theref!r as s#ecified in the First Sched$le+

1 , . C

S$bstit$ted f!r 8F!rm ,C8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8n!tified by the C!ntr!ller in the 1fficial /a2ette8, ibid+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8n!tified in the 1fficial /a2ette8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ D!rds 8in the 1fficial /a2ette and in s$ch !ther manner as the C!ntr!ller may deem fit8 !mitted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

S$bstit$ted f!r the e-istin5 r$le 1,1 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+

"A'E 1,:

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. 109

123. 4anner of ad$ertisement of the proposed correction of an' error Dhere the C!ntr!ller re6$ires a n!tice !f the nat$re !f the #r!#!sed c!rrecti!n t! be ad0ertised, the re6$est and the nat$re !f the #r!#!sed c!rrecti!n shall be #$blished 1[- - -> and the #ers!n ma?in5 the re6$est shall als! ser0e c!#ies !f the re6$est and the c!#ies !f the d!c$ment sh!win5 the #r!#!sed c!rrecti!ns t! s$ch #ers!ns wh!, in the !#ini!n !f the C!ntr!ller, may be interested+ 124. 4anner and time of opposition to the ma0in. of corrections )1* Any #ers!n interested may, at any time, within three m!nths fr!m the date !f the ad0ertisement !f the re6$est f!r c!rrecti!n 1[- - -> 5i0e n!tice !f !##!siti!n t! the C!ntr!ller in F!rm 1C in d$#licate+ ),* S$ch n!tice !f !##!siti!n shall be acc!m#anied by a statement in d$#licate settin5 !$t the nat$re !f the !##!nentGs interest, the facts !n which he relies and the relief which he see?s+ ).* A c!#y !f the n!tice and !f the statement shall be sent by the C!ntr!ller t! the #ers!n ma?in5 the re6$est+ )C* The #r!ced$re s#ecified in r$les @= t! :. relatin5 t! the filin5 !f re#ly statement, lea0in5 e0idence, hearin5 and c!sts shall, s! far as may be, a##ly t! the hearin5 !f the !##!siti!n $nder secti!n 7= as they a##ly ,[in the hearin5 !f the !##!siti!n #r!ceedin5>+ 12 . 6otification of corrections The C!ntr!ller shall n!tify the #ers!n ma?in5 a re6$est f!r the c!rrecti!n and the !##!nent, if any, !f the c!rrecti!ns made in the rele0ant d!c$ment+ 12!. /orm, etc. of affida$its )1* The affida0its re6$ired by the Act !r these r$les t! be filed at the #atent !ffice !r f$rnished t! the C!ntr!ller shall be d$ly sw!rn t! in the manner as #rescribed in s$b<r$le ).*+ ),* Affida0its shall be c!nfined t! s$ch facts as the de#!nent is able, !f his !wn ?n!wled5e, t! #r!0e e-ce#t in interl!c$t!ry matters, where statements !f belief !f the de#!nent may be admitted, #r!0ided that the 5r!$nds there!f are 5i0en+ ).* Affida0its shall be sw!rn t! as f!ll!ws&7 )a* in 6ndia " bef!re any c!$rt !r #ers!n ha0in5 by law a$th!rity t! recei0e e0idence, !r bef!re any !fficer em#!wered by s$ch c!$rt as af!resaid t! administer !aths !r t! ta?e affida0its; )b* in any country or place outside 6ndia " bef!re a di#l!matic !r c!ns$lar !fficer, within the meanin5 !f the 4i#l!matic and C!ns$lar 1fficers )1aths and Fees* Act, 19C= )C1 !f 19C=* in s$ch c!$ntry !r #lace !r bef!re a n!tary !f the c!$ntry !r #lace, rec!5nised by the Central /!0ernment $nder secti!n 1C !f the N!taries Act, 19@, )@. !f 19@,*, !r bef!re a E$d5e !r (a5istrate !f the c!$ntry !r #lace+ )C* Alterati!ns and interlineati!ns shall, bef!re an affida0it is sw!rn t! !r affirmed be a$thenticated by the initials !f the #ers!n bef!re wh!m the affida0it is sw!rn t!+

1 ,

D!rds 8in the 1fficial /a2ette8, !mitted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8t! the hearin5 !f the !##!siti!n t! the 5rant !f #atents8, ibid+

110 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

"A'E 1.0

127. 5xhi&its Dhere there are e-hibits t! be filed in an !##!siti!n !r any !ther #r!ceedin5s, a c!#y !r im#ressi!n !f each e-hibit shall be s$##lied t! the !ther #arty at his re6$est and e-#ense; if c!#ies !r im#ressi!ns !f the e-hibits cann!t c!n0eniently be f$rnished, the !ri5inals shall be left with the C!ntr!ller f!r ins#ecti!n by the #ers!n interested by #ri!r a##!intment+ The e-hibits in !ri5inal if n!t already left with C!ntr!ller shall be #r!d$ced at the hearin5+ 12". Directions not other,ise prescri&ed )1* Dhere f!r the #r!#er #r!sec$ti!n !r c!m#leti!n !f any #r!ceedin5s $nder the Act !r these r$les, the C!ntr!ller is !f the !#ini!n that it is necessary f!r a #arty t! s$ch #r!ceedin5s t! #erf!rm an act, file a d!c$ment !r #r!d$ce e0idence, f!r which #r!0isi!n has n!t been made in the Act !r these r$les, he may, by n!tice in writin5, re6$ire s$ch #arty t! #erf!rm the act, file the d!c$ment !r #r!d$ce the e0idence s#ecified in s$ch n!tice+ ),* Dhere an a##licant !r a #arty t! a #r!ceedin5 desires t! be heard !r n!t heard, the C!ntr!ller may, at any time, re6$ire him t! s$bmit his statement in writin5 5i0in5 s$ch inf!rmati!n as the C!ntr!ller may deem necessary within the time s#ecified by him+ 1 :129. 5xercise of discretionar' po,er &' the 2ontroller 9ef!re e-ercisin5 any discreti!nary #!wer $nder the Act !r these r$les which is li?ely t! affect an a##licant f!r a #atent !r a #arty t! a #r!ceedin5 ad0ersely, the C!ntr!ller shall 5i0e s$ch a##licant !r #arty, a hearin5, after 5i0in5 him !r them, ten daysG n!tice !f s$ch hearin5 !rdinarily+> 130. *pplication for re$ie, of decisions or settin. aside of orders of the 2ontroller )1* An a##licati!n t! the C!ntr!ller f!r the re0iew !f his decisi!n $nder cla$se )f* !f s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 77 shall be made in ,[F!rm ,C> within !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f c!mm$nicati!n !f s$ch decisi!n t! the a##licant !r within s$ch f$rther #eri!d n!t e-ceedin5 !ne m!nth thereafter as the C!ntr!ller may !n a re6$est made in F!rm C all!w and shall be acc!m#anied by a statement settin5 f!rth the 5r!$nds !n which the re0iew is s!$5ht+ Dhere the decisi!n in 6$esti!n c!ncerns any !ther #ers!n in additi!n t! the a##licant, the C!ntr!ller shall f!rthwith transmit a c!#y !f each !f the a##licati!n and the statement t! the !ther #ers!n c!ncerned+ ),* An a##licati!n t! the C!ntr!ller f!r settin5 aside an !rder #assed by him e-#arte $nder cla$se )5* !f s$b<secti!n )1* !f secti!n 77 shall be made in ,[F!rm ,C> within !ne m!nth fr!m the date !f c!mm$nicati!n !f s$ch !rder t! the a##licant !r within s$ch f$rther #eri!d n!t e-ceedin5 !ne m!nth as the C!ntr!ller may !n a re6$est made in F!rm C all!w and shall be acc!m#anied by a statement settin5 f!rth the 5r!$nds !n which the a##licati!n is based+ Dhere the !rder c!ncerns any !ther #ers!n in additi!n t! the a##licant, the C!ntr!ller shall, f!rthwith transmit a c!#y each !f the a##licati!n and the statement t! the !ther #ers!n c!ncerned+

1 ,

S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8F!rm ,@8, ibid+

"A'E 1.C

THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00. 111

131. /orm and manner in ,hich statements re<%ired %nder section 14!)2+ to &e f%rnished )1* The statement shall be f$rnished by e0ery #atentee and e0ery licencee $nder s$b< secti!n ),* !f secti!n 1C: in 1[F!rm ,7> which shall be d$ly 0erified by the #atentee !r the licencee !r his a$th!rised a5ent+ ),* The statements referred t! in s$b<r$le )1* shall be f$rnished in res#ect !f e0ery calendar year within three m!nths !f the end !f each year+ ).* The C!ntr!ller may #$blish the inf!rmati!n recei0ed by him $nder s$b<secti!n )1* !r s$b<secti!n ),* !f secti!n 1C: ,[- - ->+ 132. /orm of application for the iss%e of a d%plicate patent An a##licati!n f!r the iss$e !f a d$#licate #atent $nder secti!n 1@C shall c!ntain a statement settin5 !$t the circ$mstances in which the #atent was l!st !r destr!yed !r cann!t be #r!d$ced t!5ether with the fee as s#ecified theref!r in the First Sched$le+ 133. S%ppl' of certified copies and certificates %nder sections 72 and 147 Certified c!#ies !f any entry in the re5ister, !r certificates !f, !r e-tracts fr!m #atents, s#ecificati!ns and !ther #$blic d!c$ments in the #atent !ffice, !r fr!m re5isters and !ther rec!rds incl$din5 rec!rds in c!m#$ter fl!##ies, dis?ettes !r any !ther electr!nic f!rm ?e#t there, may be f$rnished by the C!ntr!ller !n a re6$est theref!r made t! him and !n #ayment !f the fee s#ecified theref!r in the First Sched$le+ 134. ;e<%est for information %nder section 1 3 )1* A re6$est f!r inf!rmati!n in res#ect !f the f!ll!win5 matters relatin5 t! any #atent !r a##licati!n f!r #atent shall be admissible, namely&7 )a* as t! when a c!m#lete s#ecificati!n f!ll!win5 a #r!0isi!nal s#ecificati!n has been filed !r an a##licati!n f!r #atent has been deemed t! ha0e been aband!ned; . [)aa* as t! when the inf!rmati!n $nder secti!n = has been filed;> )b* as t! when #$blicati!n !f a##licati!n has been made $nder secti!n 11A; )c* as t! when an a##licati!n has been withdrawn $nder secti!n 119; )d* as t! when a re6$est f!r e-aminati!n has been made $nder secti!n 119; )e* as t! when the e-aminati!n re#!rt has been iss$ed $nder secti!n 1,; C )f* as t! when an a##licati!n f!r #atent has been ref$sed; )5* as t! when a #atent has been 5ranted;> )h* as t! when a renewal fee has been #aid; )i* as t! when a term !f a #atent has e-#ired !r shall e-#ire; )B* as t! when an entry has been made in the re5ister !r a##licati!n has been made f!r the ma?in5 !f s$ch entry; !r C [)?* as t! when any a##licati!n is made !r acti!n ta?en in0!l0in5 an entry in the re5ister, #$blicati!n in the @[1fficial E!$rnal> !r !therwise, if the nat$re !f the a##licati!n !r acti!n is s#ecified in the re6$est+> ),* Se#arate re6$est shall be made in res#ect !f each item !f inf!rmati!n re6$ired+ ).* The fee #ayable !n a re6$est t! be made $nder secti!n 1@. shall be as set !$t in the First Sched$le+
1 S$bstit$ted f!r 8F!rm ,98 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ , D!rds 8in the 1fficial /a2ette and in s$ch !ther manner as he may deem fit8 !mitted, ibid+ . %nserted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+ C S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ @ S$bstit$ted f!r 81fficial /a2ette8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+

112 THE PATENTS "A'ES, ,00.

"A'E 1.9

13 . *.enc' )1* The a$th!risati!n !f an a5ent f!r the #$r#!ses !f the Act and these r$les shall be in F!rm ,: !r in the f!rm !f a #!wer !f att!rney+ ),* Dhere any a$th!risati!n has been made $nder s$b<r$le )1*, ser0ice $#!n the a5ent !f any d!c$ment relatin5 t! any #r!ceedin5 !r matter $nder the Act !r these r$les shall be deemed t! be ser0ice $#!n the #ers!n s! a$th!risin5 him and all c!mm$nicati!ns directed t! be made t! a #ers!n in res#ect !f any #r!ceedin5 !r matter may be addressed t! s$ch a5ent, and all a##earances bef!re the C!ntr!ller relatin5 theret! may be made by !r thr!$5h s$ch a5ent+ ).* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<r$les )1* and ),*, the C!ntr!ller may, if it is c!nsidered necessary, re6$ire the #ers!nal si5nat$re !r #resence !f an a##licant, !##!nent !r #arty t! s$ch #r!ceedin5 !r matter+ 13!. Scale of costs )1* %n all #r!ceedin5s bef!re the C!ntr!ller, he may, s$bBect t! r$le :., award c!sts as he c!nsiders reas!nable, ha0in5 re5ard t! all the circ$mstances !f the case & P"13%4E4 that the am!$nt !f c!sts awarded in res#ect !f any matter set f!rth in the F!$rth Sched$le shall n!t e-ceed the am!$nt s#ecified therein+ ),* N!twithstandin5 anythin5 c!ntained in s$b<r$le )1*, the C!ntr!ller may, in his discreti!n award a c!m#ensat!ry c!st in any #r!ceedin5 bef!re him which in his !#ini!n is false !r 0e-ati!$s+ 137. (o,ers of 2ontroller .enerall' Any d!c$ment f!r the amendment !f which n! s#ecial #r!0isi!n is made in the Act may be amended and any irre5$larity in #r!ced$re which in the !#ini!n !f the C!ntr!ller may be !b0iated with!$t detriment t! the interests !f any #ers!n, may be c!rrected if the C!ntr!ller thin?s fit and $#!n s$ch terms as he may direct+ 1 :13". (o,er to extend time prescri&ed )1* Sa0e as !therwise #r!0ided 2 [in the r$le ,C9, s$b<r$le )C* !f r$le @@ and s$b<r$le )1A* !f r$le =0>, the time #rescribed by these r$les f!r d!in5 !f any act !r the ta?in5 !f any #r!ceedin5 there$nder may be e-tended by the C!ntr!ller f!r a #eri!d !f !ne m!nth, if he thin?s it fit t! d! s! and $#!n s$ch terms as he may direct+ ),* Any re6$est f!r e-tensi!n !f time made $nder these r$les shall be made bef!re the e-#iry !f #rescribed #eri!d+> 139. Cearin. &efore the 2ontroller to &e in p%&lic certain cases Dhere the hearin5 bef!re the C!ntr!ller !f any dis#$te between tw! !r m!re #arties relatin5 t! an a##licati!n f!r a #atent !r t! any matter in c!nnecti!n with a #atent ta?es #lace after the date !f the #$blicati!n !f the c!m#lete s#ecificati!n, the hearin5 !f the dis#$te shall be in #$blic $nless the C!ntr!ller, after c!ns$ltati!n with the #arties t! the dis#$te wh! a##ear in #ers!n !r are re#resented at the hearin5, !therwise directs+

1 ,

S$bstit$ted by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00@, w+e+f+ 1<1<,00@+ S$bstit$ted f!r 8in the r$les ,C,@@ and =0)1A*8 by the Patents )Amdt+* "$les, ,00:, w+e+f+ @<@<,00:+