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Dr. Eng.

\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

9/24/2013

Facility layout Design Inputs


Dr. Eng.\ M El-Sayed El-Ashhab / Faculty of Engineering Umm Al-Qura University

FACILITY LAYOUT

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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

9/24/2013

Process Types
Projects Intermittent Process Types Continuous Job shop Batch Processing Repetitive or Assembly Mass Production
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Process Types
Projects: Non-routine jobs. Job Shops: Small lots, low volume, general equipment, skilled workers, high-variety. Batch Processing: Moderate volume and variety. Variety among batches but not inside Continuous Processing: Very high volume and no variety. Ex: steel mill, chemical plants Repetitive/Assembly: Semi-continuous, high volume of standardized items, limited variety. Ex: auto plants, cafeteria
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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

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Types of Layout

Volume High
Product Layout

Medium

Group Technology Layout

Process Layout

Low Low Medium High Variety


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PRODUCT, PROCESS, AND SCHEDULE DESIGN

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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

9/24/2013

Relationship in P,P&S
Product Design

Facility Design

Schedule

Process Design

Information Gathering
Product Design
Specify the end product in terms of dimensions, material composition, etc.

Process Design
Determines how the product will be produced.

Schedule Design
Production planning, Capacity planning Specifies the production quantities and schedules the production equipment.
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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

9/24/2013

PRODUCT DESIGN

PRODUCT DESIGN
Basic product design data can be obtained from: 1. Assembly Drawings 2. Production drawings 3. Parts List 4. Bill of Material 5. Prototypes

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9/24/2013

1. Assembly Drawing

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2. Production drawing

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3. Parts list for an air flow regulator


Product Air Flow Regulator Date

Part No. 1050 2200 3250 3251 3252 3253 3254 3255 4150 4250

Part Name Pipe plug Body Seat ring O-ring Plunger Spring Plunger housing O-ring Plunger retainer Lock nut

Drawing No. 4006 1003 1005 1007 1009 1011 4007

Quantity/ Unit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Material Steel Aluminum Stainless steel Rubber Brass Steel Aluminum Rubber Aluminum Aluminum

Size .50" X 1.00" 2.75" X 2.50" x 1.50" 2.97" X .87" .75" dia. .812" X .715" 1.40" X .225" 1.60" x .225" .925" dia. .42" X 1.20" .21" X 1.00"

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4. Bill of materials for an air flow regulator


Product Air Flow Regulator Date Level 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 Part No. 0021 1050 6023 4250 6022 2200 6021 3250 3251 3252 3253 3254 3255 4150 Pan Name Air flow regulator Pipe plug Main assembly Lock nut Body assembly Body Plunger assembly Seat ring O-ring Plunger Spring Plunger housing O-ring Plunger retainer Drawing No. 0999 4006 4007 1003 1005 1007 1009 1011 Quantity/ Unit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

9/24/2013

Product tree to Bill of material

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PROCESS DESIGN

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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

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PROCESS DESIGN
1. How the product is to be produced? 2. Who should do the processing?: in-house or subcontracted - "make-or-buy" 3. How the part will be produced? 4. Which equipment will be used? 5. How long it will take to perform the operation?

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Make-or-buy decisions
Deciding whether to produce a product component or buy it from an outside source. Issues to be considered while making this decision: Quality of the externally procured part Reliability of the supplier in terms of both item quality and delivery times Criticality of the considered component for the performance/quality of the entire product Potential for development of new core competencies of strategic significance to the company Costs of deploying and operating the necessary infrastructure

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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

9/24/2013

Make or Buy Analysis


Model parameters: P ($/unit): cost per unit when item is outsourced (item price, ordering and receiving costs) FC ($): required capital investment in order to support internal production V ($/unit): variable production cost for internal production (materials, labor, variable overhead charges) Assume that V < P X: total quantity of the item to be outsourced or produced internally

Total cost as a function of X

P*X FC+V*X

FC X

X0 = FC / (P-V)

Example
Required infrastructure for in-house production new tooling: $12,500 Hiring and training an additional worker: $1,000 Internal variable production (raw material + labor) cost: $1.12 / unit Vendor-quoted price: $1.55 / unit Forecasted demand: 10,000 units/year for next 2 years X0 = (12,500+1,000)/(1.55-1.12) = 31,395 > 20,000 Buy

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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

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Process Design Data


Basic Process design data can be obtained from:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Route sheet Assembly Chart Precedence diagram From-To Chart Others

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1. Typical route sheet

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2. Assembly Chart

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3. Precedence Diagram
0.1 min. 1.0 min.

c
0.7 min.

d
0.5 min.

e
0.2 min.

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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

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4. From-To Chart
Inspect To Lathe R. M. Drill Saw Mill From R. M. Saw Lathe Drill Mill Inspect Pkg F. Goods 8 3 8 F. Goods 16 Pkg 16

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3 8 5 11 5 8 16

This chart is a matrix that contains numbers representing a measure (units, unit loads, etc.) of the material flow between machines, departments, buildings, etc.

SCHEDULE DESIGN

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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

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SCHEDULE DESIGN
How much to produce? When to produce? How long to produce?

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Factors affecting Plant Layout


The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories: 1. Materials 2. Machinery 3. Labor 4. Material Handling 5. Waiting Time 6. Auxiliary Services 7. The building 8. Future Changes
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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

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Factors affecting Plant Layout


1. Materials
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Main factors to be considered: Size, Shape, Volume, Weight, and The physical-chemical characteristics,

Since they influence the manufacturing methods, storage and material handling processes.

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Factors affecting Plant Layout


2. Machinery
Its essential as well to know about 1. Types 2. Quantities 3. Space required, 4. Shape, 5. Height, 6. Weight, 7. Number of workers required, 8. Risks for the personnel, 9. Requirements of auxiliary services, 10. etc.

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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

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Factors affecting Plant Layout


3. Labor
Labor has to be organized in the production process (direct labor, supervision and auxiliary services). Environment considerations: employees safety, light conditions, ventilation, temperature, noise, etc. Process considerations: personnel qualifications, flexibility, number of workers required at a given time as well as the type of work to be performed by them.

4. Material Handling
Material handling does not add value to the product; its just waste. Objective: Minimize material handling as well as combining with other operations when possible, eliminating unnecessary and costly movements.

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Factors affecting Plant Layout


5. Waiting time Stock
Time to cool down or heating up Stock sometimes provides safety to protect production, improving customer service, allowing more economic batches, etc. Its necessary then to consider space for the required stock at the facility when designing the layout.

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Dr. Eng.\ Mohamed El-Sayed El-Ashhab

9/24/2013

Factors affecting Plant Layout


6. Auxiliary Services
Support the main production activities at the plant:
Related to labor: Accessibility paths, fire protection installations, supervision, safety, etc. Related to material: quality control. Related to machinery: maintenance and electrical and water lines.

The auxiliary services represent around 30% of the space at a facility. The space dedicated to auxiliary services is usually considered as waste.

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Factors affecting Plant Layout


7. The building
If it has been already selected, its characteristics will be a constraint at the moment of designing the layout, which is different if the building has to be built.

8. Future changes
One of the main objectives of plant layout is flexibility. Its important to forecast the future changes to avoid having an inefficient plant layout in a short term. Possible future extensions of the facility must be taken into account, as well as the feasibility of production during re-layout.

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