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Academy of Management Review Administrative Science Quarterly (Samuel Curtis Johnson Graduate School of Management) Organi ation Science

(!"#ORMS) See also $i%imedia Commons has media related to& 'uman resources management As(iration Management Organi ational )ehavior Organi ational theory References *i)rary resources A)out 'uman resource management Resources in your li)rary Resources in other li)raries + Mer%le, Judith A- Management and !deology- .niversity of California /ress!S0" 1234121565623+ Mayo, 7lton (89:3)- ;'awthorne and the $estern 7lectric Com(any;- 'arvard 0usiness School- Retrieved 4< =ecem)er 4188+ ;A)out C!/=;- Chartered !nstitute of /ersonnel and =evelo(ment- Retrieved 44 =ecem)er 4188+ ;A)out Cornell !*R;- Cornell .niversity School of !ndustrial and *a)or Relations- Retrieved 4181218249+ a ) ;A)out S'RM;- Society for 'uman Resource Management- Retrieved 44 =ecem)er 4188+ O>0rien, Michael (Octo)er <, 4119)- ;'R>s ?a%e on ?he Office;- 'uman Resource 7@ecutive Online- Archived from the original on 8< =ecem)er 4188Retrieved 4< =ecem)er 4188+ ;Cat)ert shows tougher side to human resources;- /ersonnel ?oday- August 51, 4116- Retrieved 4< =ecem)er 4188+ .lrich, =ave (899A)- 'uman Resource Cham(ions- ?he ne@t agenda for adding value and delivering results- 0oston, Mass-& 'arvard 0usiness School /ress- !S0" 12 <63<:26892A- OC*C 5:61:91:+ ?owers, =avid- ;'uman Resource Management essays;- Retrieved 4116281286+ a ) Jonathan 7- =eGraff (48 #e)ruary 4181)- ;?he Changing 7nvironment of /rofessional 'R Associations;- Cornell 'R Review- Retrieved 48 =ecem)er 4188+ $right, /atric%- ;?he 4188 C'RO Challenge& 0uilding Organi ational, #unctional, and /ersonal ?alent;- Cornell Center for Advanced 'uman Resource Studies (CA'RS)- Retrieved 5 Se(tem)er 4188-

+ Conaty, 0ill, and Ram Charan (4188)- ?he ?alent Masters& $hy Smart *eaders /ut /eo(le 0efore "um)ers- Crown /u)lishing Grou(- !S0" 96<2125162:A14A2:+ ;'uman Resources, ?raining, and *a)or Relations Managers and S(ecialists;.-S- 0ureau of *a)or Statistics- 4188- Retrieved 45 =ecem)er 4188+ ;'uman Resources Manager;- C"" Money- 411A- Retrieved 45 =ecem)er 4188+ ;'uman Resources Manager;- C"" Money- 4119- Retrieved 45 =ecem)er 4188+ ;?owers $atson 7@ecutives See Growth Ahead #or Merged #irms;$or%force Management- 4116- Retrieved January 85, 4181+ ;'R consultant;- C"" Money- Retrieved 45 =ecem)er 4188+ ;A)out Cornell !*R;- Cornell .niversity School of !ndustrial and *a)or Relations- Retrieved 45 August 4119+ ;'R Graduate /rogram Ran%ings;- 'R /atriot- 411921:24A- Retrieved 41812 16213+ S'RM $e)site& A)out S'RM + ;A)out !OR;- !nstitute of Recruiters (!OR)- Retrieved 44 =ecem)er 4188BhideC v t e Management Outline of )usiness management !nde@ of management articles Manager Management )ranches #inance 'uman resources !nformation technology Mar%eting O(erationsD(roduction Strategy Other Management areas Accounting Association Ca(a)ility Change Communication

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Management2related to(ics Association of ?echnology, Management, and A((lied 7ngineering A((lied engineering 0usiness school Chartered Management !nstitute =ecision ma%ing styles Organi ation develo(ment Organi ational studies Social entre(reneurshi( #orecasting *eadershi( Articles Adhocracy Administration Certified 0usiness Manager Colla)oration Colla)orative method Cor(orate governance =ecision Ma%ing 7ngineering management 7vidence2)ased management 7@ecutive /ay #orecasting #utures studies Growth Enowledge visuali ation *eadershi( Management consulting Management control Management cy)ernetics Management develo(ment Management fad Managerial /sychology Management science Management styles Management system Managerialism Micromanagement Macromanagement Middle management Music management Organi ational )ehavior management Organi ational studies

/hysical !nternet /redictive analytics ?eam )uilding Scientific management Senior management Social entre(reneurshi( Girtual management $illiamson>s Model of Managerial =iscretion /eter =ruc%er>s management )y o)Fectives 7liyahu M- Goldratt>s ?heory of constraints /ointy 'aired 0oss /ortal Systems science (ortal H Categories& 'uman resource management Southwest Airlines 4114& An !ndustry .nder Siege Harvard Business School: 9-803-133 7@ecutive Summary Southwest Airlines in 2002 faced a serious of im ortant mana!ement decisions after the 9"11 tra!ed# in order to continue the record $rea%in! com an# !rowth that Southwest had e& erienced since the 19'0(s) Southwest Airlines revolutioni*ed the airline industr# with what is %nown as the Southwest +ffect: low cost fares, oint-to- oint service, -10 minute turnaround. and an en/o#a$le friendl# atmos here) After the Airline 0ere!ulation Act of 19'8, Southwest ado ted a olit# that irre!ardless of the rofita$ilit# of e& ansion o ortunities, the com an# wanted to commit to a mana!ea$le annual !rowth rate of a$out 10-112) 3he followin! 4uestions and discussion will address the historical challen!es of Southwest airlines, the direction the com an# contem lated in 2002, and a $rief loo% at the challen!es of toda#) 8)- $hat is the com(etitive )usiness environment 3he airline industr# has alwa#s $een com etitive) 5n an anal#sis of the most rofita$l# investments as er our class discussion, sur risin!l#, airlines come in at the lowest return on each dollar invested at around 2)12) Southwest Airlines e& erienced 30 consecutive #ears of rofit a mere two #ears after it(s foundin! in 19'1) 6an# air orts $e!an re4uestin! Southwest service for their assen!ers, $ut throu!hout Southwest(s e& ansion, the com an# aimed to maintain a mana!ea$le !rowth rate and focus on their core com etencies of low rice fares that would com ete with the cost of drivin! to the destination)

5n the mid 1990(s, the ma/or carriers entered into rice wars to undercut com etition) Althou!h, these dealin!s did affect Southwest(s $ottom line, Southwest still mana!e to continue to turn a rofit and e& and due to their e& ansion into a reservation s#stem and their commitment to a culture and e& erience that assen!ers were drawn to) 4)- $hat is the com(etitive advantage that the com(any o)tained as discussed in the caseI Southwest Airlines com etitive advanta!es are their oint-to- oint services which are !enerall# tar!etin! the fre4uent $usiness traveler) 7ith several re!ular fli!hts er da#, if a assen!er ha ens to miss their fli!ht, the# will $e automaticall# $oo%ed onto another fli!ht) Secondl#, Southwest strate!icall# secured routes throu!h secondar# air orts which !enerall# had lower fi&ed costs for the airlines and less con!estions for assen!ers ease) 8inall#, Southwest focused on 4uic%, relia$le turnaround time usin! onl# one version of aircraft, allowin! for familiarit# amon! staff and !reater efficienc# in turnaround) 9assen!ers were not assi!ned seats, sim l# $oardin! sections, which allowed for assen!er loadin! to $e conducted more efficientl#) 3he traditional airline model is the Hu$ and S o%e model, which in essence ta%es most assen!ers from the ori!ination, throu!h the hu$, and then transfers them to their destination) Southwest(s oint to oint s#stem was more relia$le $ecause it did not de end on the on time arrival of an earlier fli!ht for de arture) Southwest also im lemented the first and most sim listic fre4uent-flier ro!ram: urchase ei!ht fli!hts and !et one free) Southwest(s initiall# connected with four com uter reservation and tic%etin! s#stems and also the owerful SAB:+ s#stem) 3his allowed travel a!ents to view fli!ht information and even rint tic%ets) 5n 1994, Southwest was onl# connected throu!h the SAB:+ s#stems which ushed Southwest to develo the -tic%etless. travel ro!ram as well as Southwest)com) 5)- $hat strategy andDor model was used or im(lemented in this caseI

0argaining (ower of )uyers

9orter(s 1 =om etitive 8orces 6odel ?hrea ts Southwest vs- All other Airlines

?hreat of su)stitute

0argaining (ower of su((liers

?hreat of new entrants 0argaining /ower

Southwest airlines does stru!!le a!ainst the threat of su$stitutes much li%e an# other airline and in this case the threat of su$stitutes is the decision to use an alternate form of travel, such as drivin! or ta%in! a train) 3he airline industr# is sensitive to -tra!ed#. such as when there is a lane crash or an event li%e 9"11< consumers tend to switch to a su$stitute or chose not to travel in the first lace) Southwest(s $est defense is a stron! 9: cam ai!n, which we saw after 9"11 when the com an# launched ads sa#in! that when America is read# to fl# a!ain, Southwest will $e there)