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ClaysandClayBodies

CLAYS AND CLAY BODIES


TheNatureofClay
Clayisaproductofthedecompositionofgraniterock.75%oftheearth'scrustis madeofALUMINAandSILICA,twoofthemajorconstituentsofclay.Granite decomposesintoFELDSPAR,themostcommonmineral,whichiscomposedof ALUMINA,SILICA,andFLUX(ofanalkalinenaturee.g.sodium,potassium,lithium, calcium).Thefluxissomewhatsoluble,andoverlongperiodsofweatheringiscarriedoffbymoisture.The remainingaluminaandsilicaarerefractory(resistanttoheat)andchemicallyinert.Afterlongexposureto moisture,thealuminaandsilicabecomehydrated(waterchemicallyadded)toproduceclay.Thistakeslong periodsofgeologictimeandcannotbesynthesized.Clayis14%chemicalwater.Unfiredclayalsocontainsphysical water,whichevaporatesduringdrying.Stagesofgreen(unfired)clayfrommosttoleastwater:slip,plasticclay, leatherhardclay,bonedrygreenware.Especiallyinhumidclimates,evenbonedrygreenwarecontainssome physicalwater. Factorsthatcontributetotheplasticityofclay: theoreticalformulaforclay: platelikeparticleshapeofparticles Al2O3.2SiO2.2H2O sizeoftheparticles chemical/electricalattractionbetweenparticles presenceofcarbonaceous(organic)matter PLASTICITYistheabilityofclaytorespondtopressurewithacontinuousandpermanentchangeofshapeinany directionwithoutbreakingapart,andholdthatshapewhenreleased.DanielRhodessaysthatclayisuniqueinits degreeofplasticity.FactorsthatcontributetotheplasticityofclayarethePLATELIKEPARTICLESHAPEofclay (provideslargesurfacearea),theSIZEOFTHEPARTICLES(smallparticlesaremoreplasticthanlargeones), CHEMICAL/ELECTRICALATTRACTIONbetweenparticles(addinganelectrolyte,a.k.a.deflocculantsuchassodaash orsodiumsilicate,willreducetheattractionbetweenparticlesandreduceplasticityandclumping...goodin castingslip,difficulttoworkinplasticformingmethods.(SeeTHIXOTROPICCLAYinGlenNelson'sCERAMICS:A POTTER'SHANDBOOK),andPRESENCEOFCARBONACEOUS(ORGANIC)MATTER(smallamountsarehelpful;too muchproducesastickyclaythatishardtoworkandhashighshrinkage). Claythatlacksplasticity(aSHORTCLAY)willnotbendwellandtendstobreakinsteadofformingwhenbent.A classictestistorollacoilofclaythethicknessofapencilandseeifyoucanwrapitaroundyourfingerw/o breaking.Shortclayslackplasticity,butwillshrinklessthanmoreplasticclays.Aclaycanbetooplastic(AFAT CLAY),andwillfeelsticky/slick.Afatclaygenerallyslumpseasilywhenthrown,andtendstohavecracking problemsindrying.

TypesofClay
PRIMARYCLAY,orRESIDUALCLAYisclayisformedatthesiteoftheparentrock.Itislesscommonthan SECONDARY(TRANSPORTEDORSEDIMENTARY)clay,butgenerallywhiter,freefromimpurities.Becausethisclay isbrokendownbygroundwater,etc.andnottransported,particlesizeismixed(noopportunityforsortingor grinding)andtheclayisusuallynotveryplastic,andarerefractory.MostKAOLINSareprimaryclays. SECONDARYCLAYhasbeentransportedfrommultiplesourcesbywater(alluvial),orwind(aeolian),whichsort particlesizes,orbyglacier (glacial),whichmaygrindbuthasunevenparticlesizes.Manysecondaryclayscontainorganic(carbonaceous) andotherimpurities(iron,quartz,mica,etc.).Someofthemoreplastickaolinsaresecondaryclays.Other secondaryclays:BALLCLAY,STONEWARECLAY,FIRECLAY,EARTHENWARECLAY,SLIPCLAYS,VOLCANICCLAYS.

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CategoriesandBrandsofClays(itemsinboldareusuallyinstockhere)
Kaolin
isnamedfromtheChinese"kao"(high)and"ling"(hill),whereitwasdiscovered.SynonymouswithCHINACLAY. Pure,whiteburning,refractory(vitrifiesatcone34),generallynonplasticprimaryclaywithlargerparticlesize, althoughsedimentarykaolinslikeGrolleg,Tile6andGeorgiaKaolin,andsomeFloridakaolinsaremoreplasticand finerinparticlesize(withresultinghighershrinkage)thannonplastickaolins. Plastickaolin(highershrinkage): EPKEdgarPlasticKaolin.Floridakaolin.Yellowishtinge(inoxidation)whenfireddueto0.7%ironandtitanium traces.Dryshrinkage7.5%,cone04shrinkage10%cone10reduction17%shrinkage.Limitedplasticity,inspiteof itsname.NotaswhiteasTile6. GROLLEGSatiny,likekaolinandballclay.ImportedfromEngland&moreexpensivethandomestickaolins.0.6% iron.Canbeusedasaslipw/theadditionofalittleflux.Whitefiring.Dryshrinkage5%,cone04shrinkage7%, cone10reduction17%shrinkage. PIONEERGeorgiakaolin.SlightlylessplasticthanTile6withslightlymoreiron. TILE6AlsoknownasSixTileClay,aGeorgiakaolin.Firesslightlycreamy(inoxidation)duetoironandtitanium impurities.CheapersubstituteforGrolleg.Agoodkaolinforporcelainformulation.1618%shrinkage. Lessplastickaolinsallhavelessshrinkagethanplastickaolins: ENGLISHCHINACLAY,KINGSLEY Typeofclay Brandnames *=nolongeravailable AVERYcreamy,primaryCarolinakaolin. Kaolins: plastickaolins: nonplastickaolins: Blushesorangeasawashinsaltandwood EPK Avery* firing.15%shrinkage.Limitedsupply:USE Grolleg ChinaClay FORWASHES/SLIPFORSALTANDWOOD Pioneer GeorgiaKaolin ONLY. Tile#6 Glomax(calcinedkaolin) GEORGIAKAOLIN.Dryshrinkage6%,cone Kaopaque20 04shrinkage9%,cone10reduction15% BallClays C&C OM4 shrinkage.0.4%iron. KT1 Tennessee KAOPAQUE20.adelaminatedaluminum SPG XXSagger silicatefromGeorgiaKaolin. FireClays APGreen CarbondaleRed CALCINEDKAOLINtradenameGLOMAX, CedarHts.Bonding HawthroneBond hasbeenheatedtoredheat(CALCINED)to PineLake PBXValentine* removechemicallycombinedwater: XXSagger "preshrunk"forreducedshrinkagein Stoneware clays Cedar Hts. GoldArt FoundryHillCrme bisqueslips. Jordan* Lizella Ocmulgee* Ballclay Earthenwareclays Calvert Lizella CedarHts.RedArt Ocmulgee* wasnamedforthepracticeofrollingthe NewmanRed RangerRed veryplasticclayintoballsduringmining.A SlipClays AlbanySlip* Barnard* secondary(transported)claywith AlbertaSlip Blackbird carbonaceousadditionsthatcoloritgrey, brown,ortanintherawstate,andfirestoalighttone.Moreironthankaolins,lessthanfireclays.Lessrefractory thankaolinsduetomoreironandsmallerparticlesize.Thissmallparticlesizegiveshighestshrinkage(upto20%) andplasticityofallclays.Tooplastictobeusedalone.Increasesgreen(dry)strength.Sometimesusedasaglaze ingredienttoaddstrengthtotherawglazecoat.Maturesinthecone1012range.Maximumamountofballclay fora"white"bodyisusuallynotmorethan15%(theexceptionissomelowfirewhitewarebodies). TENNESSEEBALL,SPGBALLlightestburningballclays.1416%shrinkage. KENTUCKYOM4(OldMine4)1618%shrinkage.1%ironmoreironthanTennessee&SPG. KT1C&CBALLsimilartoOM4butlighterincolor.


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Fireclays
aresecondaryclayswithlargeparticlesize(thuslowshrinkage),goodresistancetoheat,moreironthanballclays, firingbufftobrown.Usedtoadd"TOOTH"toabody,andraisethematuringtemperature. PINELAKEhighsilica,fairlylightincolor:1.5%iron,slightlyplastic.Dryshrinkage6.5%,cone04shrinkage8%, cone10reduction10%. A.P.GREENFIRECLAYa28meshclayfromMissouriwith1.3%iron.Specksinthebody.Lightorangebrownin color@cone9.Dryshrinkage6%,cone04shrinkage9%,cone10reduction16%shrinkage. XXSAGGERbetweenaballclayandfireclay,sometimesclassifiedasastonewareclay,orballclayinConrad,or inRhodesasasaggerclay.Plastic,refractory.Usedtomakesaggers.Creamywhitetotan:0.7%iron.Matures aroundcone10.14.2%shrinkageathighfiretemperatures.Highersilicathanballclays,oftenusedforsaltbodies. CarbondaleRedhighironfireclay.Averyhighironrefractoryclaywellsuitedformanyceramicapplications requiringbrightredcolor.Itfirestoatoastyreduptoaboutcone3andthenturnsdarkredtobrown(partlydue tosolublesaltsonthesurfacethatdarkenthecolor).Thismaterialhasaplasticitysimilartoatypicalpotteryclay body.Carbondaleredprovidesformulatorswithaneconomicalsourceofironoxide.Somehavesuggestedthisasa substituteforNewmanRed,howeveritismuchmorevitreousandhigheriniron. PBXValentinenolongeravailable.Ahighironfireclayredintherawstate.ValCushingsuggestsasubstitutionof 85%HawthornBondingclayplus15%LizellaredclayinplaceofPBXValentine. HawthorneBondMissourifireclay.Goodplasticity,lightcolor.

Stonewareclays
aresecondaryclays.Somecanbeusedasdugw/oadditions.Biggerparticlesthanballclay,lessshrinkagethan ball,lessplasticthanball.Lighttodarkgreyreduced,warmincolorwhenreoxidized,tantobrowninoxidation. Maturearoundcone10. CEDARHEIGHTSGOLDARTAirfloated22meshstonewareclay.Warmincolor:lightorgoldenbuff.Maybloatat cone10atlargepercentagesfromsulphurcontent.1.2%iron.Maturesaroundcone89,max.tempcone12.15 16%shrinkageathighfiretemperatures.Goldartisairfloated.Coarsergrindsofthesameclayareavailableas BondingClayorFireClay. JORDANNOLONGERAVAILABLE.2.8%iron.Moderateshrinkage.Replacew/KYSTONEorGOLDART. SPINKSFOUNDRYHILLCREMEalthoughmfg.sayitcanbeusedalone@cone10,thisclayishighlyplasticand shrinksexcessivelyandfeelsstickywhenusedalone.Creamtobuffinoxidation(lowiron).Canbeusedw/10% feldsparatcone56forathrowingbody.Additionsfortoothrecommended.Themineclosedin1989,butanew sourceisnowavailable.

Earthenwareclays
usuallymaturesinthecone0801range,andaregenerallynotfiredabovecone4.Highironcolorgivesaredfired color,andcausesmeltingandbloatingattemperatureshighenoughtocausevitrification.Thehigherthefiring temperature,thedarkerthecolor.Brittleifoverfired.Variesinplasticityfromstickytoshort.Rawclaymaybe red,ochre,grey,brown,orgreenishandfiresorangetored.Mostoftheusablerawclayfoundinnatureis earthenware.Usedinstonewarebodiesupto10%forcolor. CALVERTredclaylighterthanRedArt:4.8%iron. CEDARHEIGHTSREDARTcone4maximum(brittle,warps@cone4),recommendedtemperatureforstraight Redartiscone063.Richredcolor:7.3%iron.Limitedplasticity.Shrinkageatcone049%,atcone114%.Melts atcone9. OCMULGEEGeorgiaclay.Nolongermined.SeeLizella. LIZELLAMinedbytheBurnsBrickCompanyofGeorgia.Highiron,buthigherfiringthanmostredclays.Vitrifies midrange(cone48).FinergrainedthanOchmulgee.Usedalone,itisbrittleandstressedinhighfirereduction. Maybelistedasastonewareclay.MorerefractorythanRedart. RANGERREDTexasearthenwareclay,olivegreenraw,firestoadeeporange.SimilartoRedArt,withperhapsa bitlessshrinkage. Page3of7

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NEUMANREDfiresdarkred.Listedvariouslyasanearthenwareclayandafireclay.MinedbyMuddoxin California.Axnercarriesit.Ithasabout0.5absorbencyatcone10reduction&alittlemoreatcone10oxidation. Whileaniceclay,ittendstovarygreatly,andcanhavechunkyinclusionsthatcauseproblemsforsome applications.SomeindustrialcompaniesuseNeumanRedforbrickclayandarenotbotheredbythis.Forusewith afinergrainedearthenwareandmajolicaglazingapplications,Irecommendyouscreentheclaybeforeusingto removeextraneousinclusions.

Slipclays
containironandimpuritiesthatmeltcompletelyatcone910.Usedinglazes. ALBANYSLIPCLAYNOLONGERAVAILABLE.Substitutions(seeCeramicsMo.Oct.'88):Dolomite9,SodaAsh1, Redart90ORDolomite8.5,PearlAsh4,SodaAsh1,unwashedWoodAsh10.5,OM450,Flint20,RedIron6. ALBERTASLIPadirectsubstituteforAlbanyslipformulatedbytheArchieBrayFoundationinHelena,MT. BLACKBIRD/BARNARDsimilartoAlbanyslipbutlighterincolor.Barnardnolongeravailable.

Volcanicclays
areformedfromtheweatheringofvolcanicglassorash.Particlesaveragetosmall,withthesmallestparticlesof claybeingfoundinthiscategory. BENTONITE(Al2O3.4SiO2.H2O)isthemostcommonvolcanicclayandisapprox.fivetimesmoreplasticthanball clay.Usedinsmallamounts(23%)inclaybodiestoaddplasticity,oringlazestopreventsettlingandhardeningof ingredientsinthebucket,andstrengthenthedryglazecoat.3.6%iron.ALWAYSMIXBENTONITEWITHOTHER DRYINGREDIENTSBEFOREADDINGTOWATER.ITBLOATSINWATER,FORMINGCLUMPSTHATAREVERY DIFFICULTTOMIX.MACALOIDisasyntheticbentonitethatdoesnotbloatinwaterandmaybedirectlymixedinto liquids.

Nonclaybodyadditions
Willdecreasetheplasticityofthebodyandmakeitmoreopen,aidingdryinganddecreasingshrinkage:

Fluxes
lowerthematuringtemperatureandpromotevitrification(reducesabsorbency).Themainbodyfluxfor stonewareisfeldspar,whichisinexpensiveandhasalongfiringrange.Earthenwarebodiesoftenusetalc, nephelinesyenite,frits,wollastonite,lithiumcompounds,orfeldsparcombinedwithotherfluxes. CUSTERFELDSPARcontainsalumina,silica,andpredominantlypotassium,apotashfeldspar.Ifarecipesimply callsforgenericfeldspar,Custerisgenerallyused.Meltsinthehighfirerange.Otherfeldsparsclassifiedas potashsparsinclude:Orthoclase,Buckingham,Clinchfield,Keystone,Yankee,Kingman,Maine,PlasticVitrox, MadocH,KonaA3,Oxford,K200,andElbrook.Inaclaybodyrecipe,Custercanbeusedinterchangeablywith anyofthese. G200Feldsparpotassiumfeldspar. KONAF4containsalumina,silica,andprimarilysodium,asodafeldspar.BehavessimilarlytoCuster,butmeltsa bitlower.Othersodaspars:Albite,#54GlazeSpar,KonaC6,LuSpar,Minpro#4,Eureka,Bainbridge,#56Glaze Spar,Clinchfield#303.ThesecanbeusedinterchangeablywithKonaF4inclayrecipes. SPODUMENEisalithiumfluxedfeldspar(alumina,silica,andlithium).Lithiumhasalowcoefficientofexpansion, andsubstitutionof510%spodumeneforotherfeldsparwillreducefiredshrinkageasmallamountandpromote goodthermalshockresistanceinovenware.MoreexpensivethanKNaO(sodiumand/orpotassium)spars. Lepidolite,Lithospar,andPetaliteareotherlithiumspars. PYROPHYLLITEcontainsaluminaandsilica,andhaspropertiessimilartotalc.Substitutionofpyropholliteforpart ofthefeldsparand/orsilicainabodywillimprovethermalshockresistance. WOLLASTONITEisacalciumsilicatethatimprovesthermalshockresistanceandmaybesubstitutedforsomeof theflintandwhiting(Calciumcarbonate). PLASTICVITROX(P.V.Clay)isacomplexmineral(1RO.1.69Al2O3.14.64SiO2)minedinCA.SourceofAl,Si,K. ResemblesapotassiumfeldsparandCornwallstoneincomposition.

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NEPHELINESYENITE(NephSy)iscomposedofalumina,silica,andKNaO(sodiumand/orpotassium).TheKnaOis higherinratiothaninafeldspar,resultinginaslightlylowermeltingpointthanfeldspar.10%nephsyisthe equivalentof15%sparinfluxingpoweratcone10. TALCisamajorlowfirebodyflux.Itcontainsmagnesiumandsilica,andhasalongfiringrange.Inlow temperaturebodies,itincreasesthermalexpansion,resultinginglazecompressionduringcoolingandreduced crazing. FRITisamanmademixtureofsolubleand/ortoxicmaterialsthatismeltedintoaglass,cooled,andground.Frits rendersolublefluxes(e.g.sodaash,pearlash,borax)ortoxicfluxes(lead)insolublebycombiningthemw/silica (NOTE:thisdoesnotnecessarilyreducesolubilityinthefiredglaze).Fritsmaybeslightlysolubleanddeflocculate claybodies,makingthemdifficulttoworkinplasticclaybodies.Moreexpensivethannaturalmaterials,reduced firingrangecomparedtofeldspars.Lowfiremeltingrange.Manufacturers:FERRO,PEMCO,O'HOMMEL.Fritsare madeinavarietyofrecipes,andeachmanufacturerhasanumberingsystemfortheirformulas.Chemicalanalysis ofeachfritisavailablefromsuppliers.Fritisusuallyalastresourceasabodyflux,duetocostandpotentialsoluble saltsproblems. SILICAisalreadypresentinclaysandfeldspars.Additionalsilicaisaddedtoimproveglazefit,addhardnesstothe body(combineswithfluxesandhelpsvitrifythebody).Byitself,itisrefractory.Anonplasticbodyaddition,itwill helpopenthebody.AlsocalledFLINTorQUARTZ.

MiscellaneousAdditions
GROGisbisqued,firedclay,usedtoopenthebody,reducingplasticityandshrinkage,andaidingdrying.Grogis availableinavarietyofsizesfromveryfinetocoarse,andisusuallytantobrown.Thecoarsesizescanbeusedto addtexturetoclaybodies.MOLLOCHITEiswhite,porcelaingrog.Youcanmakecoloredgrogbymakingcolored clay,bisquefiringit,andgrindingorpoundingittothedesiredsize. NYLONFIBERcanbeaddedtogiveextratensilestrengthforbuildingandimprovedrystrengthofgreenware. Choppednylonfiberisavailablefromceramicsuppliers,oryoucancutup100%nylonropeintoshortsegments andseparatethefibers.Itonlytakesasmallamounttobeeffective.ClaywithfibershouldNEVERbyputthrougha pugmillbecausethefiberwillclogthescreen. PAPERPULPisusedasanadditivetosculptureclays.Itdecreasesplasticitybutincreasesgreenstrength, decreasesfinishedweight.Papermustbebeatentofinefibersbeforebeingadded.Paperpulpwilldecompose, losingitsfibrouspropertiesintheclayandsmellingsour.Abitofbleachaddedtotheclaywillhelpdelaythis. Peopleusingsmallamountsofpaperclayformending,etc.freezeitinsmallamountstobethawedoutandusedas needed.RosetteGaulthaswrittenabookonpaperclay.ClaywithpulpshouldNEVERbyputthroughapugmill becausethefiberwillclogthescreen. KYANITEcontainsaluminaandsilicaandimprovesmechanicalstrengthofthefiredproductandpromotesgood thermalshockresistance. BENTONITEisaclaylikesubstanceaddedupto3%toimproveplasticity.Excessmayresultinstickyclay. Bentonitebloatsinwater,andshouldbemixedwithanotherdryingredientbeforeaddingliquid.MACALOIDisa syntheticBentonitethatdoesnotbloat. COLORANTSmaybeaddedtolightcoloredbodies.Ironisthesourceofcolorinmostclays.Therearefewer problemsaddingredclaysforcolorthanpureironoxide.Masonstains,especiallythoselistedasbodystains,may beaddedinamountof1520%forcoloredclays.Somestainsmaybefugitiveathightemperaturesand/orin reduction.Oxidesmayalsobeadded.Somearetoxic,suchasmanganese,andcareshouldbeusedhandling them.Largeamountsofoxideswithlowmeltingpoints(copper,iron,cobalt)mayincreasefluxinginclayand bloatingincone10reduction.Addinggranularoxides,suchasgranularrutile,manganeseorilmenite,willproduce darkspecksinthebodyandpossiblyinglazes.

Claybodies
areformulationsofclays,fluxes,silica,andotheringredientstoyieldspecificproperties:color,texture,maturing temperature,absorption,shrinkage,plasticity,dryingandfiringproperties.Functionalbodiesarebetterifstrong andmorevitrified.Sculptureclaysshouldbeopenforevendryingofthickwalls,andhavelimitedshrinkage. Combustiblefillers(straw,sawdust,vermiculite,etc.)maybeaddedtocontrolshrinkage,aiddrying,andreduce Page5of7

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firedweight,andnylonfiberaddedfortensilestrengthinformingandaddedgreenstrength.Throwingbodies shouldbereasonablyplastic.Handbuildingbodiesshouldcontrolshrinkageandbeopentoaidevendrying. Plasticityneedsdependonthemethodusedforforming.Slipcastingbodiesdonotneedplasticity,butshould havelowshrinkage. Inironcoloredclaybodies,itisbettertouseanironbearingclaythantoaddironoxide,whichmaycause brittlenessorweakspotsifnotsufficientlymixedin.Redironoxideisapowerfulcolorantandmaycausestaining ofhands,tools,andclothing.Blackironiscoarserandmayproducespecking.Whitingasabodyfluxwillbleach ironcolors.PleasenotethatmanganeseisTOXIC,andnotagoodadditionasabodycolorantunlessyouplanto workwearinggloves.Someoxidesusedascolorantsarealsofluxes,andinhighamountswilllowermaturing temperature(e.g.allformsofiron,copper,manganese,cobalt). EARTHENWAREfiresfromaboutcone0802(1751F2048),andcanbewhite,buff,orange,red,orbrick.Usually notasvitrifiedashighfiredclays.Tendstowarpandmeltbeforeitvitrifies.Lessshrinkagethanmorevitrified clays,oftenusedforsculpture.Generalabsorptionrange510%.Additionof0.5%bariumcarbonatewillreactwith thesolublesaltsinearthenwarebodies,esp.terracottas,andpreventscummingondriedandbisquedwaresby forminginsolublecompoundsofbariumandsolublesalts. STONEWAREcanbefrommediumrange(cone46,21702230)tohightemperature(cone10,2350),whiteto darkincolor,mediumtocoarseintexture.Generalabsorptionrangeforstonewareis15%. PORCELAINisahightemperaturebody(cone1011),verydenseandfinegrained,vitrified,translucentwhenthin, whitetopalebluegreyinreduction,whitetocreamyinoxidation.Generalabsorptionrange02%.Ifatextureis desired,molochite,aporcelaingrog,isusuallyusedtomaintainwhitecolor.Verywhiteporcelainsareoftenshort (lowinplasticity.) SALTORWOODJackTroyinSaltGlazedCeramicsrecommendsaluminatosilicaratiosof1:4to1:12.5asbestfor salt.Magnesia(foundinthetalcsometimesusedasabodyflux)over3%causesdulling,butisgoodat1.5%and under.Presenceofaluminaandmagnesiamaypromoteochrecolorsandorangeflashing.Ironcontentinhighfire claysisaccentuated.Abrownreductionstonewarewilloftenbedarkbrowninvaporglazing.Highironcancause poorthermalshockresistanceinhighfirereductionsaltedpots.Calciuminclaybodiesinamountsabove3%,esp. w/iron,producegreentogreenyellowsaltglazes. CASTINGBODIESareformulatedforlowshrinkageandlowwatercontent.Theyareusedinliquidforminplaster molds,whichdrawwaterfromtheslipandbuildupalayerofclayontheinsideofthemold.Oncethislayeristhe desiredthickness,themoldisinvertedandtheliquidslipremainingdrainedout,leavingthelayerofclayonthe moldtocontinuetodry.Castingbodiesaredeflocculatedwithsodaash,sodiumsilicate,Darvan,oracombination ofthose.

Claybodytroubleshooting:
CLAYBODYPROBLEM: stickyclayw/excessiveshrinkage(fat clay) claywithpoorplasticity(shortclay) warpingindrying firedclaybrittle warpinginfiring punky,softclay Page6of7 CORRECTION: Addcoarserclays(nonplastickaolins,fireclay),ornonplasticingredients. Decreaseballclay,removebentonite. Addball,usemoreplastickaolin.Decreasenonplasticadditions,add12% bentonite Addcoarserclays(fireclay,nonplastickaolins),grog,nonplastics.Decreasefine grainedclays(ballclay,bentonite). Firelower,lessironifreduced,lessflux.Addrefractoryclays(kaolins,fireclays). Decreaseflux.Addrefractoryclays(fireclay,kaolin),orgrog.Firelower. Addflux.Firehigher.

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SeeDanielRhodesClayandGlazesforthePotterforsuggestedpercentagerangesforclaybodyformulation. Thereismorelatitudeinformulatingclaysthanglazes.Beginwithabaseclaybody,dependingoncharacteristics desired.Whitebodiesbeginwithkaolin,stonewarew/stonewareclay,terracottaw/aredclay.Addclaysto increase/decreaseplasticityandshrinkage,silicaforglazefitandhardness,andotheradditionstocontrol shrinkageoraddotherdesirableproperties.

Sourcesformoreinformationonclay,claybodies:
Conrad,John,AdvancedCeramicManual.Pleasenoteerroronp.22andp.223ofConradinEmpiricalchart: REDARTisNOTastonewareclay:atcone9it'smelteddown;itisanEARTHENWAREclay. Hamer,Frank,ThePottersDictionaryofMaterialsandTechniques,seeclay,cristobalite,etc. Martin,Andrew,TheEssentialGuidetoMoldMaking&SlipCasting,LarkBooks McKee,Charles,CeramicsHandbook;aGuidetoGlazeCalculation,Materials,andProcesses. Rhodes,Daniel,ClayandGlazesforthePotter,StonewareandPorcelain. StudioPottermagazine,v.6no.2featuresporcelain,v.11no.2featuresearthenware,v.10no.1featuresclay

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