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THE PROCESS OF DATA COLLECTION

Steps:
1.) Explain what tests and other measurements will be used.
2.) Clarify how the test will be performed.
3.) Explain how the measurements will be administered.
4.) Discuss how the methods of data collection such as observation and
interview will be carried out.

THE DATA PHASE OF RESEARCH PROCESS INCLUDES MAJOR DECISION, AS


FOLLOWS:
1.) The target population must be
2.) The method of selecting individuals for the large population.
3.) The methods of collecting the data must be specified such as the use of
already existing data, the user of an observer and self recording data.
4.) The ways in which data are to be processed explain, such as the use of
manual processes or means of the computer. The latter is preferred today
for efficiency of results.

ELEMENT TO BE CONSIDERED IN DATA COLLECTION


1.) Nature of research problem.
2.) Design of study whether experimental or non-experimental
3.) Variables, definition and measurement
4.) Sampling units to be include as type, number
5.) Amount of time available within which to complete the study.
 This study will be ---
6.) Adequacy of resources available to perform the study.

METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA


1.) Use of already existing/available these are permanent records, reports
and other documents of an institution, which could be any of the following:
a.) Raw data from basic documents such as records of patients’
admissions, birth dates and discharges among other.
b.) Tabular data indicating numbers of patients admitted or discharged by
year/month or total number of deliveries surgeons/ the workload of
nurses
2.) Use of observer’s data
- gathered trading actual observations and recording of events for ethical
reasons the subjects must be informed that they are being observed.

TYPE OF OBSERVERS
a.) Non-Participant observer - does not share the same milieu with the
subjects, and is not member of the group /subjects of the study. Data
from this source have advantage of high level process because subject’s
judgment is minimized
a.1 Overt non-participant type observer – The observer identifies
herself and her task of conducting research and informing the subjects
of the types of data this may not be ethical.
a.2 Covert Non-participant Observers – does not identify herself to
the subject and
b.) Participant observer– shares the same milieu and is better acquainted
in the subject. The observer may be a member of the group assigned to
collect data while taking part in the activity of the subjects.

TYPES OF PARTICIPANT OBSERVER:


b.1 Overt – initiated with the subjects and has full knowledge and
awareness of the subjects to be observed.
b.2 Covert- interacts in the subjects and observes the behavior and their
knowledge. This may be construed by subjects as spying and might
find out the next purpose of the observers activity. This may have
ethical implication similar to that of the covert non-participant
observers

TWO METHODS OF OBSERVATION


1.) Structured- done when the researcher has prior knowledge of the
phenomenon of interest. The behavior checklist may help indicate the
frequency of the subjects observed behavior.
2.) Unstructured observations- The researchers attempts to describe the
limits and behavior with no preconceived ideas of what will be seen as
observed, This requires a full degree of attention and concentration on the of
the part of researchers.

CATEGORIES OF INFORMATION GATHERED THROUGH OBSERVATION


1.) Characteristics, attitude and conditions. Example alopecia pressure of
edema symptoms of patients
2.) Verbal communications
3.) Non-verbal communication such as facial expressions, posture and
gesture.
4.) Patients activities such as eating, sleeping ambulation among other
5.) Skill in task performance such as deep breathing exercise and crutch
walking.
6.) Environmental conditions such as cleanliness, sit up

ADVANTAGES OF OBERVATION
1.) Useful in nursing care since most activities deal with direct patient care.
2.) Inexpensive and subject and readily available
3.) Leads well to the use of recording instruments
4.) Need simple data collecting instruments
5.) Allows observations of a sequence of events
6.) May be stopped every time.
DISADVANTAGES OF OBSERVATION
1.) Duration of activities cannot be predicted
2.) The researcher has to wait until the expected event occurs
3.) May be biased because of the presence of the observer may influence the
subjects responses/behavior
4.) Extensive training is needed by the observers
5.) Data from two/ more observers may contradict.
- Observers may become personally involved with the subjects
- Observers may limit their ranged observation.

THE USE OF SELF-RECORDING/ REPORTING APPROACH


This method of data collection uses specially prepared document
intended to collect data called instruments. The method describes tools,
devices, tests and other measures used in data collection and explains in
detail how these are applied and
TYPES OF INSTRUMENTS
1. Questionnaire – Self- directing instrument structured with questions
and indications for the respondents react from. It measures information
levels, opinions, attitudes, beliefs, ideas, feelings and propositions as
well as gathers factual information from the respondents.
2. Interview – a one on one dialogue. The researcher and respondents
elicit data from the latter on the phenomenon under study. Interview
may also be conducted through the telephone and e-mail among
others.
a. Structured interview – a dialogue which the interviewer is guided by
prepared questions to gather needed data with case from the
respondents on interviewees of the study. (closed ended questions.)
b. Unstructured interview – the interviewer/s asks question at random
but makes sure that needed data from the respondents, who will be
given holistic information of object of the interview. The interviewer is
to direct the course of the interview. (can have leeway vice-versa)

COVER LETTER
The cover letter should be brief and concise and should contain the following
information.

1. Identification of the researcher and any sponsoring agency


2. Purpose of the research study ex. This study will…
3. How participant was selected.
4. Invitation to participate in the study ex. Be part of the study.
5. Reason the respondent should answer the questionnaire. Ex. Your
honest response will be critical.
6. Length of time to answer the questionnaire. Don’t make
questionnaire too long.
7. How data will be used, made public or both ex. Improve quality
education.
8. Deadline for return of the questionnaire.
9. An offer to inform respondents of the results.
10. A thank you for reading the letter.
11. Contact number, address or both
12. Personal signature of the researchers.

Researcher Instrumentation
Specially-prepared tests/devices used to collect needed data or information
and facilitate observation and measurements of research variables
consistent with the purpose of the study. Research instruments must be valid
& reliable to avoid inaccurate data & consequent spurious results. These are
administered to the subjects or respondents after being proven valid &
reliable by means of pre-tests and dry run.

Guidelines for developing research instruments:


1. The instrument set the purpose of the study. It must help solve
problems raised in the study
2. It must be able to gather needed data for testing the hypothesis and
answering questions revised in the study.
3. Indication in the instrument must be valid, arranged logically and
relates to the and the hypothesis of the study. Answer what is
asked.
4. Indicators in the instrument must be valid so stated that respondent’s
perceptions/reactions will not be biased. Questions should not be
stated with built-in clues such as: Don’t you think that the physician’s
order all after unimportant? Do you follow the physician’s order all the
time?
Ex. Cigarette smoking is bad for your health, isn’t it?
5. Questionnaires must be so constructed that responses shall be
detached and unbiased.
Always Most of the Sometimes Never
time
Study habit
Properties of data
1. Validity
2. Reliability

6. The instrument should be reliable and can produce comparable data


when used on different subjects or respondents under different
circumstances.
7. The instrument should be constructed in such a way that cheating is
minimized if not discouraged subjects must not be influenced by the
responses of others.
8. The instruments should be easy to administer. Direction should be
specific and simply stated.
9. Scale of measurement must be appropriate and reliable.

TYPES OF RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS


1. Questionnaire
This is the most frequently used clerical instrument to gather
needed data from respondents pertinent to the purpose of the
study. It is a paper and pencil approach in which participants was
asked to answer of questions. Data and information are
based on the demographic profile (age, sex, civil status,
educational level and income) assessment of the
respondents regarding variable of the study.
2. Scanning Questionnaire
This is a method of data collection that can be used with
questionnaire that have been administered in face-to-face
interviews. The survey system produces paper questionnaire that
can be scanned. Other software can scan questionnaire and
produce it.
3. Interview
The data are accurately recorded such as on video camera and
tape recorder. A research assistant may help record the
questions and answer during the interview.
Methods:
a. Personal Interview – interviewer asks questions facing the
interviewee.
b. Telephone – most popular interviewing method through which
people can be easily contacted.
c. Mail surveys- allows the respondents
d. Anecdotal records or documentary materials
e. Mechanical Instruments such as diagnostic machines. Ex. X-rays,
ultrasound, CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging, treatment
devices such as mechanical ventilation, resuscitation suction
machines parenteral infusion, traction, casting, multirauker
brace, heart lungs machines, fetal heart monitoring device, BP
apparatus, Stethoscope microscopes, weighing scale, computer
interview or observation video and teleconference, among
others.

Preparation of the Questionnaire and the Interview Schedule


1. Decide whether data should be collected through interview or a
questionnaire, how the measurement should be structured and what
information will be used.
2. Determine which information is being sought then formulate and
record the questions properly structured and sequenced.
3. Prepare a brief introduction and cover letter stating the purpose and
importance of the respondents’ participation, the assurance of confidentiality
of respondents. The cut-off date for retrieval of instruments, a personalized
request and expression of gratitude would enhance the interest of the
respondents to accomplish the questionnaire.
4. Determine the general content of the questionnaire to obtain the
assured information, the desired favor of response, then choose the exact
wording of the questions arranged in proper sequence.
5. Prepare the draft of the instrument.
6. Subject the draft to critical review of expertise and pre-testing among
selected respondents from the target population who shall then be excluded
from the actual study participants. (pilot testing)
7. Administer the revised draft to the actual study respondents. Interview
may help supplement and verify data yielded by questionnaire.

TYPES OF QUESTIONS ASKED


1. Open ended – respondents are given enough flexibility to answer
questions and specify indication other than those listed in the questionnaire.
This technique is appropriate to exploratory research but more difficult to
administer and analyze.
Ex. Give your comments and suggestion to improve teaching and learning
process in the clinical area.
2. Close ended questions – Respondents answer with a no. of
alternative responses causes dichotomous .
Types
a. Dichotomous – These allow respondents to choose between two
response alternatives such as yes / no, viewed / unviewed, pregnant / not
pregnant. Dichotomous questions are useful in gathering factual data.
b. Multichotomous –These allow respondents to answer questions with
a range of responses as in a multiple choice test.
c. Fixed Alternative / Multiple Choice Tests – Respondents are
allowed multiple response alternatives. These types of questions are good
when the possible supplies are few clear cut.
d. Projective Questions – This approach uses a vague question or
stimulus and attempts to project a person’s attitude from the response. This
technique uses word assess and fill-in-the blank sentences. Projective
Method is difficult to analyze and are better used for explanatory research
than for descriptive or experimental research.
e. Cafeteria Questions – Respondents are asked to respond according
to there own viewpoint.
f. Rank Order Questions – Respondent are asked to rank answer from
“most” to “least” important, reasonable frequent / beneficial.
g. Checklist – also called matrix questions views in this instrument are
preserved in 2-D pattern. Questions are written horizontally while
respondent’s answers are written vertically.
*The researcher should consider that respondents may not be able to answer
some questions accurately. The following are the types of error
1. Telescoping error – an error resulting from the tendency of people to
remember events as occurring more recently than they actually did.
2. Recall loss – This occur when people forget that an event occurred.
*For recent events, telescoping errors dominates.

CHARACTERISTIC OF GOOD QUESTIONS


1. Specifically answer the research problem and focus only on the
variable / phenomenon under study.
2. Clearly and briefly stated
3. Objectives are detached from the researchers judgments.
4. Responses are easy to interpret and tabulate.
5. Use of language appropriate to respondent’s level of understanding.
6. Neatly printed / typed on clean, quality papers.
7. Bear the researchers’ signature

WAYS TO STATING RESEARCH QUESTIONS


1. State questions in the affirmative rather than in a negative manner.
2. Words ‘never’ can be overlooked by the subject and might respond
contrary to the intended answer.
3. Questions should be neutrally worded to avoid biased responses
Example: Do you believe that smoking is a disgusting habit?
4. Ambiguous Questions must be avoided. Use of words with multiple
meanings may result confused interpretation.
Ex. Many, usually, always, several, large, sometimes, regularly
5. Avoid double negative questions which are difficult for respondents
to answer.
Ex. Don’t you disagree with the idea
6. Avoid double worded questions for two questions stated as one.
Ex. Do you plan to get married and work as a staff nurse upon
graduation?

Advantages of the Questionnaire


1. Facilitates data gathering
2. Easy to test data for reliability and validity
3. Less the consuming than interview and observation.
4. Observes the anonymity and confidentiality of the respondent’s reactions
and answers.
Disadvantages of the Questionnaire
1. Printing and waiting is costly
2. Response rate may be low
3. Respondents may provide only socially acceptable answers.
4. There is less chance to classify ambiguous answers.
5. Respondents must be literate and with no physical handicaps
6. Rate retrieval may be low because retrieval itself is difficult.
Advantages of Interview
1. Responses are
2. Respondents can give complete answers if questions are well-structured.
3. Verbal and non-verbal behavior can be observed.
4. There is flexibility in questions asked and reaction to these
Disadvantages of Interview
1. Time-consuming and expensive
2. Schedule for interview may be difficult to make.
3. Respondents’ answer may be influenced by behavior of interviewer.
4. Interview needs training.

CRITERIA FOR EVALUATING THE INSTRUMENT


1. Reliability – refer to the presence of consistency/ accuracy with which an
instrument measures the variables of the study.
2. Validity – an instrument measures what it intends to measure An
instrument may be reliable but not valid.
3. Efficiency – refer to the compatibility of the instrument measure even
within a given time frame.
4. Sensitivity – ability to distinguish characteristics or properties/ differing
attributes of phenomena under study.
5. Objectivity – to which Independent user of instrument will obtain
identical or phenomenon under study. The instrument can gather factual
and impartial data.
6. Speed – obtains fast and complete results.
7. Reactivity
8. Simplicity
9. Theming fullness

THE FIELD TEST/ DRY RUN


Research Instrument is best assessed for their validity and
reliability by means of a pre-test/ dry run before the actual study. The dry run
is trial version of the study. The best respondents are part of the population
with similar characteristics with those of the actual study participants/
subjects but they will not participate in the actual survey.

MEASUREMENTS OF VARIABLE
Measurement requires assigning numerical values to variable.
Ways of assigning these no. include counting and ranking of objects/events.
1. Quantitative Measurement Variables
Data are defined in such a way that they can be explained according to
the scale of measurement.
Scale of measurement refers to a device that assign code numbers to
subjects in order to place them in a continuum with respect to the attributes
being measured such a height, weight, temperature nursing care, among
others. The code no. ranges from 0 or more to 1000.
Ex. Definition of patient’s satisfaction is measured to the no. of times a day
the call bell rang or the number of times the patient went out of bed.
Data in numerical from are easily manipulated and analyzed. Variables
are grouped into desired categories and the frequency of occurrence of each
class is measured by counting the number of times the phenomenon occurs
according to the frequency.
Example:
1. bell 2-classes
a. bell rang
b. does not ring the bell
Then record the number of the frequency of occurrence of a bell
ringing at the end of the day.
2. Sex - 2 categories
a. male
b. female
3. civil status-5 categories
a. single
b. married
c. separated
d. widow
e. divorced
4. Pain assessment using a “Pain Rating Scale”

2. Qualitative Description of Variables as the descriptive analysis


phase

a. Nominal scale – this consists of the lowest level of measurement by


assigning characteristics of variable into categories distinct from one
another. Data are categorized and ranked according to frequency of
occurrence, consistent with the level of measurement.
Ex. Sex, Religion, Occupation, Civil status
b. Ordinal Scale - This is used in measuring observations according to
magnitude and intensity. Data are categorized and ordered from most to
least/ highest to lowest according to reference/ values.
Types
1. Likernt Scale – Respondents are asked to indicate the degree to
which they agree/ disagree with the ideas expressed by its indicator. It is
used to assess the attitude of respondents the variable being
manipulated.
2. Graph Rating Scale – highest to lowest/ most – least
Ex.
1. Optimum quality care
Average quality care
Minimum quality care
Very little quality care
No quality care
3. Gutherian Scale – used to assess the attitude of respondents using a
continuum of cumulative statements.
Ex. What is your concept of health care service?
4. Semantic Differential Scale – this is used to measure the meaning of
concepts to determined the emotional evaluative component of the
respondents attitudes. In this scale, respondents are used to rate their
attitude towards a given concept or proportion using several options.
bad good
passive active
weak strong
responsible irresponsible
5. Interval Level of Measurement – this consists of real number as data
that rate can be categorized and ranked as used in the study. This also
specifies the differences between ranks. Categories represent the actual
numbers of the scale.
Ex. Nursing care for hyperthermia and hydrotherapy Take and record the
temperature after hydrotherapy.
1st category – 38.5 ‘C 3rd category – 37.6 ‘C
2nd category – 37.6 ‘C 4th category – 37 ‘C
Check the differences in each rate and find the average temperature
reading for are the 4 categories. Then, analyze the implication of
hydrotherapy in fever using the differences in temperature reading.
5. Ratio level of Measurement – this consist of data can be categorized
and ranked. Distance ranker in specific up to the zero part tries highest level.
Example: bank account

EMPIRICAL PHASE
Statistical Measurement in Research
Statistics is a branch of Mathematics used to summarize, organize,
preserve analyze and interpret numerical data such as the numerical
characters, Use of sample parameters and the numerical characteristic of a
population.
KINDS OF STATISTICS
1. Descriptive Statistic – refer to statistics intended to organize and
summarize numerical data from the population and sample.
Uses of Descriptive Statistic
a. Measures and conclude data information
> Frequency Distribution – scores are tested from highest to lowest/
from highest to lowest.
> Graphic Presentation – data are presented in graphic form to make
frequency distribution data readily.
b. Measures of Central Tendency – used to describe the mean, median, and
mode.
2. Differential Statistics – is concerned with population and the use of
sample data to predict future occurrences.
Uses of Inferential Statistic – there are two purposes of broad inferential
statistic, as follows:
a. To estimate population parameter the following facts are considered using
inferential statistics.
1. Sampling error which the difference between data obtained from a random
sample population and data that would be obtain if an entire…
Example: the % of patients in a hospital.

Formula: P = F x 100 P=%


N F = frequency of response
N = total no. of respondent
2. Ranking
3. Weighted Mean – refers to the overall average of responses/ perception of
the study respondents. It is the sum of the…
4. Measures of Central Tendency
a. Arithmetic Mean/ average weighted mean.

X = Z (wm) <– sum of weighted mean/ item within a given


criterion
N
5. T – Test
Formula: x1 –x1
S1 + S2
2 2

TN1
= n2

X = mean ratings of one respondent


X = mean ratings of second respondent
S12 = variance in the perception / responses of the first group
N1-n1 = no. of item/ criteria

7. The one way analysis of variance / ANOVA for testing mean difference
among which are groups by comparing variability between groups to
variability between groups to variability within groups.

Fisher’s Ratio = MSB


MSW

MSB – mean sum of squares between groups


MSW – mean sum of squares within group
8. Multiple Regression Analysis – to correlate more variables. The microstat
software in which the formula embedded is used Pentaur contain the values
of R1, R2 and the critical values R at 0.05 or 0.01 significance level.

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