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Secondary Works Cited "Arms Control." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

This source was from the database ABC-CLIO, and it explained to me the history of arms control, beginning at the Cold War. This source is reliable. I use this information to explain the history of the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons in my The Treaty and Nuclear Arms Control tabs in my website. Asghar, Rizwan. "The Future of the CTBT." Daily Times. 14 Jan. 2014. Web. 15 Jan. 2014. This source is about the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and its current status, and it shows me a new side of the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. This reliable source shows me not only the background of the CTBT and what it stands for, but it shows the effects it has on the NPT as well. I used this information to create my Nuclear Arms Control tab in my website. Astore, William J. "Manhattan Project: World War II." World at War: Understanding Conflict and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.

This source was about the Manhattan project, the U.S. project to develop the nuclear bomb. It helps me understand the beginnings of the atomic bomb. I used the information I learned from this source to create the Nuclear Weapons tab in my website. This source is reliable because it came from the database, ABC-CLIO. "The Atomic Bomb." National Museum of WWII. Web. 16 Feb. 2014. This source was helpful to me because it explained to me what happened in WWII and showed me a leaflet that was dropped on Japan before the nuclear bomb was dropped. I used the information I learned from this source to create my Leaflets to Japan tab in my website. This source is reliable. "Atomic Bombs." PBS. PBS, Web. 04 Feb. 2014. This video was about the two atomic bombs used on Japan to end WWII. Included in this source are video clips of the president and this time period, but it is not considered a primary source because it was an account of the event after the fact. It helps me understand the effects, both good and bad, of nuclear weapons during this event. This source is reliable and I used the information in this video to create my WWII tab in my website. Beller, Denis. E-mail interview. 6 Feb. 2014.

I email interviewed a research professor at UNLV named Denis Beller. This source is reliable. He answered questions about the responsibilities of nations that posses nuclear weapons and technology and the future of nuclear technologies. This interview helped me understand the theme, rights and responsibilities, as well as prove my thesis. Bidwell, Christopher A. Personal e-mail interview. 5 Feb. 2014. I email interviewed Christopher A. Bidwell, a Senior Fellow for Nonproliferation Law and Policy for the Federation of American Scientists, about the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, and he gave me very helpful information about my topic. It helps me with my project because it gives me a first hand view on nonproliferation from an expert, so it is a reliable source. "The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki." Atom Central. Web. 08 Feb. 2014. This source was about the bombing of two Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This source included pictures of the effects of the two bombs, so I used them in my website under the WWII tab. It shows how bad the effects of a nuclear bomb can be, but also the good. This source is reliable. Bush, George H.W. Public Papers of George Bush -- Statement by Press Secretary Fitzwater on Argentine and Brazilian Compliance With Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation Regimes. 29-Nov-90. World Book Advanced. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. This secondary source was President George H. W. Bushs reflection of Brazil and Argentinas announcement that they will work with the IAEA to apply safeguards to all nuclear facilities and activities in their countries and to bring into force the Treaty of Tlatelolco. I compared this treaty with the other treaties that comply with the NPT. It is reliable. Carlin, Pat. "North Korea: Conflict and Diplomacy: Background." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 12 Feb. 2014. This source provided me with North Koreas history, starting with its split with South Korea, and concluding with its nuclear records. This source is very helpful to my research because it gives me evidence to support my thesis. I used this information to construct my Nuclear Risk webpage. It is a reliable source because it is from the database ABCCLIO. "China's Non-Proliferation Policy and Measures." China's Non-Proliferation Policy and

Measures. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. This source is about how China is for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, and what measures and policies they use to enforce it. This secondary source is very helpful to understanding my topic because it explains the current status of China in its NPT efforts. Sources like Nuclear Deal, Nuclear Imperialism or Nuclear Apartheid (Counter Currents) prove the information is reliable. Clinton, William J. Public Papers of William J. Clinton -- Statement on Strengthening International Nuclear Safeguards on Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. 16-May-97. World Book Advanced. Web. 17 Nov. 2013. This secondary source was President Clintons account of the strengthening of international nuclear safeguards on the proliferation of nuclear weapons. I compared this source to the United Nations source because they both discuss issues with countries and the topic of acquiring nuclear weapons. I used this information to construct my United Nations webpage. The source is reliable. Clinton, William Jefferson. "Public Papers of William J. Clinton Statement on Extension of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty." 11-May-95. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, 1995. World Book Advanced. Web. 5 Dec. 2013. This source was President William J. Clintons reflection of the Extension of the NPT.. It was helpful because it gave a firsthand account of what happened in this 1995 consensus, and shows the positive effects of the NPT. The source is reliable because it is a presidential document. I used the information in this source to create my Rights and Responsibilities tab in my website. "Code Red." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation. Web. 18 Feb. 2014. From this source, I used the picture of the Austrian Ambassador to the USSR, Walter Wodak, signing the NPT in my The Treaty tab. It gives me a firsthand look at the signing, but it is a secondary source because it contains secondary information as well as the picture. This source is reliable "Cold War." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 15 Feb. 2014. This source explained to me what happened during the Cold War and how it applies to

the use of nuclear weapons. I used this in my research to understand the history of the nuclear weapon in different countries, and to create the Nuclear Arms Control tab in my website. The source is reliable because it is from a trusted database. "A Date to Remember." A Date to Remember. IAEA, Sept. 2008. Web. 07 Feb. 2014. This source was about how the IAEA was a part of the NPT, and helps me understand how safeguards were first introduced. It is helpful because many sources do not explain how the NPT and IAEA safeguards coincide. The source is reliable. I used the information from this source to create the The United Nations tab in my website. "The Development and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons". Nobelprize. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 26 Jan 2014. This source provided me with the history of the development of proliferation of nuclear weapons. It helps me prove my thesis because it includes a description of the nations that are not signatories of the NPT and those that have nuclear weapons. This source is reliable because multiple sources confirm these dates, such as Terrorism and Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Dickson, David. "Nuclear Rights and Responsibilities. SciDev.Net, 8 Aug. 2005. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. This source was very informative, although biased, and it is considered a secondary source because the information delivered was by a person who was not present in the events described. It is about the various events that occurred in attempt to keep the use of nuclear technology under control and responsible. I used a quote from this source in my Rights and Responsibilities tab in my website. Duz, Sergey. "US Uranium Laser Enrichment Technology Threatens Nuclear NonProliferation Treaty." The Voice of Russia. 26 Dec. 2013. Web. 22 Jan. 2014. This source is about how the U.S. has finally created a program to separate uranium isotopes with lasers. It is helpful to me because, unlike other sources, it shows things that the U.S. has done to almost threaten the NPT. In most of my other sources they explained how rogue countries, like Iran and North Korea, have been a problem. This is a reliable source. Ellis, Elisabeth Gaynor, and Anthony Esler. World History- Connections to Today. Boston: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2005. 790-845. Print.

This source included information about how atomic bombs resolved WWII. It showed me how destructive an atomic bomb can be. It also included a few pictures of the aftermath. It is a secondary source because it was an account written after the event happened by someone who was not part of the event. This is a reliable source. Evrensel, Ayhan. "IAEA, China to Strengthen Cooperation in Nuclear Security." IAEA. 16 Aug. 2010. Web. 02 Feb. 2014. This article proves Chinas efforts to improve nuclear security. Chinas nuclear security and nonproliferation efforts were covered in the source "China's Non-Proliferation Policy and Measures", as well as Nuclear Deal, Nuclear Imperialism or Nuclear Apartheid, and they show that China is in fact serious about improving its nuclear nonproliferation efforts. The source is reliable. Freedman, Lawrence D. "Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (International Agreement)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. This source was a general overview of the Treaty, and also explains the challenges it has had with countries such as North Korea. It is a secondary source because it contains information about the NPT from later in time. I used this information in my Nuclear Risk page of my website. This source is reliable. Haque, M. M. "Nuclear Deal, Nuclear Imperialism or Nuclear Apartheid? By Dr. M. Mohibul Haque." Nuclear Deal, Nuclear Imperialism or Nuclear Apartheid? 13 Jan. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. This source is about the recent nuclear weapons deal between Iran and the six major powers (USA, UK, France, Russia, China, and Germany) to prevent Tehran from acquiring or developing any sort of nuclear capacity. This article was informational, eye opening, and helpful in my overall understanding of our worlds nuclear global order. Although biased, this source is credible and reliable. Henriques, Sasha, Irena Mele, Robin Heard, Kevin Alldred, and Elisabeth Dyck. "A Safe Return." IAEA, 12 Apr. 2010. Web. 1 Feb. 2014. This source was about IAEAs support in the transportation of nuclear and radioactive materials. I used the picture and information from this source in my Rights and Responsibilities tab. This source relates to the source HEU Travels Back to Russia With IAEA Assistance and is reliable.

"HEU Travels Back to Russia with IAEA Assistance." IAEA. Mar. 2008. Web. 01 Feb. 2014. This source was about how Russia gave Czech Republic HEU (high-enriched uranium) to use for various peaceful purposes. If it had not been securely delivered and had gotten into the wrong hands, it could have posed a security and proliferation risk, but it was delivered safely. I used the picture and information from this source in my Rights and Responsibilities tab. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. This source explained to me about the IAEA and how it complies with the NPT. I can use this information in my United Nations tab in my website. Jenkins, Peter. "The Iran Nuclear Negotiations At The Turn Of Another Year." The Iran Nuclear Negotiations At The Turn Of Another Year. 8 Jan. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. The point of this source was mainly to explain how the IAEA is associated with the United Nations and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. This helped understand how they are both related and I can further investigate how the UN and IAEA work with the treaty. It compares with most of the other sources in my bibliography and is a reliable source. Jones, Brian Madison. "Nuclear Weapons Testing." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 16 Feb. 2014.

This source explains to me the history of nuclear weapons testing, and how it relates to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. I used this information to create my Nuclear Weapons tab in my website. The source is reliable because ABC-CLIO is a trusted database. Kimball, Daryl G. "Balancing Nuclear "Rights" and Responsibilities." Arms Control Association. Web. 26 Nov. 2013. This source was about how different countries want to use nuclear technology for profit, but conflicts arise when there are possibilities it will go against the NPT. This source was

informative and helpful because it talked about people wanting to go against the nonproliferation treaty. The information is reliable and objective. I used a quote from this source in my Rights and Responsibilities tab in my website. Kimball, Daryl. "The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) at a Glance." Arms Control Association. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. This source was a general explanation of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. It was very helpful because it helped me understand more about the treaty. I used this information in my The Treaty tab of my website. The information provided in this source was reliable and helpful. Los Alamos History in Images. Los Alamos National Laboratory. Photographs. Web. This source was very important to my research and project because it showed me what the bombs used on Japan looked like as well as many other pictures from that time period. I used many of these photos all throughout my project. I found this site because when I went to the Atomic Testing Museum, many of the photos were cited with this source. Murtha, John P., and John Plashal. From Vietnam to 9/11: On the Front Lines of National Security. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State UP, 2003. Print. The information I used from this source was about the conflicts in Iraq and Iran. The secondary source gave me information on the unfavorable pasts of Iraq and Iran, and it helps me prove my thesis. The information is reliable and objective. National Atomic Testing Museum. 755 E. Flamingo Road, Las Vegas, NV 89119. 11 Feb 2014. This museum gave me a ton of information, and helped me understand my topic. While I was there, I completed several personal interviews. It also led me to a source Los Alamos National Laboratory, where I found various photos I used in several of my tabs in my website. This source is reliable because it is a national museum. The Nobel Peace Prize 1959". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 27 Jan 2014 This source shows the recipient of the 1959 Nobel Peace Prize. His name was Philip J. Noel-Baker, and received it for his lifelong endeavor to help refugees of war and to promote arms control and disarmament (primarily nuclear). It also includes a photograph of the recipient, and this is not a primary source because it is an account of

the event after the fact. This source is reliable. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1962". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 27 Jan 2014. This source shows the recipient of the 1962 Nobel Peace Prize. His name was Linus Carl Pauling, and received it for his leading role in the struggle against nuclear testing in the atmosphere, although he didnt receive it until 1963. It also includes a photograph of the recipient, and this is not a primary source because it is an account of the event after the fact. This source is reliable. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1974". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 27 Jan 2014. This source shows the recipient of the 1974 Nobel Peace Prize, Eisaku Sato, in recognition of his opposition to any plans for a Japanese nuclear weapons program and his crucial role in ensuring Japan's signature to the Non-Proliferation Treaty. It also includes a photograph of the recipient, and this is not a primary source because it is an account of the event after the fact. This source is reliable. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1982". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 27 Jan 2014. This source shows the recipients of the 1982 Nobel Peace Prize, Alva Myrdal and Alfonso Garca Robles, for their important contributions in favor of nuclear arms control and disarmament. It also includes a photograph of the recipients, and this is not a primary source because it is an account of the event after the fact. This source is reliable. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1990". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 27 Jan 2014. This source shows the recipient of the 1990 Nobel Peace Prize, Mikhail Gorbachev, for his leading role in the peace process, which today characterizes important parts of the international community and his efforts to stop and reverse the nuclear arms race of the 1980s. It also includes a photograph of the recipient, and this is not a primary source because it is an account of the event after the fact. This source is reliable. "The Nobel Peace Prize 2005". Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2013. Web. 27 Jan 2014. This source shows the recipients of the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for

peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way". It also includes a photograph of the recipients, and this is not a primary source because it is an account of the event after the fact. This source is reliable. "North Korea: Conflict and Diplomacy: Overview." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

This source was an overview of the tensions and conflict associated with North Korea. I used this source to prove my thesis, and I also used it to create my Nuclear Risk tab in my website. It helps me understand what relations North Korea has with nuclear weapons and technologies. This source is reliable because it is from a trusted database. "Nonproliferation." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 13 Feb. 2014. I used this source in my website on the tab titled The Treaty to define the word nonproliferation. It helps me understand the word and how it relates to my topic, as well as my thesis. The source is reliable and not biased. "The Nuclear Energy Agency." Nuclear Energy Agency. OECD. Web. 13 Jan. 2014. This source helps me understand what the Nuclear Energy Agency is. I can relate this to my topic because it complies with the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. This source is reliable. "Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty." U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State. Web. 12 Jan. 2014. This source was a very basic overview of the NPT and how it is regulated. It is a very objective source that includes the results of the treaty, and it helps me understand the basic principles of the Treaty. This source is reliable. I used this to create my The Treaty tab in my website. Obama, Barack. Personal letter. 13 Feb. 2014. TS. I went on the White House website and applied to email President Barack Obama about the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons, and then I received this email letter back. This helps me immensely with my research because I can absolutely know for sure I am being provided with true and factual information. This source is reliable, and it helps me prove my thesis. I used a quote from this letter in my website. "Our History." LANL Newsroom. Web. 11 Feb. 2014. This source informed me about the Los Alamos Laboratory. It was helpful to my research

because I used it to understand the past, as well as the present and future of Los Alamos. I used the picture as well as the information provided to create my Nuclear Weapons tab in my website. This source is reliable. Pifer, Steven. "Up Front." The Brookings Institution. 13 Jan. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. This source was about the 20th anniversary of the signing of the trilateral statement. This source provides me with a great deal of information about where Ukraine, Russia, the U.S., Britain, North Korea, and Iran stand with nuclear weapons. This source helps me prove my thesis because it provides the current standing of the nations mentioned above. This source is reliable. "Race for the Superbomb: Timeline." PBS. PBS, Web. 20 Jan. 2014. This source gives me a timeline of the race for the atomic bomb. It helps me understand the history of the creation of the atomic bomb, along with how it affected the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. I used this information to create my tab Nuclear Weapons. This source is reliable Rupp, Richard E. "United Nations (UN)." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. This source was very helpful because it included a background of the IAEA and safeguards. It helped me understand how the UN founded the IAEA, and it is useful because it introduced the problems with Iran. This secondary source was objective because it was all fact, and it is reliable. I used this information to create my Nuclear Risk tab, along with the United Nations tab, in my website. Sadjadpour, Karim. "Iran To Take First Step Toward Long-Term Deal." Interview by Arun Rath. Iran To Take First Step Toward Long-Term Deal. NPR. 19 Jan. 2014. Radio. Transcript. This source was an interview about the nuclear deal made between six world powers and Iran. It helps me understand that, today, Iran doesnt really have an interest in nuclear weapons. This interview was biased, even though it provided facts, because it was an interview where the interviewee was sharing their opinion on the topic. This source is reliable, and I used it to create my Nuclear Risk tab in my website. Scherer, Lauri S. Weapons of Mass Destruction. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2007. Print.

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This source includes information about weapons of mass destruction and examines the key threats posed by weapons of mass destruction (WMD), how WMD proliferation can be prevented, and how rogue nations who seek WMD should be handled. This source helps me understand what things we should be cautious of when dealing with weapons of mass destruction. This source is reliable. "Signatories and Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons." FAS. 3 Dec. 1998. Web. 30 Jan. 2014. This source was the list of signatories and parties to the NPT. It gives me exactly who signed and who did not. I used this source to see where the country stands with the NPT when I am reading a source on a specific country. This document is very useful and reliable. I used this as an iFrame in my Signatories and Parties of the NPT tab. Tanner, Stephen. The Wars of the Bushes: A Father and Son as Military Leaders. Philadelphia [Pa.: Casemate, 2004. 218-20. Print. This source was about the development and effects of weapons, along with the Bush administration. This source is a useful, objective source with important dates. I researched this source because the source Balancing Rights and Responsibilities talked about the Bush administration, which I was unfamiliar with. This source is reliable. Tepperman, Jonathan. "How Nuclear Weapons Can Keep You Safe." Newsweek. 28 Aug. 2009. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. Although this source is a bit biased, I used this source to understand that there is also a different side to consider with having nuclear weapons available. I used this information in my Nuclear Risk tab in my website. This source is reliable. "Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Status of the Treaty." Disarmament Treaties Database: (NPT). Web. 13 Jan. 2014. This source is a list of all the states that have signed the NPT. It can help me research more in depth the states that have not signed why. This source is very helpful. It is a reliable source because it came from the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. The goal of this source was to show a list of all of the states that have signed the NPT. "Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons [NPT]." Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty [NPT] . Ed. Alicia Godsberg. Web. 20 Jan. 2014.

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This source explained to me what the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of nuclear weapons is. It helps me understand how nuclear weapons are dangerous. I used the information in this source to create my The Treaty tab in my website. This source is reliable. Truman, Harry S. Photograph. Britannica Online for Kids. Web. 14 Mar. 2014. The source includes information about President Truman along with the main photo. I used the photograph from this source in my tab WWII above the Harry Truman sound clip. It helps me create a visual representation of the multimedia clip. This source is reliable, and it is objective. "UN at a Glance." UN News Center. United Nations. Web. 16 Feb. 2014. UN at a Glance was a basic overview of the United Nations. This source helps me understand what the United Nations is. I used this information to create my tab The United Nations in my website. This source is reliable and objective. "United Nations." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 17 Feb. 2014.

This source helps me understand how the United Nations relates to nuclear nonproliferation. I used this information to create my tab The United Nations in my website. This source is objective and reliable because it came from the trusted database, ABC-CLIO. "UN Nuclear Inspectors Arrive in Iran." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 29 Jan. 2012. Web. 29 Mar. 2014. This source is about the how Iran allowed the IAEA inspectors into their nuclear power plants. I used the photo included in this source to relate to the theme in my Rights and Responsibilities tab in my website. This source is reliable. "U.S. Department of State." Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. This source was a very informative, basic overview of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and how it is regulated. It was especially important because it introduced me to the topic of the review conferences, the RevCon (Review Conference) and PrepCom (Preparatory Commitee). The source was very objective, and includes the after results of the NPT. The source is reliable, and I used to create my Nuclear Arms Control tab. Vogele, William B. "Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty." World Book Advanced.

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World Book, 2013. Web. 12 Dec. 2013. This source was about the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and the history before, during, and after it was signed. This introduced me to a new side of my research; therefore, it was helpful. It provided me with important dates. The source was very objective, and includes the after results of the NPT. The source is reliable, and I used to create my Nuclear Arms Control tab. Williams, Robert E. "Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 31 Dec. 2013. The point of this source was to explain the purpose and background of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, and it is objective. The source helped me shape my argument because it included facts about the downsides to the treaty and those who did not sign it. I used this source to create my The Treaty tab in my website. "Yongbyon nuclear facility." Image. National Security Archive (www.nsarchive.org). World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 12 Feb. 2014.

This image shows me what the North Korean Yongbyon nuclear facility looked like, as photographed on March 17, 1970. I used this source to create my Nuclear Risk webpage, and it is helpful in proving my thesis. This source is reliable because it is from a trusted database.

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