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BSEEP Seminar

Energy Efficiency in New Buildings


100% 90% Cumulative percentile 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
GEO (2007) 30 kWh/m2 year ST Diamond (2010) 75 kWh/m2 year

Malaysia (41 office buildings) Singapore (95 office buildings) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Energy Efficiency Index (kWh/m2/year)


Source of ch art: EAEF Project 64 Typical Cross Project leader: Energy Sustainabilty Unit, Singapore, 2006

Section

Gregers Reimann
BSEEP Consultant / IEN Consultants
www.jkr.gov.my/bseep
Energy Efficiency in New Buildings BUILDING SECTOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Kuala Malaysia Lumpur 6 December November 2011 2007 14

Overview
Terminology The Case for Energy Efficiency Case studies + video
Energy Rating of Buildings

Energy BSEEP: Efficiency Energy in Efficient New Buildings Buildings BUILDING SECTOR ENERGY IEN Consultants EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Kuala Singapore Lumpur Lumpur 6 November 2007 15 14 September 14 December December 2010 2011 2011

Building Terminology
Solar PV roof (example)

Renewable Energy (RE)


Low Carbon Emissions

Energy Efficiency (EE)


Energy Rating of Buildings EE is a sub-set of Green Buildings

Green Buildings
Tropical Energy BSEEP: Daylighting Efficiency Energy (CK in Efficient New Tang Buildings &Buildings G Reimann) BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 6 November 2007 14 December 2011

Energy Efficiency vs. Green


Energy efficiency is an important sub-set of Green Building Rating Schemes
180 160 20 140 120 100 Bonus: Renewable Energy Innovation Indoor Environmental Quality Environmental Protection Materials & Resources Sustainable Sites Water Efficiency Energy Efficiency 0 LEED GBI Green Mark 40 20 10 35 80 60 7 8 32 14
Min 20 pts/ Max 50 Pts Total of 120 pts Bonus of 20 pts

Total of 106 pts


6 15 14 26

Total of 100 pts


7 21 11 16 10 35

79

Min 30 pts/ Max 50 Pts

Point allocation under three Green Building Rating Schemes


Tropical Energy BSEEP: Daylighting Efficiency Energy (CK in Efficient New Tang Buildings &Buildings G Reimann) BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 6 November 2007 14 December 2011

The CO2 Emission Goal


Energy Efficiency plays a key role in achieving this goal
Ton CO2 emissions per person per year
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 7

1
Average Malaysian Sustainable Level by 2050

1 ton CO2 emission challenge at COP15, Copenhagen, 2009

World average (2010): 5 ton CO2 per person


SB07, KLCC, KualaMalaysia Lumpur 6 December November 2011 2007 14

Energy BSEEP: Efficiency Energy Efficient in New Buildings BUILDING SECTOR IEN ENERGY Consultants EFFICIENCY PROJECT

Most cheap CO2 savings in building sector


CO2 savings

Giga-ton of CO2 equivalents per year

US dollars / ton CO2 equivalents Source: IPCC

Cost of CO2 savings


SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

Energy Efficiency has a good Economic Internal Rate of Return


(Input to 9th Malaysian Plan by Danida, 2005)
100% 110% or above 100% 90% T y p ic a l E I R R fo r S e le c te d T e ch n o l o g y O p ti o n 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 2.5 Solar dryer in manufacturing, 4.1, 4.2 waste-to-energy (w/CDM) 20% 10% 0% -10% 0% or below -20% 2.1 NG savings in manufacturing (mainly cement, food, iron&steel, rubber, wood) 2.4 NG-fired CCP in education/"other" (replacing 25% of el. for cooling) 5.1 Co-firing of coal and EFB-bales, POFF 5.2 BioGen Small-Scale (120 MW) 20 2.4 NG-fired CHP in rubber/food (replacing 10% of process heat) 2.4 Biomass-fired CHP Large-Scale 3.1 Electricity savings in new and existing commercial buildings (30%/15% electricity savings) 2.1 LPG savings in manufacturing (mainly cement, food, iron&steel, rubber, wood) 2.4 NG-fired CHP in machinery (replacing 10% of process heat) 5.1 Co-firing of coal and PKS 2.4 NG-fired CHP in paper (replacing 10% of process heat) 2.2 Biomass boilers in manufacturing (Coal Substitution w/PKS) 2.1 Electricity and fuel savings in manufacturing (mainly cement, food, iron&steel, rubber, wood) 2.2 Biomass boilers in manufacturing (Coal Substitution w/PKS) 3.1 Electricity savings in new and existing residential buildings (30%/15% electricity savings)

EE in Residential Buildings EE in Commercial Buildings

Everything above this 10% line is a good investment

2.4 NG-fired CHP in iron&steel/non-metallic/textile (10%) (replacing 10% of process heat) 1.2 NGV in transportation (20% of gasoline) 1.1 Palm-diesel in transportation (B20)

9
0

NIRAS

10

15

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia 6 November 2007 25

mill. toe (Estimated Avoided Fossil Fuel Consumption in 2020 / For NGV Gasoline is Replaced by Natural Gas)

Energy Efficiency in Buildings has Zero or Negative Abatement Cost

Study for India

Tropical Energy Daylighting Efficiency (CK in New Tang Buildings & G Reimann) BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 6 November 2007 14 December 2011

Good Economy in Energy Efficient Buildings


Malaysia
5% extra construction cost 50% reduction in energy use 60% reduction in water use 5 year payback
Source: IEN Consultants, 2010

United States
2-7% extra construction cost 64% higher sales price 36% higher rental rates 5% higher occupancy rates
Source: US National Study, EnergyStar and LEED buildings, 2008
NB: Building location skews numbers

Conclusion: Expensive not to be energy efficient


Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Cost of Sustainable Buildings


(Example: Low Energy Office building)
Two tenders
o without energy efficient features o with energy efficient features
Key data: Gross Floor Area: 20,000 m Energy Index: 114 kWh/m/year Additional EE construction cost: 5% Payback: 5 years Annual energy savings: ~ RM 600,000

Findings
o 5% extra cost o 50% energy savings o 5 year payback
Energy bill comparison (RM/m year)
2006 Winner of: ASEAN Building Energy Award
Electricity + district cooling bills (RM / m / year)

Average

Energy Efficiency (EE) Features: - Daylighting - EE lighting - EE office equipment - EE ventilation - Controls & Sensors - Orientation - Insulation - Energy management
Ministry of Energy, Green Technology and Water, Putrajaya, Malaysia Year of completion: 2004

LEO

8 neighbouring office buildings


SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

No / Low Cost for Energy Efficiency


BEI vs. Tender Price
(Final 10 tenders for KKR HQ project)
250

Energy Consumption, BEI (kWh/m2 year)

200

150

100

50

0 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 Tender price index

Public tender for Government Office Tower in Kuala Lumpur


LowTropical Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Daylighting Efficiency Energy GEO (CK in and Efficient New Tang ST Buildings & Diamond Buildings G Reimann) Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

No / Low Cost for Energy Efficiency


BEI vs. Tender Price
(Final 10 tenders for KKR HQ project)
250

Energy Consumption, BEI (kWh/m2 year)

200

150

100

Another example: LEED Platinum projects can be 2% cheaper


90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 Tender price index
Bill Odel, HOK Group (WGBC, 2010)

50

Public tender for Government Office Tower in Kuala Lumpur


LowTropical Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Daylighting Efficiency Energy GEO (CK in and Efficient New Tang ST Buildings & Diamond Buildings G Reimann) Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

How to Design Energy Efficient Buildings?


Too humid
Tropical weather Comfort zone (air-con) Comfort zone (natural ventilation)

Energy supply

Energy wastage Too hot


(plug the holes)

DESIGN WITH THE CLIMATE

FIRST ENERGY EFFICIENCY, THEN RENEWABLE ENERGY


SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

Where is the building energy consumed?


(energy-breakdown of low, medium and high energy consuming office buildings)

Energy Index
150.0 130.0 110.0

Building cases Worst Base


mewc Good
Low Energy Office building (Malaysia)

kWh/m 2 year

90.0 70.0 50.0 30.0 10.0

Chiller Energy Breakdown

Fan Energy

Lighting

Chiller Energy

Small Power

-10.0 -30.0

Small Power Gain

Fan Gain

Solar Gain

Ext Conduction Gain

Focus areas

Comment: Unfortunately, little/no focus on Small power in green building certification schemes
SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

Dehumid Ppl Latent Gain

Dehumid Fresh Air

Fresh Air Gain

Ppl Gain

Lighting Gain

Nega-Watts (not Mega-Watts)

Saving new power plants

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Energy Index of Office Buildings in Malaysia


Stop the leaks

kWh/m2 year
300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Leaks stopped

Energy BSEEP: Efficiency Energy in Efficient New Buildings Buildings BUILDING SECTOR ENERGY IEN Consultants EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 6 November 2007 14 December 2011

Advertising against Energy Efficiency

New Straits Times January 2002, Malaysia


Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

New and Energy Efficient Approach

Energy Efficiency Label for: o Air con o Fridges o TVs o Fans o Motors
New Straits Times January 2002

Suruhanjaya Tenaga, 2010


SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

How to Dress in the Tropics


We live in the tropics. It is hot and humid even without stiff collars, bow-ties, cummerbands, the various studs, links, patent leather shoes and black silk socks. In temperate countries a point can be made for such a dress code. You feel warm and comfortable during spring, autumn and winter. In Singapore, we perspire even in casual dress. Perhaps the unwritten dress code in every invitation should be: Dress in decorum and comfortably. Wee Kim Wee
(The late president of Singapore) Glimpses and Reflections, page 99
He knew what he was talking about (Always in suit on Google Images) Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Energy Consumption Breakdown (ST Diamond Building)


Electricity consumption percentages

16%

Cooling System
16% 49%

Lighting Small Power Others

19%

Note: o District cooling has been converted to electricity using SCOP of only 3.8 (close to real figure)

Energy BSEEP: Efficiency IEN Energy Consultants in Efficient New Buildings Buildings BUILDING SECTOR www.ien.com.my ENERGY IEN Consultants EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia FuturArc Kuala Forum Lumpur 2011 6 November 2007 7 13 Oct Oct 14 2011, 2011, December Singapore Bangkok 2011

Building Energy Index (without Solar PV)


LEO (2004) 100 kWh/m2 year

100% 90% Cumulative percentile 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
GEO (2007) 65 kWh/m2 year

ST Diamond (2010) 85 kWh/m2 year

Malaysia (41 office buildings) Singapore (95 office buildings) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Energy Efficiency Index (kWh/m2/year)


Source of chart: EAEF Project 64 Typical Cross Project leader: Energy Sustainabilty Unit, Singapore, 2006

Section

Energy BSEEP: Efficiency Energy Efficient New Buildings Buildings Low Energy Buildings: GEOin and ST Diamond Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR ENERGY IEN Consultants EFFICIENCY PROJECT Consultants, www.ien.com.my

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia Kuala Lumpur SGBC, Sands, Singapore November 2007 14 December 2011 156 September 2010

Building Energy Index (with Solar PV)


LEO (2004) 100 kWh/m2 year

100% 90% Cumulative percentile 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
GEO (2007) 30 kWh/m2 year

ST Diamond (2010) 75 kWh/m2 year

Malaysia (41 office buildings) Singapore (95 office buildings) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Energy Efficiency Index (kWh/m2/year)


Source of chart: EAEF Project 64 Typical Cross Project leader: Energy Sustainabilty Unit, Singapore, 2006

Section

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Cooling transport (Focus item 1)


o Shift cooling transport from air to water
(GEO and ST Diamond have floor slab cooling)

o Key things to do
- reduce pressure losses - use efficient pumps, fans and motors - use VSD
kWh/m 2 year

Energy Index
150.0 130.0 110.0 90.0 70.0 50.0 30.0 10.0

Building cases Worst Ba se


mewc Good
Low Energy Of f ice b uild ing (Malaysia)

Chiller Energy Breakdown

Fan Energy

Lighting

Chiller Energy

Small Power

-10.0 -30.0

Sm all Power Gain

Fan Gain

Ext Conduction Gain

Solar Gain

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Dehumid Ppl Latent Gain

Dehumid Fresh Air

Fresh Air Gain

Ppl Gain

Lighting Gain

Small Power (Focus item 2)


o Use efficient office equipment
(GEO and ST Diamond have efficient IT purchasing policies)

o Key things to do
- laptops / thin clients - efficient printers (shared) - efficient task lights
kWh/m 2 year

Energy Index
150.0 130.0 110.0 90.0 70.0 50.0 30.0 10.0

Building cases Worst Ba se


mewc Good
Low Energy Of f ice b uild ing (Malaysia)

Chiller Energy Breakdown

Fan Energy

Lighting

Chiller Energy

Small Power

-10.0 -30.0

Sm all Power Gain

Fan Gain

Ext Conduction Gain

Solar Gain

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Dehumid Ppl Latent Gain

Dehumid Fresh Air

Fresh Air Gain

Ppl Gain

Lighting Gain

Lighting (Focus item 3)


o Use efficient lighting and efficient controls
(GEO and ST Diamond have efficient daylight responsive lighting and task lights for all occupants)

o Key things to do
- design for daylighting (diffuse light) - ID design to follow daylight design - no glare from daylight windows - manual blinds for viewing windows - daylight sensors - task lights to people in daylit zones
Energy Index
150.0 130.0 110.0

Building cases Worst Ba se


mewc Good
Low Energy Of f ice b uild ing (Malaysia)

kWh/m 2 year

90.0 70.0 50.0 30.0 10.0

Chiller Energy Breakdown

Fan Energy

Lighting

Chiller Energy

Small Power

-10.0 -30.0

Sm all Power Gain

Fan Gain

Ext Conduction Gain

Solar Gain

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Dehumid Ppl Latent Gain

Dehumid Fresh Air

Fresh Air Gain

Ppl Gain

Lighting Gain

Air-conditioning

(Focus item 4)

o Design for high cooling system efficiency


(ST Diamond has district cooling. GEO building designed with innovative river roof cooling tower)

o Key things to do
- high chiller COP - reduce head on pumps and use VSD - VSD on both sides of chiller - air-tightness - energy recovery - Liquid desiccant dehumidification (promising technology)
Energy Index
150.0 130.0 110.0

Building cases Worst Ba se


mewc Good
Low Energy Of f ice b uild ing (Malaysia)

kWh/m 2 year

90.0 70.0 50.0 30.0 10.0

Chiller Energy Breakdown

Fan Energy

Lighting

Chiller Energy

Small Power

-10.0 -30.0

Sm all Power Gain

Fan Gain

Ext Conduction Gain

Solar Gain

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Dehumid Ppl Latent Gain

Dehumid Fresh Air

Fresh Air Gain

Ppl Gain

Lighting Gain

Solar Geometry
West East

SITE
Tilted 16 from North

Solar Path for Malaysia


Latitude 3.1 North

25 Faade Tilt Angle

Solar Geometry
The solar path was used to sculpt the building geometry. The 25 tilt angle of the facades ensures that North and South facades are fully self-shaded during the hottest mid-day hours. For the East and the West facades, the tilting faade helps to reduce the solar impact by 41%.

The tilted glazing admits more of the desirable diffuse KLCC, light reflected off the landscape SB07, for glare freeMalaysia 6 November 2007 daylighting use in the building

Facade Daylighting System


Mirror lightshelf

Fixed blinds for glare control

Energy efficient lighting controls:


Light sensor (automatic off), manual wall switch (on) + individual table lamps Typical Cross Section

Daylight reflected onto ceiling

Energy BSEEP: Efficiency Energy in Efficient New Buildings Buildings BUILDING SECTOR ENERGY IEN Consultants EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 6 November 2007 14 December 2011

Diffuse light deflected into room by lightshelf and window sill LIGHT REFLECTIONS FROM: Lightshelf + Window sill

FACADE

Self-shaded facade from direct sun Mirror lightshelf with fixed louver Lightshelf only

Window sill only

Faade Daylight Design


The building is 50% daylit. The faade daylighting system consists of a mirror lightshelf and a white painted window sill. Both deflect daylight onto the white ceiling for improved daylight distribution until 5 meters from the faade + 2 additional meters of corridor space. Fixed white louvres with top surface mirror finish on the top side are mounted with a 30 tilt angle SB07, KLCC, Malaysia above the lightshelf for glare protection while still allowing daylight to be deflected onto the ceiling. To increase daylight 6 November 2007 throw into the rooms, the suspended ceiling was omitted giving a floor to ceiling height of 3.7 m.

Zoning & control of daylight responsive lighting

Daylight responsive lighting:


o Zone lights parallel to faade o Lights off (automatic by sensor) o Light on (manual by switch)

Daylight responsive lighting control + use of task lighting

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia 6 November 2007

Atrium Daylight Design


1. 2. 3.

Tannenbaum reflector panel on levels 4 and 5

The atrium has been carefully designed optimize daylight utilization for each floor employing the combination of the following three strategies:
Automated blind with six different configuration to maintain the appropriate daylighting levels at all times. The blinds with 30% light transmittance are adjusted every 15 minutes and follow a three different control strategies for morning, mid-day and evening The windows size becomes larger deeper into the atrium to cater for lower daylight levels A band of Tannenbaum reflector panels are applied to 4th and 5th floor to deflect daylight across the atrium to 1st and 2nd floor where daylight levels are the lowest. The christmas tree profile reflectors have an inclination of 10 and reflect about 85% of the light in semi-diffuse SB07, KLCC, Malaysia manner, hence, avoiding visual glare issues for the building occupants. 6 November 2007

Light Trough
Roof top

7th floor

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia Pleasant daylight in the deepest part of the building 6 November 2007

Measured
Useful range for office work (100 2000 lux)
Table 1

Table 2 Table 3

Corridor

Table atrium

Overcast

Bright sun

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia 6 November 2007


Lux meter V
Lux meter V Lux meter IV Lux meter III

Lux meter III

Lux meter II

Lux meter I

Step-in Design (Self-Shading, GEO building)

N
Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Direct Sunlight Cut Off, Only Diffuse Light Enters Rooms

Photo taken on 12 June 2007 (North facade)


Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Roof Lights

Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Daylight Responsive Lighting


Lighting Zone 1 Lighting Zone 2

Lighting Control
Automatic off (light sensor and/or occupancy sensor) Manual on (people press the wall switch) Use task light (table lamp)

Measured lighting: 0.56 W/m2 (factor 25 below building code)


Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011

Floor slab cooling pipes laid before pouring concrete

Manifold for pipes coming out of RC slab

Suspended ceiling omitted not to restrict slab cooling

One week temperature data


(simulated by Transsolar)

Floor Slab Cooling


Flexible 22 mm PERT pipes are embedded in the RC slabs during construction to make the building structure function as a thermal storage system. At night 18 C cold water is circulated in the slabs cooling them down to about 21 C. During the day-time, the system is shut off, and floor slab passively absorbs heat gains from people, computers, solar gains etc. The advantages of the floor slab cooling system are: Reduces cooling transport energy by 64% because it is more efficient to transport cooling with water than with air Shifts much of the cooling to the slabs, so the AHU system can be down-sized about 30% Shifts 30-40% of the cooling to night time, so KLCC, buildingMalaysia can save SB07, cost from the lower off-peak energy rates and from reduced 6 November 2007 maximum demand charge

Insulated Green Roof

NAME Green roof (Ar2)

Material Air film, outdoors Turf (Zoysia matrella) Sand bedding 20 mm (a: sand stone) Soil mixture 100 mm Geotextile 10 mm (vermiculite loose granules) Gravel 30 mm (stone granite) Screed 50 mm (lightweight) Waterproofing 5 mm (asphalt roofing) Insulation 50 mm (spray foam) Screed 25 mm (lightweight) RC slab (200 mm) Air film, indoors (flat roof)

Thickness (m)

Thermal conductance (W / m K)

0.02 0.1 0.01 0.03 0.05 0.005 0.050 0.025 0.2

1.298 0.375 0.065 2.927 0.303 1.226 0.0272 0.303 1.442

Thermal resistance (m2 K / W) 0.055 0.360 0.200 0.267 0.154 0.010 0.165 0.004 1.838 0.083 0.139 0.162

U-value (W/m2 K)

0.29

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia 6 November 2007

Roof Insulation Studies


(Using steady-state finite element simulation to optimize insulation designs of upstand beams on roof)

Option A

Not insulated

Option B

50 mm thick rim insulation

Option C

50 mm thick full insulation

Energy BSEEP: Efficiency IEN Energy Consultants in Efficient New Buildings Buildings BUILDING SECTOR www.ien.com.my ENERGY IEN Consultants EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia FuturArc Kuala Forum Lumpur 2011 6 November 2007 7 13 Oct Oct 14 2011, 2011, December Singapore Bangkok 2011

Insulated Concrete Roof

NAME Concrete roof (Ar1)

Material Air film, outdoors Screed 50 mm (lightweight) Waterproofing 5 mm (asphalt roofing) Insulation 100 mm (styrofoam) Screed 25 mm (lightweight) RC slab (200 mm) Air film, indoors (flat roof)

Thickness (m) 0.05 0.005 0.10 0.025 0.2

Thermal conductance (W / m K) 0.303 1.226 0.028 0.303 1.442

Thermal resistance (m2 K / W) 0.055 0.165 0.004 3.571 0.083 0.139 0.162

U-value (W/m2 K)

0.24 NB. To minimise cold-bridging through the roof slab, all concrete plinths, columns and walls were insulated with a 25 mm thick layer of spray-foam up until 400 mm height above the RC slab

Energy BSEEP: Efficiency IEN Energy Consultants in Efficient New Buildings Buildings BUILDING SECTOR www.ien.com.my ENERGY IEN Consultants EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia FuturArc Kuala Forum Lumpur 2011 6 November 2007 7 13 Oct Oct 14 2011, 2011, December Singapore Bangkok 2011

Greenery cooling the surroundings


GROUND LEVEL Landscape all around the building ROOF LEVEL Grass turf on much of the roof

Concrete roof

Grass roof

35.1C

30.6C

Energy BSEEP: Efficiency IEN Energy Consultants in Efficient New Buildings Buildings BUILDING SECTOR www.ien.com.my ENERGY IEN Consultants EFFICIENCY PROJECT

SB07, KLCC, Malaysia FuturArc Kuala Forum Lumpur 2011 6 November 2007 7 13 Oct Oct 14 2011, 2011, December Singapore Bangkok 2011

Final Slide
Stamp of approval
LEO (2004) 100 kWh/m2 year
Post Malaysia green building stamp series 2009

100% 90% Cumulative percentile 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%
GEO (2007) 65 kWh/m2 year

ST Diamond (2010) 85 kWh/m2 year

Malaysia (41 office buildings) Singapore (95 office buildings) 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450

Energy Efficiency Index (kWh/m2/year)

Typical Cross Section


Low Energy Energy BSEEP: Buildings: Efficiency Energy GEOin and Efficient New ST Buildings Diamond Buildings Building BUILDING IEN SECTOR Consultants, ENERGY IEN Consultants www.ien.com.my EFFICIENCY PROJECT

Thank you
SB07, KLCC, Malaysia SGBC, Sands, Kuala Singapore Lumpur November 2007 156 September 14 December 2010 2011