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INTRODUCTION TO WORKHOLDING

Over the past century, manufacturing has ma e c!nsi era"#e pr!gress$ Ne% machine t!!#s, high& perf!rmance cutting t!!#s, an m! ern manufacturing pr!cesses ena"#e t! ay's in ustries t! ma(e parts faster an "etter than ever "ef!re$ )#th!ugh %!r(h!# ing meth! s have a#s! a vance c!nsi era"#y, the "asic princip#es !f c#amping an #!cating are sti## the same$

HI*TOR+
The first manufacture pr! ucts %ere ma e !ne at a time$ ,ar#y artisans starte %ith #itt#e m!re than ra% materia#s an a r!ugh i ea !f the finishe pr! uct$ They pr! uce each pr! uct piece "y piece, ma(ing each part in ivi ua##y an fitting the parts int! the finishe pr! uct$ This pr!cess t!!( time$ -!re!ver, the .ua#ity an c!nsistency !f pr! ucts varie fr!m !ne artisan t! the ne/t$ )s they %!r(e , ear#y manufacturing pi!neers rea#i0e the nee f!r "etter meth! s an eve#!pe ne% i eas$ ,ventua##y, they f!un the secret !f mass pr! ucti!n1 stan ar i0e parts$ *tan ar parts n!t !n#y spee e pr! ucti!n, they a#s! ensure the interchangea"i#ity !f parts$ The i ea may "e !"vi!us t! ay, "ut in its time, it %as rev!#uti!nary$ These stan ar parts %ere the (ey t! ena"#ing #ess&s(i##e %!r(ers t! rep#icate the s(i## !f the craftsman !n a repetitive "asis$ The !rigina# meth! !f achieving c!nsistent part c!nfigurati!n %as the temp#ate$ Temp#ates f!r #ay!ut, sa%ing, an fi#ing permitte each %!r(er t! ma(e parts t! a stan ar esign$ Whi#e ear#y temp#ates %ere cru e, they at #east gave s(i##e %!r(ers a stan ar f!rm t! f!##!% f!r the part$ 2ui# ing !n the temp#ate i ea, %!r(ers c!nstructe !ther gui es an %!r(h!# ers t! ma(e their 3!"s easier an the resu#ts m!re pre icta"#e$ These gui es an %!r(h!# ers %ere the ancest!rs !f t! ay's 3igs an fi/tures$ +ester ay's %!r(h!# ers ha the same t%! "asic functi!ns as t! ay's1 secure#y h!# ing an accurate#y #!cating a %!r(piece$ ,ar#y 3igs an fi/tures may have #ac(e m! ern refinements, "ut they f!##!%e many !f the same princip#es as t! ay4s %!r(h!# er esigns$

D,5INITION*
Often the terms 63ig6 an 6fi/ture6 are c!nfuse !r use interchangea"#y7 h!%ever, there are c#ear istincti!ns "et%een these t%! t!!#s$ )#th!ugh many pe!p#e have their !%n efiniti!ns f!r a 3ig !r fi/ture, there is !ne universa# istincti!n "et%een the t%!$ 2!th 3igs an fi/tures h!# , supp!rt, an #!cate the %!r(piece$ ) 3ig, h!%ever, gui es the cutting t!!#$ ) fi/ture references the cutting t!!#$ The ifferentiati!n "et%een these types !f %!r(h!# ers is in their re#ati!n t! the cutting t!!#$ )s sh!%n in 5igure 8&8, 3igs use ri## "ushings t! supp!rt an gui e the t!!#$ 5i/tures, 5igure 8&9, use set "#!c(s an thic(ness, !r fee#er, gages t! #!cate the t!!# re#ative t! the %!r(piece$

5igure 8&8$ ) 3ig gui es the cutting t!!#, in this case %ith a "ushing$

5igure 8&9$ ) fi/ture references the cutting t!!#, in this case %ith a set "#!c($

:igs
The m!st&c!mm!n 3igs are ri## an "!ring 3igs$ These t!!#s are fun amenta##y the same$ The ifference #ies in the si0e, type, an p#acement !f the ri## "ushings$ 2!ring 3igs usua##y have #arger "ushings$ These "ushings may a#s! have interna# !i# gr!!ves t! (eep the "!ring "ar #u"ricate $ Often, "!ring 3igs use m!re than !ne "ushing t! supp!rt the "!ring "ar thr!ugh!ut the machining cyc#e$ In the sh!p, ri## 3igs are the m!st&%i e#y use f!rm !f 3ig$ Dri## 3igs are use f!r ri##ing, tapping, reaming, chamfering, c!unter"!ring, c!untersin(ing, an simi#ar !perati!ns$ Occasi!na##y, ri## 3igs are use t! perf!rm assem"#y %!r( a#s!$ In these situati!ns, the "ushings gui e pins, !%e#s, !r !ther assem"#y e#ements$ :igs are further i entifie "y their "asic c!nstructi!n$ The t%! c!mm!n f!rms !f 3igs are !pen an c#!se $ Open 3igs carry !ut !perati!ns !n !n#y !ne, !r s!metimes t%!, si es !f a %!r(piece$ C#!se 3igs, !n the !ther han , !perate !n t%! !r m!re si es$ The m!st&c!mm!n !pen 3igs are temp#ate 3igs, p#ate 3igs, ta"#e 3igs, san %ich 3igs, an ang#e p#ate 3igs$ Typica# e/amp#es !f c#!se 3igs inc#u e "!/ 3igs, channe# 3igs, an #eaf 3igs$ Other f!rms !f 3igs re#y m!re !n the app#icati!n !f the t!!# than !n their c!nstructi!n f!r their i entity$ These inc#u e in e/ing 3igs, trunni!n 3igs, an mu#ti&stati!n 3igs$ *pecia#i0e in ustry app#icati!ns have #e t! the eve#!pment !f specia#i0e ri## 3igs$ 5!r e/amp#e, the nee t! ri## precise#y #!cate rivet h!#es in aircraft fuse#ages an %ings #e t! the esign !f #arge 3igs, %ith "ushings an #iners insta##e , c!nt!ure t! the surface !f the aircraft$ ) p!rta"#e air&fee ri## %ith a "ushing attache t! its n!se is inserte thr!ugh the #iner in the 3ig an ri##ing is acc!mp#ishe in each #!cati!n$

5i/tures
5i/tures have a much&%i er sc!pe !f app#icati!n than 3igs$ These %!r(h!# ers are esigne f!r app#icati!ns %here the cutting t!!#s cann!t "e gui e as easi#y as a ri##$ With fi/tures, an e ge fin er, center fin er, !r gage "#!c(s p!siti!n the cutter$ ,/amp#es !f the m!re&c!mm!n fi/tures inc#u e mi##ing fi/tures, #athe fi/tures, sa%ing fi/tures, an grin ing fi/tures$ -!re!ver, a fi/ture can "e use in a#m!st any !perati!n that re.uires a precise re#ati!nship in the p!siti!n !f a t!!# t! a %!r(piece$ 5i/tures are m!st !ften i entifie "y the machine t!!# %here they are use $ ,/amp#es inc#u e mi## fi/tures !r #athe fi/tures$ 2ut the functi!n !f the fi/ture can a#s! i entify a fi/ture type$ *! can the "asic c!nstructi!n !f the t!!#$ Thus, a#th!ugh a t!!# can "e ca##e simp#y a mi## fi/ture, it c!u# a#s! "e further efine as a stra #e&mi##ing, p#ate&type mi## fi/ture$ -!re!ver, a #athe fi/ture c!u# a#s! "e efine as a ra ius&turning, ang#e&p#ate #athe fi/ture$ The t!!# esigner usua##y eci es the specific i entificati!n !f these t!!#s$

T!!# !r T!!#ing
The term 6t!!#6 enc!mpasses "!th 3igs an fi/tures$ ,ssentia##y, it is a generic term escri"ing a %!r(h!# er %hich is i entifie %ith a part !r machine$ *!metimes 6t!!#6 is use t! refer t! a cutting t!!# !r a machine t!!#, s! it is imp!rtant t! ma(e c#ear istincti!ns$

W!r(h!# ers
)n!ther term %hich escri"es "!th 3igs an fi/tures is 6%!r(h!# er$6 ) "r!a term, it fre.uent#y i entifies any evice %hich h!# s, supp!rts, an #!cates a %!r(piece$ In a iti!n t! 3igs an fi/tures, vises, c!##ets, c#amps, an !ther simi#ar evices are a#s! %!r(h!# ers$

;,R-)N,NT )ND T,-;OR)R+ WORKHOLD,R*


:igs an fi/tures are m!st !ften f!un %here parts are pr! uce in #arge .uantities, !r pr! uce t! c!mp#e/ specificati!ns f!r a m! erate .uantity$ With the same esign princip#es an #!gic, %!r(h!# ing evices can "e a apte f!r #imite &pr! ucti!n app#icati!ns$ The ma3!r ifference "et%een permanent an temp!rary %!r(h!# ers is the c!st<"enefit re#ati!nship "et%een the %!r(h!# er an the pr!cess$ *!me app#icati!ns re.uire 3igs an fi/tures s!#e#y f!r spee 7 !thers re.uire #ess spee an higher precisi!n$ The re.uirements !f the app#icati!n have a irect impact !n the type !f 3ig !r fi/ture "ui#t an , c!nse.uent#y, the c!st$

;ermanent :igs an 5i/tures


W!r(h!# ers f!r high&v!#ume pr! ucti!n are usua##y permanent t!!#s$ These permanent 3igs an fi/tures are m!st !ften inten e f!r a sing#e !perati!n !n !ne particu#ar part$ The increase c!mp#e/ity !f permanent %!r(h!# ers yie# s "enefits in impr!ve pr! uctivity an re uce !perat!r ecisi!n&ma(ing, %hich resu#t in the t!!# having a #!%er average c!st per unit !r per run$ Theref!re, m!re time an m!ney can "e 3ustifie f!r these %!r(h!# ers$ In the case !f hy rau#ic !r pneumatic fi/tures, inherent esign a vantages can ramatica##y impr!ve pr! uctivity an , hence, re uce per&unit c!sts even further, even th!ugh the initia# c!st t! c!nstruct these fi/tures is the m!st e/pensive !f a## fi/ture a#ternatives$ In s!me cases, %here machine&#!a ing c!nsi erati!ns are param!unt, such as a pa##et&changing machining center, even up#icate permanent fi/tures may "e 3ustifie $ ;ermanent 3igs an fi/tures are typica##y c!nstructe fr!m stan ar t!!#ing c!mp!nents an cust!m&ma e parts$ 5igure 8&= sh!%s a typica# permanent %!r(h!# er f!r a ri##ing !perati!n$

5igure 8&=$ ) permanent %!r(h!# er use f!r a ri##ing !perati!n$

L!%&v!#ume runs an !nes %ith fe%er critica# imensi!ns are !ften pr! uce %ith thr!%a%ay 3igs an fi/tures$ These t!!#s %!u# typica##y "e !ne&time&use items c!nstructe fr!m "asic materia#s at han an iscar e after pr! ucti!n is c!mp#ete$ )#th!ugh thr!%a%ay 3igs an fi/tures are technica##y permanent %!r(h!# ers, in effect they are actua##y temp!rary$

Genera#&;urp!se W!r(h!# ers


In many instances, the shape !f the part an the machining t! "e perf!rme a##!% f!r the use !f a genera#& purp!se %!r(h!# er such as a vise, c!##et, !r chuc($ These %!r(h!# ers are a apta"#e t! ifferent machines an many ifferent parts$ *ince they are n!t part&specific, their versati#ity a##!%s f!r repeate use !n a variety !f ifferent !r #imite & pr! ucti!n runs$ The c!st !f these %!r(h!# ers %!u# usua##y "e average !ver years an might n!t even "e a fact!r in 3!"&c!st ca#cu#ati!ns$ The genera#&purp!se nature !f these %!r(h!# ers necessitates a higher #eve# !f !perat!r care an attenti!n t! maintain c!nsistency an accuracy$ 5!r these reas!ns, genera#&purp!se %!r(h!# ers are n!t preferre f!r #engthy pr! ucti!n runs$

-! u#ar 5i/tures
-! u#ar fi/tures achieve many !f the a vantages !f a permanent t!!# using !n#y a temp!rary setup$ Depicte in 5igure 8&>, these %!r(h!# ers c!m"ine i eas an e#ements !f permanent an genera#&purp!se %!r(h!# ing$

5igure 8&>$ -! u#ar %!r(h!# ers c!m"ine i eas an e#ements !f "!th permanent an temp!rary %!r(h!# ing t! ma(e ine/pensive&yet& ura"#e %!r(h!# ers$

The primary a vantage !f m! u#ar fi/tures is that a t!!# %ith the "enefits !f permanent t!!#ing ?setup re ucti!n, ura"i#ity, pr! uctivity impr!vements, an re uce !perat!r ecisi!n&ma(ing@ can "e "ui#t fr!m a set !f stan ar c!mp!nents$ The fi/ture can "e isassem"#e %hen the run is c!mp#ete, t! a##!% the reuse !f the c!mp!nents in a ifferent fi/ture$ )t a #ater time the !rigina# can "e rea i#y rec!nstructe fr!m ra%ings, instructi!ns, an ph!t!graphic rec!r s$ This reuse ena"#es the c!nstructi!n !f a c!mp#e/, high&precisi!n t!!# %ith!ut re.uiring the c!rresp!n ing e icati!n !f the fi/ture c!mp!nents$ 5igure 8&A sh!%s h!% m! u#ar fi/turing fits int! the hierarchy !f %!r(h!# ing !pti!ns, ran(ing "e#!% permanent fi/turing yet a"!ve genera#&purp!se %!r(h!# ers$ Birtua##y every manufacturer has g!! app#icati!ns f!r each !f these three !pti!ns at !ne time !r an!ther$

5igure 8&A$ The hierarchy !f %!r(h!# ing !pti!ns$

D,*IGN CON*ID,R)TION*
The principa# c!nsi erati!ns %hen ch!!sing am!ng %!r(h!# er varieties fa## int! three genera# categ!ries1 t!!#ing c!st, t!!#ing etai#s, an t!!#ing !perati!n$ )#th!ugh each !f these categ!ries is separate here, in practice they are inter epen ent$ The f!##!%ing are s!me esign ifferences an c!nsi erati!ns f!r permanent, genera#&purp!se, an m! u#ar %!r(h!# ers$

T!!#ing C!sts
The t!ta# c!st !f any 3ig !r fi/ture is fre.uent#y the ma3!r area !f c!nsi erati!n in many %!r(h!# er esigns$ )#th!ugh initia# c!st is a ma3!r e#ement, it sh!u# n!t "e the "asis f!r accepting !r re3ecting any t!!#ing !pti!n$ ) m!re&pr!per ec!n!mic eva#uati!n !f the %!r(h!# er esign ta(es int! c!nsi erati!n many !ther fact!rs$ )s iscusse previ!us#y, permanent fi/tures have istinct a vantages in the pr! ucti!n !f high&v!#ume an high& precisi!n parts$ They a#s! typica##y re uce machine setup time, machine cyc#e time, an the #eve# !f !perat!r s(i## re.uire t! pr! uce satisfact!ry .ua#ity !utput$ Over a #!ng pr! ucti!n run, !r a series !f runs in the #ife !f a t!!#, the average c!st !f the t!!# per piece pr! uce can "e .uite #!%$ Genera#&purp!se %!r(h!# ers are m!re e/pensive than temp!rary t!!#s in m!st cases, "ut their uti#ity an f#e/i"i#ity !ften a##!% these %!r(h!# ers t! "e regar e as a capita# c!st t! "e am!rti0e !ver a peri! !f time %ith!ut regar t! actua# usage$ *imi#ar#y, m! u#ar fi/turing is typica##y a capita# investment t! "e am!rti0e !ver a set #ifespan, %ith an average c!st assigne t! usage f!r each anticipate 3!"$ )n!ther c!st t! "e c!nsi ere is %!r(h!# er isp!siti!n$ ;ermanent fi/tures re.uire st!rage an maintenance t! (eep them avai#a"#e f!r their ne/t use$ Genera#&purp!se t!!#s are reuse e/tensive#y, "ut sti## incur s!me c!sts f!r maintenance an st!rage$ *imi#ar#y, m! u#ar fi/tures %i## "e isassem"#e , an the c!mp!nents maintaine , st!re , an reuse fre.uent#y$

T!!#ing Detai#s
T!!#ing etai#s are the !vera## c!nstructi!n characteristics an specia# features inc!rp!rate int! the 3ig !r fi/ture$ ;ermanent %!r(h!# ers are esigne an "ui#t t! #ast #!nger than temp!rary %!r(h!# ers$ *!, permanent 3igs an fi/tures usua##y c!ntain m!re&e#a"!rate parts an features than temp!rary %!r(h!# ers$ There are severa# !ther ifferences "et%een permanent an temp!rary %!r(h!# ers in this area$ These inc#u e the type an c!mp#e/ity !f the in ivi ua# t!!#ing e#ements, the e/tent !f sec!n ary machining an finishing !perati!ns !n the t!!#, the t!!#& esign pr!cess, an the am!unt !f etai# in the %!r(h!# er ra%ings$ *ince the e#ements f!r m! u#ar %!r(h!# ers are usua##y part !f a c!mp#ete set, !r system, !n#y rare#y %i## a iti!na# cust!m c!mp!nents nee t! "e ma e$ ;ermanent %!r(h!# ers c!ntain ifferent c!mmercia# t!!#ing c!mp!nents "ase !n e/pecte t!!# usage$ ;ermanent 3igs inten e f!r a high&v!#ume ri##ing !perati!n, f!r e/amp#e, !ften use a rene%a"#e "ushing an #iner "ushing t!gether$ ) thr!%a%ay 3ig f!r a sma##er pr! ucti!n run !ften uses a simp#e press&fit "ushing$ The sec!n ary !perati!ns n!rma##y ass!ciate %ith t!!#ing inc#u e har ening, grin ing, an simi#ar !perati!ns t! finish the %!r(h!# er$ Usua##y, permanent %!r(h!# ers are har ene an gr!un t! assure their accuracy !ver a #!ng pr! ucti!n run$ *ince they are inten e !n#y f!r sh!rt pr! ucti!n runs, thr!%a%ay 3igs an fi/tures ! n!t re.uire these !perati!ns$ )n!ther sec!n ary !perati!n fre.uent#y perf!rme !n permanent t!!#s, "ut n!t temp!rary t!!#s, is app#ying a pr!tective finish, such as "#ac( !/i e, chr!me p#ating, !r ename# paint$ In esigning a permanent %!r(h!# er, the esigner !ften ma(es etai#e engineering ra%ings t! sh!% the t!!#r!!m e/act#y %hat must "e !ne t! "ui# the %!r(h!# er$ With temp!rary %!r(h!# ers, the esign ra%ings are !ften sent t! the t!!#r!!m as simp#e freehan s(etches$ ;ermanent t!!#s are n!rma##y esigne f!r #!ng&term use$ This "eing the case, the ra%ings an engineering ata f!r the permanent 3ig !r fi/ture then "ec!me a permanent rec!r $ With m! u#ar %!r(h!# ers, the esigner may either c!nstruct ra%ings !r specify "ui# ing the %!r(h!# er irect#y ar!un the part$ Here !n#y a parts #ist an ph!t!graphs !r vi e! tape are (ept as a permanent rec!r $ Certain %!r(h!# ing app#icati!ns re.uire specia# fi/ture characteristics$ 5!r e/amp#e, a particu#ar#y c!rr!sive envir!nment may re.uire stain#ess stee# c!mp!nents an c#amps t! e#iver a satisfact!ry #ife cyc#e$ In !ther cases, varia"#e %!r(piece imensi!ns, as in a casting, necessitate c#amping evices %hich can c!mpensate f!r these variati!ns$ )ppearance !f a finishe part might re.uire the use !f ny#!n, p#astic, !r ru""er c!ntact p!ints t! pr!tect the part$ *imi#ar#y, the se#ecti!n !f t!!#ing etai#s can enhance the pr! uctivity !f s!me permanent t!!#s$ 5!r e/amp#e, uti#i0ing sma## hy rau#ic c#amps may a##!% #!a ing many parts !n a %!r(h!# er ue t! the c!mpactness !f the esign$ This %!u# enhance pr! uctivity "y re ucing #!a <un#!a time as a percentage !f t!ta# cyc#e time$ Dup#icate fi/tures are s!metimes 3ustifie f!r machining centers "ecause they a##!% #!a ing !f parts !n !ne pa##et uring the machining cyc#e !n the !ther pa##et$

T!!#ing Operati!n
The perf!rmance !f any %!r(h!# er is critica# t! the c!mp#ete usefu#ness !f the t!!#$ If the %!r(h!# er cann!t perf!rm the functi!ns esire in the manner inten e , it is c!mp#ete#y use#ess, regar #ess !f the c!st !r the e/tent !f the etai#$ )s the perf!rmance !f a permanent, m! u#ar, !r genera#&purp!se %!r(h!# er is c!nsi ere , severa# fact!rs a"!ut the machine t!!#s must "e (n!%n$ These fact!rs inc#u e the type, si0e, an num"er !f machine t!!#s nee e f!r the inten e !perati!ns$ W!r(h!# ers are s!metimes esigne t! serve mu#tip#e functi!ns$ 5!r e/amp#e, it is p!ssi"#e t! have a %!r(h!# er that acts "!th as a ri## 3ig an a mi##ing fi/ture$ These t!!#s are ca##e c!m"inati!n t!!#s !r mu#tip#e& functi!n %!r(h!# ers$ 5igure 8&C sh!%s a typica# temp!rary %!r(h!# er f!r ri##ing an mi##ing !perati!ns !n the same part$ In this e/amp#e, since the %!r(h!# er has pr!visi!ns f!r "!th mi##ing an ri##ing, it is c#assifie as "!th a ri## 3ig an mi##ing fi/ture$

5igure 8&C$ ) c!m"inati!n ri## 3ig<mi##ing fi/ture use f!r "!th types !f !perati!ns !n the same part$

Other machine c!nsi erati!ns may c!me int! p#ay as %e##$ On numerica##y c!ntr!##e machines, f!r e/amp#e, care must "e ta(en in fi/ture esign t! p!siti!n c#amps !ut !f the cutting t!!#'s path$ ;a##et machines re.uire ifferent fi/tures than !ther machines$ O"vi!us#y, vertica# mi##s %!u# "e t!!#e ifferent#y than h!ri0!nta# mi##s$ Li(e%ise, the %ay parts are #!a e !nt! the fi/ture has imp#icati!ns f!r fi/ture esign$ Despite the %!r(h!# er esign !r the si0e !f the pr! ucti!n run, every 3ig !r fi/ture must meet certain criteria t! "e usefu#$ These criteria inc#u e accuracy, ura"i#ity, an safety$ )ccuracy, %ith regar t! 3igs an fi/tures, is the a"i#ity !f a %!r(h!# er t! pr! uce the esire resu#t, %ithin the re.uire #imits an specificati!ns, part after part, thr!ugh!ut the pr! ucti!n run$ T! perf!rm t! this minimum #eve# !f accuracy, the %!r(h!# er must a#s! "e ura"#e$ *!, the 3ig !r fi/ture must "e esigne an "ui#t t! maintain the re.uire accuracy thr!ugh!ut the e/pecte part pr! ucti!n$ If part pr! ucti!n is c!ntinu!us, year after year, the 3ig !r fi/ture must "e m!re ura"#e than is necessary f!r !n#y !ne pr! ucti!n run$ The fina# c!nsi erati!n, safety, is actua##y the m!st imp!rtant$ N! matter h!% g!! the esign !r c!nstructi!n, !r h!% %e## it pr! uces the esire accuracy, if the %!r(h!# er is n!t safe, it is use#ess$ *afety is a primary c!ncern in the esign !f any %!r(h!# er$ *afety, as %e## as spee an re#ia"i#ity !f part #!a ing, can !ften "e impr!ve "y the use !f p!%er c#amping, either pneumatic !r hy rau#ic$ Once set, p!%er c#amps %i## repeate #y c#amp %ith the i entica# f!rce$ This is n!t a#%ays true %ith manua# c#amps, %hich epen !n !perat!r i#igence f!r the pr!per app#icati!n !f c#amping f!rce$ In a iti!n, p!%er&c#amping systems can have inter#!c(s t! the machine c!ntr!# %hich %i## shut the machine !%n if the system #!ses p!%erDa c#ear safety a vantage f!r "!th !perat!r an machine t!!#$

);;LIC)TION* 5OR :IG* )ND 5IETUR,*


Typica##y, the 3igs an fi/tures f!un in a machine sh!p are f!r machining !perati!ns$ Other !perati!ns, h!%ever, such as assem"#y, inspecti!n, testing, an #ay!ut, are a#s! areas %here %!r(h!# ing evices are %e## suite $ 5igure 8&F sh!%s a #ist !f the m!re&c!mm!n c#assificati!ns an app#icati!ns !f 3igs an fi/tures use f!r manufacturing$ There are many istinct variati!ns %ithin each genera# c#assificati!n, an many %!r(h!# ers are actua##y c!m"inati!ns !f t%! !r m!re !f the c#assificati!ns sh!%n$
,ET,RN)L&-)CHINING );;LIC)TION*1 5#at&*urface -achining G -i##ing fi/tures G *urface&grin ing fi/tures G ;#aning fi/tures G *haping fi/tures Cy#in rica#&*urface -achining

G Lathe fi/tures G Cy#in rica#&grin ing fi/tures Irregu#ar&*urface -achining G 2an &sa%ing fi/tures G ,/terna#&"r!aching fi/tures INT,RN)L&-)CHINING );;LIC)TION*1 Cy#in rica#& an Irregu#ar&H!#e -achining G Dri## 3igs G 2!ring 3igs G ,#ectrica#& ischarge&machining fi/tures G ;unching fi/tures G Interna#&"r!aching fi/tures NON&-)CHINING );;LIC)TION*1 )ssem"#y G We# ing fi/tures G -echanica#&assem"#y fi/tures ?Riveting, stap#ing, stitching, pinning, etc$@ G *!# ering fi/tures Inspecti!n G -echanica#&inspecti!n fi/tures G Optica#&inspecti!n fi/tures G ,#ectr!nic&inspecti!n fi/tures 5inishing G ;ainting fi/tures G ;#ating fi/tures G ;!#ishing fi/tures G Lapping fi/tures G H!ning fi/tures -isce##ane!us G Lay!ut temp#ates G Testing fi/tures G Heat&treating fi/tures 5igure 8&F$ Typica# app#icati!ns !f 3igs an fi/tures

CR,)TIB, TOOL D,*IGN


The first step in esigning any 3ig !r fi/ture is a th!r!ugh eva#uati!n !f its functi!na# re.uirements$ The g!a# is t! fin a "a#ance c!m"inati!n !f esign characteristics at a reas!na"#e c!st$ The part itse#f, pr!cessing, t!!#ing, an machine&t!!# avai#a"i#ity may a## affect the e/tent !f p#anning nee e $ ;re#iminary ana#ysis may ta(e fr!m a fe% h!urs up t! severa# ays f!r m!re&c!mp#icate esigns$ T! esign a %!r(h!# er, "egin %ith a #!gica# an systematic p#an$ With a c!mp#ete ana#ysis, very fe% esign pr!"#ems !ccur$ W!r(h!# er pr!"#ems !ccur %hen esign re.uirements are f!rg!tten !r un erestimate $ N! specific f!rmu#a !r meth! %!r(s f!r every esign, "ut the esigner can emp#!y a e#i"erate an #!gica# system in the initia# p#anning an esign$ T!!# esign is essentia##y an e/ercise in pr!"#em s!#ving$ Creative pr!"#em s!#ving can "e escri"e as a five&step pr!cess1 8@ I entifying an efining the pr!"#em7 9@ Gathering an ana#y0ing inf!rmati!n7 =@ 2rainst!rming f!r a#ternative s!#uti!ns7 >@ Ch!!sing the "est s!#uti!n7 A@ Imp#ementing the s!#uti!n$ This five&step pr!cess a apte t! 3ig&an &fi/ture esigns is sh!%n in 5igure 9&8$

5igure 9&8$ 5ive steps that ma(e up a g!! , systematic t!!#& esign pr!cess$

D,5INING R,HUIR,-,NT*
The first step in the t!!#& esign pr!cess sh!u# "e t! c#ear#y state the pr!"#em t! "e s!#ve , !r nee s t! "e met$ These re.uirements sh!u# "e state as "r!a #y as p!ssi"#e, "ut specifica##y en!ugh t! efine the sc!pe !f the esign pr!3ect$ The ne% t!!#ing might "e re.uire either f!r first&time pr! ucti!n !f a ne% pr! uct, !r t! impr!ve pr! ucti!n !f an e/isting part$ When impr!ving an e/isting 3!", the g!a# might "e greater accuracy, faster cyc#e times, !r "!th$ T!!#ing might "e esigne f!r !ne part, !r an entire fami#y$ T!!# esign is an integra# part !f the pr! uct&p#anning pr!cess, interacting %ith pr! uct esign, manufacturing, an mar(eting$ T! reach an !ptimum s!#uti!n, a## f!ur !f these gr!ups nee t! %!r( t!gether c!ncurrent#y$

G)TH,RING )ND )N)L+IING IN5OR-)TION


In the sec!n esign phase, a## ata is c!##ecte an assem"#e f!r eva#uati!n$ The main s!urces !f inf!rmati!n are the part print, pr!cess sheets, an machine specificati!ns$ When c!##ecting this inf!rmati!n, ma(e sure that part !cuments an rec!r s are current$ 5!r e/amp#e, verify that the sh!p print is the current revisi!n, an the pr!cessing inf!rmati!n is up t! ate$ Chec( %ith the pr! uct& esign epartment f!r pen ing part revisi!ns$ )n imp!rtant part !f the eva#uati!n pr!cess is n!teta(ing$ C!mp#ete, accurate n!tes a##!% the esigner t! rec!r imp!rtant inf!rmati!n$ )## i eas, th!ughts, !"servati!ns, an any !ther ata a"!ut the part !r t!!# are then avai#a"#e f!r #ater reference$ It is a#%ays "etter t! have t!! many i eas a"!ut a particu#ar esign than n!t en!ugh$ G!! n!tes a#s! minimi0e the chance that g!! i eas %i## "e #!st$ 5!ur categ!ries !f esign c!nsi erati!ns nee t! "e ta(en int! acc!unt at this time1 the %!r(piece, manufacturing !perati!ns, e.uipment, an pers!nne#$ ) chec(#ist is sh!%n in 5igure 9&9$

CH,CKLI*T 5OR D,*IGN CON*ID,R)TION*

5igure 9&9$ C!nsi erati!ns %hen gathering an ana#y0ing inf!rmati!n f!r a t!!# esign

These categ!ries, %hi#e separate#y c!vere here, are actua##y inter epen ent$ ,ach is an integra# part !f the eva#uati!n phase an must "e th!r!ugh#y th!ught !ut "ef!re "eginning the %!r(h!# er esign$

W!r(piece C!nsi erati!ns


W!r(piece specificati!ns are usua##y the m!st&imp!rtant fact!rs an have the #argest inf#uence !n the %!r(h!# er's fina# esign$ Typica##y these c!nsi erati!ns inc#u e the si0e an shape !f the part, the accuracy re.uire , the pr!perties !f the part materia#, #!cating an c#amping surfaces, an the num"er !f pieces$

Operati!n C!nsi erati!ns


These c!nsi erati!ns inc#u e the type !f !perati!ns re.uire f!r the part, the num"er !f !perati!ns perf!rme , the se.uence !f !perati!ns, inspecti!n re.uirements, an time restricti!ns$

,.uipment C!nsi erati!ns


,.uipment c!nsi erati!ns c!ntr!# the type !f e.uipment nee e t! machine, assem"#e, an inspect a part$ Often the avai#a"#e e.uipment etermines %hether the %!r(h!# er is esigne f!r sing#e !r mu#tip#e parts$ )

pr!cess engineer s!metimes se#ects the e.uipment f!r re.uire functi!ns "ef!re the t!!# esign$ *ti##, the t!!# esigner sh!u# verify e.uipment ch!ices f!r each !perati!n$

esigner "egins the

) vertica# mi##ing machine, f!r e/amp#e, is %e## suite f!r s!me ri##ing !perati!ns$ 2ut f!r !perati!ns that re.uire a ri## 3ig, a ri## press is the m!st&c!st&effective machine t!!#$ Typica##y, e.uipment criteria inc#u e the f!##!%ing fact!rs1 types an si0es !f machine t!!#s, inspecti!n e.uipment, sche u#ing, cutting t!!#s, an genera# p#ant faci#ities$

;ers!nne# C!nsi erati!ns


;ers!nne# c!nsi erati!ns ea# %ith the en user, !r !perat!r, !f the e.uipment$ -!st specia# t!!#s are esigne t! "e use "y sh!p pers!nne#, s! the esign !f any %!r(h!# er must "e ma e %ith the !perat!r in min $ The first an m!st&imp!rtant c!nsi erati!n in this phase is safety$ N! t!!# sh!u# ever "e esigne %ith!ut c!mp#ete safety in min $ ) iti!na# fact!rs typica##y c!nsi ere in this categ!ry are !perat!r fatigue, efficiency, ec!n!my !f m!ti!n, an the spee !f the !perati!n$ The esigner must a#s! (n!% an un erstan the genera# aspects !f esign safety an a## appr!priate g!vernment an c!mpany safety ru#es an c! es$

D,B,LO;ING *,B,R)L O;TION*


The thir phase !f the t!!#& esign pr!cess re.uires the m!st creativity$ ) typica# %!r(piece can "e #!cate an c#ampe many ifferent %ays$ )n imp!rtant strategy f!r successfu# t!!# esign is "rainst!rming f!r severa# g!! t!!#ing a#ternatives, n!t 3ust ch!!sing !ne path right a%ay$ During this phase, the esigner's g!a# sh!u# "e a ing !pti!ns, n!t iscar ing them$ In the interest !f ec!n!my, a#ternative esigns sh!u# !n#y "e eve#!pe far en!ugh t! ma(e sure they are feasi"#e, an t! ! a c!st estimate$

2rainst!rming f!r I eas


The esigner usua##y starts %ith at #east three !pti!ns1 permanent, m! u#ar, an genera#&purp!se %!r(h!# ing, as seen in 5igure 9&=$ ,ach !f these !pti!ns has many c#amping an #!cating !pti!ns !f its !%n$ The m!re stan ar #!cating an c#amping evices that a esigner is fami#iar %ith, the m!re creative he can "e$

5igure 9&=$ -!st t!!#& esign pr!3ects "egin %ith three genera# !pti!ns1 permanent, m! u#ar, an genera#&purp!se %!r(h!# ing$ Different meth! s !f #!cating an c#amping further increase the num"er !f !pti!ns$

There is se# !m !n#y !ne %ay t! #!cate a part$ Opti!ns inc#u e f#at e/teri!r surfaces ?machine an unmachine @, cy#in rica# an curve e/teri!r surfaces, an interna# features ?such as h!#es an s#!ts@$ The ch!ice !f stan ar #!cating evices is .uite e/tensive$

*imi#ar#y, there are c!unt#ess %ays t! c#amp a part$ 5!r e/amp#e, a %!r(piece can "e c#ampe fr!m the t!p, "y gripping its !utsi e e ge, !r gripping an interna# surface$ The ch!ice !f stan ar c#amping evices is a#s! very "r!a $

Design *(etches
5!r pre#iminary s(etches !f the t!!#, !ne g!! i ea is t! use severa# c!#!re penci#s$ Often, "#ac( is use t! s(etch the t!!#, re f!r the part, an "#ue f!r the machine t!!#$ The ifferent c!#!rs a##!% y!u t! see, at a g#ance, %hich areas !f the s(etch sh!% %hat part !f the assem"#e unit$ )n!ther i ea1 use graph paper t! (eep the s(etch pr!p!rti!na#$ ,ither p#ain !r is!metric graph paper %!r(s %e## f!r m!st esign s(etches$ The e/act pr!ce ure use t! c!nstruct the pre#iminary esign s(etches is n!t as imp!rtant as the items s(etche $ 5!r the m!st part, the pre#iminary s(etch sh!u# start %ith the part t! "e fi/ture $ The re.uire #!cating an supp!rting e#ements sh!u# "e the ne/t items a e , inc#u ing a "ase$ The ne/t step is t! s(etch the c#amping evices$ Once these e#ements are a e t! the s(etch, the fina# items t! a are the machine t!!# an cutters$ *(etching these items t!gether !n the pre#iminary esign s(etch he#ps i entify any pr!"#em areas in the esign !f the c!mp#ete %!r(h!# er$

CHOO*ING TH, 2,*T O;TION


The f!urth phase !f the t!!#& esign pr!cess is a c!st<"enefit ana#ysis !f ifferent t!!#ing !pti!ns$ *!me "enefits, such as greater !perat!r c!mf!rt an safety, are ifficu#t t! e/press in !##ars "ut are sti## imp!rtant$ Other fact!rs, such as t!!#ing ura"i#ity, are ifficu#t t! estimate$ C!st ana#ysis is s!metimes m!re !f an art than a science$ W!r(h!# er&c!st ana#ysis c!mpares !ne meth! t! an!ther, rather than fin ing e/act c!sts$ *!, even th!ugh the va#ues use must "e accurate, estimates are accepta"#e$ *!metimes these meth! s c!mpare "!th pr!p!se t!!#s an e/isting t!!#s, s!, %here p!ssi"#e, actua# pr! ucti!n ata can "e use instea !f estimates$

Initia# T!!#ing C!st


The first step !f eva#uating the c!st !f any a#ternative is estimating the initia# c!st !f the %!r(h!# er$ ) c!st !f each e#ement t! the #a"!r e/pense nee e t! esign an "ui# the 3ig !r fi/ture$ the

T! ma(e this estimate, an accurate s(etch !f the t!!# is ma e first$ ,ach part an c!mp!nent !f the t!!# is num"ere an #iste in ivi ua##y$ Here it is imp!rtant t! have an !r er#y meth! t! !ut#ine this inf!rmati!n$ 5igure 9&> sh!%s !ne %ay t! ma(e this #isting$ The e/act appearance !f the f!rm is unimp!rtant7 !n#y the inf!rmati!n is imp!rtant$

5igure 9&>$ Itemi0e #isting !f c!mp!nents f!r a %!r(h!# er$

The ne/t step is ca#cu#ating the c!st !f materia# an #a"!r f!r each t!!# e#ement$ Once again, it is imp!rtant t! have an !r er#y system !f #isting the ata$ 5irst #ist the c!st !f each c!mp!nent, then itemi0e the !perati!ns nee e t! m!unt, machine, !r assem"#e that c!mp!nent$ Once these steps are #iste , estimate the time re.uire f!r each !perati!n f!r each c!mp!nent, then mu#tip#y "y the #a"!r rate$ This am!unt sh!u# then "e a e t! the c!st !f the c!mp!nents an the c!st !f esign t! fin the estimate c!st !f the %!r(h!# er$ 5!r m! u#ar fi/tures, t!ta# c!mp!nent c!st sh!u# "e am!rti0e !ver the system's typica# #ifetime$ )#th!ugh s!me%hat ar"itrary, ivi ing t!ta# c!mp!nent c!st "y 8JJ ?8J uses per year, f!r ten years@ gives a fair estimate$

C!st C!mparis!n
The t!ta# c!st t! manufacture a part is the sum !f per&piece run c!st, setup c!st, an t!!#ing c!st$ ,/presse as a f!rmu#a1

The f!##!%ing e/amp#e sh!%s three t!!#ing !pti!ns f!r the part in 5igure 9&=1 8@ a m! u#ar fi/ture7 9@ a permanent fi/ture7 =@ a permanent fi/ture using hy rau#ic p!%er %!r(h!# ing$ ,ach varia"#e in the c!st e.uati!n is e/p#aine separate#y "e#!%$ Run Cost. This is the varia"#e c!st per piece t! pr! uce a part, at sh!p #a"!r rate ?materia# c!st !es n!t nee t! "e inc#u e as #!ng as it is the same f!r a## fi/turing !pti!ns@$ In !ur e/amp#e, run c!sts f!r the permanent an m! u#ar fi/tures are the same, %hi#e p!%er %!r(h!# ing #!%ers c!sts "y impr!ving cyc#e time an re ucing scrap$

Setup Cost. This is the c!st t! retrieve a fi/ture, set it up !n the machine, an return it t! st!rage after use$ The permanent fi/ture is fastest t! set up, the p!%er&%!r(h!# ing fi/ture is s#ight#y s#!%er ue t! hy rau#ic c!nnecti!ns, an the m! u#ar fi/ture is s#!%est ue t! the assem"#y re.uire $

Lot Size. This is the average .uantity manufacture each time the fi/ture is set up$ In !ur e/amp#e, #!t si0e is the same f!r a## three !pti!ns$

Initial Tooling Cost. This is the t!ta# c!st !f #a"!r p#us materia# t! esign an "ui# a fi/ture ?as e/p#aine in the previ!us secti!n@$ The m! u#ar fi/ture is #east e/pensive "ecause c!mp!nents can "e reuse , the permanent fi/ture ne/t, an the hy rau#ic fi/ture m!st e/pensive$

Total Quantity Over Tooling Lifetime. This .uantity, the #ast remaining varia"#e, is the #esser !f 8@ t!ta# anticipate pr! ucti!n .uantity an 9@ the .uantity that can "e pr! uce "ef!re the t!!#ing %ears !ut$ The f!##!%ing resu#ts are !"taine "y eva#uating the c!st&per&part f!rmu#a at ifferent #ifetime .uantities1

5!r a !ne&time run !f 8JJ pieces, the m! u#ar fi/ture is c#ear#y the m!st ec!n!mica#$ If ten runs ?8,JJJ pieces@ are e/pecte , the permanent fi/ture is "est$ 5!r 9,AJJ pieces an a"!ve, the p!%er %!r(h!# ing fi/ture %!u# "e the "est ch!ice$ This ana#ysis assumes that a## n!nec!n!mic fact!rs are e.ua#$

I-;L,-,NTING TH, D,*IGN


The fina# phase !f the t!!#& esign pr!cess c!nsists !f turning the ch!sen esign appr!ach int! rea#ity$ 5ina# etai#s are eci e , fina# ra%ings are ma e, an the t!!#ing is "ui#t an teste $

Gui e#ines f!r ,c!n!mica# Design


The f!##!%ing gui e#ines sh!u# "e c!nsi ere uring the fina#& esign pr!cess$ These ru#es are a mi/ !f practica# c!nsi erati!ns, s!un esign practices, an c!mm!n sense$ )pp#icati!n !f these ru#es ma(es the %!r(h!# er #ess c!st#y, an impr!ves its efficiency an !perati!n$ Use Standard Tooling Components. The ec!n!mies !f stan ar i0e parts app#y t! t!!#ing c!mp!nents as %e## as t! manufacture pr! ucts$ *tan ar t!!#ing c!mp!nents, rea i#y avai#a"#e fr!m y!ur in ustria# supp#ier, inc#u e c#amps, #!cat!rs, supp!rts, stu s, nuts, pins, an a h!st !f !ther e#ements$ -!st esigners %!u# never thin( !f having the sh!p ma(e cap scre%s, "!#ts, !r nuts f!r a %!r(h!# er$ 5!r the same reas!n, virtua##y n! stan ar t!!#ing c!mp!nents sh!u# "e ma e in&h!use$ The first ru#e !f ec!n!mic esign is1 Never "ui# any c!mp!nent y!u can "uy$ C!mmercia##y avai#a"#e t!!#ing c!mp!nents are manufacture in #arge .uantities f!r much greater ec!n!my$ La"!r is usua##y the #argest c!st e#ement in the "ui# ing !f any %!r(h!# er$ *tan ar t!!#ing c!mp!nents are !ne %ay t! cut #a"!r c!sts$ )#%ays #!!( f!r ne% %!r(h!# ing pr! ucts t! ma(e esigns simp#er an #ess e/pensive$ 2r!%se thr!ugh cata#!gs an maga0ines t! fin ne% pr! ucts an app#icati!n i eas$ In m!st cases, the c!st !f "uying a c!mp!nent is #ess than 9JK !f the c!st !f ma(ing it$ Use Prefinished aterials. ;refinishe an pref!rme materia#s sh!u# "e use %here p!ssi"#e t! #!%er c!sts an simp#ify c!nstructi!n$ These materia#s inc#u e precisi!n&gr!un f#at st!c(, ri## r! , structura# secti!ns, cast t!!#ing secti!ns, precast t!!# "! ies, t!!#ing p#ates, an !ther stan ar pref!rme materia#s$ Inc#u ing these materia#s in a esign "!th re uces the esign time an #!%ers the #a"!r c!st$ ,#iminate Unnee e 5inishing Operati!ns$ 5inishing !perati!ns sh!u# never "e perf!rme f!r c!smetic purp!ses$ -a(ing a t!!# #!!( "etter can !ften !u"#e the c!st !f the fi/ture$ Here are a fe% suggesti!ns t! (eep in min %ith regar t! finishing !perati!ns1

-achine !n#y the areas imp!rtant t! the functi!n an !perati!n !f the t!!#$ 5!r e/amp#e, ! n!t machine the e ges !f a "asep#ate$ :ust rem!ve the "urrs$ Har en !n#y th!se areas !f the t!!# su"3ect t! %ear$ Grin !n#y the areas !f the fi/ture %here necessary f!r the !perati!n !f the t!!#$

!eep Toleran"es #s Li$eral #s Possi$le. The m!st&c!st&effective t!!#ing t!#erance f!r a #!cat!r is appr!/imate#y =J t! AJK !f the %!r(piece's t!#erance$ Tighter t!#erances n!rma##y a e/tra c!st t! the t!!# %ith #itt#e "enefit t! the pr!cess$ Where necessary, tighter t!#erances can "e use , "ut a tighter t!#erance !es n!t necessari#y mean a "etter t!!#, !n#y a m!re e/pensive t!!#$ Simplify Tooling Operation. ,#a"!rate esigns !ften a #itt#e !r n!thing t! the functi!n !f the 3ig !r fi/ture$ C!mp#e/ mechanica# c#amping systems, f!r e/amp#e, are !ften e#a"!rate an unnee e esigns$ -!re !ften, a p!%er c#amp c!u# ! the same 3!" at a fracti!n !f the c!st$ C!smetic etai#s are an!ther e/amp#e !f #itt#e gaine f!r the m!ney spent$ These etai#s may ma(e the t!!# #!!( g!! , "ut se# !m 3ustify the a e c!st$ Keep the functi!n an !perati!n !f a %!r(h!# er as simp#e as p!ssi"#e$ The #i(e#ih!! !f "rea( !%ns an !ther pr!"#ems increases %ith c!mp#e/ esigns$ These pr!"#ems mu#tip#y %hen m!ving parts are a e t! the esign$ -isa#ignment, inaccuracy, %ear, an ma#functi!ns cause "y chips an e"ris can cause many pr!"#ems in the "est t!!# esigns$ Re ucing esign c!mp#e/ity a#s! re uces misun erstan ings "et%een the esigner an the machine !perat!r$ Whenever p!ssi"#e, a %!r(h!# er's functi!n an !perati!n sh!u# "e !"vi!us t! the !perat!r %ith!ut instructi!ns$

-anua# Dra%ings
Once s(etches an the "asic %!r(h!# er esign have "een c!mp#ete , fina# engineering ra%ings can "e prepare $ C!pies !f the engineering ra%ings, a#s! ca##e sh!p prints, are use "y the t!!#r!!m t! "ui# the %!r(h!# er$ -anua# ra%ing is the pr!cess !f c!nstructing engineering ra%ings "y han !n a ra%ing "!ar $ The easiest %ay t! re uce ra%ing time is "y simp#ifying the ra%ing$ W!r s !r sym"!#s sh!u# "e use in p#ace !f ra%n etai#s %here practica#$ )## e/tra !r unnecessary vie%s, pr!3ecti!ns, an etai#s sh!u# "e e#iminate fr!m the ra%ing$ This cuts the time spent ra%ing etai#s that a #itt#e t! the meaning !f the ra%ing$ Dra%ing a c!mp#ete c#amp assem"#y, f!r e/amp#e, a s very #itt#e t! the c!mp#ete esign$ *imp#y sh!%ing the n!se !f the c#amp in its pr!per re#ati!n t! the %!r(piece, a#!ng %ith specifying its part num"er, c!nveys the same inf!rmati!n in a fracti!n !f the time$

C!mputer&)i e Design
C!mputers are rapi #y rep#acing ra%ing "!ar s as the preferre t!!# f!r preparing engineering ra%ings$ )#m!st every area !f esign is affecte "y the c!mputer$ C!mputers, fr!m #arge mainframes t! micr!c!mputers, are "ec!ming stan ar e.uipment in many esign epartments$ ) stan ar t!!#ing #i"rary, sh!%n in 5igure 9&A, is !ften use t! a the fi/turing c!mp!nents an e#ements t! the t!!# ra%ing$ Using a stan ar #i"rary in esigning the %!r(h!# er ramatica##y re uces ra%ing time$ )## c!mp!nents are ra%n t! fu## sca#e in a variety !f vie%s$ ,ach c!mp!nent can "e ca##e up fr!m the #i"rary an p#ace !n the ra%ing %here it is re.uire $

5igure 9&A$ Using a stan ar C)D t!!#ing #i"rary can ramatica##y re uce esign time$

) C)D system is a#s! s!metimes usefu# uring the initia# phase !f eve#!ping numer!us t!!#ing !pti!ns$ C!mputer&ai e esign is s!metimes faster than s(etching "y han , especia##y %hen etai#e c!st estimates are re.uire $

2ui# ing an Testing the W!r(h!# er


Once ra%ings have "een th!r!ugh#y chec(e , the ne/t step is "ui# ing the actua# %!r(h!# er$ During the "ui# ing stage, the esigner sh!u# ensure the t!!#r!!m (n!%s e/act#y %hat must "e !ne %hen ma(ing the t!!#$ 2y peri! ica##y chec(ing %ith the t!!#ma(ers, the esigner can he#p e#iminate any p!ssi"#e misun erstan ings an spee the "ui# ing pr!cess$ If there are any ifficu#ties %ith the esign, the esigner an t!!#ma(er, %!r(ing t!gether, can s!#ve the pr!"#ems %ith a minimum !f #!st time$ )fter the t!!# is c!mp#ete an inspecte , the #ast step is t!!# try!ut$ The %!r(h!# er is set up !n the machine t!!# an severa# parts are run$ The esigner sh!u# "e !n han t! he#p s!#ve any pr!"#ems$ When the t!!# pr!ves itse#f in this phase, it is rea y f!r pr! ucti!n$

LOC)TING )ND CL)-;ING ;RINCI;L,*


L!cating an c#amping are the critica# functi!ns !f any %!r(h!# er$ )s such, the fun amenta# princip#es !f #!cating an c#amping, as %e## as the numer!us stan ar c!mp!nents avai#a"#e f!r these !perati!ns, must "e th!r!ugh#y un erst!! $

2)*IC ;RINCI;L,* O5 LOC)TING


T! perf!rm pr!per#y, %!r(h!# ers must accurate#y an c!nsistent#y p!siti!n the %!r(piece re#ative t! the cutting t!!#, part after part$ T! acc!mp#ish this, the #!cat!rs must ensure that the %!r(piece is pr!per#y reference an the pr!cess is repeata"#e$

Referencing an Repeata"i#ity
6Referencing6 is a ua# pr!cess !f p!siti!ning the %!r(piece re#ative t! the %!r(h!# er, an the %!r(h!# er re#ative t! the cutting t!!#$ Referencing the %!r(h!# er t! the cutting t!!# is perf!rme "y the gui ing !r setting evices$ With ri## 3igs, referencing is acc!mp#ishe using ri## "ushings$ With fi/tures, referencing is acc!mp#ishe using fi/ture (eys, fee#er gages, an <!r pr!"es$ Referencing the %!r(piece t! the %!r(h!# er, !n the !ther han , is !ne %ith #!cat!rs$ If a part is inc!rrect#y p#ace in a %!r(h!# er, pr!per #!cati!n !f the %!r(piece is n!t achieve an the part %i## "e machine inc!rrect#y$ Li(e%ise, if a cutter is impr!per#y p!siti!ne re#ative t! the fi/ture, the machine etai# is a#s! impr!per#y #!cate $ *!, in the esign !f a %!r(h!# er, referencing !f "!th the %!r(piece an the cutter must "e c!nsi ere an simu#tane!us#y maintaine $ 6Repeata"i#ity6 is the a"i#ity !f the %!r(h!# er t! c!nsistent#y pr! uce parts %ithin t!#erance #imits, an is irect#y re#ate t! the referencing capa"i#ity !f the t!!#$ The #!cati!n !f the %!r(piece re#ative t! the t!!# an !f the t!!# t! the cutter must "e c!nsistent$ If the 3ig !r fi/ture is t! maintain esire repeata"i#ity, the %!r(h!# er must "e esigne t! acc!mm! ate the %!r(piece's #!cating surfaces$ The i ea# #!cating p!int !n a %!r(piece is a machine surface$ -achine surfaces permit #!cati!n fr!m a c!nsistent reference p!int$ Cast, f!rge , sheare , !r sa%e surfaces can vary great#y fr!m part t! part, an %i## affect the accuracy !f the #!cati!n$

The -echanics !f L!cating


) %!r(piece free in space can m!ve in an infinite num"er !f irecti!ns$ 5!r ana#ysis, this m!ti!n can "e "r!(en !%n int! t%e#ve irecti!na# m!vements, !r 6 egrees !f free !m$6 )## t%e#ve egrees !f free !m must "e restricte t! ensure pr!per referencing !f a %!r(piece$ )s sh!%n in 5igure =&8, the t%e#ve egrees !f free !m a## re#ate t! the centra# a/es !f the %!r(piece$ N!tice the si/ a/ia# egrees !f free !m an si/ ra ia# egrees !f free !m$ The a/ia# egrees !f free !m permit straight& #ine m!vement in "!th irecti!ns a#!ng the three principa# a/es, sh!%n as /, y, an 0$ The ra ia# egrees !f free !m permit r!tati!na# m!vement, in "!th c#!c(%ise an c!unterc#!c(%ise ra ia# irecti!ns, ar!un the same three a/es$

5igure =&8$ The t%e#ve egrees !f free !m$

The evices that restrict a %!r(piece's m!vement are the #!cat!rs$ The #!cat!rs, theref!re, must "e str!ng en!ugh t! maintain the p!siti!n !f the %!r(piece an t! resist the cutting f!rces$ This fact a#s! p!ints !ut a crucia# e#ement in %!r(h!# er esign1 #!cat!rs, n!t c#amps, must h!# the %!r(piece against the cutting f!rces$ L!cat!rs pr!vi e a p!sitive st!p f!r the %!r(piece$ ;#ace against the st!p, the %!r(piece cann!t m!ve$ C#amps, !n the !ther han , re#y !n#y up!n fricti!n "et%een the c#amp an the c#ampe surface t! h!# the %!r(piece$ *ufficient f!rce c!u# m!ve the %!r(piece$ C#amps are !n#y inten e t! h!# the %!r(piece against the #!cat!rs$

5!rms !f L!cati!n
There are three genera# f!rms !f #!cati!n1 p#ane, c!ncentric, an ra ia#$ ;#ane #!cat!rs #!cate a %!r(piece fr!m any surface$ The surface may "e f#at, curve , !r have an irregu#ar c!nt!ur$ In m!st app#icati!ns, p#ane& #!cating evices #!cate a part "y its e/terna# surfaces, 5igure =&9a$ C!ncentric #!cat!rs, f!r the m!st part, #!cate a %!r(piece fr!m a centra# a/is$ This a/is may !r may n!t "e in the center !f the %!r(piece$ The m!st&c!mm!n type !f c!ncentric #!cati!n is a #!cating pin p#ace in a h!#e$ *!me %!r(pieces, h!%ever, might have a cy#in rica# pr!3ecti!n that re.uires a #!cating h!#e in the fi/ture, as sh!%n in 5igure =&9"$ The thir type !f #!cati!n is ra ia#$ Ra ia# #!cat!rs restrict the m!vement !f a %!r(piece ar!un a c!ncentric #!cat!r, 5igure =&9c$ In many cases, #!cating is perf!rme "y a c!m"inati!n !f the three #!cati!na# meth! s$

5igure =&9$ The three f!rms !f #!cati!n1 p#ane, c!ncentric, an ra ia#$

L!cating fr!m ,/terna# *urfaces


5#at surfaces are c!mm!n %!r(piece features use f!r #!cati!n$ L!cating fr!m a f#at surface is a f!rm !f p#ane #!cati!n$ *upp!rts are the principa# evices use f!r this #!cati!n$ The three ma3!r f!rms !f supp!rts are s!#i , a 3usta"#e, an e.ua#i0ing, 5igure =&=$

5igure =&=$ *!#i , a 3usta"#e, an e.ua#i0ing supp!rts #!cate a %!r(piece fr!m a f#at surface$

*!#i supp!rts are fi/e &height #!cat!rs$ They precise#y #!cate a surface in !ne a/is$ Th!ugh s!#i supp!rts may "e machine irect#y int! a t!!# "! y, a m!re&ec!n!mica# meth! is using insta##e supp!rts, such as rest "utt!ns$ ) 3usta"#e supp!rts are varia"#e&height #!cat!rs$ Li(e s!#i supp!rts, they %i## a#s! precise#y #!cate a surface in !ne a/is$ These supp!rts are use %here %!r(piece variati!ns re.uire a 3usta"#e supp!rt t! suit ifferent heights$ These supp!rts are use main#y f!r cast !r f!rge %!r(pieces that have uneven !r irregu#ar m!unting surfaces$ ,.ua#i0ing supp!rts are a f!rm !f a 3usta"#e supp!rt use %hen a c!mpensating supp!rt is re.uire $ )#th!ugh these supp!rts can "e fi/e in p!siti!n, in m!st cases e.ua#i0ing supp!rts f#!at t! acc!mm! ate %!r(piece variati!ns$ )s !ne si e !f the e.ua#i0ing supp!rt is epresse , the !ther si e raises the same am!unt t! maintain part c!ntact$ In m!st cases a 3usta"#e an e.ua#i0ing supp!rts are use a#!ng %ith s!#i supp!rts$ L!cating a %!r(piece fr!m its e/terna# e ges is the m!st&c!mm!n #!cating meth! $ The "!tt!m, !r primary, #!cating surface is p!siti!ne !n three supp!rts, "ase !n the ge!metry princip#e that three p!ints are nee e t! fu##y efine a p#ane$ T%! a 3acent e ges, usua##y perpen icu#ar t! each !ther, are then use t! c!mp#ete the #!cati!n$ The m!st&c!mm!n %ay t! #!cate a %!r(piece fr!m its e/terna# pr!fi#e is the =&9&8, !r si/&p!int, #!cati!na# meth! $ With this meth! , si/ in ivi ua# #!cat!rs reference an restrict the %!r(piece$ )s sh!%n in 5igure =&>, three #!cat!rs, !r supp!rts, are p#ace un er the %!r(piece$ The three #!cat!rs are usua##y p!siti!ne !n the primary #!cating surface$ This restricts a/ia# m!vement !%n%ar , a#!ng the &0 a/is ?LC@ an ra ia##y a"!ut the / ?LF an LM@ an y ?LN an L8J@ a/es$ T!gether, the three #!cat!rs restrict five egrees !f free !m$

5igure =&>$ Three supp!rts !n the primary #!cating surface restrict five egrees !f free !m$

The ne/t t%! #!cat!rs are n!rma##y p#ace !n the sec!n ary #!cating surface, as sh!%n in 5igure =&A$ They restrict an a iti!na# three egrees !f free !m "y arresting the a/ia# m!vement a#!ng the Oy a/is ?L=@ an the ra ia# m!vement a"!ut the 0 ?L88 an L89@ a/is$

5igure =&A$ )

ing t%! #!cat!rs !n a si e restricts eight egrees !f free !m$

The fina# #!cat!r, sh!%n in 5igure =&C, is p!siti!ne at the en !f the part$ It restricts the a/ia# m!vement in !ne irecti!n a#!ng the &/ a/is$ T!gether, these si/ #!cat!rs restrict a t!ta# !f nine egrees !f free !m$ The remaining three egrees !f free !m ?L8, L>, an LA@ %i## "e restricte "y the c#amps$

5igure =&C$ )

ing a fina# #!cat!r t! an!ther si e restricts nine egrees !f free !m, c!mp#eting the =&9&8 #!cati!n$

)#th!ugh cy#in rica# rest "utt!ns are the m!st&c!mm!n %ay !f #!cating a %!r(piece fr!m its e/terna# pr!fi#e, there are a#s! !ther evices use f!r this purp!se$ These evices inc#u e f#at&si e #!cat!rs, vee #!cat!rs, nest #!cat!rs an a 3usta"#e #!cat!rs$

L!cating fr!m Interna# *urfaces


L!cating a %!r(piece fr!m an interna# iameter is the m!st&efficient f!rm !f #!cati!n$ The primary features use f!r this f!rm !f #!cati!n are in ivi ua# h!#es !r h!#e patterns$ Depen ing !n the p#acement !f the #!cat!rs, either c!ncentric, ra ia#, !r "!th&c!ncentric&an &ra ia# #!cati!n are acc!mp#ishe %hen #!cating an interna# iameter$ ;#ane #!cati!n is a#s! pr!vi e "y the p#ate use t! m!unt the #!cat!rs$ The t%! f!rms !f #!cat!rs use f!r interna# #!cati!n are #!cating pins an #!cating p#ugs$ The !n#y ifference "et%een these #!cat!rs is their si0e1 #!cating pins are use f!r sma##er h!#es an #!cating p#ugs are use f!r #arger h!#es$ )s sh!%n in 5igure =&F, the p#ate un er the %!r(piece restricts !ne egree !f free !m$ It prevents any a/ia# m!vement !%n%ar , a#!ng the &0 ?LC@ a/is$ The center pin, acting in c!n3uncti!n %ith the p#ate as a c!ncentric #!cat!r, prevents any a/ia# !r ra ia# m!vement a#!ng !r a"!ut the / ?L8, L9, LF, an LM@ an y ?L=, L>, LN, an L8J@ a/es$ T!gether, these t%! #!cat!rs restrict nine egrees !f free !m$ The fina# #!cat!r, the pin in the !uter h!#e, is the ra ia# #!cat!r that restricts t%! egrees !f free !m "y arresting the ra ia# m!vement ar!un the 0 ?L88 an L89@ a/is$ T!gether, the #!cat!rs restrict e#even egrees !f free !m$ The #ast egree !f free !m, in the O0 irecti!n, %i## "e restricte %ith a c#amp$

5igure =&F$ T%! #!cating pins m!unte !n a p#ate restrict e#even&!ut&!f&t%e#ve egrees !f free !m$

)na#y0ing -achining 5!rces


The m!st&imp!rtant fact!rs t! c!nsi er in fi/ture #ay!ut are the irecti!n an magnitu e !f machining f!rces e/erte uring the !perati!n$ In 5igure =&M, the mi##ing f!rces generate !n a %!r(piece %hen pr!per#y c#ampe in a vise ten t! push the %!r(piece !%n an t!%ar the s!#i 3a%$ The c#amping acti!n !f the m!va"#e 3a% h!# s the %!r(piece against the s!#i 3a% an maintains the p!siti!n !f the part uring the cut$

5igure =&M$ Cutting f!rces in a mi##ing !perati!n sh!u# "e irecte int! the s!#i 3a% an "ase !f the vise$

)n!ther e/amp#e !f cutting f!rces !n a %!r(piece can "e seen in the ri##ing !perati!n in 5igure =&N$ The primary machining f!rces ten t! push the %!r(piece !%n !nt! the %!r(h!# er supp!rts$ )n a iti!na# machining f!rce acting ra ia##y ar!un the ri## a/is a#s! f!rces the %!r(piece int! the #!cat!rs$ The c#amps that

h!# this %!r(piece are inten e !n#y t! h!# the %!r(piece against the #!cat!rs an t! maintain its p!siti!n uring the machining cyc#e$ The !n#y rea# f!rce e/erte !n the c#amps !ccurs %hen the ri## "rea(s thr!ugh the !pp!site si e !f the %!r(piece, the c#im"ing acti!n !f the part !n the ri##$ The machining f!rces acting !n a c!rrect#y esigne %!r(h!# er actua##y he#p h!# the %!r(piece$

5igure =&N$ The primary cutting f!rces in a ri##ing !perati!n are irecte "!th !%n%ar an ra ia##y a"!ut the a/is !f the ri##$

)n imp!rtant step in m!st fi/ture esigns is #!!(ing at the p#anne machining !perati!ns t! estimate cutting f!rces !n the %!r(piece, "!th magnitu e an irecti!n$ The 6estimate6 can "e a r!ugh guess "ase !n e/perience, !r a ca#cu#ati!n "ase !n machining ata$ One simp#e f!rmu#a f!r f!rce magnitu e, sh!%n in 5igure =& 8J, is "ase !n the physica# re#ati!nship1

;#ease n!te1 6heaviest&cut h!rsep!%er6 is n!t t!ta# machine h!rsep!%er7 rather it is the ma/imum h!rsep!%er actua##y use uring the machining cyc#e$ Typica# machine efficiency is r!ugh#y FAK ?$FA@$ The num"er ==,JJJ is a units&c!nversi!n fact!r$

5igure =&8J$ ) simp#e f!rmu#a t! estimate the magnitu e !f cutting f!rces !n the %!r(piece$

The a"!ve f!rmu#a !n#y ca#cu#ates f!rce magnitu e, n!t irecti!n$ Cutting f!rce can have /&, y&, an <!r 0&a/is c!mp!nents$ 5!rce irecti!n ?an magnitu e@ can vary rastica##y fr!m the "eginning, t! the mi #e, t! the en !f the cut$ 5igure =&88 sh!%s a typica# ca#cu#ati!n$ Intuitive#y, f!rce irecti!n is virtua##y a## h!ri0!nta# in this e/amp#e ?neg#igi"#e 0&a/is c!mp!nent@$ Directi!n varies "et%een the / an y a/es as the cut pr!gresses$

5igure =&88$ ,/amp#e !f a cutting f!rce ca#cu#ati!n$

LOC)TING GUID,LIN,*
N! sing#e f!rm !f #!cati!n !r type !f #!cat!r %i## %!r( f!r every %!r(h!# er$ T! pr!per#y perf!rm the necessary #!cati!n, each #!cat!r must "e carefu##y p#anne int! the esign$ The f!##!%ing are a fe% gui e#ines t! !"serve in ch!!sing an app#ying #!cat!rs$

;!siti!ning L!cat!rs
The primary functi!n !f any #!cat!r is t! reference the %!r(piece an t! ensure repeata"i#ity$ Un#ess the #!cat!rs are pr!per#y p!siti!ne , h!%ever, these functi!ns cann!t "e acc!mp#ishe $ When p!siti!ning #!cat!rs, "!th re#ative t! the %!r(h!# er an t! the %!r(piece, there are a fe% "asic p!ints t! (eep in min $ Whenever practica#, p!siti!n the #!cat!rs s! they c!ntact the %!r(piece !n a machine surface$ The machine surface n!t !n#y pr!vi es repeata"i#ity "ut usua##y !ffers a m!re&sta"#e f!rm !f #!cati!n$ The %!r(piece itse#f etermines the areas !f the machine surface use f!r #!cati!n$ In s!me instances, the entire surface may "e machine $ In !thers, especia##y %ith castings, !n#y se#ecte areas are machine $ The "est machine surfaces t! use f!r #!cati!n, %hen avai#a"#e, are machine h!#es$ )s previ!us#y n!te , machine h!#es !ffer the m!st&c!mp#ete #!cati!n %ith a minima# num"er !f #!cat!rs$ The ne/t c!nfigurati!n that aff!r s a e.uate repeata"i#ity is t%! machine surfaces f!rming a right ang#e$ These characteristics are %e## suite f!r the si/&p!int #!cati!na# meth! $ Regar #ess !f the type !r c!n iti!n !f the surfaces use f!r #!cati!n, h!%ever, the primary re.uirement in the se#ecti!n !f a #!cating surface is repeata"i#ity$ T! ensure repeata"i#ity, the ne/t c!nsi erati!n in the p!siti!ning !f #!cat!rs is the spacing !f the #!cat!rs themse#ves$ )s a ru#e, space #!cat!rs as far apart as practica#$ This is i##ustrate in 5igure =&89$ 2!th %!r(pieces sh!%n here are #!cate %ith the si/&p!int #!cating meth! $ The !n#y ifference #ies in the spacing !f the #!cat!rs$ In the part sh!%n at ?"@, "!th #!cat!rs !n the "ac( si e are p!siti!ne c#!se t! each !ther$ In the part at ?a@, these same #!cat!rs are space further apart$ The part at ?a@ is pr!per#y #!cate 7 the part at ?"@ is n!t$ *pacing the #!cat!rs as far apart as practica# c!mpensates f!r irregu#arities in either the #!cat!rs !r the %!r(piece$ Its a#s! aff!r s ma/imum sta"i#ity$

5igure =&89$ L!cat!rs sh!u# "e space as far apart as practica# t! c!mpensate f!r s#ight irregu#arities an f!r ma/imum sta"i#ity$

The e/amp#es in 5igure =&8= sh!% c!n iti!ns that may !ccur %hen #!cat!rs are p#ace t!! c#!se t!gether if the center p!siti!ns !f the #!cat!rs are misa#igne "y $JJ86$ With the spacing sh!%n at ?a@, this c!n iti!n has #itt#e effect !n the #!cati!n$ 2ut if the #!cating an spacing %ere change t! that sh!%n at ?"@, the $JJ86 ifference %!u# have a su"stantia# effect$ )n!ther pr!"#em %ith #!cat!rs p#ace t!! c#!se t!gether is sh!%n at ?c@$ Here, "ecause the #!cat!rs are t!! c#!se#y space , the part can %!""#e a"!ut the #!cat!rs in the %!r(h!# er$

5igure =&8=$ ;!siti!ning #!cat!rs t!! c#!se t!gether %i## affect the #!cati!na# accuracy$

C!ntr!##ing Chips
The fina# c!nsi erati!n in the p#acement !f #!cat!rs inv!#ves the pr!"#em !f chip c!ntr!#$ Chips are an inevita"#e part !f any machining !perati!n an must "e c!ntr!##e s! they ! n!t interfere %ith #!cating the %!r(piece in the %!r(h!# er$ *evera# meth! s he#p minimi0e the chip pr!"#em$ 5irst, p!siti!n the #!cat!rs a%ay fr!m areas %ith a high c!ncentrati!n !f chips$ If this is n!t practica#, then re#ieve the #!cat!rs t! re uce the effect !f chips !n the #!cati!n$ In either case, t! minimi0e the negative effects !f chips, use #!cat!rs that are easy t! c#ean, se#f&c#eaning, !r pr!tecte fr!m the chips$ 5igure =&8> sh!%s severa# %ays that #!cat!rs can "e re#ieve t! re uce chip pr!"#ems$

5igure =&8>$ L!cat!rs sh!u# "e re#ieve t! re uce #!cati!na# pr!"#ems cause "y chips$

C!!#ant "ui# &up can a#s! cause pr!"#ems$ *!#ve this pr!"#em "y ri##ing h!#es, !r mi##ing s#!ts, in areas !f the %!r(h!# er %here the c!!#ant is m!st #i(e#y t! "ui# up$ With s!me %!r(h!# ers, c!!#ant& rain areas can a#s! act as a rem!va# p!int f!r accumu#ate chips$ When esigning a %!r(h!# er, a#%ays try t! minimi0e the chip pr!"#em "y rem!ving areas !f the t!!# %here chips can "ui# up$ Omit areas such as insi e c!rners, unre#ieve pins, !r simi#ar features fr!m the esign$ Chip c!ntr!# must "e a resse in the esign !f any 3ig !r fi/ture$

)v!i ing Re un ant L!cati!n


)n!ther c!n iti!n t! av!i in %!r(h!# er esign is re un ant, !r up#icate, #!cati!n$ Re un ant #!cat!rs restrict the same egree !f free !m m!re than !nce$ The %!r(pieces in 5igure =&8A sh!% severa# e/amp#es$ The part at ?a@ sh!%s h!% a f#at surface can "e re un ant#y #!cate $ The part sh!u# "e #!cate !n !n#y !ne, n!t "!th, si e surfaces$ *ince the si0es !f parts can vary, %ithin their t!#erances, the #i(e#ih!! !f a## parts resting simu#tane!us#y !n "!th surfaces is rem!te$ The e/amp#e at ?"@ p!ints !ut the same pr!"#em %ith c!ncentric iameters$ ,ither iameter can #!cate the part, "ut n!t "!th$ The e/amp#e at ?c@ sh!%s the ifficu#ty %ith c!m"ining h!#e an surface #!cati!n$ ,ither #!cati!na# meth! , #!cating fr!m the h!#es !r #!cating fr!m the e ges, %!r(s %e## if use a#!ne$ When the meth! s are use t!gether, h!%ever, they cause a up#icate c!n iti!n$ The c!n iti!n may resu#t in parts that cann!t "e #!a e !r un#!a e as inten e $

5igure =&8A$ ,/amp#es !f re un ant #!cati!n$

)#%ays av!i re un ant #!cati!n$ The simp#est %ay t! e#iminate it is t! chec( the sh!p print t! fin %hich %!r(piece feature is the reference feature$ Often, the %ay a part is imensi!ne in icates %hich surfaces !r features are imp!rtant$ )s sh!%n in 5igure =&8C, since the part !n the #eft is imensi!ne in "!th irecti!ns fr!m the un ersi e !f the f#ange, use this surface t! p!siti!n the part$ The part sh!%n t! the right, h!%ever, is imensi!ne fr!m the "!tt!m !f the sma## iameter$ This is the surface that sh!u# "e use t! #!cate the part$

5igure =&8C$ The "est #!cating surfaces are !ften etermine "y the %ay that the part is imensi!ne $

;reventing Impr!per L!a ing


5!!#pr!!fing prevents impr!per #!a ing !f a %!r(piece$ The pr!"#em is m!st preva#ent %ith parts that are symmetrica# !r #!cate c!ncentrica##y$ The simp#est %ay t! f!!#pr!!f a %!r(h!# er is t! p!siti!n !ne !r t%! pins in a #!cati!n that ensures c!rrect !rientati!n, 5igure =&8F$ With s!me %!r(pieces, h!%ever, m!re&creative appr!aches t! f!!#pr!!fing must "e ta(en$

5igure =&8F$ 5!!#pr!!fing the #!cati!n prevents impr!per %!r(piece #!a ing$

5igure =&8M sh!%s %ays t! f!!#pr!!f part #!cati!n$ In the first e/amp#e, sh!%n at ?a@, an !ther%ise& n!nfuncti!na# f!!#pr!!fing pin ensures pr!per !rientati!n$ This pin %!u# interfere %ith !ne !f the ta"s if the part %ere #!a e any !ther %ay$ In the ne/t e/amp#e, sh!%n at ?"@, a cavity in the %!r(piece prevents the part fr!m "eing #!a e upsi e& !%n$ Here, a "#!c( that is s#ight#y sma##er than the !pening !f the part cavity is a e t! the %!r(h!# er$ ) pr!per#y #!a e part fits !ver the "#!c(, "ut the "#!c( (eeps an impr!per#y #!a e part fr!m entering the %!r(h!# er$

5igure =&8M$ *imp#e pins !r "#!c(s are !ften use t! f!!#pr!!f the #!cati!n$

Using *pring&L!a e L!cat!rs


One meth! t! he#p ensure accurate #!cati!n is the insta##ati!n !f spring&#!a e "utt!ns !r pins in the %!r(h!# er, 5igure =&8N$ These evices are p!siti!ne s! their spring f!rce pushes the %!r(piece against the fi/e #!cat!rs unti# the %!r(piece is c#ampe $ These spring&#!a e access!ries n!t !n#y ensure repeata"#e #!cating "ut a#s! ma(e c#amping the %!r(piece easier$

5igure =&8N$ *pring&#!a e #!cat!rs he#p ensure the c!rrect #!cati!n "y pushing the %!r(piece against the fi/e #!cat!rs$

Determining L!cat!r *i0e an T!#erances


The %!r(piece itse#f etermines the !vera## si0e !f a #!cating e#ement$ The princip#e ru#e t! etermine the si0e !f the %!r(piece #!cat!r is that the #!cat!rs must "e ma e t! suit the --C ?-a/imum&-ateria# C!n iti!n@ !f the area t! "e #!cate $ The --C !f a feature is the si0e !f the feature %here is has the ma/imum am!unt !f materia#$ With e/terna# features, #i(e shafts, the --C is the #argest si0e %ithin the #imits$ With interna# features, #i(e h!#es, it is the sma##est si0e %ithin the #imits$ 5igure =&9J i##ustrates the --C si0es f!r "!th e/terna# an interna# features$

5igure =&9J$ L!cat!r si0es are a#%ays "ase !n the ma/imum&materia# c!n iti!n !f the %!r(piece features$

*i0ing cy#in rica# #!cat!rs is re#ative#y simp#e$ The main c!nsi erati!ns are the si0e !f the area t! "e #!cate an the re.uire c#earance "et%een the #!cat!r an the %!r(piece$ )s sh!%n in 5igure =&98, the !n#y c!nsi erati!n is t! ma(e the #!cating pin s#ight#y sma##er than the h!#e$ In this e/amp#e, the h!#e is specifie as $ AJJ&$A8J6 in iameter$ 5!##!%ing the ru#e !f --C, the #!cat!r must fit the h!#e at its --C !f $AJJ6$ )##!%ing f!r a $ JJJA c#earance "et%een the pin an the h!#e, esire pin iameter is ca#cu#ate at $>NNA6$ *tan ar #!cating pins are rea i#y avai#a"#e f!r severa# ifferent h!#e t!#erances, !r gr!un t! a specific imensi!n$ ) stan ar 8<96 R!un ;in %ith $>NNA6&$>NN96 hea iameter %!u# "e a g!! ch!ice$

5igure =&98$ Determining the si0e !f a sing#e #!cating pin "ase !n ma/imum&materia# c!n iti!ns$

The genera# accuracy !f the %!r(h!# er must "e greater than the accuracy !f the %!r(piece$ T%! "asic types !f t!#erance va#ues are app#ie t! a #!cat!r1 the first are the t!#erances that c!ntr!# the si0e !f the #!cat!r7 the sec!n are t!#erances that c!ntr!# its #!cati!n$ -any meth! s can "e use t! etermine the appr!priate t!#erance va#ues assigne t! a %!r(h!# er$ In s!me situati!ns the t!#erance esignati!n is an ar"itrary va#ue pre etermine "y the engineering epartment an assigne t! a %!r(h!# er %ith!ut regar t! the specific %!r(piece$ Other t!#erances are assigne a specific va#ue "ase !n the si0e !f the e#ement t! "e #!cate $ )#th!ugh m!re appr!priate than the sing#e&va#ue t!#erances, they ! n!t a##!% f!r re.uirements !f the %!r(piece$ )n!ther c!mm!n meth! is using a set percentage !f the %!r(piece t!#erance$ The c#!ser the t!#erance va#ue, the higher the !vera## c!st t! pr! uce the %!r(piece$ Genera##y, %hen a t!#erance is tightene , the c!st !f the t!#erance increases e/p!nentia##y t! its "enefit$ ) t!#erance t%ice as tight might actua##y c!st five times as much t! pr! uce$ The manufactura"i#ity !f a t!#erance, the a"i#ity !f the avai#a"#e manufacturing meth! s t! achieve a t!#erance, is a#s! a critica# fact!r$ ) simp#e h!#e, f!r e/amp#e, if t!#erance t! P$JAJ6, can "e punche $ If, h!%ever, the t!#erance is P$J8J6, the h!#e re.uires ri##ing$ Li(e%ise, if the t!#erance is tightene t! P$JJ96, the h!#e then re.uires ri##ing an reaming$ 5ina##y, %ith a t!#erance !f P$JJJ=6, the h!#e must "e ri##e , reame , an #appe t! ensure the re.uire si0e$ One !ther fact!r t! c!nsi er in the manufactura"i#ity !f a t!#erance is %hether the t!#erance specifie can "e manufacture %ithin the capa"i#ity !f the t!!#r!!m$ ) t!#erance !f $JJJJ86 is very easy t! in icate !n a ra%ing, "ut is imp!ssi"#e t! achieve in the vast ma3!rity !f t!!#r!!ms$ N! sing#e t!#erance is appr!priate f!r every part feature$ ,ven th!ugh !ne feature may re.uire a t!#erance !f #!cati!n t! %ithin $JJJA6, it is !u"tfu# that every t!#erance !f the %!r(h!# er must "e he# t! the same t!#erance va#ue$ The #ength !f a "asep#ate, f!r e/amp#e, can usua##y "e ma e t! a su"stantia##y ifferent t!#erance than the #!cati!n !f the specific features$ The app#icati!n !f percentage&type t!#erances, un#i(e ar"itrary t!#erances, can accurate#y ref#ect the re#ati!nship "et%een the %!r(piece t!#erances an the %!r(h!# er t!#erances$ *pecificati!n !f %!r(h!# er t!#erances as a percentage !f the %!r(piece t!#erances resu#ts in a c!nsistent an c!nstant re#ati!nship "et%een the %!r(h!# er an the %!r(piece$ When a straight percentage va#ue !f 9A percent is app#ie t! a $JAJ6 %!r(piece t!#erance, the %!r(h!# er t!#erance is $J89A6$ The same percentage app#ie t! a $JJ86 t!#erance is $JJJ9A6$ Here a pr!p!rti!na# re#ati!nship !f the t!#erances is maintaine regar #ess !f the re#ative si0es !f the %!r(piece t!#erances$ )s a ru#e, the range !f percentage t!#erances sh!u# "e fr!m 9J t! AJ percent !f the %!r(piece t!#erance, usua##y etermine "y engineering& epartment stan ar s$

CL)-;ING GUID,LIN,*
L!cating the %!r(piece is the first "asic functi!n !f a 3ig !r fi/ture$ Once #!cate , the %!r(piece must a#s! "e he# t! prevent m!vement uring the !perati!na# cyc#e$ The pr!cess !f h!# ing the p!siti!n !f the %!r(piece in the 3ig !r fi/ture is ca##e c#amping$ The primary evices use f!r h!# ing a %!r(piece are c#amps$ T! perf!rm pr!per#y, "!th the c#amping evices an their #!cati!n !n the %!r(h!# er must "e carefu##y se#ecte $

5act!rs in *e#ecting C#amps


C#amps serve t%! primary functi!ns$ 5irst, they must h!# the %!r(piece against its #!cat!rs$ *ec!n , the c#amps must prevent m!vement !f the %!r(piece$ The #!cat!rs, n!t the c#amps, sh!u# resist the primary cutting f!rces generate "y the !perati!n$ %olding the &or'pie"e #gainst Lo"ators. C#amps are n!t inten e t! resist the primary cutting f!rces$ The !n#y purp!se !f c#amps is t! maintain the p!siti!n !f the %!r(piece against the #!cat!rs an resist the sec!n ary cutting f!rces$ The sec!n ary cutting f!rces are th!se generate as the cutter #eaves the %!r(piece$ In ri##ing, f!r e/amp#e, the primary cutting f!rces are usua##y irecte !%n an ra ia##y a"!ut the a/is !f the ri##$ The sec!n ary f!rces are the f!rces that ten t! #ift the part as the ri## "rea(s thr!ugh the !pp!site si e !f the part$ *!, the c#amps se#ecte f!r an app#icati!n nee !n#y "e str!ng en!ugh t! h!# the %!r(piece against the #!cat!rs an resist the sec!n ary cutting f!rces$ The re#ati!nship "et%een the #!cat!rs an c#amps can "e i##ustrate %ith a mi##ing&machine vise$ In 5igure =& 99, the vise c!ntains "!th #!cating an c#amping e#ements$ The s!#i 3a% an vise "! y are the #!cat!rs$ The m!va"#e 3a% is the c#amp$ The vise is n!rma##y p!siti!ne s! that the #!cat!rs resist the cutting f!rces$ Directing the cutting f!rces int! the s!#i 3a% an vise "! y ensures the accuracy !f the machining !perati!n an prevents %!r(piece m!vement$ In a## %!r(h!# ers, it is imp!rtant t! irect the cutting f!rces int! the #!cat!rs$ The m!va"#e vise 3a%, #i(e !ther c#amps, simp#y h!# s the p!siti!n !f the %!r(piece against the #!cat!rs$

5igure =&99$ ) vise c!ntains "!th #!cating an c#amping e#ements$

%olding Se"urely Under (i$ration) Loading) and Stress. The ne/t fact!rs in se#ecting a c#amp are the vi"rati!n an stress e/pecte in the !perati!n$ Cam c#amps, f!r e/amp#e, a#th!ugh g!! f!r s!me !perati!ns, are n!t the "est ch!ice %hen e/cessive vi"rati!n can #!!sen them$ It is a#s! a g!! i ea t! a a safety margin t! the estimate f!rces acting !n a c#amp$ Preventing *amage to the &or'pie"e. The c#amp ch!sen must a#s! "e !ne that !es n!t amage the %!r(piece$ Damage !ccurs in many %ays$ The main c!ncerns are part ist!rti!n an marring$ T!! much c#amping f!rce can %arp !r "en the %!r(piece$ *urface amage is !ften cause "y c#amps %ith har ene !r n!n&r!tating c!ntact surfaces$ Use c#amps %ith r!tating c!ntact pa s !r %ith s!fter c!ntact materia# t! re uce this pr!"#em$ The "est c#amp f!r an app#icati!n is !ne that can a e.uate#y h!# the %!r(piece %ith!ut surface amage$ Improving Load+Unload Speed. The spee !f the c#amps is a#s! imp!rtant t! the %!r(h!# er's efficiency$ ) c#amp %ith a s#!% c#amping acti!n, such as a scre% c#amp, s!metimes e#iminates any pr!fit p!tentia# !f the %!r(h!# er$ The spee !f c#amping an unc#amping is usua##y the m!st&imp!rtant fact!r in (eeping #!a ing<un#!a ing time t! a minimum$

;!siti!ning the C#amps


The p!siti!n !f c#amps !n the %!r(h!# er is 3ust as imp!rtant t! the !vera## !perati!n !f the t!!# as the p!siti!n !f the #!cat!rs$ The se#ecte c#amps must h!# the part against the #!cat!rs %ith!ut ef!rming the %!r(piece$ Once again, since the purp!se !f #!cat!rs is t! resist a## primary cutting f!rces generate in the !perati!n, the c#amps nee !n#y "e #arge en!ugh t! h!# the %!r(piece against the #!cat!rs an t! resist any sec!n ary f!rces generate in the !perati!n$ T! meet "!th these c!n iti!ns, p!siti!n the c#amps at the m!st&rigi p!ints !f the %!r(piece$ With m!st %!r(h!# ers, this means p!siti!ning the c#amps irect#y !ver the supp!rting e#ements in the "asep#ate !f the %!r(h!# er, 5igure&=&9=a$ In s!me cases the %!r(piece must "e c#ampe against h!ri0!nta# #!cat!rs rather than the supp!rts, 5igure =& 9="$ In either case, the c#amping f!rce must "e a"s!r"e "y the #!cating e#ements$

5igure =&9=$ C#amps sh!u# a#%ays "e p!siti!ne s! the c#amping f!rce is irecte int! the supp!rts !r #!cat!rs$

5!r %!r(h!# ers %ith t%! supp!rts un er the c#amping area !f the %!r(piece, t%! c#amps sh!u# "e use D !ne !ver each supp!rt, 5igure =&9>a$ ;#acing !n#y !ne c#amp "et%een the supp!rts can easi#y "en !r ist!rt the %!r(piece uring the c#amping !perati!n$ When the %!r(piece has f#anges !r !ther e/tensi!ns use f!r c#amping, an au/i#iary supp!rt sh!u# "e p!siti!ne un er the e/ten e area "ef!re a c#amp is app#ie , 5igure =&9>"$

5igure =&9>$ The num"er an p!siti!n !f c#amps is etermine "y the %!r(piece an its supp!rts$

)n!ther c!nsi erati!n in p!siti!ning c#amps is the !perati!n !f the machine t!!# thr!ugh!ut the machining cyc#e$ The c#amps must "e p!siti!ne s! they ! n!t interfere %ith the !perati!n !f the machine t!!#, uring either the cutting !r return cyc#e$ *uch p!siti!ning is especia##y critica# %ith numerica##y c!ntr!##e machines$ In a iti!n t! the cutters, chec( interference "et%een the c#amps an !ther machine e#ements, such as ar"!rs, chuc(s, .ui##s, #athe carriages, an c!#umns$ When fi/turing an aut!mate machine, chec( the c!mp#ete t!!# path "ef!re using the %!r(h!# er$ Chec( "!th the machining cyc#e an return cyc#e !f the machine f!r interference "et%een the cutters an the c#amps$ Occasi!na##y pr!grammers f!rget t! c!nsi er the t!!# path !n the return cyc#e$ One %ay t! re uce the chance !f a c!##isi!n an e#iminate the nee t! pr!gram the return path is simp#y t! raise the cutter a"!ve the highest area !f the %!r(piece !r %!r(h!# er at the en !f the machining cyc#e "ef!re returning t! the h!me p!siti!n$

-!st c#amps are p!siti!ne !n !r near the t!p surface !f the %!r(piece$ The !vera## height !f the c#amp, %ith respect t! the %!r(piece, must "e (ept t! a minimum$ This can "e !ne %ith g!!senec(&type c#amps, 5igure =&9A$ )s sh!%n, the g!!senec( c#amp has a #!%er pr!fi#e an sh!u# "e use %here re uce c#amp height is nee e $

5igure =&9A$ Using g!!senec( c#amps is !ne %ay t! re uce the height !f the c#amps$

The si0e !f the c#amp&c!ntact area is an!ther fact!r in p!siti!ning a c#amp$ T! re uce interference "et%een the c#amp an the cutter, (eep the c!ntact area as sma## as safe#y p!ssi"#e$ ) sma## c#amping area re uces the chance f!r interference an a#s! increases the c#amping pressure !n the %!r(piece$ The !vera## si0e !f the c#amp is an!ther fact!r t! (eep in min $ The c#amp must "e #arge en!ugh t! pr!per#y an safe#y h!# the %!r(piece, "ut sma## en!ugh t! stay !ut !f the %ay$ Once again, the primary purp!se !f a c#amp is t! h!# the %!r(piece against the #!cat!rs$ T! ! this pr!per#y, the c#amping f!rce sh!u# "e irecte int! the #!cat!rs, !r the m!st&s!#i part !f the %!r(h!# er$ ;!siti!ning the c#amping evices in any !ther manner can easi#y ist!rt !r ef!rm the %!r(piece$ The %!r(piece sh!%n in 5igure =&9C i##ustrates this p!int$ The part is a thin&%a## ring that must "e fi/ture s! that the interna# iameter can "e "!re $ The m!st&c!nvenient %ay t! c#amp the %!r(piece is !n its !utsi e iameter7 h!%ever, t! generate en!ugh c#amping pressure t! h!# the part, the c#amp is #i(e#y t! ef!rm the ring$ The reas!n #ies in the irecti!n an magnitu e !f the c#amping f!rce1 rather than acting against a #!cat!r, the c#amping f!rces act against the spring f!rce !f the ring resisting the c#amping acti!n$ This type !f c#amping sh!u# !n#y "e use if the part is a s!#i is( !r has a sma##& iameter h!#e an a heavy %a## thic(ness$

5igure =&9C$ Directing the c#amping f!rces against an unsupp!rte area %i## cause this cy#in rica# part t! ef!rm$

T! c#amp this type !f part, !ther techni.ues sh!u# "e use $ The c#amping arrangement in 5igure =&9F sh!%s the %!r(piece c#ampe %ith f!ur strap c#amps$ The c#amping f!rce is irecte int! the "asep#ate an n!t against

the spring f!rce !f the %!r(piece$ C#amping the %!r(piece this %ay e#iminates the ist!rti!n !f the ring cause "y the first meth! $

5igure =&9F$ *trap c#amps e#iminate ef!rmati!n "y irecting the c#amping f!rces int! the supp!rts un er the part$

) simi#ar c#amping meth! is sh!%n at 5igure =&9M$ Here the %!r(piece has a series !f h!#es ar!un the ring that can "e use t! c#amp the %!r(piece$ C#amping the %!r(piece in this manner a#s! irects the c#amping f!rce against the "asep#ate !f the %!r(h!# er$ This type !f arrangement re.uires supp!rts %ith h!#es that permit the c#amping scre%s t! c#amp thr!ugh the supp!rts$

5igure =&9M$ When p!ssi"#e, part features such as h!#es can "e use t! c#amp the part$

If the part can "e c#ampe !n#y !n its !utsi e surface, !ne !ther meth! can "e use t! h!# the part1 a c!##et that c!mp#ete#y enc#!ses the part$ )s sh!%n in 5igure =&9N, the shape !f the c#amping c!ntact he#ps c!ntr!# ist!rti!n$ Depen ing !n the si0e !f the part, either a c!##et !r pie&shape s!ft 3a%s can "e use f!r this arrangement$

5igure =&9N$ When the part can !n#y "e c#ampe !n its !utsi e surface, pie&shape chuc( 3a%s can "e use t! h!# the part an re uce ef!rmati!n$

*e#ecting C#amp *i0e an 5!rce


Ca#cu#ati!ns t! fin the necessary c#amping f!rce can "e .uite c!mp#icate $ In many situati!ns, h!%ever, an appr!/imate eterminati!n !f these va#ues is sufficient$ The ta"#e in 5igure =&=J sh!%s the avai#a"#e c#amping f!rces f!r a variety !f ifferent&si0e manua# c#amp straps %ith a 9&t!&8 c#amping&f!rce rati!$

5igure =&=J$ )ppr!/imate c#amping f!rces !f ifferent&si0e manua# c#amp straps %ith a 9&t!&8 c#amping&f!rce rati!$

)#ternative#y, re.uire c#amping f!rce can "e ca#cu#ate "ase !n ca#cu#ate cutting f!rces$ ) simp#ifie e/amp#e is sh!%n in 5igure =&=8$ The cutting f!rce is entire#y h!ri0!nta#, an n! %!r(piece #!cat!rs are use , s! fricti!na# f!rces a#!ne resist the cutting f!rces$

5igure =&=8$ ) simp#ifie c#amping&f!rce ca#cu#ati!n %ith the cutting f!rce entire#y h!ri0!nta#, an n! %!r(piece st!ps ?fricti!na# f!rce resists a## cutting f!rces@$

When %!r(piece #!cat!rs an mu#ti& irecti!na# f!rces are c!nsi ere , the ca#cu#ati!ns "ec!me m!re c!mp#icate $ T! simp#ify ca#cu#ati!ns, the %!rst&case f!rce situati!n can "e estimate intuitive#y an then treate as a t%!& imensi!na# static&mechanics pr!"#em ?using a free&"! y iagram@$ In the e/amp#e sh!%n in 5igure =&=9, the cutting f!rce is (n!%n t! "e 8MJJ #"s, "ase !n a previ!us ca#cu#ati!n$ The %!r(piece %eighs 8AJJ #"s$ The un(n!%n f!rces are1
5R 5L R8 R9 R= N R Q T!ta# f!rce fr!m a## c#amps !n right si e Q T!ta# f!rce fr!m a## c#amps !n #eft si e Q H!ri0!nta# reacti!n f!rce fr!m the fi/e st!p Q Bertica# reacti!n f!rce fr!m the fi/e st!p Q Bertica# reacti!n f!rce !n the right si e Q N!rma#& irecti!n f!rce Q 5L O 5R O 8AJJ Q C!efficient !f fricti!n Q $8N

5igure =&=9$ ) m!re&c!mp#icate c#amping&f!rce ca#cu#ati!n, using a t%!& imensi!na# free&"! y iagram$

The f!##!%ing e.uati!ns s!#ve the un(n!%n f!rces assuming that f!r a static c!n iti!n1

8$ The sum !f f!rces in the / irecti!n must e.ua# 0er!$ 9$ The sum !f f!rces in the y irecti!n must e.ua# 0er!$ =$ The sum !f m!ments a"!ut any p!int must e.ua# 0er!$ )t first g#ance, this e/amp#e #!!(s 6statica##y in eterminate,6 i$e$, there are five varia"#es an !n#y three e.uati!ns$ 2ut f!r the minimum re.uire c#amping f!rce, R = is 0er! ?%!r(piece "are#y t!uching@ an 5 L is 0er! ?there is n! ten ency t! #ift !n the #eft si e@$ N!% %ith !n#y three varia"#es, the pr!"#em can "e s!#ve 1

*!#ving f!r the varia"#es, 5R Q 89NJ #"s R8 Q 89FJ #"s R9 Q 9FNJ #"s In !ther %!r s, the c!m"ine f!rce fr!m a## c#amps !n the right si e must "e greater than 89NJ #"s$ With a rec!mmen e safety fact!r !f 9&t!&8, this va#ue "ec!mes 9AMJ #"s$ ,ven th!ugh 5 L ?c!m"ine f!rce fr!m a## the c#amps !n the #eft si e@ e.ua#s 0er!, a sma## c#amping f!rce may "e esira"#e t! prevent vi"rati!n$ )n!ther genera# area !f c!ncern is maintaining c!nsistent c#amping f!rce$ -anua# c#amping evices can vary in the f!rce they app#y t! parts uring a pr! ucti!n run$ -any fact!rs acc!unt f!r the variati!n, inc#u ing c#amp p!siti!n !n the %!r(piece, "ut !perat!r fatigue is the m!st&c!mm!n fau#t$ The simp#est an !ften&"est %ay t! c!ntr!# c#amping f!rce is t! rep#ace manua# c#amps %ith p!%er c#amps$ The f!rce generate "y p!%er c#amps is n!t !n#y c!nstant "ut a#s! a 3usta"#e t! suit %!r(piece c!n iti!ns$ )n!ther "enefit !f p!%er c#amps is their spee !f !perati!n1 n!t !n#y are in ivi ua# p!%er c#amps faster than manua# c#amps, every c#amp is activate at the same time$