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2006 Criminal Law Case Digests


Fa*ts+ In ",-,( s.!%ses A/r!ni*! an/ E0angeline La/!nga $e*ame Al1re/! O*%lam2s reg%lar *%st!mers in 3is .awns3!. $%siness. S!metime in 4a& ",,0( t3e La/!nga s.!%ses !$taine/ a P,(0').)) l!an 1r!m 3im( g%arantee/ $& 5nite/ C!*!n%t Planters 6an7 85CP69 C3e*7 N!. 2-#'#:( .!st /ate/ t! ;%l& '( ",,0 iss%e/ $& A/r!ni*!< s!metime in t3e last wee7 !1 A.ril ",,0 an/ /%ring t3e 1irst wee7 !1 4a& ",,0( t3e La/!nga s.!%ses !$taine/ an a//iti!nal l!an !1 P"2(':0.00( g%arantee/ $& 5CP6 C3e*7 N!. 2-#'##( .!st /ate/ t! ;%l& 26( ",,0 iss%e/ $& A/r!ni*!< $etween 4a& an/ ;%ne ",,0( t3e La/!nga s.!%ses !$taine/ a t3ir/ l!an in t3e am!%nt !1 P-(#,6.))( g%arantee/ $& 5CP6 C3e*7 N!. "06":6( .!st /ate/ t! ;%l& 22( ",,0 iss%e/ $& A/r!ni*!< t3e t3ree *3e*7s $!%n*e/ %.!n .resentment 1!r t3e reas!n =CLOSED ACCO5NT>< w3en t3e La/!nga s.!%ses 1aile/ t! re/eem t3e *3e*7( /es.ite re.eate/ /eman/s( 3e 1ile/ a *riminal *!m.laint against t3em. ?3ile a/mitting t3at t3e *3e*7s iss%e/ $& A/r!ni*! $!%n*e/ $e*a%se t3ere was n! s%11i*ient /e.!sit !r t3e a**!%nt was *l!se/( t3e La/!nga s.!%ses *laime/ t3at t3e *3e*7s were iss%e/ !nl& t! g%arantee t3e !$ligati!n( wit3 an agreement t3at O*%lam s3!%l/ n!t en*as3 t3e *3e*7s w3en t3e& mat%re< an/( t3at .etiti!ner is n!t a signat!r& !1 t3e *3e*7s an/ 3a/ n! .arti*i.ati!n in t3e iss%an*e t3ere!1. T3e TC ren/ere/ a @!int /e*isi!n 1in/ing t3e La/!nga s.!%ses g%ilt& $e&!n/ reas!na$le /!%$t !1 0i!lating 6.P. 6lg. 22. Petiti!ner $r!%g3t t3e *ase t! t3e C!%rt !1 A..eals. T3e C!%rt !1 A..eals a11irme/ t3e *!n0i*ti!n !1 .etiti!ner.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er !r n!t t3e .etiti!ner w3! was n!t t3e /rawer !r iss%er !1 t3e t3ree *3e*7s t3at $!%n*e/ $%t 3er *!Aa**%se/ 3%s$an/ %n/er t3e latter2s a**!%nt *!%l/ $e 3el/ lia$le 1!r 0i!lati!ns !1 6atas Pam$ansa 6ilang 22 as *!ns.irat!r.

Hel/+ T3e *!n0i*ti!n m%st $e set asi/e. Arti*le - !1 t3e PC .r!0i/es t3at =a *!ns.ira*& eBists w3en tw! !r m!re .ers!ns *!me t! an agreement *!n*erning t3e *!mmissi!n !1 a 1el!n& an/ /e*i/e t! *!mmit it.> T! $e 3el/ g%ilt& as a *!A.rin*i.al $& reas!n !1 *!ns.ira*&( t3e a**%se/ m%st $e s3!wn t! 3a0e .er1!rme/ an !0ert a*t in .%rs%an*e !r 1%rt3eran*e !1 t3e *!m.li*it&. T3e !0ert a*t !r a*ts !1 t3e a**%se/ ma& *!nsist !1 a*ti0e .arti*i.ati!n in t3e a*t%al *!mmissi!n !1 t3e *rime itsel1 !r ma& *!nsist !1 m!ral assistan*e t! 3is *!A*!ns.irat!rs $& m!0ing t3em t! eBe*%te !r im.lement t3e *riminal .lan. In t3e .resent *ase( t3e .r!se*%ti!n 1aile/ t! .r!0e t3at .etiti!ner .er1!rme/ an& !0ert a*t in 1%rt3eran*e !1 t3e allege/

*!ns.ira*&. A..arentl&( t3e !nl& sem$lan*e !1 !0ert a*t t3at ma& $e attri$%te/ t! .etiti!ner is t3at s3e was .resent w3en t3e 1irst *3e*7 was iss%e/. H!we0er( t3is in1eren*e *ann!t $e stret*3e/ t! mean *!n*%rren*e wit3 t3e *riminal /esign. C!ns.ira*& m%st $e esta$lis3e/( n!t $& *!n@e*t%res( $%t $& .!siti0e an/ *!n*l%si0e e0i/en*e. C!ns.ira*& trans*en/s mere *!m.ani!ns3i. an/ mere .resen*e at t3e s*ene !1 t3e *rime /!es n!t in itsel1 am!%nt t! *!ns.ira*&. E0en 7n!wle/ge( a*C%ies*en*e in !r agreement t! *!!.erate( is n!t en!%g3 t! *!nstit%te !ne as a .art& t! a *!ns.ira*&( a$sent an& a*ti0e .arti*i.ati!n in t3e *!mmissi!n !1 t3e *rime wit3 a 0iew t! t3e 1%rt3eran*e !1 t3e *!mm!n /esign an/ .%r.!se

PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES VS. ANTONIO 4ENDODA E 65TONES G. . N!. ")2)-, F ")2')-. ;an%ar& :"( 200)

Fa*ts+ 6e1!re %s is t3e 4!ti!n 1!r e*!nsi/erati!n 1ile/ $& 3erein a**%se/Aa..ellant !1 !%r De*isi!n /ate/ 2# O*t!$er 200: in G. . N!. ")2)-, an/ N!. ")2')-. In sai/ /e*isi!n( we m!/i1ie/ t3e r%ling !1 t3e egi!nal Trial C!%rt 8 TC9( 6ran*3 6"( G%ma*a( G%eH!n( in Crim. Case N!. 66:6AG 1in/ing a**%se/A a..ellant g%ilt& !1 ra.e %n/er Arti*les 266AA an/ 266A6 !1 t3e e0ise/ Penal C!/e an/ instea/( we a/@%/ge/ 3im g%ilt& !nl& !1 attem.te/ ra.e. ?e( 3!we0er( %.3el/ t3e r%ling !1 t3e *!%rt a C%! wit3 regar/ t! Crim. Case N!. 66:'AG 1in/ing a**%se/Aa..ellant g%ilt& !1 in*est%!%s ra.e !1 a min!r %n/er Art. 266A6 !1 t3e e0ise/ Penal C!/e as amen/e/ $& e.%$li* A*t N!. -:): an/ 1!r t3is( we senten*e/ a**%se/A a..ellant t! s%11er t3e %ltimate .enalt& !1 /eat3.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er !r n!t t3e a**%se/ *!mmitte/ attem.te/ ra.e !r a*ts !1 las*i0i!%sness.

Hel/+ A1ter a t3!r!%g3 re0iew an/ e0al%ati!n !1 t3e re*!r/s !1 t3is *ase( we 1in/ n! s%11i*ient $asis t! m!/i1& !%r earlier /e*isi!n *!n0i*ting a**%se/Aa..ellant !1 attem.te/ ra.e in Crim. Case N!. 66:6A G.T3ere is an attem.t t! *!mmit ra.e w3en t3e !11en/er *!mmen*es its *!mmissi!n /ire*tl& $& !0ert a*ts $%t /!es n!t .er1!rm all t3e a*ts !1 eBe*%ti!n w3i*3 s3!%l/ .r!/%*e t3e 1el!n& $& reas!n !1 s!me *a%se !r a**i/ent !t3er t3an 3is !wn s.!ntane!%s /esistan*e. 5.!n t3e !t3er 3an/( Arti*le :66 !1 t3e e0ise/ Penal C!/e states+ =8a9n& .ers!n w3! s3all *!mmit an& a*t !1 las*i0i!%sness %.!n t3e !t3er .ers!n !1 eit3er seB( %n/er an& !1 t3e *ir*%mstan*es menti!ne/ in t3e .re*e/ing arti*le( s3all $e .%nis3e/ $& .risi!n *!rre**i!nal.> As eB.laine/ $& an eminent a%t3!r !1 *riminal law( ra.e an/ a*ts !1 las*i0i!%sness 3a0e t3e same nat%re. T3ere is( 3!we0er( a 1%n/amental /i11eren*e $etween t3e tw!. In ra.e( t3ere is t3e intent t! lie wit3 a w!man w3ereas t3is element is a$sent in a*ts !1 las*i0i!%sness. In t3is *ase( t3e series !1 a..alling e0ents w3i*3 t!!7 .la*e !n t3e nig3t !1 "- 4ar*3 ",,- insi/e t3e 3%m$le 3!me !1 .ri0ate

*!m.lainant an/ !1 a**%se/Aa..ellant( esta$lis3 $e&!n/ /!%$t t3at t3e latter inten/e/ t! ra0is3 3is 0er& !wn 1les3 an/ $l!!/. As 0i0i/l& narrate/ $& .ri0ate *!m.lainant $e1!re t3e trial *!%rt( a**%se/Aa..ellant( ta7ing a/0antage !1 t3e *!0er !1 /ar7ness an/ !1 t3e a$sen*e !1 3is wi1e( rem!0e/ 3er 8.ri0ate *!m.lainant2s9 *l!t3ing an/ t3erea1ter .la*e/ 3imsel1 !n t!. !1 3er. A**%se/Aa..ellant( w3! was similarl& na7e/ as .ri0ate *!m.lainant( t3en .r!*ee/e/ t! 7iss t3e latter an/ 3e li7ewise t!%*3e/ 3er $reasts %ntil 1inall&( 3e ren/ere/ .ri0ate *!m.lainant %n*!ns*i!%s $& $!Bing 3er in t3e st!ma*3. T3ese /astar/l& a*ts !1 a**%se/Aa..ellant *!nstit%te =t3e 1irst !r s!me s%$seC%ent ste. in a /ire*t m!0ement t!war/s t3e *!mmissi!n !1 t3e !11ense a1ter t3e .re.arati!ns are ma/e.> Far 1r!m $eing mere !$s*enit& !r lew/ness( t3e& are in/is.%ta$l& !0ert a*ts eBe*%te/ in !r/er t! *!ns%mmate t3e *rime !1 ra.e against t3e .ers!n !1 .ri0ate *!m.lainant.

SALVADO D. FLO VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES G. . N!. ":,,-'. 4ar*3 :"( 200)

Fa*ts+ In1!rmati!n 1!r li$el was 1ile/ $e1!re t3e TC( 6ran*3 20( Naga Cit&( against t3e .etiti!ner an/ am!s w3! were t3en t3e managing e/it!r an/ *!rres.!n/ent( res.e*ti0el&( !1 t3e 6i*!l F!r%m( a l!*al wee7l& news.a.er *ir*%late/ in t3e 6i*!l egi!n. It states+ On !r a$!%t t3e "-t3 /a& %. t! t3e 2#t3 /a& !1 A%g%st( ",-6( in t3e 6i*!l egi!n *!m.rise/ $& t3e Pr!0in*es !1 Al$a&( Catan/%anes( S!rs!g!n( 4as$ate( Camarines S%r( an/ Camarines N!rte( an/ t3e Cities !1 Iriga an/ Naga( P3ili..ines( an/ wit3in t3e @%ris/i*ti!n !1 t3is H!n!ra$le C!%rt %n/er .A. N!. #:6:( an/ 6.P. 6lg. "2,( t3e a$!0eAname/ a**%se/ w3! are t3e news *!rres.!n/ent an/ t3e managing e/it!r( res.e*ti0el&( !1 t3e l!*al wee7l& news.a.er 6i*!l F!r%m( /i/ t3en an/ t3ere will1%ll&( %nlaw1%ll& an/ 1el!ni!%sl&( wit3!%t @%sti1ia$le m!ti0e an/ wit3 mali*i!%s intent !1 im.ea*3ing( /is*re/iting an/ /estr!&ing t3e 3!n!r( integrit&( g!!/ name an/ re.%tati!n !1 t3e *!m.lainant as 4inister !1 t3e Presi/ential C!mmissi!n !n G!0ernment e!rganiHati!n an/ *!n*%rrentl& G!0ern!r !1 t3e Pr!0in*e !1 Camarines S%r( an/ t! eB.!se 3im t! .%$li* 3atre/( ri/i*%le an/ *!ntem.t( write( e/it( .%$lis3 an/ *ir*%late an iss%e !1 t3e l!*al wee7l& news.a.er 6ICOL FO 54 t3r!%g3!%t t3e 6i*!l egi!n( wit3 $anner 3ea/line an/ 1r!nt .age news item rea/ $& t3e .%$li* t3r!%g3!%t t3e 6i*!l egi!n =VILLAF5E TE2S DENIAL CONVINCES NO ONE>. T3e trial *!%rt 1!%n/ t3e .etiti!ner g%ilt&. T3e C!%rt !1 A..eals li7ewise %.3el/ t3e /e*isi!n !1 t3e trial *!%rt.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er !r n!t t3e C%esti!ne/ news item is li$el!%s.

Hel/+ N!. Li$el is /e1ine/ as =a .%$li* an/ mali*i!%s im.%tati!n !1 a *rime( !r !1 a 0i*e !r /e1e*t( real !r imaginar&( !r an& a*t( !missi!n( *!n/iti!n( stat%s( !r *ir*%mstan*e ten/ing t! *a%se t3e /is3!n!r( /is*re/it( !r *!ntem.t !1 a nat%ral .ers!n !r @%ri/i*al .ers!n( !r t! $la*7en t3e mem!r& !1 !ne w3! is /ea/.> T3e law re*!gniHes tw! 7in/s !1 .ri0ilege/ matters. First are t3!se w3i*3 are *lassi1ie/ as a$s!l%tel& .ri0ilege/ w3i*3 en@!& imm%nit& 1r!m li$el s%its regar/less !1 t3e eBisten*e !1 mali*e in 1a*t. T3e !t3er 7in/ !1 .ri0ilege/ matters are t3e C%ali1ie/l& !r *!n/iti!nall& .ri0ilege/ *!mm%ni*ati!ns w3i*3( %nli7e t3e 1irst *lassi1i*ati!n( ma& $e s%s*e.ti$le t! a 1in/ing !1 li$el .r!0i/e/ t3e .r!se*%ti!n esta$lis3es t3e .resen*e !1 mali*e in 1a*t. T3e eB*e.ti!ns .r!0i/e/ 1!r in Arti*le :)# !1 t3e e0ise/ Penal C!/e 1all int! t3is *ateg!r&. T3e interest !1 s!*iet& an/ t3e maintenan*e !1 g!!/ g!0ernment /eman/ a 1%ll /is*%ssi!n !1 .%$li* a11airs. C!m.lete li$ert& t! *!mment !n t3e *!n/%*t !1 .%$li* men is a s*al.el in t3e *ase !1 1ree s.ee*3. T3e s3ar. in*isi!n !1 its .r!$e relie0es t3e a$s*esses !1 !11i*ial/!m. 4en in .%$li* li1e ma& s%11er %n/er a 3!stile an/ an %n@%st a**%sati!n< t3e w!%n/ *an $e ass%age/ wit3 t3e $alm !1 a *lear *!ns*ien*e. ising s%.eri!r t! an& !11i*ial( !r set !1 !11i*ials( t! t3e C3ie1 EBe*%ti0e( t! t3e Legislat%re( t! t3e ;%/i*iar& I t! an& !r all t3e agen*ies !1 G!0ernment I .%$li* !.ini!n s3!%l/ $e t3e *!nstant s!%r*e !1 li$ert& an/ /em!*ra*&.

NO 4A A. A6D5LLA 0ers%s PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES G. . NO. ")0"2, A.ril 6( 200)

Fa*ts+ C!n0i*te/ $& t3e San/igan$a&an in its Crim. Case N!. 2:26" !1 t3e *rime !1 illegal %se !1 .%$li* 1%n/s /e1ine/ an/ .enaliHe/ %n/er Arti*le 220 !1 t3e e0ise/ Penal C!/e( !r m!re *!mm!nl& 7n!wn as te*3ni*al mal0ersati!n( a..ellant N!rma A. A$/%lla is n!w $e1!re t3is C!%rt !n .etiti!n 1!r re0iew %n/er %le #). Al!ng wit3 Nenita Ag%il an/ 4a3m%/ Dar7is( a..ellant was *3arge/ %n/er an In1!rmati!n w3i*3 .ertinentl& rea/s+ T3at !n !r a$!%t N!0em$er( ",-, !r s!metime .ri!r !r s%$seC%ent t3eret!( in ;!l!( S%l%( P3ili..ines an/ wit3in t3e @%ris/i*ti!n !1 t3is H!n!ra$le C!%rt( t3e a$!0eAname/ a**%se/+ NO 4A A. A6D5LLA an/ NENITA P. AG5IL( $!t3 .%$li* !11i*ers( $eing t3en t3e Presi/ent an/ *as3ier( res.e*ti0el&( !1 t3e S%l% State C!llege( an/ as s%*3 $& reas!n !1 t3eir .!siti!ns an/ /%ties are a**!%nta$le 1!r .%$li* 1%n/s %n/er t3eir a/ministrati!n( w3ile in t3e .er1!rman*e !1 t3eir 1%n*ti!ns( *!ns.iring an/ *!n1e/erating wit3 4AH45D I. DA JIS( als! a .%$li* !11i*er( $eing t3en t3e A/ministrati0e O11i*er V !1 t3e sai/ s*3!!l( /i/ t3en an/ t3ere will1%ll&( %nlaw1%ll& an/ 1el!ni!%sl&( wit3!%t law1%l a%t3!rit&( a..l& 1!r t3e .a&ment !1 wages !1 *as%als( t3e am!%nt !1 FO TE THO5SAND PESOS 8P#0(000.009( P3ili..ine C%rren*&( w3i*3 am!%nt was a..r!.riate/ 1!r t3e .a&ment !1 t3e salar& /i11erentials !1 se*!n/ar& s*3!!l tea*3ers !1 t3e sai/ s*3!!l( t! t3e /amage an/ .re@%/i*e !1 .%$li* ser0i*e .A..ellant2s *!Aa**%se/( Nenita

Ag%il an/ 4a3m%/ Dar7is( were $!t3 a*C%itte/. Onl& a..ellant was 1!%n/ g%ilt& an/ senten*e/ $& t3e San/igan$a&an in its /e*isi!n. 5.!n m!ti!n 1!r re*!nsi/erati!n( t3e San/igan$a&an amen/e/ a..ellant2s senten*e $& /eleting t3e tem.!rar& s.e*ial /isC%ali1i*ati!n im.!se/ %.!n 3er. Still /issatis1ie/( a..ellant( n!w $e1!re t3is C!%rt( .ersistentl& .leas inn!*en*e !1 t3e *rime *3arge/. Iss%e+ "9 ?3et3er !r n!t t3ere was %nlaw1%l intent !n t3e a..ellant2s .art.

29 ?3et3er !r n!t t3e essential elements !1 t3e *rime !1 te*3ni*al mal0ersati!n is .resent.

Hel/+ T3e C!%rt m%st 3a0e t! .art wa&s wit3 t3e San/igan$a&an in its relian*e !n Se*ti!n ) 8$9 !1 %le ":" as $asis 1!r its im.%tati!n !1 *riminal intent %.!n a..ellant. T3e .res%m.ti!n !1 *riminal intent will n!t a%t!mati*all& a..l& t! all *3arges !1 te*3ni*al mal0ersati!n $e*a%se /is$%rsement !1 .%$li* 1%n/s 1!r .%$li* %se is .er se n!t an %nlaw1%l a*t. Here( a..ellant *ann!t $e sai/ t! 3a0e *!mmitte/ an %nlaw1%l a*t w3en s3e .ai/ t3e !$ligati!n !1 t3e S%l% State C!llege t! its em.l!&ees in t3e 1!rm !1 terminal lea0e $ene1its s%*3 em.l!&ees were entitle/ t! %n/er eBisting *i0il ser0i*e laws. T3ere is n! /is.%te t3at t3e m!ne& was s.ent 1!r a .%$li* .%r.!se I .a&ment !1 t3e wages !1 la$!rers w!r7ing !n 0ari!%s .r!@e*ts in t3e m%ni*i.alit&. It is .ertinent t! n!te t3e 3ig3 .ri!rit& w3i*3 la$!rers2 wages en@!& as *laims against t3e em.l!&ers2 1%n/s an/ res!%r*es. Settle/ is t3e r%le t3at *!n0i*ti!n s3!%l/ rest !n t3e strengt3 !1 e0i/en*e !1 t3e .r!se*%ti!n an/ n!t !n t3e wea7ness !1 t3e /e1ense. A$sent t3is reC%ire/ C%ant%m !1 e0i/en*e w!%l/ mean eB!nerati!n 1!r a**%se/Aa..ellant. T3e San/igan$a&an2s im.r!.er relian*e !n Se*. )8$9 !1 %le ":" /!es n!t sa0e t3e /a& 1!r t3e .r!se*%ti!n2s /e1i*ien*& in .r!0ing t3e eBisten*e !1 *riminal intent n!r *!%l/ it e0er tilt t3e s*ale 1r!m t3e *!nstit%ti!nal .res%m.ti!n !1 inn!*en*e t! t3at !1 g%ilt. In t3e a$sen*e !1 *riminal intent( t3is C!%rt 3as n! $asis t! a11irm a..ellant2s *!n0i*ti!n. 2. T3e C!%rt n!tes t3at t3ere is n! .arti*%lar a..r!.riati!n 1!r salar& /i11erentials !1 se*!n/ar& s*3!!l tea*3ers !1 t3e S%l% State C!llege in A 66--. T3e t3ir/ element !1 t3e *rime !1 te*3ni*al mal0ersati!n w3i*3 reC%ires t3at t3e .%$li* 1%n/ %se/ s3!%l/ 3a0e $een a..r!.riate/ $& law( is t3ere1!re a$sent. T3e a%t3!riHati!n gi0en $& t3e De.artment !1 6%/get an/ 4anagement 1!r t3e %se !1 t3e 1!rt& t3!%san/ .es!s 8P#0(000.009 all!tment 1!r .a&ment !1 salar& /i11erentials !1 :# se*!n/ar& s*3!!l tea*3ers is n!t an !r/inan*e !r law *!ntem.late/ in Arti*le 220 !1 t3e e0ise/ Penal C!/e. A..ellant 3erein( w3! %se/ t3e remain/er !1 t3e 1!rt& t3!%san/ .es!s 8P#0(000.009 release/ $& t3e D64 1!r salar& /i11erentials( 1!r t3e .a&ment !1 t3e terminal lea0e $ene1its !1 !t3er s*3!!l tea*3ers !1 t3e S%l% State C!llege( *ann!t $e 3el/ g%ilt& !1 te*3ni*al mal0ersati!n in t3e a$sen*e( as 3ere( !1 an& .r!0isi!n in A 66-- s.e*i1i*all& a..r!.riating sai/ am!%nt 1!r .a&ment !1 salar& /i11erentials !nl&. In 1ine( t3e t3ir/ an/ 1!%rt3 elements !1 t3e *rime /e1ine/ in Arti*le 220 !1 t3e e0ise/ Penal C!/e are la*7ing in t3is *ase. A*C%ittal is t3%s in !r/er.

EN IG5E =TOTOE> IVE A E DE G5D4AN VS. PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES G. . N!. ":-)):. ;%ne :0( 200)

Fa*ts+ On 4a& 6( ",,:( in t3e egi!nal Trial C!%rt at La Trini/a/( 6eng%et an in1!rmati!n 1!r /ire*t assa%lt was 1ile/ against .etiti!ner( allege/l& *!mmitte/( as 1!ll!ws+ T3at !n !r a$!%t t3e 20t3 /a& !1 4ar*3( ",,:( at T!ma&( S3ilan( 4%ni*i.alit& !1 La Trini/a/( Pr!0in*e !1 6eng%et( P3ili..ines( an/ wit3in t3e @%ris/i*ti!n !1 t3is H!n!ra$le C!%rt( t3e a$!0eAname/ a**%se/( /i/ t3en an/ t3ere will1%ll&( %nlaw1%ll& an/ 1el!ni!%sl& atta*7( em.l!& 1!r*e an/ seri!%sl& resist !ne Lt. ED?A D 4. LEEGO( 7n!wing 3im t! $e a .!li*eman( $& t3en an/ t3ere *3allenging t3e latter t! a 1ist1ig3t an/ t3erea1ter gra..ling an/ 3itting t3e sai/ .!li*eman !n 3is 1a*e( t3%s in@%ring 3im in t3e .r!*ess w3ile t3e latter was a*t%all& engage/ in t3e .er1!rman*e !1 3is !11i*ial /%ties. T3e trial *!%rt *!n0i*te/ .etiti!ner !1 t3e *rime !1 /ire*t assa%lt. T3e C!%rt !1 A..eals a11irme/ t3e /e*isi!n !1 t3e trial *!%rt. Iss%e+ ?3et3er !r n!t t3e C!%rt !1 A..eals erre/ in a11irming t3e @%/gment !1 *!n0i*ti!n ren/ere/ $& t3e trial *!%rt.

Hel/+ Dire*t assa%lt( a *rime against .%$li* !r/er( ma& $e *!mmitte/ in tw! wa&s+ 1irst( $& an& .ers!n !r .ers!ns w3!( wit3!%t a .%$li* %.rising( s3all em.l!& 1!r*e !r intimi/ati!n 1!r t3e attainment !1 an& !1 t3e .%r.!ses en%merate/ in /e1ining t3e *rimes !1 re$elli!n an/ se/iti!n< an/ se*!n/( $& an& .ers!n !r .ers!ns w3!( wit3!%t a .%$li* %.rising( s3all atta*7( em.l!& 1!r*e( !r seri!%sl& intimi/ate !r resist an& .ers!n in a%t3!rit& !r an& !1 3is agents( w3ile engage/ in t3e .er1!rman*e !1 !11i*ial /%ties( !r !n !**asi!n !1 s%*3 .er1!rman*e. 5nC%esti!na$l&( .etiti!ner2s *ase 1alls %n/er t3e se*!n/ m!/e( w3i*3 is t3e m!re *!mm!n 1!rm !1 assa%lt an/ is aggra0ate/ w3en+ 8a9 t3e assa%lt is *!mmitte/ wit3 a wea.!n< !r 8$9 w3en t3e !11en/er is a .%$li* !11i*er !r em.l!&ee< !r 8*9 w3en t3e !11en/er la&s 3an/ %.!n a .ers!n in a%t3!rit&. In an& e0ent( t3is C!%rt 3as sai/ time an/ again t3at t3e assessment !1 t3e *re/i$ilit& !1 witnesses an/ t3eir testim!nies is $est %n/erta7en $& t3e trial *!%rt( w3at wit3 realit& t3at it 3as t3e !..!rt%nit& t! !$ser0e t3e witnesses 1irstA3an/ an/ t! n!te t3eir /emean!r( *!n/%*t( an/ attit%/e w3ile testi1&ing. Its 1in/ings !n s%*3 matters( a$sent( as 3ere( !1 an& ar$itrariness !r !0ersig3t !1 1a*ts !r *ir*%mstan*es !1 weig3t an/ s%$stan*e( are 1inal an/ *!n*l%si0e %.!n t3is C!%rt an/ will n!t t! $e /ist%r$e/ !n a..eal.



Fa*ts+ Earl& in t3e m!rning !1 A%g%st 2)( ",,#( !me! C. 6!ring!t was awa7ene/ $& 3is wi1e Ai/a( t3e latter 3a0ing 3ear/ s!me$!/& s3!%ting in0e*ti0es at 3er 3%s$an/( 0iH+ =E!% !%g3t t! $e 7ille/( &!% /e0il.> S! !me! st!!/ %. an/ .ee.e/ t! see w3! was !%tsi/e. ?3en 3e /i/ n!t see an&$!/&( 3e .r!*ee/e/ t!war/s t3e r!a/. 5.!n .assing $& a *!*!n%t tree( 3e was s%//enl& 3a*7e/ at t3e $a*7 wit3 $!l! w3i*3 was m!re t3at " 1!!t l!ng. He l!!7e/ $a*7 at 3is assailant an/ 3e re*!gniHe/ 3im t! $e a..ellant C!nra/! w3!m 3e 7new sin*e t3e ",'02s an/ w3!se 1a*e 3e *learl& saw as lig3t 1r!m t3e m!!n ill%minate/ t3e .la*e. A..ellant went !n 3a*7ing 3im( 3itting 3im in /i11erent .arts !1 t3e $!/&( in*l%/ing ears an/ t3e 3ea/. ?3ile 3itting 3im( a..ellant was s3!%ting in0e*ti0es at 3im. A..ellant als! 3it 3im wit3 a g%itar *a%sing !me! t! s%stain an in@%r& !n 3is 1!re3ea/. All in all( 3e s%staine/ "" w!%n/s. Petiti!ner in0!7e/ sel1A/e1ense. T3e trial *!%rt re@e*te/ .etiti!ner2s .lea !1 sel1A/e1ense an/ *!n0i*te/ 3im !1 1r%strate/ 3!mi*i/e.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er !r n!t .etiti!ner a*te/ in sel1A/e1ense.

Hel/+ T3e .etiti!ner was $%r/ene/ t! .r!0e( wit3 *lear an/ *!n0in*ing e0i/en*e( t3e *!n1l%en*e !1 t3e t3ree essential reC%isites 1!r *!m.lete sel1A/e1ense+ 8a9 %nlaw1%l aggressi!n !n t3e .art !1 t3e 0i*tim< 8$9 reas!na$le means %se/ $& t3e .ers!n /e1en/ing 3imsel1 t! re.el !r .re0ent t3e %nlaw1%l t! re.el !r .re0ent t3e %nlaw1%l aggressi!n< 8*9 la*7 !1 s%11i*ient .r!0!*ati!n !n t3e .art !1 t3e .ers!n /e1en/ing 3imsel1. 6& in0!7ing sel1A/e1ense( t3e .etiti!ner t3ere$& s%$mitte/ 3a0ing /eli$eratel& *a%se/ t3e 0i*tim2s in@%ries. T3e $%r/en !1 .r!!1 is s3i1te/ t! 3im t! .r!0e wit3 *lear an/ *!n0in*ing all t3e reC%isites !1 3is a11irmati0e /e1ense. He m%st rel& !n t3e strengt3 !1 3is !wn e0i/en*e an/ n!t t3e wea7ness !1 t3at !1 t3e /is$elie0e/ a1ter t3e .etiti!ner a/mitte/ in1li*ting t3e m!rtal in@%ries !n t3e 0i*tim. In t3is *ase( t3e .etiti!ner 1aile/ t! .r!0e 3is a11irmati0e /e1ense. T3e n%m$er( nat%re an/ l!*ati!n !1 t3e 0i*tim2s w!%n/s $elie t3e .etiti!ner2s *laim t3at t3e sai/ w!%n/s !r t3e 0i*tim were in1li*te/ as t3e& /%el wit3 ea*3 !t3er. ?itness 1!r t3e .etiti!ner testi1ie/ t3at t3e w!%n/s s%staine/ $& .etiti!ner *!%l/ n!t 3a0e $een *a%se/ $& $!l!. Petiti!ner ne0er s%rren/ere/ 0!l%ntaril& t! t3e .!li*e an/ a/mitte/ t3at 3e 3a/ in@%re/ t3e 0i*tim. T3is w!%l/ 3a0e $!lstere/ 3is *laim t3at 3e 3a*7e/ t3e 0i*tim t! /e1en/ 3imsel1. T3e .etiti!ner /i/ n!t /! s!.



VE ONICO TENE6 O VS. THE HONO A6LE CO5 T OF APPEALS G. . N!. ")0')-( Fe$r%ar& "-( 200#

Fa*ts+ Ver!ni*! Tene$r! *!ntra*te/ marriage wit3 Leti*ia An*a@as !n A.ril "0( ",,0. T3e tw! were we/ $& a @%/ge at La.%ALa.% Cit&. T3e tw! li0e/ t!get3er *!ntin%!%sl& an/ wit3!%t interr%.ti!n %ntil t3e later .art !1 ",,"( w3en Tene$r! in1!rme/ An*a@as t3at 3e 3a/ $een .re0i!%sl& marrie/ t! a *ertain Hil/a Villare&es !n N!0. "0( ",-6. Tene$r! s3!we/ An*a@as a .3!t!*!.& !1 a marriage *!ntra*t $etween 3im an/ Villare&es. In0!7ing t3is .re0i!%s marriage( .etiti!ner t3erea1ter le1t t3e *!n@%gal /welling w3i*3 3e s3are/ wit3 An*a@as( stating t3at 3e was g!ing t! *!3a$it wit3 Villare&es. On ;an%ar& 2)( ",,:( .etiti!ner *!ntra*te/ &et an!t3er marriage( t3is !ne wit3 a *ertain Nil/a Villegas. ?3en An*a@as learne/ !1 t3is t3ir/ marriage( s3e 0eri1ie/ 1r!m Villare&es w3et3er t3e latter was in/ee/ marrie/ t! t3e .etiti!ner. Villare&es *!n1irme/ in 3an/written letter t3at in/ee/ Tene$r! was 3er 3%s$an/. An*a@as t3erea1ter 1ile/ a *!m.laint 1!r $igam& against .etiti!ner. D%ring trial( Tene$r! a/mitte/ 3a0ing marrie/ t! Villare&es an/ .r!/%*e/ tw! *3il/ren. H!we0er( 3e /enie/ t3at 3e an/ Villare&es were 0ali/l& marrie/ t! ea*3 !t3er( *laiming t3at n! marriage *erem!n& t!!7 .la*e. He allege/ t3at 3e signe/ a marriage *!ntra*t merel& t! ena$le 3er t! get t3e all!tment 1r!m 3is !11i*e in *!nne*ti!n wit3 3is w!r7 as a seaman. T3e trial *!%rt 1!%n/ 3im g%ilt& !1 $igam&.

Iss%es+ 8"9 ?3et3er !r n!t t3e .etiti!ner is g%ilt& !1 t3e *rime !1 $igam&. 829 ?3at is t3e e11e*t !1 /e*larati!n !1 n%llit& !1 t3e se*!n/ marriage !1 t3e .etiti!ner !n t3e gr!%n/ !1 .s&*3!l!gi*al in*a.a*it&K

Hel/+ 8"9 Ees( .etiti!ner is g%ilt& !1 t3e *rime !1 $igam&. 5n/er Arti*le :#, !1 t3e e0ise/ Penal C!/e( t3e elements !1 t3e *rime !1 $igam& are+ 8"9 t3at t3e !11en/er 3as $een legall& marrie/< 829 t3at t3e 1irst marriage 3as n!t $een legall& /iss!l0e/ !r( in *ase 3is !r 3er s.!%se is a$sent( t3e a$sent s.!%se *!%l/ n!t &et $e .res%me/ /ea/ a**!r/ing t! t3e Ci0il C!/e< 8:9 t3at 3e *!ntra*ts a se*!n/ !r s%$seC%ent marriage< an/ 8#9 t3at t3e se*!n/ !r s%$seC%ent marriage 3as all t3e essential reC%isites 1!r 0ali/it&. T3e .r!se*%ti!n s%11i*ient e0i/en*e( $!t3 /!*%mentar& an/ !ral( .r!0e/ t3e eBisten*e !1 t3e marriage $etween

.etiti!ner an/ Villare&es. 829 A se*!n/ !r s%$seC%ent marriage *!ntra*te/ /%ring s%$sisten*e !1 .etiti!ner2s 0ali/ marriage t! Villare&es( .etiti!ner2s marriage t! An*a@as w!%l/ $e n%ll an/ 0!i/ a$ initi! *!m.letel& regar/less !1 .etiti!ner2s .s&*3!l!gi*al *a.a*it& !r in*a.a*it&. Sin*e a marriage *!ntra*te/ /%ring t3e s%$sisten*e !1 a 0ali/ marriage is a%t!mati*all& 0!i/( t3e n%llit& !1 t3is se*!n/ marriage is n!t .er se an arg%ment 1!r t3e a0!i/an*e !1 *riminal lia$ilit& 1!r $igam&. Pertinentl&( Arti*le :#, !1 t3e PC *riminaliHes =an& .ers!n w3! s3all *!ntra*t a se*!n/ !r s%$seC%ent marriage $e1!re t3e 1!rmer marriage 3as $een legall& /iss!l0e/( !r $e1!re t3e a$sent s.!%se 3as $een /e*lare/ .res%m.ti0el& /ea/ $& means !1 a @%/gment ren/ere/ in t3e .r!.er .r!*ee/ings>. A .lain rea/ing !1 t3e law( t3ere1!re( w!%l/ in/i*ate t3at t3e .r!0isi!n .enaliHes t3e mere a*t !1 *!ntra*ting a se*!n/ !r s%$seC%ent marriage /%ring t3e s%$sisten*e !1 a 0ali/ marriage.




Fa*ts+ On 4ar*3 "6( ",,6( $%sinessman AleBan/er Sal/aLa went t! S%ltan J%/arat wit3 t3ree !t3er men t! meet a *ertain 4a*a.agal Sil!ngan alias C!mman/er Lam$a/a. T3e& arri0e/ in t3e m!rning an/ were a$le t! tal7 t! 4a*a.agal *!n*erning t3e g!l/ n%ggets t3at .%r.!rte/l& $eing s!l/ $& t3e latter. T3e $%siness transa*ti!n was .!st.!ne/ an/ *!ntin%e/ in t3e a1tern!!n /%e t! t3e /eat3 !1 4a*a.agal2s relati0e an/ t3at 3e 3as t! .i*7 3is $r!t3er in C!ta$at! Cit&. T3en at ar!%n/ -+:0 P4( as t3e& 3ea/e/ t! t3e 3ig3wa&( 4a*a.agal !r/ere/ t3e /ri0er t! st!.. S%//enl&( ") arme/ men a..eare/. AleBan/er an/ 3is t3ree *!m.ani!ns were !r/ere/ t! g! !%t !1 t3e 0e3i*le( t3e& were tie/ %.( an/ $lin/1!l/e/. 4a*a.agal an/ Te//& were als! tie/ an/ $lin/1!l/e/( $%t n!t3ing m!re was /!ne t! t3em. AleBan/er i/enti1ie/ all t3e a$/%*t!rs in*l%/ing t3e $r!t3ers !1 4a*a.agal. T3e 1!%r 0i*tims were ta7en t! t3e m!%ntain 3i/e!%t in 4ag%in/ana!. T3e 7i/na..ers /eman/e/ P")( 000(000 1r!m AleBan/er2s wi1e 1!r 3is release( $%t t3e am!%nt was re/%*e/ t! twel0e milli!n. T3e 0i*tims were t3en trans1erre/ 1r!m !ne .la*e t! an!t3er. T3e& ma/e AleBan/er write a letter t! 3is wi1e 1!r 3is rans!m. 6%t !n se0eral !**asi!ns( a .ers!n name/ 4a&ang7ang 3imsel1 w!%l/ write t! AleBan/er2s wi1e. T3e tw! !t3er 0i*tims manage/ t! es*a.e $%t AleBan/er was release/ a1ter .a&ment !1 rans!m. T3e trial *!%rt *!n0i*te/ 4a*a.agal an/ 3is *!m.ani!ns !1 t3e *rime !1 Ji/na..ing 1!r ans!m wit3 Seri!%s Illegal Detenti!n.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er it is ne*essar& t3at t3ere is a*t%al .a&ment !1 rans!m in t3e *rime !1 Ji/na..ing.

Hel/+ N!( it is ne*essar& t3at t3ere is a*t%al .a&ment !1 rans!m in t3e *rime !1 Ji/na..ing. F!r t3e *rime t! $e *!mmitte/( at least !ne !0ert a*t !1 /eman/ing rans!m m%st $e ma/e. It is n!t ne*essar& t3at t3ere $e a*t%al .a&ment !1 rans!m $e*a%se w3at t3e law reC%ires is merel& t3e eBisten*e !1 t3e .%r.!se !1 /eman/ing rans!m. In t3is *ase( t3e re*!r/s are re.lete wit3 instan*es w3en t3e 7i/na..ers /eman/e/ rans!m 1r!m t3e 0i*tim. At t3e m!%ntain 3i/e!%t w3ere AleBan/er was 1irst ta7en( 3e was ma/e a letter t! 3is wi1e as7ing 3er t! .a& rans!m !1 twel0e milli!n. Als! 4a&ang7ang 3imsel1 wr!te m!re letters t! 3is 1amil& t3reatene/ t3e 1amil& t! 7ill AleBan/er i1 t3e rans!m was n!t .ai/.


ED?A D ONG VS. CO5 T OF APPEALS G. . N!. "",-)-( A.ril 2,( 200:

Fa*ts+ Petiti!ner E/war/ Ong( re.resenting A 4AG I Internati!nal C!r.!rati!n 8A 4AG I9( eBe*%te/ tw! tr%st re*ei.ts a*7n!wle/ging re*ei.t 1r!m t3e S!li/ 6an7 C!r.. !1 g!!/s 0al%e/ at P 2():2()00 an/ P 2( 0)0(000. In a//iti!n( 3e $!%n/e/ 3imsel1 t! an& in*rease !r /e*rease !1 interest rate in *ase Central 6an7 1l!ate/ rates an/ t! .a& an& a//iti!nal .enalt& %ntil t3e tr%st re*ei.ts are 1%ll& .ai/. ?3en t3e tr%st re*ei.ts $e*ame /%e an/ /eman/a$le( A 4AG I 1aile/ t! .a& !r /eli0er t3e g!!/s t! t3e 6an7 /es.ite se0eral /eman/ letters. T3e trial *!%rt *!n0i*te/ Ong !1 tw! *!%nts !1 esta1a 1!r 0i!lati!n !1 t3e Tr%st e*ei.ts Law.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er t3e a..ellant is g%ilt& !1 tw! *!%nts esta1a 1!r 0i!lati!n !1 t3e Tr%st e*ei.ts Law.

Hel/+ Ees( 3e is g%ilt& 1!r 1ail%re $& t3e entr%stee t! a**!%nt 1!r t3e g!!/s re*ei0e/ in tr%st *!nstit%tes esta1a. T3e Tr%st e*ei.ts Law is 0i!late/ w3ene0er t3e entr%stee 1ails t!+ 8"9 t%rn !0er t3e .r!*ee/s !1 t3e sale !1 g!!/s( !r 829 ret%rn t3e g!!/s *!0ere/ $& t3e tr%st re*ei.ts i1 t3e g!!/ are n!t s!l/. T3e mere 1ail%re t! a**!%nt !r ret%rn gi0es rise t! t3e *rime w3i*3 is mal%m .r!3i$it%m. T3ere is n! reC%irement t! .r!0e intent t! /e1ra%/. T3e 6an7 release/ t3e g!!/s t! A 4AG I %.!n eBe*%ti!n !1 t3e tr%st re*ei.ts an/ as .art !1 t3e l!an transa*ti!ns !1 A 4AG I. T3e 6an7 3a/ a rig3t t! /eman/ 1r!m A 4AG I .a&ment !r at least a ret%rn

!1 t3e g!!/s. A 4AG I 1aile/ t!m .a& !r ret%rn t3e g!!/s /es.ite re.eate/ /eman/s $& t3e 6an7. It is wellAsettle/ /!*trine l!ng $e1!re t3e ena*tment !1 t3e Tr%st e*ei.ts Law( t3at t3e 1ail%re t! a**!%nt( %.!n /eman/( 1!r 1%n/s !r .r!.ert& 3el/ in tr%st is e0i/en*e !1 *!n0ersi!n !r misa..r!.riati!n. 5n/er t3e law( mere 1ail%re $& t3e entr%stee t! a**!%nt 1!r t3e g!!/s re*ei0e/ in tr%st *!nstit%tes esta1a. T3e Tr%st e*ei.ts Law .%nis3es /is3!nest& an/ a$%se !1 *!n1i/en*e in t3e 3an/ling !1 m!ne& !r g!!/s t! .re@%/i*e t3e .%$li* !r/er. T3e mere 1ail%re t! /eli0er .r!*ee/s !1 t3e sale !r t3e g!!/s i1 n!t s!l/ *!nstit%tes a *riminal !11ense t3at *a%ses .re@%/i*e n!t !nl& t! t3e *re/it!r( $%t als! t! t3e .%$li* interest. E0i/entl&( t3e 6an7 s%11ere/ .re@%/i*e 1!r neit3er m!ne& n!r t3e g!!/s were t%rne/ !0er t3e 6an7.



PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES VS. PO: A 4ANDO DALAG G. . N!. "2,-,)( A.ril :0( 200:

Fa*ts+ Arman/! Dalag( a mem$er !1 t3e P3ili..ine Nati!nal P!li*e( was law1%ll& marrie/ t! Lea3 N!li/! Dalag. T3e& 3a/ t3ree *3il/ren. T3eir marriage was 1ar 1r!m i/&lli*. T3eir *!0ert%res were marre/ $& 0i!lent C%arrels( wit3 Lea3 alwa&s at t3e l!sing en/. Ea*3 time t3e *!%.le 3a/ a C%arrel( s3e s%staine/ *!nt%si!ns( $r%ises an/ l%m.s !n /i11erent .arts !1 3er $!/&. On A%g%st ")( ",,6( Arman/! was /rin7ing w3en Lea3 a/m!nis3e/ 3im n!t t! /! s!. Lea3 was t3en $ange/ !n t3e wall $& Arman/!. T3en 3e .%s3e/ an/ 7i*7e/ Lea3 !n t3e le1t si/e !1 3er $!/& w3i*3 *a%se/ 3er t! 1all !n t3e gr!%n/. E0en as Lea3 was alrea/& l&ing .r!strate( Arman/! *!ntin%e/ t! $eat 3er %.( .%n*3ing 3er !n t3e /i11erent .arts !1 3er $!/&. Lea3 t3en 1le/ t! t3e 3!%se !1 Felia H!rilla $%t Arman/! ran a1ter 3er an/ 3er/e/ 3er $a*7 t! t3eir 3!%se. Lea3 1ell again t! t3e gr!%n/ an/ l!st 3er *!ns*i!%sness. T3e trial *!%rt *!n0i*te/ Arman/! !1 .arri*i/e.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er t3e trial *!%rt *!rre*tl& *!n0i*te/ t3e a**%se/.

Hel/+ Ees( t3e trial *!%rt *!rre*tl& *!n*l%/e/ t3at t3e in@%ries s%staine/ $& Lea3 t3at *a%se/ 3er /eat3 were t3e *!nseC%en*e !1 t3e a..ellant2s /eli$erate an/ intenti!nal a*ts. T3e *rime !1 .arri*i/e is /e1ine/ $& Arti*le 2#6 !1 t3e e0ise/ Penal C!/e t3%s+ An& .ers!n w3! s3all 7ill 3is 1at3er( m!t3er( !r *3il/( w3et3er legitimate !r illegitimate( !r an& !1 3is as*en/ants( !r /es*en/ants( !r 3is s.!%se( s3all $e g%ilt& !1 .arri*i/e an/ s3all $e .%nis3e/ $& t3e .enalt& !1 re*l%si!n .er.et%a t! /eat3. T3e .r!se*%ti!n is man/ate/ t! .r!0e t3e 1!ll!wing essential elements+ 8"9 a .ers!n is 7ille/< 829 t3e

/e*ease/ is 7ille/ $& t3e a**%se/< an/ 8:9 t3e /e*ease/ is t3e 1at3er( m!t3er !r *3il/( w3et3er legitimate !r illegitimate( !r a legitimate !t3er as*en/ant !r !t3er /es*en/ant( !r t3e legitimate s.!%se !1 t3e a**%se/. T3e .res*ri$e/ .enalt& 1!r t3e *rime is re*l%si!n .er.et%a t! /eat3. T3e 7e& element in .arri*i/e !1 a s.!%se( t3e $est .r!!1 !1 t3e relati!ns3i. $etween t3e a**%se/ an/ t3e /e*ease/ w!%l/ $e t3e marriage *erti1i*ate.


PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES VS. 6EN;A4IN HILET G. . N!. "#66-)A-6( A.ril :0( 200:

Fa*ts+ S!metime in ",,-( tenA&ear !l/ i*3elle C!sa/a was t!l/ $& a..ellant 6en@amin Hilet( t3e *!mm!n law 3%s$an/ !1 3er m!t3er n!t t! g! t! s*3!!l an/ wat*3 t3e 3!%se. At a$!%t "0 A4( w3ile 3er m!t3er was !%t selling 1is3( i*3elle saw a..ellant s3ar.ening 3is $!l!. 4!ments later( a..ellant /ragge/ 3er t!war/s t3e r!!m an/ ra.e/ 3er. S3e 7e.t t3e a1tern!!n !1 4ar*3 "'( ",,,. i*3elle 1inall& *!n1i/e/ t! 3er m!t3er. T3e latter as7e/ t3eir neig3$!r t! re.!rt t3e in*i/ent t! t3e .!li*e. T3e trial *!%rt *!n0i*te/ t3e a..ellant g%ilt& !1 tw! *!%nts !1 stat%t!r& ra.e.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er time is an essential element !1 stat%t!r& ra.e.

Hel/+ N!( time is n!t an essential element !1 stat%t!r& ra.e. An in1!rmati!n is 0ali/ as l!ng as it /istin*tl& states t3e elements !1 t3e !11ense an/ t3e a*ts !r !missi!n *!nstit%ti0e t3ere!1. T3e eBa*t /ate !1 t3e *!mmissi!n !1 a *rime is n!t an essential element !1 ra.e. T3%s( in a .r!se*%ti!n !1 ra.e( t3e material 1a*t !r *ir*%mstan*e t! $e *!nsi/ere/ is t3e !**%rren*e !1 ra.e( n!t t3e time !1 its *!mmissi!n. It is n!t ne*essar& t! state t3e .re*ise time w3en t3e !11ense was *!mmitte/ eB*e.t w3en time is a material ingre/ient !1 t3e !11ense. In stat%t!r& ra.e( time is n!t an essential element. ?3at is im.!rtant is t3e in1!rmati!n alleges t3at t3e 0i*tim is a min!r %n/er twel0e &ears !1 age an/ t3e a**%se/ 3a/ *arnal 7n!wle/ge !1 3er( e0en i1 n! 1!r*e !r intimi/ati!n was %se/ !r s3e was n!t !t3erwise /e.ri0e/ !1 reas!n.



Fa*ts+ e&nal/! DiaH( a tri*&*le /ri0er( went t! a *!11ee s3!. t! meet !nnie San*3eH an/ t3is San*3eH /is*l!se/ t! DiaH 3is .lan t! r!$ !sita S&. T3erea1ter 6elleHa L!Ha/a arri0e/. T3e& .lanne/ t! wait !sita S& as s3e w!%l/ n!rmall& lea0e 3er /r%gst!re $etween "0+:0 an/ "" P4. T3e& 3a0e als! .lanne/ t! 7ill !sita S&( %.!n realiHing t3at S& w!%l/ $e 7ille/( DiaH eB*%se/ 3imsel1 !n t3e .reteBt t3at 3e w!%l/ get a wea.!n $%t 3e /ela&e/ 3imsel1 an/ t3e .lan was n!t im.lemente/ t3at nig3t $e*a%se !1 t3e /ela&. T3e& 3a0e agree/ t! .%rs%e it t3e neBt /a&. DiaH /eli$eratel& sta&e/ awa& 1r!m t3eir meeting .la*e t3e neBt /a&. T3e 1!ll!wing /a&( 3e learne/ !0er t3e ra/i! t3at a li1eless $!/& !1 !sita was 1!%n/ in a rem!te area.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er !r n!t all elements !1 a !$$er& wit3 H!mi*i/e are .resent t! *!nstit%te a .enalt& !1 /eat3.

Hel/+ T3e SC r%le/ t3at all t3e elements were .resent. T3e ta7ing wit3 anim! l%ri/ !r .ers!nal .r!.ert& $el!nging t! an!t3er .ers!n $& means !1 0i!len*e against !r intimi/ati!n !1 .ers!n !r %sing 1!r*e %.!n t3ing *!nstit%tes r!$$er&( an/ t3e *!m.leB *rime !1 r!$$er& wit3 3!mi*i/e arises w3en $& reas!n !r !n t3e !**asi!n !1 r!$$er&( s!me!ne is 7ille/. All t3ese elements 3a0e satis1a*t!ril& $een s3!wn $& t3e .r!se*%ti!n.


PEOPLE OF THE PHILIPPINES VS. 4A IVIC GENOSA G. . N!. ":),-". Se.tem$er 2,( 2000

Fa*ts+ On !r a$!%t t3e ")t3 /a& !1 N!0em$er ",,)( at 6aranga& 6ilwang( 4%ni*i.alit& !1 Isa$el( .r!0in*e !1 Le&te( a**%se/ 4ari0i* Gen!sa( wit3 intent t! 7ill( wit3 trea*3er& an/ e0i/ent .reme/itati!n( /i/ t3en an/ t3ere will1%ll&( %nlaw1%ll& an/ 1el!ni!%sl& atta*7( assa%lt( 3it an/ w!%n/ 6EN GENOSA( 3er legitimate 3%s$an/( wit3 t3e %se !1 a 3ar/ /ea/l& wea.!n( w3i*3 t3e a**%se/ 3a/ .r!0i/e/ 3ersel1 1!r t3e .%r.!se( in1li*ting se0eral w!%n/s w3i*3 *a%se/ 3is /eat3. T3e l!wer *!%rt 1!%n/ t3e a**%se/( 4ari0i* Gen!sa & Isi/r!( G5ILTE $e&!n/ reas!na$le /!%$t !1 t3e *rime !1 .arri*i/e an/ senten*e/ t3e a**%se/ wit3 t3e .enalt& !1 DEATH. On a..eal( t3e a..ellant allege/ t3at /es.ite t3e e0i/en*e !n re*!r/ !1 re.eate/ an/ se0ere $eatings s3e 3a/ s%11ere/ at t3e 3an/s !1 3er 3%s$an/( t3e l!wer *!%rt 1aile/ t! a..re*iate 3er sel1A/e1ense t3e!r&. S3e *laime/ t3at %n/er t3e s%rr!%n/ing *ir*%mstan*es( 3er a*t !1 7illing 3er 3%s$an/ was eC%i0alent t! sel1A /e1ense.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er !r n!t t3e =$attere/ w!man s&n/r!me> as a 0ia$le .lea wit3in t3e *!n*e.t !1 sel1A/e1ense is a..li*a$le in t3is *ase. Hel/+ N!. T3e *!%rt( 3!we0er( is n!t /is*!%nting t3e .!ssi$ilit& !1 sel1A/e1ense arising 1r!m t3e $attere/ w!man s&n/r!me. ?e n!w s%m %. !%r main .!ints. First( ea*3 !1 t3e .3ases !1 t3e *&*le !1 0i!len*e m%st $e .r!0en t! 3a0e *3ara*teriHe/ at least tw! $attering e.is!/es $etween t3e a..ellant an/ 3er intimate .artner. Se*!n/( t3e 1inal a*%te $attering e.is!/e .re*e/ing t3e 7illing !1 t3e $atterer m%st 3a0e .r!/%*e/ in t3e $attere/ .ers!n2s min/ an a*t%al 1ear !1 an imminent 3arm( 1r!m 3er $atterer an/ an 3!nest $elie1 t3at s3e nee/e/ t! %se 1!r*e in !r/er t! sa0e 3er li1e. T3ir/( at t3e time !1 t3e 7illing( t3e $atterer m%st 3a0e .!se/ .r!$a$leMn!t ne*essaril& imme/iate an/ a*t%alMgra0e 3arm t! t3e a**%se/( $ase/ !n t3e 3ist!r& !1 0i!len*e .er.etrate/ $& t3e 1!rmer against t3e latter. Ta7en alt!get3er( t3ese *ir*%mstan*es *!%l/ satis1& t3e reC%isites !1 sel1A/e1ense. 5n/er t3e eBisting 1a*ts !1 t3e .resent *ase( 3!we0er( n!t all !1 t3ese elements were /%l& esta$lis3e/.


PEOPLE OF TH PHILIPPINES 0s. LEVI S54A AGO G. . N!. "#0-':A''( Fe$r%ar& 6( 200#

Fa*ts+ T3e s.!%ses Vi0en*i! an/ Te!/!ra 6rig!le 3a/ 1!%r *3il/ren. Tw! !1 t3em were girls an/ name/A N!rel&n an/ D!neHa. Te!/!ra le1t Vi0en*i! an/ 7e.t *%st!/& !1 t3eir 1.%r *3il/ren. T3en( Te!/!ra an/ Le0i starte/ li0ing t!get3er as 3%s$an/ an/ wi1e. S!metime in ",,)( N!rel&n( w3! was $arel& ten &ears !l/( was gat3ering 1irew!!/ wit3 t3e a..ellant Le0i in 3is 1arm. ?3ile t3e& were nearing a g%a0a tree( t3e a..ellant s%//enl& $!Be/ 3er !n t3e st!ma*3. N!rel&n l!st *!ns*i!%sness. S3e 3a/ 3er *l!t3es w3en s3e w!7e %.. S3e 3a/ a terri$le 3ea/a*3e an/ 1elt .ain in 3er 0agina. S3e als! 3a/ a $r%ise in t3e mi//le .!rti!n !1 3er rig3t leg. T3e a..ellant warne/ n!t t! tell 3er m!t3er a$!%t it( !t3erwise 3e w!%l/ 7ill 3er. T3e seB%al assa%lts were re.eate/ se0eral times s! s3e /e*i/e/ t! tell 3er sister an/ e0ent%all& 3er m!t3er. T3e trial *!%rt 1!%n/ t3e a**%se/ g%ilt& !1 t3e *rime ra.e an/ senten*e/ 3im t! /eat3.

Iss%e+ ?3et3er !r n!t t3e a**%se/ is g%ilt& !1 t3e *rime *3arge/.

Hel/+ Ees( t3e a**%se/ is g%ilt& !1 t3e *rime *3arge/. F!r t3e a**%se/ t! 3el/ g%ilt& !1 *!ns%mmate/ ra.e( t3e .r!se*%ti!n m%st .r!0e $e&!n/ reas!na$le /!%$t t3at+ "9 t3ere 3a/ $een *arnal 7n!wle/ge !1 t3e

0i*tim $& t3e a**%se/< 20 t3e a**%se/ a*3ie0es t3e a*t t3r!%g3 1!r*e !r intimi/ati!n %.!n t3e 0i*tim $e*a%se t3e latter is /e.ri0e/ !1 reas!n !r !t3erwise %n*!ns*i!%s. Carnal 7n!wle/ge !1 t3e 0i*tim $& t3e a**%se/ ma& $e .r!0e/ eit3er $& /ire*t e0i/en*e !r $& *ir*%mstantial e0i/en*e t3at ra.e 3a/ $een *!mmitte/ an/ t3at t3e a**%se/ is t3e .er.etrat!r t3ere!1. A 1in/ing !1 g%ilt !1 t3e a**%se/ 1!r ra.e ma& $e $ase/ s!lel& !n t3e 0i*tim2s testim!n& i1 s%*3 testim!n& meets t3e test !1 *re/i$ilit&. C!rr!$!rating testim!n& 1reC%entl& %na0aila$le in ra.e *ases is n!t in/is.ensa$le t! warrant a *!n0i*ti!n !1 t3e a**%se/ 1!r t3e *rime. T3is C!%rt 3as r%le/ t3at w3en a w!man states t3at s3e 3as $een ra.e/( s3e sa&s in e11e*t all t3at w!%l/ ne*essar& t! s3!w ra.e /i/ ta7e .la*e. H!we0er( t3e testim!n& !1 t3e 0i*tim m%st $e s*r%tiniHe/ wit3 eBtreme *a%ti!n. T3e .r!se*%ti!n m%st stan/ !r 1all !n its !wn merits. T3e *re/i$ilit& !1 N!rel&n an/ t3e .r!$ati0e weig3t !1 3er testim!n& *ann!t $e assaile/ sim.l& $e*a%se 3er a/missi!n t3at it t!!7 t3e a..ellant !nl& s3!rt time t! insert 3is .enis int! 3er 0agina an/ t! satiate 3is l%st. T3e mere entr& !1 3is .enis int! t3e la$ia !1 t3e .%/en/%m( e0en i1 !nl& 1!r a s3!rt w3ile( is en!%g3 ins!1ar as t3e *!ns%mmati!n !1 t3e *rime !1 ra.e is *!n*erne/( t3e $re0it& !1 time t3at t3e a..ellant inserte/ .enis int! t3e 0i*tim2s 0agina is !1 n! .arti*%lar im.!rtan*e.

ase Digest on PEOPLE V. B. TUMANON GR 135066, Fe .15, !001 The accused were charged on murder. HELD: The accused are guilty of murder. There was abuse of superior strength shown through superiority in number and the use of arms. To take advantage of superior strength is to use force out of proportion to the means available to the person attacked to defend himself. Conspiracy was also present. t is not necessary that there be a previous plan or agreement to commit the assault. t is sufficient that at the time of the aggression! all the accused! by their acts! gave evidence of common intent to kill the victim! so that the act of one becomes the act of all and all of them will thus be liable as principals. case digests! case digests of supreme court decisions! case digests "hilippines! mobile phone deals! laptop computers! gadgets! free legal opinion! online #obs! best law firms in $indanao Click here to Create your very own lawyer or law student website or %E&' TE or &L() in * easy steps+ "L#"$ %ERE &o' t(e )atest !n* %an* La+to+s, Mo i)e P(ones, ,MART- GLOBE -TAL$ .N TE/T- TOU"% MOB#LE - ,UN "ELLULAR +ost+ai*, +'e0+ai* an* 'oa1ing PROMO,, P(i)i++ine Ai')ines 2PAL3 an* "e 4 Pa5i&i5 Ai')ines Ai')ine A#RFARE D#,"OUNT ti56ets &o' sa)e7 Check out our ,pdated-Latest List of )(.E/0$E0T 1(&' 20D (THE/ )(.E/0$E0T .2C20T "(' T (0'! "/ .2TE 1(&'! "/ .2TE 3,LL4T $E 1(&'! "/ .2TE "2/T4T $E 1(&' and (THE/ (0L 0E 1(&' in this link+