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METHODS OF MODERN MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS 1: FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS Revised and Enlarged Edition MICHAEL REED BARRY SIMON Department of Mathematics Departments of Mathematics Duke University and Physics Princeton University ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers San Diego New York Berkeley Boston London Sydney ‘Tokyo Toronto To R. S. Phillips and A. S. Wightman, Mentors, Colleagues, Friends CopyricHt © 1980, By Acapemic Press, INc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NG PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED IN ANY FGRM OR BY ANY MEANS, ELECTRONIC GR MECHANICAL, INCLUDING PHOTOCOPY, RECORDING, OR ANY INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM, WITHOUT PERMISSION IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. ACADEMIC PRESS, INC. 1280 Sixth Avenue, San Diego, California 92101 United Kingdom Edition published by ACADEMIC PRESS, INC, “(ONBON) LTD. 24/28 Oval Road, London NWI Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Reed, Michael. Methods of modern mathematical physics. Vol. 1 Functional analysis, revised and enlarged edition. Includes bibliographical references. CONTENTS: v.1. Functional analysis.—v. 2. Fourier analysis, self—adjointness.-v. 3. Scattering theory.—v. 4. Analysis of operators. 1, Mathematical physics. I. Simon, Barry, joint author. HH. Title. QC20.R37_ 1972 $30.1°5 75182650 ISBN 0-12-585050-6 (v. 1) AMS (MOS) 1970 Subject Classifications: 46~02, 47~02, 42-0: PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 88 89 90 91 92 10987654 Preface This book is the first of a multivolume Series devoted to an exposition of func- tional analysis methods in modem mathematical physics. It describes the funda- mental principles of functional analysis and is essentially self-contained, al- though there are occasional references to later volumes. We have included a few applications when we thought that they would provide motivation for the reader. Later volumes describe various advanced topics in functional analysis and give numerous applications in classical physics, modern physics, and partial differen- tial equations. This revised and enlarged edition differs from the first in two major ways. First, many colleagues have suggested to us that it would be helpful to include some material on the Fourier transform in Volume I so that this important topic can be conveniently included in a standard functional analysis course using this book. Thus, we have included in this edition Sections 1X.1, IX.2, and part of IX.3 from Volume II and some additional material, together with relevant notes and problems. Secondly, we have included a variety of supplementary material at the end of the book. Some of these supplementary sections provide proofs of theorems in Chapters II-I'V which were omitted in the first edition. While these proofs make Chapters II-IV more self-contained, we still recommend that stu- dents with no previous experience with this material consult more elementary texts. Other supplementary sections provide expository material to aid the in- structor and the student (for example, ‘‘Applications of Compact Operators’). Still other sections introduce and develop new material (for example, ‘‘Minimi- zation of Functionals’’). It gives us pleasure to thank many individuals: The students who took our course in 1970-1971 and especially J. E. Taylor for constructive comments about the lectures and lecture notes. L. Gross, T. Kato, and especially D. Ruelle for reading parts of the manu- script and for making numerous suggestions and corrections.