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Different Kinds of Prose Literature


There are several different kinds of prose literature. Prose is a written form that constitutes anything that is not poetic.It is loosely defined as using only ordinary grammatical structure and natural flow of speech.Prose can be broken down into two categories, fiction and nonfiction. Fiction includes include drama, novels, short stories, scripts, while non-fiction covers the sciences, history, philosophy, biographies and any number of other subgenres. rama consists of any material written to be performed. This could be a movie script, a play, a television show, etc.!ovels are works of fiction that range from "#,### words up and fall into several subgenres including mystery, romance, sci-fi, comedy, historical fiction, literary fiction, erotica, etc. There are also shorter works, called novellas, that fall in the $",### to "#,### word range. This makes them too long to be a short story but not %uite long enough to be a novel.&hort stories generally run anywhere from ',### to $",### words and fall into the same genre distinctions as novels. A new offshoot of the short story, called flash fiction, runs less than ',### words.!on-fiction is a much more matter of fact type of writing. The purpose is not to entertain, as with fiction, but to inform. This type of prose is what you see in newspapers, maga(ines, te)t books, autobiographies, instruction manuals, and a host of other everyday writings.There are some pieces that straddle the line between prose and poetry. *hile not entirely prose they do deserves consideration here. The lyric essay is one of these. It is a personal essay that includes a poetic styli(ation. It isn+t a prose poem but more like a postmodern essay that circles around a point but never directly states what it means. For more information on this style look at the works of ,ohn +Agata. -ore reference links. machaut.uchicago.edu www.wordi%.com

There are a basic list of /# elements of poetry. They are known as. voice, imagery, figurative language, symbolism, sound, rhythm, Prosody is the study of the meter, rhythm, and intonation of a poem, meter, alliteration and rhyming scenes. This site offers alternative versions of elements of poetry. www.poemof%uotes.com.

What Are the Basic Elements of Poetry

0y. 1achel -ork 2hildren sometimes struggle to grasp the elements of poetry because there are so many different types of poetry. It may help your child if you break basic poetry down into elements of style and prose so your child understands what makes a poem a poem instead of a story or a song. Poetry Style There are many styles of poetry, each of which dictate a different structure, flow and impact. A haiku is short and simple3 a narrative poem can go on for pages and pages telling a detailed story. A limerick always has the same cadence and structure3 a free verse poem can flow any way your child desires. If you show your child e)amples of the different styles of poetry and write out simple rules to accompany them, your child will be able to make an educated choice as to what forms of poetry speak to him or her. Forms of Prose Poets make use of specific forms of literary prose more so than the average writer writing informative articles or literary prose. The poet may make use of similes, metaphors, personification, onomatopoeia and alliteration. The following are %uick definitions of these commonly used forms of prose. Simile: To compare an ob4ect to another using 5like5 or 5as.5 6)ample. 7er smile is like sunshine. Metaphor. To compare an ob4ect to another using a direct comparison. 6)ample. 7e+s a bull in a china shop. The person in this metaphor is not a bull3 he is clumsy. Personification: To speak of an inanimate ob4ect as if it were alive. 6)ample. The moonlight danced upon the water. Onomatopoeia: 8sing a word that sounds like the word being described. 6)ample. The bee bu((ed around the bush. The word 5bu((5 sounds like the actual sound made by a bee when flying. Alliteration: The use of several words in a row that all start with the same sound or letter. 6)ample. irty dogs don+t dare. Alliteration can be used to playfully call attention to a detail in a poem. Poetry ips *hen teaching your children about poetry, encourage them to try the following suggestions. 2hoose a style of poetry the child understands and believes she can master. Find an e)ample poem for the child to refer to while working on his own poem. 9eep a list of poetry terms and definitions available for reference. 2hoose a topic the child en4oys. 7umorous poems appeal to most children, as do poems about actual e)periences. 6ncourage the child to illustrate the poem. &ometimes the illustration process will inspire additional prose or tweaking of the written words.


A Guide to Interpreting oetry ! Dr. Chris Koenig-Woodyard

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The Stages Of Reading

Read . Re-read. And read again: read straight through"ignoring line and stan#a $reaks"as though you were reading prose %full sentences&. read out loud' paying attention to line $reaks' and Second reading: punctuation. circle/underline words and phrases that you don(t Third reading: understand. Fourth )eading: circle/underline words and phrases that you do understand' and that you feel help you to understand the poem. erhaps a key word or phrase that em$odies a theme of the poem. Fifth %and interact with the poem. )ead out loud' again. +ound out su$se*uent indi,idual words and lines repeatedly' trying to gain a sense of readings&: rhythm %stress and accents&' the sound of letters %hard/soft&. -ark up the page%s&"and if you do not want to write in your $ook' photocopy the page%s&"writing down thoughts and *uestions. recording definitions of words from your third reading' when you noted words that you didn(t understand. Reverse /o $e performed after your first reading. As you read' and an Reading: idea enters your head %you ha,e a sense of the $ig picture of a poem' its theme&' STOP reading0 and $egan mo,ing $ackward through the poem' trying to locate the word' image' line that triggered your idea. If you can(t find a specific trigger"make a note in the margin that 1here"it occurred to me"the poem is a a$out death2 %for instance& First reading: )eading is the first stage of a ritten inter!retation. /he notes you make during your readings' allow you to track hat you think the poem is a$out %its themes' point& and ho it %and the poet& lead you to hold these ideas

Reading and the Form and Content of Poetr"

/he elements of analysis discussed $elow are designed to help you identify the ways in which poetry makes its meaning' especially its 3parts3. they do not gi,e a sense of how one goes about analy#ing a poem. It is difficult to gi,e a

prescription' as different poems call on different aspects of poetry' different ways of reading' different relationships $etween feeling' images and meanings' and so forth. -y general ad,ice' howe,er' is this:

look at the title read the poem for the ma4or indicators of its meaning -- what aspects of setting' of topic' of ,oice %the person who is speaking& seem to dominate' to direct your reading5 read the ending of the poem -- decide where it 3gets to3 di,ide the poem into parts: try to understand what the organi#ation is' how the poem proceeds' and what elements or principles guide this organi#ation %is there a re,ersal' a clima6' a se*uence of some kind' sets of oppositions5& pay attention to the tone of the poem -- in $rief' its attitude to its su$4ect' as that is re,ealed in intonation' nuance' the kind of words used' and so forth. now that you3,e looked at the title' the ma4or indicators of 3topic3' the ending' the organi#ation' the tone' read the poem out loud' trying to pro4ect its meaning in your reading. As you gradually get a sense of how this poem is going' what its point and drift is' start noticing more a$out how the ,arious elements of the poetry work to create its meaning. /his may $e as different as the kind of imagery used' or the way it uses oppositions' or the le,el of realism or sym$olism of its use of the natural world.

)eading poetry well is a $alance among and con4unction of *ualities: e6perience' attention' engagement with the *ualities which make the poem resonant or compelling' close reading of structure and relationships. It3s an ac*uired talent' you ha,e to learn it. 7hen you do' howe,er' more and more meaning' power and $eauty start leaping out at you.

#$ What is the genre% or form% of the !oem& 's it a sonnet% an eleg"% a l"ric% a narrative% a dramatic monologue% an e!istle% an e!ic (there are man" more)$ *ifferent forms or genres have different su+,ects% aims% conventions and attri+utes$ A love sonnet% for instance% is going to tal- a+out different as!ects of human e.!erience in different a"s ith different em!hases than is a !olitical satire% and our recognition of these attri+utes of form or genre is !art of the meaning of the !oem$ /$ Who is s!ea-ing in the !oem& lease remem$er that if the ,oice of the poem says 8I8' that doesn3t mean it is the author who is speaking: it is a ,oice in the poem which speaks. /he ,oice can $e undramatized %it3s 4ust a ,oice' it doesn3t identify itself&' or dramatized %the ,oice says 8I8' or the ,oice is clearly that of a particular persona' a dramati#ed character&. Identify the ,oice. 7hat does the ,oice ha,e to do with what is happening in the poem' what is its attitude' what is the tone of the ,oice %tone can $e ,iewed as an e6pression of attitude&. 9ow in,ol,ed in the action or reflection of the poem is the ,oice5 7hat is the perspecti,e or 3point of ,iew3 of the speaker5 /he perspecti,e can $e social' intellectual' political' e,en physical -- there are many different perspecti,es' $ut they all contri$ute to the ,oice3s point of ,iew' which point of ,iew affects how the world of the poem is seen' and how we respond. 0$ What is the argument% thesis% or su+,ect of the !oem 7hat' that is to say' is it apparently 3a$out35 +tart with the $asic situation' and mo,e to consider any key statements. any o$,ious or less o$,ious conflicts' tensions' am$iguities. key relationships' especially conflicts' parallels' contrasts. any clima6es or pro$lems posed or sol,ed %or not sol,ed&. the poem3s tone. the historical' social' and emotional setting. 1$ What is the structure of the !oem& /here are two $asic kinds of structure' formal and thematic.

Formal structure is the way the poem goes together in terms of its component parts: if there are parts -- stan#a3s' paragraphs or such -- then there will $e a relation $etween the parts %for instance the first stan#a may gi,e the past' the second the present' the third the future&. Thematic structure ' known in respect to fiction as 3plot3' is the way the argument or presentation of the material of the poem is de,eloped. :or instance a poem might state a pro$lem in eight lines' an answer to the pro$lem in the ne6t si6. of the eight lines stating the pro$lem' four might pro,ide a concrete e6ample' four a reflection on what the e6ample implies. /here may well $e ,ery close relations $etween formal and thematic structure. 7hen looking at thematic structure' you might look for conflicts' am$iguities and uncertainties' the tensions in the poem' as these gi,e clear guides to the direction of meanings in the poem' the poem3s 3in-tensions3. 2$ Ho does the !oem ma-e use of setting& /here is the setting in terms of time and place' and there is the setting in terms of the physical world descri$ed in the poem. In terms of the physical world of the poem' setting can $e used for a ,ariety of purposes. A tree might $e descri$ed in specific detail' a concrete' specific' tree. or it might $e used in a more tonal way' to create mood or associations' with say the wind $lowing mournfully through the willows. or it might $e used as a motif' the tree that reminds me of ;athryn' or of my youthful dreams. or it might $e used sym$olically' as for instance an image of organic life. or it might $e used allegorically' as a representation of the cross of <hrist %allegory ties an image or e,ent to a specific interpretation' a doctrine or idea. sym$ols refer to $roader' more generali#ed meanings&. <onsider this a spectrum' from specific' concrete' to a$stract' allegorical: concrete --- tonal -- connotati,e -- sym$olic --- allegorical 3$ Ho does the !oem use imager"& 8Imagery8 refers to any sort of image' and there are two $asic kinds. =ne is the images of the physical setting' descri$ed a$o,e. /he other kind is images as figures of speech' such as metaphors. /hese figures of speech e6tend the imaginati,e range' the comple6ity and comprehensi$ility of the su$4ect. /hey can $e ,ery $rief' a word or two' a glistening fragment of insight' a chance connection sparked into a $la#e %warming or destroying& of understanding. or they can $e e6tended analogies' such as >onne3s 3conceits3or -ilton3s epic similes.

4$ Are there -e" statements or conflicts in the !oem that a!!ear to +e central to its meaning& Is the poem direct or indirect in making its meanings5 If there are no key statements' are there key or central sym$ol' repetitions' actions' motifs %recurring images&' or the like5 5$ Ho does the sound of the !oetr" contri+ute to its meaning& ope remarked that 8the sound must seem an echo to the sense8: $oth the rhythm and the sound of the words themsel,es %indi,idually and as they fit together& contri$ute to the meaning. 6$ 7.amine the use of language$ 7hat kinds of words are used5 9ow much and to what ends does the poet rely on connotation' or the associations that words ha,e %as 8stallion8 connotes a certain kind of horse with certain sorts of uses&5 >oes the poem use puns' dou$le meanings' am$iguities of meaning5 #8$ Can "ou see an" a"s in hich the !oem refers to% uses or relies on !revious riting& /his is known as allusion or intertextuality. 7hen ?-23s @ono writes 8I was thirsty and you kissed my lips8 in 8/rip /hrough Aour 7ires'8 the meaning of the line is ,astly e6tended if you know that this is a reference to -atthew 2B:3B in the @i$le' where Cesus says to the sa,ed in e6planation of what they did right' 8I was thirsty and you wet my lips.8 ##$ What 9ualities does the !oem evo-e in the reader& 7hat sorts of learning' e6perience' taste and interest would the 3ideal3 or 3good3 reader of this poem ha,e5 7hat can this tell you a$out what the poem 3means3 or is a$out5 /he idea is that any work of art calls forth certain *ualities of response' taste' e6perience' ,alue' from the reader' and in a sense 3forms3 the reader of that particular work. /his happens through the su$4ect matter' the style' the way the story is told or the scene set' the language' the images' the allusions' all the ways in which we are called $y the te6t to construct meaning. /he theorist 7ayne @ooth calls the reader as e,oked or formed $y the te6t the 8implied reader.8

#/$ What is "our historical and cultural distance from the !oem& 7hat can you say a$out the difference $etween your culture3s %and su$culture3s& ,iews of the world' your own e6periences' on the one hand' and those of the ,oice' characters' and world of the poem on the other5 7hat is it that you might ha,e to understand $etter in order to e6perience the poem the way someone of the same time' class' gender and race might ha,e understood it5 Is it possi$le that your reading might $e different from theirs $ecause of your particular social %race' gender' class' etc.& and historical conte6t5 7hat a$out your world go,erns the way you see the world of the te6t5 7hat might this work tell us a$out the world of its making5 #0$ What is the orld-vie and the ideolog" of the !oem& 7hat are the $asic ideas a$out the world that are e6pressed5 7hat areas of human e6perience are seen as important' and what is ,alua$le a$out them5 7hat areas of human e6perience or classes of person are ignored or denigrated5 A poem a$out lo,e' for instance' might implicitly or e6plicitly suggest that indi,idual happiness is the most important thing in the world' and that it can $e gained principally through one intimate se6ually-$ased relationship -- to the e6clusion' say' of pro$lems of social or political in4ustice' human $rokenness and pain' or other demands on us as humans. It might also suggest that the world is a dangerous' uncertain place in which the only sure ground of meaningfulness is to $e found in human relationships' or it might suggest on the other hand that human lo,e is grounded in di,ine lo,e' and in the orderliness and the ,alue of the natural world with all its $eauties. 7hat aspects of the human condition are foregrounded' what are suppressed' in the claims that the poem makes $y ,irtue of its inclusions and e6clusions' certainties and uncertainties' and depictions of the way the natural and the human world is and works5 :or a $rief ela$oration of the concept of ideology' see my page on the su$4ect.

oetry !nterpretation in Ei"ht Simple Steps

Literary Analysis Made Easy

:inda Ann !ickerson, ;ahoo 2ontributor !etwork -ar /<, '##< 5&hare your voice on ;ahoo websites. &tart 7ere.5

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Did you know April is National Poetry Month? English literature students, bibliophiles and poetry lovers learn to read and interpret poetry for enhanced comprehension and enjoyment of the written word. Poetry is music in words, hearts poured on paper and ideas shared through creative writing. To the true poet, printed words may be life itself, expressed in originality and unique language. Whether you plan to write an English class essay or merely peruse poetry for your own interest, try these eight simple steps for poetry interpretation. Poetry Interpretation - Read It Through ead the poem all the way through. !f possible, read the lines out loud. Try to find the feelings the poet has attempted to express. each for the flow of the verses. What is your first impression of the poem" #id you enjoy it" $ow does the poem ma%e you feel" Poetry Interpretation - Mind the Mood ead the poem a second time. This time, read it line by line. &ar% %ey words that stri%e you as important to the meaning of the poem. What is the tone of the poem" !s it upbeat or dreary, humorous or serious" Poetry Interpretation - Look at Language ead the poem a third time. Try to identify any literary devices the poet has used. What similes, metaphors, symbols, allusions, imagery, irony or other figurative language has the poet employed"

'se a dictionary to loo% up any words you do not understand. #o a bit of research (in reference boo%s or online) to identify any literary allusions or proper names you might not recogni*e. Poetry Interpretation - Find the Format +ny poetry analysis must examine the format of the poem studied. ,oo% at the lines. #oes the poem contain meter and rhyme, or do the lines flow as unstructured free verse" !dentify the rhyme scheme, if the poem does rhyme. #oes the poem contain a refrain or chorus" Try to distinguish the poetic form, if you can. !s it an acrostic, a ballad, a diamonte, a hai%u, a limeric%, an ode, a senryu, a sestina, a sonnet or another poetic form" !f the poem is a sonnet, is it a &iltonian sonnet, a Petrarchan sonnet, a -ha%espearean sonnet or another sonnet form" Poetry Interpretation - Master the Me hani s .onsider the creative language the poet has used in the verses of the poem you have read. .an you find any alliteration, onomatopoeia, puns or word plays" Poetry Interpretation - Peek at Point o! "iew /rom what point of view is the poem written" +re the lines crafted in first person (0!0 and 0me0), second person (0you,0 0your0 and 0yours0) or third person (0he,0 0she,0 0they0)" Poetry Interpretation - Resear h the #riter Put the poem in context by learning about the poet who penned it. ,oo% up the poet1s biographical information online or in a literature reference boo%. 2ften, poetry anthologies include brief biographies of the poets included. !f possible, try to find out when the poem was written. What was happening in the poet1s life at that time" What was occurring in the world around him or her as well"

These details can be quite informative in providing the context in which the poem was created. Poetry Interpretation - Think A$out Theme /inally, after analy*ing the content and construction of the poem, you can begin pondering the overall meaning of the composition. What do you thin% the poet meant by this creative writing" What inspired the poet to craft these lines, and what message did he or she attempt to share with the world by doing so" A %reati&e %a&eat on Poetry Interpretation +lthough poetry analysis does follow a prescribed pattern, particularly for a formal scholarly essay or literary review the nature of poetry can be considerably freer. Poetry is, after all, a free and creative expression. !t is important for readers to refrain from enforcing a strict structure where a poet may not have intended it. Poetry analysis can be a helpful exercise for comprehending and enjoying poetry, so long as the process does not overta%e the overall experience of absorbing and appreciating the creative writing itself.

Acrostic: In acrostic poems, the first letters of each line of the poem are aligned vertically to form a word. Generally, the word formed thus, is the subject of the poem. Ballad: Ballads are narrative poems that are supposed to be sung. The narrator usually starts with a dramatic scene and relates the narrative with dialog and actions. Canzone: The word canzone, which means, a song, signifies any simple song li!e composition. It is an Italian song or ballad. Cinquain: "in#uain poems are five lines long. They do not rhyme. Concrete: In this !ind of poetry, the topographical arrangement of words supports the meaning conveyed by the poem. The poems form a picture of the topic on which they are centered. Couplet: It is a very simple form of a verse, which contains two rhyming lines. Diamante: This type of poetry is one of the simplest ones to write. The first line of a diamante is a single word$ the second line consists of two adjectives describing that word, third line contains three words about the subject while the fourth line contains four. The fifth line and the lines that follow consist of a similar pattern of words describing the idea opposite to the subject of the poem. It seems this !ind of poetry writing is simple and interesting.

%oesn&t it' Dramatic Poetry: ( drama that is written in the form of verses to be recited or sung refers to the dramatic genre of poetry. This form of poetry has evolved from Gree! and )ans!rit literature. Epic Poetry: This genre of poetry is a type of narrative literature that narrates stories of mythological heroes. *omer&s Iliad and +dyssey and the great Indian epics of ,ahabharata and -amayana are a few of the noteworthy e.amples of epic poetry. Free Verse: /ree verses refer to the different styles of poetry, wherein the poems do not carry a specific meter. /ree verses are a poet&s e.pressions, which are free from any rules or restrictions pertaining to the rhyme schemes of the poem. Ghazal: This form of poetry is popular in the (rabic, 0ersian, 1rdu and Bengali literature. It is characterized by five to fifteen couplets that have a refrain at the end of every second line. 2ach couplet of a ghazal can stand individually as each represents a distinct thought. Haiku: It is an unrhymed form of poetry that is native to 3apan. It contains three sections that can be written in a single line, but are written in three lines instead. The way it is bro!en into, is in essence the poetic effect of this poetic form. This !ind of poetry contains a cutting word, which is !nown as a kireji and a season word, !nown as a kigo. Iam ic Pentameter: It is a relatively comple. form of poetry that uses syllables to bring in a musical element to the poems. !intishi: 4ative to "hina, 3intishi is a poetic form based on tonal patterns consisting of the four tones of the classical "hinese language in every couplet. 3intishi is composed of eight lines in four couplets, wherein two couplets depict contrasting ideas but similar grammatical patterns. %u /u, a poet of the 5th century was an important name in the world of 3intishi. "imerick: 6imeric! is one of the very popular !inds of poetry. ( limeric! is a funny little poem with a rhyme scheme of &aabba&. "yric Poetry: 6yric poetry is of a personal nature, wherein a poet e.presses his7her perceptions and ideas through poetry. 6yric poems deal with subjects li!e love, peace, loss and grief. T. ). 2liot is one of the prominent names in lyric poetry. #innesan$: It refers to the German tradition of writing lyrics and songs. It became widely popular in the 89th century and continued until the 8:th century. The poems belonging to this !ind of poetry revolve around the subject of love. %arrati&e Poetry: This is a genre of poetry that involves story telling and is one of the very old forms of poetry. The content of these types of poems is intended to appeal the masses. +vid, ;illiam 6angland, (le.ander 0ope and )ha!espeare are some of the notable figures in the field of narrative poetry. %ursery 'hymes: It is one of the most popular types of poetry, especially a favorite of most of the !ids. 4ursery rhymes are short poems written for children and are usually handed over from one generation to another. (de: +riginally developed by the Gree! and 6atin poets, +des soon began to appear in different cultures across the world. +des possess a formal poetic diction and deal with a variety of different subjects. Pantoum: It is composed of #uatrains, where the second and fourth lines of each verse are repeated as the first and third lines of the ne.t stanza. Pastourelle: It refers to an old /rench lyrical form. The poems in this category have the

romance of a shepherdess as their central idea. Prose Poetry: This genre of poetry blends prose and poetry. It is very similar to a short story. *owever, its concise nature and the use of metaphor in it are sufficient to classify it as a poetical form. 'ondeau: It consists of fifteen lines, which ma!e use of two rhymes. It was a /rench form of poetry. 'u a)i: This form of poetry is written as a four line verse. It is written by the poets in (rabia and 0ersia. *atirical Poetry: )arcasm serves as a very powerful means of e.pressing criticism. (n insult can most strongly be e.pressed through poetry. -omans have been using satirical poetry for political purposes. *estina: In this !ind of poetry, there are si. stanzas, each consisting of si. lines without an element of rhyme. The words that appear at the end of the lines in the first stanza are repeated in other stanzas. ( concluding stanza of three lines wherein the repeating words reappear in a peculiar way is an important characteristic of )estina. *i+o: It is a musical lyric popular among the <orean poets. It is written in three lines with a pause in the middle of every line. *onnet: %erived from +ccitan and Italian words meaning &a little song&, )onnet was originally a fourteen line song that was based on a strict rhyme scheme and structure. )ha!espeare, who wrote 8=: sonnets, was one of the most important figures in the field of sonnets. *ta&e: see Stev *te&: It is a form of lyrical poetry that is prominent in )candinavia. )tave is the 2nglish version of this !ind of poetry. ,anka: It is an unrhymed !ind of poetry that originated in 3apan. It came up as a shorter version of the 3apanese formal poetry and the poems of this type were primarily based on personal themes. The emergence of Tan!a dates bac! to the 4ara period. It became popular in the 8>th century and is continues being practiced till today. Verse Fa le: The poems that belong to this genre of poetry consist of stories set into verses. /ables involving natural elements and inanimate objects carrying a moral or message for the masses are e.pressed through verses. ?erse fables use different types of rhyming schemes. Villanelle: The poems of this type consist of nineteen lines made up by five triplets and a concluding #uatrain. This form of poetry has received impetus since the late 8@th century, giving rise to poets li!e 2lizabeth Bishop and %ylan Thomas. ;ith this, we covered a detailed list of the different !ind of poetry as also the various genres of poetry. 6et us now have a glimpse of the different types of poetry categorized on the basis of the subjects they deal with. Ba y Poems: Babies are the sweetest creations of nature. Baby poems try to describe what having a baby in the family means. )ome ma!e you smile, others ma!e you cry. Poems on Birth and Death: Birth signifies a beginning while death mar!s the end of life$ the end of everything. Break -p Poems: Brea!ing a relationship is always painful. It ta!es moments to say AhelloA but ages to bid goodbye. Brea! up poems often narrate brea! up e.periences of a poet and try to portray the pain in saying goodbye, as well as that feeling of moving on.

Children and ,een Poetry: They constitute poems about and for children and teenagers. They describe the various facets of the two important phases in life$ childhood and teenage. Dark Poetry: 6ife is beautiful. But the negative feelings li!e hatred, loneliness, depression and pain eclipse life&s beauty. 0ieces of dar! poetry are portraits of dar! emotions li!e these. Dream Poetry: 0oets are dreamers. They compose poems from their world of dreams. %ream poetry revolves around this dream word that creative people li!e to live in. (fter all that&s where their poetic creations come from. Family Poems: Bour family means the world to you. %oesn&t it' /amily poems, as their name suggests, tal! about family ties. They tal! about the colorful threads in a family fabric$ some close !nit, some difficult to weave, some torn, some entangled, some strong, and some wea!. Funeral Poems: %eath ends life, leaving behind memories of the dead. /uneral poems are written in the loving memory of a dead loved one. They portray the pain of losing someone beloved and the difficulty in dealing with that huge loss. Funny Poems: They tic!le your funny bone, they ma!e you laugh, they bring a smile to your face, they are funC Get your hands on some funny poems$ laughs are good for healthC Good ye Poems: The end of a journey together is mar!ed by a goodbye. )omething new cannot begin without bidding goodbye to the old. Goodbye poems portray this &goodbye& feeling and teach one to move one. "o&e Poems: 6ove is one of the most wonderful feelings. It&s often e.pressed in poetry. Be it a lasting love realtionship or lost love, this emotion has always been depicted through poems. 6ove poems, as their name suggests, are those about love in its various forms. %ature Poems: The beauties of nature have always interested poets. The endlessly stretching s!y, the mystically blue seas, the rising and setting sun, the mountains, the trees, the clouds, the breeze everything in nature has its own charm and it never fails to inspire a poet. *e words his understanding of what nature has to say, through nature poems. Poems a out "i.e: )ome say that life is a journey while others call it an adventure. )ome call it a dream, others a cruel reality. 0oems on life say everything that life has to offer joy, sorrow, surprise, just everything life is about. Poems .or *pecial (ccasions: Birthdays, weddings, baby showers, parties, celebrations, and festivities there are poems on all these, meant to celebrate these important occasions in life. Poems on /ar and Peace: ;ars personify grief and destruction. 0eace is what we yearn for. 6isten to what these poets have to say through their poems on war and peace. 'elationship Poems: -elationships form a crucial aspect of life. It is these relationships that ma!e life worth living. -elationship poems celebrate these ties and tal! about the difficulties in maintaining them. /riendship is one of the most beautiful relationships in life. /riendship poems tal! about this bond. 'ite o. Passa$e and Identity Poems: 6ife is a continuous process of learning. 6ife is about learning to live and !nowing yourself. The discussion about poetry can never end. There&s so much written by so many great poets, that life won&t be enough to read poetry in its different forms. Bou can go bac! to the poems section on this website. Bou&ll find some good wor!s by budding poets there. 6iterature hosts a huge collection of e.#uisite !inds of poetry and has a legacy of brilliant poets who enlivened the different poetic forms. *ats off to all of themC


Poetr" Techni9ues
If you are an aspiring poet or love the art of poetry, then this article will help you !now more about the poetry techni#ues used to enhance the feel of the words.

APoetry surrounds us everywhere, but putting it on paper is, alas, not so easy as looking at it. A D Vincent Van Gogh ,ost of us have come across at least one poetry in our lifetime, that has touched our soul from deep withinC /or people who are just confined to reading and admiring the mi.ture of words and the in depth meaning that they bring out, they have a belief that it&s the natural talent of the creative and intellectual poets that lead to these wonderful masterpieces in writingC 1ndoubtedly, poetry is an art, but with certain poetry techni#ues, anyone who has the flair for e.pressive writing, can learn this art and master the art of writing different !inds of poetry. )o, do you want to !now what the poetry techni#ues are' -ead further... Essential Poetry ,echniques and *tyles *aving a good voice doesn&t mean that one can sing in the right rhythm. )imilarly, having the flair for words doesn&t mean that you can touch the soul of the reader and be able to deliver the meaning as intended. Below are some poetry techni#ues and e.amples that will help you understand and learn the art of poetry in details$ with practice, of courseC -sa$e o. *imile ( simile is a techni#ue of comparing two things or more. Bou might have come across many poems which have sentences with words li!e, AasA or Ali!eA. (n e.ample would be the classic poem by ;illiam ;ordsworth$ AI wandered lonely as a cloud.A The poet has used AasA, which is a simile that compares the wandering of the poet with that of a cloud. -sa$e o. #etaphor ,ost of the people get confused between a simile and a metaphor. ;hile a simile is represented using words such as AasA and AlikeA, in metaphors the lines are just written without using these words, and the reader should be able to perceive its comparison. /or e.ample, if AI wandered lonely as a cloudA is a simile, then the metaphor is something li!e AI am a cloud wandering in loneliness.A )o, a metaphor is an implied comparison which the reader needs to perceive in the right manner. Therefore, it becomes very important for the writer to use simple and easy to understand metaphors. -sa$e o. Personi.ication

The poetry techni#ue of personification is used to personify or portray an object, or a mere #uality as if it were a living being... a person with emotions and feelings. This type of poetry techni#ue e.ample would be the classic poem by 2mily %ic!inson, The Train wherein she has personified the train so beautifully. 3ust go through the lines below, AI like to see it lap the miles, nd lick the valleys up, nd stop to !eed itsel! at tanks" nd then, prodigious, step.# ( non living object li!e a train can&t do things li!e lap, lic!, feed. But the usage of the personification techni#ues has just brought a human feel to this poetry style. -sin$ Apostrophe This poetry techni#ue is used to address a particular person, #uality, or a thing in such a way so that it is present in front of you and can hear and perceive all that you are saying. Ta!e this e.tract for e.ample, A$, pardon me, thou bleeding piece o! earth, That I am meek and gentle with these butchers% Thou art the ruins o! the noblest man, that ever lived in the tide o! times. A D &ulius 'aesar, ct (, Scene ) by *illiam Shakespeare. In this e.tract, the poet has used apostrophe to address earth and is conveying his pardon to her. -sa$e o. Hyper ole (n hyperbole is a techni#ue that e.aggerates a #uality, a person, or a thing$ deliberately to emphasize more on the emotional impact. By definition, a hyperbole is a figure of speech where statements are e.aggerated or e.travagant to show the emotional intensity of the thing7person referred to. (n e.ample of hyperbole in a poem would be, A n hundred years should go to praise Thine eyes and on thy !orehead ga+e" Two hundred to adore each breast" ,ut thirty thousand to the rest...A D To *is "oy ,istress by (ndrew ,arvell In the above mentioned e.tract, the poet is describing the beauty of this woman. In order to show how immensely beautiful this woman is, he says that it would ta!e hundred years only to praise her eyes. This e.aggeration is only to convey to the readers how beautiful she is. -sa$e o. Alliteration (lliteration is when the poetry has usage of repetitive consonant sounds at the beginning of the words, or, when two or more than two words begin with the same sound or letters with the same sound in a poem. (n e.ample of this poetry techni#ue would be$ AI have stood still and stopped the sound o! !eet *hen !ar away an interrupted cry 'ame over houses !rom another street.A D (c#uainted with the 4ight by -obert /rost In the above e.tract, the highlighted set of words li!e stood and still$ stopped and sound start with the same consonant sounds. This is !nown as alliteration. -sin$ Assonance (ssonance is the repetition of vowels that sound similar. The emphasis is only on the ?owel sounds, although, the consonants can be different. )imilar vowel sounds are repeated in the words of a poem. (n e.ample for the same would be, A nd so, all the night-tide, I lie down by the side $! my darling, my darling, my li!e and my bride. D 2dgar (llan 0oe, A(nnabel 6eeA

This e.ample clearly shows the use of similar vowel E&i&F sounds which can be found in the words li!e night, tide, lie, side, li!e and bride. -sa$e o. Consonance 1nli!e assonance, where the focus was on similar vowel sounds, in consonance, there is repetitive nature of consonant sounds anywhere throughout the poem and not just the beginning. (n e.ample would be, AThe sun came up upon the le!t, $ut o! the sea came he% nd he shone bright, and on the right *ent down into the sea.A D The -ime of the (ncient ,ariner by )amuel Taylor "oleridge In the above e.tract, the &)& sound is the consonance. ,he End 'hyme (s the term sounds, this techni#ue is to use rhyming words towards the ending lines of the poetryC ( classic e.ample for this would be, A*hose woods these are I think I know .is house is in the village though" .e will not see me stopping here To watch his woods !ill up with snow.A D )topping By ;oods +n a )nowy 2vening by -obert /rost The above e.tract clearly highlights in bold the usage of the end rhymed poetry techni#ue. ,he Internal 'hyme *cheme (gain, it is self e.planatory that internal rhyme techni#ue in poetry is when rhyming words are included within the lines of the poetry. (n e.ample for this would be, A$nce upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary $ver many a /uaint and curious volume o! !orgotten lore, *hile I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, s o! someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. A D 2dgar (llan 0oe&s, AThe -aven.A Bou see, in the above e.ample, the rhyming words li!e dreary and weary, mapping and tapping, are used in the middle as well as the end of the line. This is a perfect e.ample of the internal rhyme scheme. -sa$e o. (nomatopoeia This poetry techni#ue is used when the usage of words that sound just, or somewhat li!e the noise they create. +nomatopoeia can be used by a poet in 9 ways, the direct way and the indirect way. The direct way is where an onomatopoeic word is directly used to get the reader into the atmosphere. The indirect way is the less obvious way where the poet uses words or some parts of words to create an onomatopoeic atmosphere while writing poetry. (n e.ample for the same would be, A*hile I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, s o! someone gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.A D 2dgar (llan 0oe&s AThe -avenA. The usage of words li!e rapping and tapping create an onomatopoeic feel to get the reader into the very same atmosphere. (nother e.ample would be sentences li!e, A Swish those skirts, snap those !ingers.A The words swish and snap create the same noise as they mean. ,he 'epetiti&e ,echnique The repetitive techni#ue in poetry is when a word or a phrase is repeated again and again in such a way that it draws the reader&s attention to it. It is among the very popular poetry

techni#ues for !ids. ( classy e.ample highlighting the repetitive techni#ue in poetry would be the following e.tract, AThe woods are lovely, dark and deep. ,ut I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep.A D )topping by ;oods on a )nowy 2vening by -obert /rost The poet has repeated the line, Aand miles to go be!ore I sleepA twice in the above e.tract with an intention to emphasize on the fact that he has miles to go before he sleep, which in literal sense means, that he has a lot to accomplish before he dies. /rite in 'hythm By rhythm, one means that the flow of the poem from one thought to the ne.t should be well connected and relevant. It is very important for all poetry and poems to be in proper rhythm. (n e.ample for a poetry with a good display of rhythm in the way it is written would be, A$ne o! them scampers down the curtain nd up to my motionless !eet I have the !eeling watching that 0epresentatives o! two power!ul races re meeting here calmly as e/uals ,ut the mouse will not be damn !ool enough To go away and write a poem - A D ,ice In the *ouse by (l 0urdy -sin$ #eter In Poetry 1sage of meter in a poetry helps in creating a rhythm. This is done by repetition of the same sound patterns in a line, but then the patterns might change throughout the different lines of the poem. -obert /rost was !nown to always use this techni#ue in his writing. There is hardly any poem of his, which has not used the meter techni#ue. ,eter generally emphasizes on the accent placement and the length of the line where it has been used. In poetry, a meter is determined by the number of syllables in a line. This greatly affects the rhythm and the flow of the poem. The types of meters can be summarized into the following = categories$ Iam ic0 This is a 9 syllable meter wherein the first part is unaccented and the second is accented. This can be symbolized as E CF. ,rochee0 It is again a 9 syllable meter wherein the first part is accented and the second is unaccented, symbolized as EC F. *pondee0 This is a 9 syllable meter wherein both the syllables are accented and therefore symbolized as ECCF. Anapest0 This is a > syllable meter wherein the first and second part is unaccented, and the third part is accented. This is symbolized as E CF. Dactyl0 This is again a > syllable meter wherein the first syllable is accented and the second and third is unaccented. EC F. 2.ample for these would be, ATWO roads diverged in a yellow wood, nd sorry I could not travel both nd be one traveler, long I stood nd looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth"A D The -oad 4ot Ta!en by -obert /rost -sa$e o. the Ima$ery ,echnique Imagery techni#ue in poetry is using of a language that involves our senses. )uch techni#ue is mostly used in poems about dreams and fantasies. ;hen a poet uses the imagery techni#ue in a poem, he writes in such a way that allows our imagination to see, feel, smell, hear, and engross in the matter in a powerful way, although being aware of your own world. (n e.ample

for the same would be, A1et us go then, you and I, *hen the evening is spread out against the sky 1ike a patient etheri+ed upon a table" 1et us go, through certain hal!-deserted streets, The muttering retreats $! restless nights in one-night cheap hotels nd sawdust restaurants with oyster shells. A D 3. (lfred 0rufroc! I hope the above article on poetry techni#ues and the e.amples given, helped you understand the various techni#ues in poetry in details. These basic elements of poetry enhance the feel and enable the reader to understand the poetry the same way as the poet wishes to convey it, eliminating room for misinterpretation. By )halu Bhatti


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