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INSTITUT PENDIDIKAN GURU KAMPUS TEMENGGONG IBRAHIM, JOHOR BAHRU

CULTURE AND LEARNING EDU 3106

COURSEWORK

NAME INDEX NUMBER

: MUHAMMAD HILMI BIN PARHIN : 2012121340163

IDENTITY CARD NUMBER : 9012060`5805 UNIT NAME OF SUPERVISOR SUBMISSION DATE : 5 PISMP TESL 4 : MISS GOH : 16 MARCH 2014

CONTENT

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INTRODUCTION

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CHALLENGES IN MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOM

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ACTION PLAN TO OVERCOME CHALLENGES

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JUSTIFICATION OF ACTION PLAN- DISCUSSION CLASSROOM PHYSICAL, SOCIOECOMICALLY ENVIROMENT TEACHING PEDAGOGY CULTURAL RESPONSIVE ASSESSMENT TEACHER COMMUNICATION SKILLS

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CLOSURE

REFERENCES

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INTRODUCTION

According to Stanford definition, Multiculturalism is a body of thought in political philosophy about the proper way to respond to cultural and religious diversity. Mere toleration of group differences is said to fall short of treating members of minority groups as equal citizensMulticulturalism is a body of thought in political philosophy about the proper way to respond to cultural and religious diversity. Mere toleration of group differences is said to fall short of treating members of minority groups as equal citizens This bring to what we call as Multicultural education is a progressive approach for transforming education that holistically critiques and responds to discriminatory policies and practices in education. It is grounded in ideals of social justice, education equity, critical pedagogy, and a dedication to providing educational experiences in which all students reach their full potentials as learners and as socially aware and active beings, locally, nationally, and globally. Multicultural education is a vehicle for people who have different value systems, customs, and communication styles to discover ways to respectfully and effectively share resources, talents and ideas. It incorporates the idea that all students-regardless of their gender and social class, and their ethnic, racial, or cultural characteristics- should have an equal opportunity to learn. It recognizes that some students, because of these characteristics, have a better chance to learn in schools as they are currently structured, than do students who belong to other groups or who have different cultural characteristics. A multicultural sensitive classroom provides every student with opportunities to achieve his or her potential. It allows students to understand their own culture while recognizing the similarities and differences they share with other cultures and perspectives in society. Multicultural classroom consist of different language, race and ethnicity,

socioeconomically, and living situation. Language is a large part of a student's culture. It is a student's tool for communicating and interacting with the world at large. The sound and structure of her language gives definition to a student's personality. Preserving these languages in the classroom gives students from various backgrounds the foundation to respect people that speak differently from them and can inspire a student to learn a different language. Race and ethnic background shape a student's experience of the world. The presence of multiple ethnic backgrounds in a classroom gives a teacher the opportunity to teach students respect for diversity. A classroom setting also provides a sense of unity between diverse groups, which will

open a student to a broader understanding of the world. A student's socioeconomic standing has a profound effect on how he approaches problem solving and work. A combined class with students from all socioeconomic levels requires a student to learn about others from different economic backgrounds. A teacher can point out what the students have in common, instead of what is different, to promote tolerance. Where a student lives exposes her to a specific culture. This culture is reflected in the student's family life, celebrations, religion and art.

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CHALLENGES IN MULTICULTURAL CLASSROOM

If teachers are to become effective cross-cultural communicators, it is essential to understand the role that culture plays within the multi-cultural school setting. Lustig and Koester (2003) define culture as "a learned set of shared interpretations about beliefs, values, and norms, which affect the behaviors of a relatively large group of people." Similarly, Samovar and Porter (1991) explain culture as a medium that touches and alters all aspects of human life, including personality, how people express themselves (which includes displays of emotion), the way they think, how they move, and how problems are solved. Indeed, culture goes far beyond the climate, food, and clothing of a student's background. First challenge is the different culture in one classroom. The main problem is to cope with all the student without any racial or sensitive issue being raised. Cultures have different ways of communicating non-verbally, and it is crucial for teachers to be aware of these differences. In a class that is culturally diverse, any or all of the following might be observed in the classroom: children who will not make direct eye contact when talking to a teacher, because to do so would show lack of respect in their culture; children who smile not because they are happy but because they are embarrassed or do not understand and are afraid to ask questions; others who rarely smile. Several of gestures give a lot of meaning in different culture so that a teacher must first acknowledge local background before making any symbolic gesture or non verbal form of communication. Cultural competence in classroom also an issue. In the classroom, being culturally competent also involves an understanding of how cultures differ under the surface and how cultures respond differently to similar situations. Acquiring cultural competence is a gradual process. It is achieved only after many observations, experiences,

and interactions in the classroom and playground, with parents and with peers. However, the process can begin with the knowledge and understanding of six basic cultural differences that teachers are likely to encounter in the culturally diverse classroom. Familiarity with these differences will begin to aid teachers in understanding the complexity of teaching diverse groups of students. Students from other cultures often dont behave the way we expect in the classroom and our classrooms often dont function the way they expect. While we have to accommodate their behavior and manage their interactions with others, they are often confused about how the classroom works and trying to negotiate their relationships with peers. Its challenging for teachers and students alike. While there are many interactions on theoretical levels that affect attitudes to education, teachers are often dealing with very tangible day-to-day issues. Second challenges is student participation. Students from some educational backgrounds arent used to participating in class. In teacher-centred classrooms students take a relatively passive role. Behaviours that we expect in class may be discouraged; asking questions, answering spontaneously, guessing answers, putting forward ideas and opinions, finding their own information. In cultures in which modesty is expected students may be afraid of being perceived as proud or even worse -- arrogant. Unfortunately, students who sit quietly and dont participate dont always get the attention they need in student-centred classrooms.Students can be encouraged to participate, but often need time. Many find it easier to participate in small groups with a small audience and in which they can choose their moment to speak. When learning participation students sometimes behave inappropriately there are rules to participation that even teachers may not be aware of. Foreign students also often take time to answer. Aside from language challenges, the concept of guessing, for example, is foreign to those from educational systems in which students should answer only when they are sure of the answer and in which giving the wrong answer is cause for shame. Guessing is also too risky to students from risk-averse cultures. In many cultures answer immediately even if you know the answer shows a lack of thought and respect. Lastly, teacher have to face another challenges in multicultural classroom is to prepare various teaching pedagogies. Preparing teachers for our postmodern world has become a major challenge (Banks, 1996) Teaching multicultural education from a critical perspective means engaging preservice teachers in understanding their cultural and social identities as well as their socioeconomic positions and how these aspects of their character may affect teaching and student learning. Preservice teachers need to understand that teaching and learning occur in

sociocultural-political contexts that are not neutral but based on relations of power and privilege. More specifically, preservice teachers can achieve this understanding by examining their identities and their socialized selves, which have been constructed by their sociocultural circumstances, and by exploring the ways in which these circumstances influence their understanding and relationships with others, especially students from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. Teaching multicultural education from a critical perspective involves taking risks to move preservice teachers beyond their comfort zones to experience diversity firsthand, which can be accomplished through field experiences, study abroad programs, and/or virtual interactive field experiences (Malewski, Phillion, & Lehman, 2005).

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JUSTIFICATION AND DISCUSSION

CLASSROOM PHYSICAL, SOCIOECOMICALLY ENVIROMENT TEACHING PEDAGOGY CULTURAL RESPONSIVE ASSESSMENT TEACHER COMMUNICATION SKILLS

First of all, in the action plan, I have provided the plan to create culturally friendly classroom physical and socioecomically environment. They are including Provide images and visual displays in the classroom that are gender balanced and reflect the diversity of the community and the world outside the classroom. Provide texts, resources and learning materials in the classroom that reflect diversity of culture, ethnicity, faith, and language, and differences in socioeconomic status, physical ability and family structure which have their special corner in the classroom. This is to create an atmosphere of respect for the school community and foster positive connections between the school and students home and community cultures. In the same time, it convey openness and warmth and encourage students to interact with others in the same way. These misunderstandings can lead to hurt feelings and conflict. Schools tend to assume that all students come from similar families, but students from different cultures might have unique expectations placed on them that can affect learning. Western societies tend to value independence and competitiveness, while Eastern societies tend to value cooperation. In the action plan, teachers have to create a culturally-friendly, and socioeconomically environment. Much action such as ground rules, activities and classroom physical setting are to be applied for achieving this objective. Example, set scene for fostering childrens positive self concept and attitudes is an important step in teaching children to be comfortable with their cultural background and essentially themselves is to encourage and value their input in a small group of other students. The best way to handle culture clash is to be open, knowledgeable, and not be afraid to talk about the cultural differences in class no matter what discipline the teacher is teaching .An open teacher will create an open class and an open class will have open lines of communication that will create a positive and beneficial learning environment for everyone. Teachers must be open to what the students are doing and find out why they do what they do. This openness will create communication in the class, which will ultimately develop into a classroom that is learning, understanding, and culturally fluent. Having a safe environment where students feel involved and respected will reduce discipline issues, increase student

motivation, and ultimately enhance learning. A multilingual classroom has many challenges in helping students come together; however, it can be a most rewarding experience when community is achieved. Teaching pedagogies and strategies are also playing important roles in multicultural classroom. In the action plan, it was emphasized in student centered learning and group task. Howard M. Miller suggests that one very simple way for all teachers to add multicultural ideas and content to his or her curriculum is to build a classroom library of multicultural literature (Miller 88). No matter what subject you teach you can build a library of books by and/or about different cultures. An important step in teaching children to be comfortable with their cultural background and essentially themselves is to encourage and value their input in a small group of other students. This has to do with the organization of the classroom and the development of lesson plans. When grouping students, teachers should put students from differing backgrounds together. The term "differing backgrounds" refers to (in general) two types of students from two different learning styles. Students who are from a socialized culture that prioritizes group achievement, cooperation, obedience, and respect toward authority tend to be externally motivated, dependent on praise and reinforcement from significant others, and more responsive to a socially oriented curriculum. An accomplished teacher should be able to create projects for a group of students from different backgrounds that will require students to work together, therefore allowing each student to be an important part of the group and learn information through the interaction of the group. Lesson plans that can do this and interest students will become invaluable for teachers to posses as the need for teachers to become culturally fluent continues to grow. About the cultural responsive assessment in the action plan, I decided to develop a Multiple methods and alternatives to standard exams and papers; methods accommodate students strongest strategies for expression of acquired knowledge and skills about multicultural environment.Identify and report on accountability measures that fully describes progress toward diversity and multiculturalism. This include test, portfolio, and performance assessment are meant to gather information about students preferred modes of learning including learning styles and grouping preferences; and gather information about students each belief and culture to make learning better. We can view a better perception from student to their surrounding thus can record data to be applied into the teaching pedagogies to make lesson plan better.

The field of intercultural communication is not only a valuable resource for individuals seeking to improve their intercultural communication skills, but it is also an essential resource for educators who face a two-fold responsibility in their professional roles. Teachers today must first expand their own cultural knowledge and competence in intercultural communication in an effort to meet the educational needs of increasingly culturally and linguistically diverse student populations. Secondly, teachers must help all of their students develop intercultural communicative competence as part of their preparation to be effective participants in diverse democratic communities and the global society. An important skill in multicultural communication competence is the ability to acquire new knowledge of a culture and cultural practices and the ability to act using that knowledge, those attitudes and those skills under the constraints of real-time communication and interaction. In other words, to be willing both to research in advance and to learn from intercultural encounters. The people attending the course will take the trouble to find out about the likely values, customs and practices of those you are going to work with, and will note carefully, as you interact with them, any additional points that might influence the way you choose to work with them. Another clue skill is the empathy; the ability to intuitively understand what other people think and how they feel in concrete situations. Empathic persons are able to deal appropriately with the feelings, wishes and ways of thinking of other persons. In other words, people are able to get inside other peoples thoughts and feelings and see and feel a situation through their eyes. While this competence often draws on knowledge of how people would expect others to feel, it goes beyond awareness of facts. It often shows itself in a concern not to hurt others feelings or infringe student system of values. All in all, creating a classroom environment that fosters respect and welcomes diverse viewpoints and approaches to learning supports the growth and development of all learners in the classroom. This includes the teachers communication skills, understanding towards learners culture and their perception towards others.

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