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Chicory in Coffee
Honey-Bee in Coffee Plantation

Production and Operations Management-I (POM-I):

The Field Operations

Submitted to


Director and Professor, IIPM

Submitted by
Prit Ranjan Jha

I.D. - C07DPM029

PGD-ABPM 2007-2008



Prit Ranjan Jha

I am very grateful to my course faculties, Dr. V. G. Dhanakumar and Mr.

Narendran who continuously endeavored to enhance our learning. They

continuously gave valuable guidance and support for completion of this

synthesis paper. By giving this opportunity of INDIVIDUAL WORK for the

Course Requirements, they have motivated us to learn beyond the classroom

sessions and develop our individual analytical and understanding power. The

assignment has also enhanced our Presentation Skill.

I am also thankful to staffs of computer section and library.

Finally I thank my class mates who cooperated to make every student an

important active member of our one ‘Quality Circle’.

Prit Ranjan Jha


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Ch. No. Title Page No.

1 Introduction: 1

2 Chicory in our coffee 1

What is chicory? 1
Bitter tonic 4
Plant 6
Distribution& Ecology 7
Cultivation 7
Biotic Factors 8
Harvesting 8
Yields and Economics 9
Food Uses 10
Extract from the 72nd report… Rajya Sabha…. 10

3 Honey Bee in Coffee Plantation 12

Pollination and Fertilization
Assets created by apiculture 13

4 Conclusion 13
5 References 14
6 Appendices 15
An Indian Enterprise in Chicory 15
Pictures 16

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If we look at the content on the sachet or packs of commonly available

Coffee-brands in India, we will find that there is a mixture of Coffee and
Chicory. I too at first discovery of this fact was surprised to not find the pure
coffee, and developed curiosity about Chicory. In fact many of us are not
aware about the chicory, which has become an important component of
Coffee beverage. So in the present assignment I tried to discover different
facts about Chicory.
We all will appreciate the role played by Honey Bees in pollination of
different crops. So, here I liked to present the facts about the beneficial role
of honey bees in Coffee plantation.

Chicory in our coffee

It's more than just a blend for coffee. It's also healthy

In India, most people associate chicory with coffee and the fact that it is used
in a coffee blend. 90% of coffee consumed in India as beverage contains
chicory. Pure coffee habit is almost dead except for small pockets.

What is chicory?

The plant belongs to the family Compositae asteraceae. Chicory is referred to

as ‘Kasni’ in Sanskrit and Hindi. The Cichorium intybus genus gives us
salad plants such as wild chicory, radicchio, red leaf chicory and endives. But
more than anything, it gives us chicory. Cichorium intybus (chicory) is a
blue-flowered herb with a long white root. Chicory is a perennial herb with a
long tap root. Chicory is a native to the Mediterranean region or possibly
eastern India. The perennial grows to five feet and has a hairy stem with
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oblong leaves. This tuber looks much like a carrot. Each part of the plant has
its uses — extracts from the seeds and flowers are used in traditional
medicine and modern drug formulation. The leaves are used as a salad
vegetable and the root, when processed, roasted and ground, is extensively
used for blending in coffee. It is brewed in the same manner as coffee.

Interestingly, the coffee - chicory mixture (usually 60:40) is more prevalent

in South India, where it is almost a ritual to go to the coffee seed shop, have
fresh coffee seeds roasted and ground in your presence, the requisite amount
of chicory powder added, the mixture brought home and filtered using
boiling water, and drank with freshly boiled milk. Some instant coffee
manufacturers add chicory in their product so as to cater to the taste of the
fast-life, no-time South Indian. Food historians of India would surely know
when coffee came to India, and how chicory got added to it. The fact it is
more popular in the South and not in North India may perhaps be explained
as due to the French influence in Pondicherry, and Peninsular India. Among
the Europeans it is the French who use chicory in their coffee. (Professor H.
Y. Mohan Ram, the distinguished botanist and scholar from Delhi, tells that
while chicory is a Mediterranean herb, it occurs on the wild in Kashmir; he
has found it growing lush on the roadside, on the way from the airport to the
city of Srinagar). It can be cultivated through out India.
There are two cultivated species, and four to six wild species.
Common chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a bushy perennial herb with blue
or lavender flowers. Originating from Europe, it was naturalized in North
America, where it has become a roadside weed. The roots are baked, ground,
and used as a coffee substitute and additive in the plant's Mediterranean
region of origin, although its use as a coffee additive is still very popular in

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the American South, particularly in New Orleans. It is a staple in Cajun-style
red-eye gravy. Common chicory is also known as blue sailors, succory, and
coffeeweed. The plant is cultivated and used as endive under the common
names radicchio, Belgian endive, French endive, or witloof. It is grown in
complete darkness to keep new leaves tender and pale.
True endive (Cichorium endivia) is a species of chicory which is specially
grown and used as a salad green. It has a slightly bitter taste and has been
attributed with herbal properties. Curly endive and the broad-leafed escarole
are true endives.
Cichorium is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species
including Setaceous Hebrew Character and Turnip Moth.
Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) has been in cultivation in
Europe as a coffee substitute for a long time. Root-chicory, established in
Europe during, the Napoleanic blockade, is cultivated for roots used as a
coffee substitute. When blended with ground coffee, they enhance the flavor
and aroma of the brew.
Around 1970 it was found that the root contains up to 20% inulin. Since
then, new strains have been created, giving root chicory an inulin content
comparable to that of sugar beet (around 600 dt/ha). Inulin is mainly present
in the plant family Asteraceae as a storage carbohydrate (for example
Jerusalem artichoke, dahlia, etc.). It is used as a sweetener in the food
industry (with a sweetening power 30% higher than that of sucrose). Inulin
can be converted to fructose and glucose through hydrolysis.
Chicory, with sugar beet and rye was used as an ingredient of the East
German Mischkaffee (mixed coffee), introduced during the 'coffee crisis' of

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Chicory’s first known reference was found in an Egyptian papyrus dating
back to 400 BC, making it one of the oldest plants known to man. From
Egypt chicory spread to Asia, Africa and the European continent. Chicory
was cultivated as early as 5000 years ago by Egyptians as a medicinal plant.
Ancient Greeks and Romans used chicory as a vegetable and in salads.

Early 19th century French chefs and writers believed chicory to be a ‘contra
—stimulate’, that is, the sedative effects were a perfect complement to the
stimulating effects of the caffeine in coffee.
Chicory's leaves are still used today in typical Roman recipes: it's common
in Roman restaurants to eat dishes with boiled chicory leaves, olive oil and
lemon juice (fried with garlic and red pepper). The plant is very common in
the Roman countryside and is often picked up by farmers; recently
greengrocers introduced a cultivated variety of the plant, which is bigger and
has longer leaves. Today, the main growing countries are Belgium, France,
Holland, and Germany and also in southern regions of the US.
Bitter tonic
The key components of chicory are hydrooxycoumarins, flavonoids, inulin,
sesquiterpene lactones, vitamins and minerals. It also contains four to six per
cent protein and a small quantity of fibre. Chicory leaves are good sources of
vitamins A and C, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus. It contains no
Chicory has many health benefits. Studies have shown that it encourages the
growth of beneficial bifido bacteria and lacto bacilli in the gut which
promotes nutrient absorption, supports immune function and optimises
digestion. It helps reduce kidney inflammation and increases urine output.

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In traditional medicine, the plant is used as a bitter tonic to stimulate the
liver and digestive tract and cleanse the urinary tract. In Ayurveda, it is said
to pacify kapha and pitha, and it is used to treat disorders of the
gastrointestinal system such as vomiting, diarrhoea, liver and spleen
enlargement, dysmenorhoea and amenorrhoea.
Chicory comprises mainly of compound sugars, which during the roasting
process, is converted into d-fructose (fruit sugar) and caramalised. It also
contains between four to six percent protein and a small quantity of fibre.
Chicory-root is essentially a concentrated combination of three sugars
(pentose, levulose and dextrose) and taraxarcine (the bitter principle of
dandelion). It is especially important as source of levulose. Roots are used in
seasoning soups, sauces and gravies, and to impart a rich deep color. Dried
chicory roots, as crumbs, are used as horse feed, being a good oat substitute
(4.85% protein, 0.85% fat, 4.35% sugar).
A powder of chicory root in milk helps counter general debility and infusion
of seeds is used to treat insomnia or anxiety. A strong tea of the boiled roots,
flowers and leaves is supposed to make a good wash for skin irritations,
including athlete's foot.
A paste of the leaves can be used as an external application in inflammation,
headache, urticaria, gout and burning sensation. Chicory infusion exhibits
laxative properties and is harmless.
The consumption of chicory in addition to a healthy diet and regular exercise
is said to be effective in checking cholesterol. Chicory has been mentioned
as a special skin nourisher by ancient herbalists. A tea made from the pale
blue flowers of this plant was said to give glowing skin. It is one of the
richest source of Vitamin A which is very useful for the eyes. This herb is

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also used for the treatment of Anemia, Liver complaints, respiratory
disorders and Obstructed Menstruation.
Inulin or chicory saccharide is a good example of a functional food or
Chicory with all its health benefits is available to consumers in the form of
coffee blends.
Chicory is a stout, deep-rooted perennial, 3 to 6 feet tall. It is a practically
leafless herb, branching and diffuse when in bloom. The seeds are planted in
the spring, and the roots are dug in the fall, stored, and replanted toward
spring for foliage harvest. The plant is most noticeable in the mornings when
its azure-blue flowers are open. Chicory is self-incompatible, fertilization
occurs both within and between heads as a result of insect activity like
honey bees. Chicory is a good source of pollen and nectar for honey bees
and that the bees produce from chicory a yellowish-green honey.
Distribution& Ecology:
Native to Europe, central Russia and western Asia, and cultivated widely
through Europe in early times. Presently cultivated in most temperate
regions, where it has escaped and become naturalized as a serious weed in
many areas.
Chicory grows on any type of soil, but, when cultivated grows best on
mellow, deeply tilled, fertile soil or sandy loam. A cool weather crop, it
tolerates only moderate summer temperatures, and requires well-distributed
rainfall, with good drainage, or some irrigation in drier areas. Chicory roots
grow deeply in relatively short time; soil too wet for beans and small grains
is not suitable. To insure proper root-growth, lime or marl should be applied
to acid soil to neutralize acidity. Chicory is reported to tolerate pH of 4.5 to
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8.3, an annual rainfall of 30 to 400 cm, and annual mean biotemperature of
6° to 27°C.


Cultural practices for this root crop are the same as those for sugar beet. Soil
should be plowed to a depth of 17 to 25 cm to permit root development.
Seed should be planted, or drilled, in a firm, fine-textured seed bed, at a
depth of not more than 0.6 cm in rows spaced 45-60 cm apart, at a rate of
2.25 kg/ha. Germination is slow. Since development is slow, excessive hand
labor to control weeds may be avoided by planting chicory following
another crop such as beans or corn. Cultivation should begin as soon as
possible. When plants reach the 4-leaf stage they are thinned to stand 20-25
cm apart in the row. First cultivation may be fairly deep, but subsequent
cultivation should be shallow and not close to the plants, to avoid damaging
the taproot. Likewise, thinning should not be too late, as thinning may
disturb roots of remaining plants. Chicory is a heavy feeder. Manure should
be applied above the bed instead of beneath the roots, as bottom heat forces
too rapid growth of the shoots. In some areas seeds are broadcast over the
seed bed, and seedlings thinned to stand about 25 cm apart each way

Biotic Factors

Serious market diseases of chicory are bacterial soft rot and watery soft rot,
caused by Erwinia carotovora and Pseudomonas cichorii. Brown heat
cancer is caused by boron deficiency. Fuligo septica causes a slime mold.
Fungi known to attack chicory are: Alternaria cichorii, A. tenuis, Ascochyta
cichorii, Aspergillus ostianus, Botrytis cinerea, Bremia lactucae (Downy

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mildew), Centrospora acerina, Cercospora cichorii, Didymosphaeria
exigua, Erysiphe cichoracearum, Fuligo septica (slime mold),
Leptosphaeria ogilviensis, Macrosporium commune, Marssonian
panattoniana, Mycosphaerella compositarum, M. tassiana, Phoma
cichoracearum, Phymatotrichum omnivorum, Pleospora herbarum,
Puccinis cichorii, P. hieracii, P. junci, P. littoralis, Ramularia cichorii, R.
lampsanae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii, Septoria endiviae, S.
intybi, Sphaerotheca fuligines, S. humuli, Stagonospora vexata,
Thielaviopsis basicola, Verticillium dahliae, Pythium debaryanum,
Corticium vagum. Viruses which are known to attack chicory are: Argentine
subflower, Cucumber mosaic, Spotted wilt, and Yellows virus. The parasitic
plants, Cuscuta epithymum and C. pentagona, also attack chicory. The
following nematodes have been isolated from chicory plants: Ditylenchus
dipsaci, H. scliachtii, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. javanica, M. sp.,
Pratylenchus penetrans, P. pratensis, Paratylenchus macrodorus, and
Tylenchus sp.


Harvesting should take place as late in the season as possible as there is

usually a marked increase in size and weight of roots during cool weather.
Care should be taken to remove all remaining pieces of roots as they become
established as weeds. Tops are cut off with a heavy knife, and left on the
ground to decay as green manure, or fed to livestock. The roots may be piled
in the field for a while, or taken directly to a factory to be processed for root-
chicory. At the factory, roots are washed, sliced into cubes about 2.5 cm
square, and dried over fire. Dried chicory may be stored indefinitely. Final
process consists of roasting the dried chicory, grinding it to a fineness
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suitable for blending with ground coffee. Ground chicory is usually packed
in bulk in waterproof barrels or sacks, or in smaller packages for household
For greens, chicory is harvested when the root is small and early young
leaves are tender. For forced chicory, the roots are loosened with a beet lifter
and pulled by hand about the end of October. For immediate use they are
stored in pits and covered with leaves. Others are trimmed to a length of 20-
22 cm and placed upright in prepared trenches, hot beds or similar area,
where a constant temperature of 15-21°C may be maintained. Plants are
arranged so crowns are about the same height, and then covered with 17-20
cm of dry loose soil. In 12 to 20 days marketable heads or chicons are
produced, the most desirable heads being 10-15 cm in diameter, weighing,
0.06-0.09 kg (Reed, 1976).

Yields and Economics:

An average yield of chicory-root is about 11.25 MT/ha, although yields up to

27 MT/ha have been recorded. In 1943 United States production of chicory
roots was 200,000 tons, at a price of about $16/T: price for the local crops
was $.12/kg. Net returns are comparable/hg to sugar beets. In 1963 chicory
prices varied for a 1-1/9 bu. crate from $1.20 to $3.34, wholesale.
Food Uses:
Very young chicory leaves are added raw to salads, or included in cooked
recipes. They cook in 10-15 minutes. Wild chicory leaves taste like
commercial chicory, but they can become bitter soon after emerging. The
older leaves should be boiled in one or more changes of water, to reduce the
bitterness. We can make a caffeine-free coffee-like beverage from chicory
roots, by first scrubbing the roots, then roasting it in a 300 degree F oven
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until dark brown, brittle, and fragrant. Then it is grinded, and used like a
regular coffee, 1-1/2 tsp. per cup of water.
Chicory has many uses in cooking—especially in deepening the flavour of
dishes like stews, sauces, breads and desserts.
Chicory is a natural flavour enhancer and its slight sweetness and caramel—
like undertone makes it the perfect companion to coffee, producing a brew
of deeper colour, extra smoothness and added body. Its natural sweetness
counteracts the bitterness of coffee, making it much smoother.

Extract from the seventy-second report on problems of coffee growers,

presented to the Rajya Sabha on the 3 rd August, 2005 by department
related Parliamentary Standing committee on Commerce. :
“67. Regarding mixing of chicory with Coffee, during 1980s, it was
estimated that chicory powder consumption was between 20,000-25,000
tonnes and at present, it is approximately 35,000-40,000 tonnes. The major
chicory consuming States were Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, and
Kerala, which are also the major Coffee consuming States.
68. Chicory is a tuber crop grown mostly in the western parts of India. It
is permitted to be mixed as an additive to the Coffee powder as per the PFA
Act, 1954, with maximum limit prescribed as 49%. Apart from the use as
Coffee-Chicory powder mixture, chicory is also permitted to be added in the
soluble Coffee-Chicory powder, under the PFA Act. The addition of
Chicory increases the thickness and the mouth feel of Coffee, because it is
having higher amounts of soluble solids. It is also having lots of acidic
compounds responsible for sourish taste in the Coffee blend and adds
strength and acidic property to the final product. The traders use chicory in
their blends mainly because it is cheaper than Coffee and by blending it with

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Coffee, the product becomes cost effective. Also, some segments of
consumers, because of their long association with consumption of Chicory
blended coffees, have developed a distinct taste preference for such product.

69. As on date, there is no direct method of estimating the percentage of

chicory in the Coffee-Chicory mixture. However, in order to
regulate/monitor the Chicory content in the Coffee-Chicory mixture, the PFA
standards have prescribed certain indirect parameters like the minimum
caffeine content (not less than 0.6%) and maximum water soluble extract
(not exceeding 50%). The Committee recommend that whenever chicory is
mixed in the coffee powder, the product should be labeled, clearly indicating
the percentage of Coffee and chicory in the mixture. ”

Honey Bee in Coffee Plantation:

In India, area under coffee is 2,43,117 hectares of which Arabica (Coffea

arabica) accounts for 49.41 percent and Robusta (Coffea canephora) 50.59
Arabica is self pollinated and self–fertile, whereas Robusta is Cross
pollinated and Self-sterile. Coffee is short day plant and in South India,
flower initiation takes place between September to March. Shade grown
Indian Plantations have a 50: 50 balance of Arabica and Robusta.

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Pollination and Fertilization

Honey bees and butterflies are the primary pollinators. Wind and moisture
also helps to a certain extent. Pollination takes place within five to seven
hours after flower opening. Fertilization is completed within 48 hours after

C. arabica is self-fertile, yet at times some insect pollination occurs but it is

not necessary. Pollen tubes from foreign pollen grow faster than self pollen,
thus insuring crossing. It is recommended that honey bee colonies be
placed every 100 m in the coffee grove just before flowering starts. The
coffee specialist might be agreeably surprised to discover the increase
derived from a large-scale community-type honey bee pollination program.
The other two important species, C. canephora and C. Iiberica, are self-
sterile, and they would appear to be greatly benefited by bee pollination.
Considering the recent increased importance of the self-sterile African C.
canephora in the production of instant coffee, the use of bees in its
pollination would appear to be highly profitable. Many planters accepted
that pollination of coffee by bees raised their coffee yields by 25-30% and
they can sell honey. “Coffee honey”, which the bees make from pollen from
coffee flowers, is perceived to be very sweet.

Assets created by apiculture

While products from bees such as honey and beeswax are well known, the
main service provided by bees, pollination, remains poorly appreciated and
underestimated in most countries. In the United States, scientists have
attempted to measure the value of the increased yield and quality of crops

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achieved by honey bee pollination: during 2000, in the United States, this
was estimated at US$14.6 billion. In June 2002, data were published about
the beneficial effect of honey bees for coffee pollination: in Panama, coffee
bean production increased by 50 percent. Other assets created by apiculture
such as honey and beeswax are far more tangible, but their value must be far
less than the wealth created by the optimal pollination of plants. But today
with chemical inputs, the honey bee population has drastically come down
and has affected the pollination prospects of not only coffee but of various
flowering species.


About, ‘Chicory in coffee’ we can conclude that the Indian palate is for a
chicory mixture. They like its strong body. In the earlier years use of chicory
in judicious quantities helped increase overall coffee consumption as it
enlarged the consumption base. It is not merely price reducers. However use
of chicory in coffee has become indiscriminate. The only silver lining on the
horizon is the emergence of the coffee parlours - Coffee day, Barista etc.
who are reintroducing pure coffee to the Indian consumer.

Having Apiary in coffee plantation will increase the yield of coffee and will
also provide Honey to the Planter. Natural or wild honey colony should also
be preserved. This will maintain ecological balance, both in the plantation
and the adjoining forest ecology.


o http://rajyasabha.nic.in/book2/reports/commerce/72ndreport.htm

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o http://www.hinduonnet.com/

o http://en.wikipedia.org/

o http://www.motherherbs.com

o http://indiacoffee.org/

o http://www.tatatea.com/tata_coffee.htm

o http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/

o http://www.wildmanstevebrill.com/Plants.Folder/

o http://www.missouriplants.com/Bluealt/Blue_flowers_alternate_page1

o http://www.newfarm.org/international/guatemala

o http://www.ineedcoffee.com/04/flowering

o http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4640e/y4640e00.HTM

o http://www.sweetmarias.com
o Spices, Plantation crops, Medicinal and aromatic Plants- Drs.
N.Kumar, JBM.Md.Abdul Khader, P.Rangaswami and I Irulappan.


An Indian Enterprise in Chicory:


Business Type : Manufacturer
Year Established : 1998

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Key Personnel


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1. Map of Lettuce and chicory production.2. Chicory.3.Chicory root.4. Roasted
chicory root.5. Honey bee pollinating coffee flower.

Looking at the Contents of the sachet /Pack of common Indian Coffee


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