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Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Energy can be defined as the capacity for doing work. The processes that keep organisms alive (for example, pumping ions from one side of a membrane to another) usually require work to be done. It is clear, therefore, that life requires energy. Life also depends on energy conversions. For humans, this process is known as respiration. During respiration, the chemical energy from food is released and converted to forms that organisms use to stay alive. In short, Respiration is the chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy. Energy in the body is used in different ways: Muscle contraction Protein synthesis Cell division Growth The passage of nerve impulses The maintenance of a constant body temperature

Aerobic Respiration Aerobic respiration is the release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of food substances in the presence of oxygen. The word equation is below: Glucose + oxygen energy + carbon dioxide + water This is the chemical formula: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic respiration is the release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food substances in the absence of oxygen. These are the word equations for anaerobic respiration: DURING HARD EXERCISE: Glucose Lactic acid IN MICROORGANISM YEAST: Glucose alcohol + carbon dioxide Anaerobic respiration in yeast is used during brewing and bread-making. Here is the flowchart for brewing:

Anaerobic respiration has two drawbacks: It gives only about one-twentieth of the energy per glucose molecule that aerobic respiration yields. Lactic acid is poisonous if it builds up in the cells it inhibits muscular contraction, which leads to fatigue and, eventually, death.

Gas exchange:
Respiration uses oxygen to burn (oxidise) food and so release the energy that cells need to stay alive. Respiration produces carbon dioxide and water as waste products. Swapping oxygen for carbon dioxide in this way is called gas exchange.

Gas exchange takes place through a gas exchange surface. These are the ideal properties for a respiratory surface: They are thin dissolved gases can pass through it easily. Layer of water on gas exchange surface.

Like other mammals, humans are active and maintain a constant body temperature. This means they use up a great deal of energy. Mammals must have a very efficient gas exchange system. The gas exchange system in humans is made up of: A respiratory surface membranes lining the alveoli (air sacs) in the lungs. A set of tubes to allow from the outside to reach the respiratory surface. This set of tubes has many branches, and is sometimes called the bronchial tree. A blood supply (carried by the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein) to carry dissolved gases to and from the respiratory surface. A ventilation system (the intercostals muscles and the diaphragm) to keep a good flow of air over the respiratory surface.

The cilia, along with mucus, can help protect the gas exchange system from pathogens and particles. The cilia are the fine hairs on the surface of a cell. These can beat in a coordinated way to carry mucus (with trapped microbes and dust) away from the lung surfaces.