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1.

Name of the Faculty : Avinash Gadkari


2. Subject : Energy Conservation & Management Subject Code: EX-605
3. Branch : Electrical & Electronics Engineering

Unit No: 1 General Energy Problem : Energy use patterns & scope for conservation.
Energy audit : Energy monitoring ,Energy accounting & analysis , Audting & targeting.Energy
Conservation Policy,Energy management & audit, Energy audit, Types of energy audit ,energy
management (audit), Qualities & functions of Energy Manager,language of an energy manager,
Questionnaire,Check list for top management,Loss of energy & material flow, Energy
performance ,Maximizing system efficiency, Optimizing input energy requirement, Energy
auding instruments , Material load energy balance diagram (As per RGPV Syllabus)

Sl.
No
Date
No. of
Periods
Topics/
Sub - Topics
Objectives &
Outcome No.
References
(Text Book,
Journal
Page No. . To .
1 21-01-14 01
Introduction to general energy
problems & need for energy
conservation & management
1[a ,b, c] R1
2 22-01-14 01
Energy Reserves & consumption
patterns
1[a, b, c] R1
3 23-01-14 01
Energy monitoring,energy
accounting & analysis
1[a, b, c] R2
4 24-01-14 01
Energy audit ,types of energy
audits & auditing activities.
1[a, b, c] R2
5 27-01-14 01
Energy auditing instruments &
their application
1[a, b, c] R3
6 28-01-14 01
Maximizing the system
efficiency.
1[a, b, c] R3
7 29-1-14 01 Plant energy performance index 1[a, b, c] R3
8 30-01-14 01 Material & Energy balance 1[a, b, c ] R3
9 31-01-14 01
Duties & responsibility of
energy manager,Energy Policy
Statement
1[a ,b, c ] R3



Gyan Ganga
Institute of Technology
& Management
Khajuri Khurd, Raisen Road, Bhopal
(M.P)
SCHEDULE OF
INSTRUCTIONS
Year : 2014
Sem : Even
Reference Text Books/ URL :


R1

Energy Statistics 2013 by MOSPI [ www.mospi.gov.in]
R2
Energy management , utilization & audit by Dr Ugur Atikol
R3
Energy Conservation & Management by Dr Suresh Kumar Soni

COURSE MATERIAL FOR UNIT- I :
ENERGY RESERVES &COSUMPTION PATTERNS :






















































































































































































































o Ripple Current,
f L
k k V
I
s
) 1 (
= A
o Ripple Voltage,
CL f
k k V
fC
I
V
s
c
2
8
) 1 (
8

=
A
= A
2) Boost Converter

Fig: Boost Converter

Fig: Equivalent Circuits
o Output voltage,
) 1 ( k
V
V
s
a

=
o Ripple Current,
fL
k V
I
s
= A
o Ripple Voltage,
fC
k I
V
a
c
= A

3) Buck-Boost Converter

Fig: Buck-Boost Converter

Fig: Equivalent Circuits

o Output voltage,
) 1 ( k
kV
V
s
a

=
o Ripple Current,
fL
k V
I
s
= A
o Ripple Voltage,
fC
k I
V
a
= A

4) Cuk Converter

Fig: Cuk Converter

Fig: Equivalent Circuits
o Output voltage,
) 1 ( k
kV
V
s
a

=
o Ripple Current,
1
1
fL
k V
I
s
= A
2
2
fL
k V
I
s
= A
o Ripple Voltage,
1
1
) 1 (
fC
k I
V
s
c

= A
2
2 2
2
8 f L C
kV
V
s
c
= A

5) Flyback Converter

o Output Voltage,
1
2
.
) 1 ( N
N
d
dV
V
g
o

=
o Average Value of Current,
2
1
2
2
) 1 (
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
N
N
d R
dV
I
g
lm


6) Forward Converter

o Output Voltage,
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
1
2
N
N
dV V
g o






7) Push Pull Converter

o Output Voltage,
g
p
s
o
dV
N
N
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
= 2
8) Half Bridge Converter

9) Full Bridge Converter



Objective Questions:
1) What function does the diode D
1
of circuit in forward converter have?
(a) rectifies secondary voltage
(b) blocks back propagation of secondary voltage to transformer
(c) both (i) and (ii)
(d) protects diode D
2
from excessive reverse voltage
2) What kind of output rectifier and filter circuit is used in a fly back converter?
(a) a four-diode bridge rectifier followed by a capacitor
(b) a single diode followed by an inductor-capacitor filter
(c) a single diode followed by a capacitor
(d) will require a centre-tapped secondary winding followed by a full wave rectifier and a
output filter capacitor.

3) A fly-back converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode with fixed ON duration of the switch
in each switching cycle. Assuming input voltage and the resistive load at the output to remain
constant, how will the output voltage change with change in switching frequency? (Assume
discontinuous conduction throughout and neglect circuit losses.)
(a) Output voltage varies directly with switching frequency.
(b) Output voltage varies inversely with switching frequency.
(c) Output voltage varies directly with square root of switching frequency.
(d) Output voltage is independent of switching frequency.
4) A fly-back converter has primary to secondary turns ratio of 15:1. The input voltage is constant at 200
volts and the output voltage is maintained at 18 volts. What should be the snubber capacitor voltage
under steady state?
(a) More than 270 volts.
(b) More than 200 volts but less than 270 volts.
(c) Less than 18 volts.
(d) Not related to input or output voltage.
5) A fly-back converter is to be designed to operate in just-continuous conduction mode when the input
dc is at its minimum expected voltage of 200 volts and when the load draws maximum power. The
load voltage is regulated at 16 volts. What should be the primary to secondary turns ratio of the
transformer if the switch duty ratio is limited to 80%. Neglect ON-state voltage drop across switch
and diodes.
(a) 20 :1
(b) 30:1
(c) 25:2
(d) 50:1
Answer (1-b) (2-c), (3-c), (4-a), (5-d)
Subjective Questions:
1) Analyze the operation of buck, boost and buck-boost converters in continuous conduction
mode.
2) What is the difference between the isolated and non- isolated converters? Derive all the
relevant equations of forward converter and flyback converters.
3) Describe the averaged model of buck converter with proper derivation.
4) Discuss the state space model of the switch mode converters with relevant equations.
5) The following circuit shown in Fig. is a zener regulator. The zener employed has a
nominal voltage drop of 15V and a dynamic resistance of 15 m. The minimum current
required for the zener to operate in its constant voltage characteristics is 20 mA. The
source voltage varies in the range of 25 to 35 V. The Series resistance is 50.


a) Evaluate the range of load resistance for which the output voltage will be regulated.
b) Evaluate the maximum power dissipation in R
s
and V
z
.
Assignment:
1) If the turns ratio of the primary and tertiary windings of the forward transformer are in the ratio of 1:2,
what is the maximum duty ratio at which the converter can be operated? Corresponding to this duty ratio,
what should be the minimum ratio of secondary to primary turns if the input dc supply is 400 volts and
the required output voltage is 15 volts? Neglect switch and diode conduction voltage drops.
2) Find maximum voltage stress of the switch in the primary winding and diode in the tertiary winding if
the converter-transformer has 10 primary turns and 15 tertiary turns and the maximum input dc voltage is
300 volts.
3) Calculate the filter inductor and capacitor values for the forward converter described below:
Maximum duty ratio = 0.5, Input dc remains constant at 200 volts, output dc (under steady state) = 10
volts 0.1 volt, primary to secondary turns = 10:1. The load current is expected to vary between 0.5 and 5
amps. Assume just continuous conduction of inductor current at 0.5 amp load current. Take switching
frequency = 100 kHz.