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(Apologies for the formatting errors.

The word processor I use is not Microsoft Word and therefore feels it is entitled to take liberties with everything I do). ylan Meggs! "nit #lan $$%&'%&(() Unit Topic & Lesson What is the topic of the unit? Rhetoric and rhetorical analysis, culminating in a rhetorical analysis essay. What lessons will this unit incorporate? (These are literal interpretations of the lessons for ease of use. Actual titles may vary for creative purposes.) 1. ntroduction to Rhetoric !. dentifying and "nderstanding #urpose and Audience $. %inilessons on #arallelism and Repetition, &yper'ole, and (iction ). Rhetorical Appeals (*thos, #athos, +ogos) ,. Tone and %ood -. Analy.ing a /ample0 1/ha2espeare3s /ister4 from 5irginia Woolf3s A Room of One's Own, pt 1 7. Analy.ing a /ample0 1/ha2espeare3s /ister4 from 5irginia Woolf3s A Room of One's Own, pt ! 6. Rhetorical Analysis /ample *ssay and n7class Writing89utlining :. (iscussion on Rhetoric 1;. #eer Review Unit Goals & Objectives What are the goals of this unit? 7 /tudents will e<plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy.e contemporary rhetorical wor2s and create their own persuasive wor2s 7 /tudents will learn to define and engage in using rhetorical devices, rhetorical appeals, and rhetorical analysis. What will students 'e a'le to do after this unit? 7/tudents will 'e a'le to identify rhetorical devices and rhetorical appeals, incorporating them into a cohesive essay of rhetorical analysis. Student Characteristics Who is this lesson geared for? This unit was largely 'uilt upon e<periences with =# /eniors at >ulton &igh /chool, a low /*/ school (a'out 6;? on free or reduced lunch) with a significant minority population ();?). Although it is adapta'le for different students, this is the population the unit is aimed towards. What type of learners are these students? These learners prefer to engage each other and 'e actively involved in their learning. They respond poorly to e<tended lectures and

need social and creative outlets throughout their time in class. &ow will differentiation play a role in this unit? All students will 'e e<pected to complete the same assignments. The unit itself is geared towards low /*/ learners with in7class time for writing and typing their wor2 as well as e<tensive opportunities to address areas of confusion individually and as a class. /uggestions for differentiation are provided in each lesson, as well.
Enter, Explore, & Extend &ow will the unit 'e introduced to students? The unit will 'e introduced with the idea that rhetoric is a very powerful tool that can 'e used to great effect or a'used if individuals do not analy.e it closely enough. /tudents will connect personally to the idea that they are a'out to 'ecome voting age 'ut only have limited a'ility to truly effect political change unless they can convince others to agree with them. They will also 'e shown practical areas where rhetoric effects them on a day to day 'asis and how tailoring an argument can yield 'etter results 'ased upon careful study of the situation. &ow will students 'e e<ploring the su'@ect matter? /tudent learning will 'e scaffolded throughout. /tudents will 'e introduced to each component of rhetorical analysis 'y the teacher. They will apply it to a te<t and wor2 through the analysis as a class. Then they will 'e as2ed to do their own independent analysis and writing (after appropriate modeling). &ow will students ta2e their learning from inside the classroom and apply it to their lives outside the classroom? deally, they will 'e more critical of the rhetoric used 'y the authority figures in their lives, seeing the techniAues they use and not falling prey to deceptive methodology. Additionally, the students will 'e a'le to use these techniAues to 'etter represent themselves, a s2ill that will 'e 'etter developed in the ne<t unit ('ut will still use much of the material already addressed in this one). Lessons Assessment nclude 1; lessons, two of which could have previously 'een su'mitted, that are to 'e taught as part of this unit. What methods will the teacher use to identify student learning levels and needs? The teacher will use student Auestioning8discussion and e<it slips to primarily gauge student needs as the unit progresses. There are many assignments that are turned in during the first few lessons that allow the teacher to gauge student learning, with smaller assignments lessening towards the end as students approach the deadline for the final product (the rhetorical analysis paper). Time is 'uilt in for review of areas that need additional attention. The unit is also taught in the middle of the semester when the teacher should have a fair idea of the writing levels and needs of their students 'efore the essay is written. &ow will evaluation 'e used to determine grades for students? The rhetorical analysis paper is the culmination of the unit, a final ending

point that represents all of the students wor2 throughout that will 'e graded for accuracy and consistency with modeled e<amples. The student will complete a series of @ournal entries, e<it slips, in7class handouts, and sample rhetorical analysis guides that will mostly 'e graded for participation (although some Aui..es may 'e assigned).

*esson $ +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal .nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts

0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works *esson Title 1 Instructional 06Introduction to 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis7 5b,ective 0The students will be able to define 6rhetoric7 and e3plain why understanding and being critical of rhetoric promotes democracy and good citi4enship. +tandards PI 3004.2.4 Write a rhetorical analysis of a select piece of literature or informational text analyzing a writer's use of rhetorical strategies in relation to the writer's purpose, relationship with au ience, an !or effecti"eness of message. Materials 08omputer and pro,ector%+martboard (both preferable! but not re9uired) 0#aper and writing utensils 0:outube clips! listed below 02hetorical Analysis .ssay Assignment (Appendi3 A) 02hetorical Analysis -uide (Appendi3 ;) 0www.americanrhetoric.com has transcripts and video for all speeches included in the essay prompt. Instructional #rocedures #ellringer $cti"ity %20 &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pro,ect and read the following ,ournal entry to the class< What is the most persuasive speech you=ve ever heard> Who said it (a president! a coach! a parent! a character in a film or novel)> What made it so effective out for you> A. Allow a moment for the students to think. ;. After waiting! ask the class some of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. evise a different message of presenting the information instead of only with words. Is it as effective> ii. 2ecall some of the worst speeches you=ve heard. iii. .valuate how you believe others felt about the speech. iv. +elect a different topic that might fit the speaker=s style ,ust as well. 8. Instruct students to write a ,ournal entry on the original entry or one of these prompts with at least one hundred words . As the students are ,ournaling! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. .. 5nce the students have ,ournaled! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). ?. As the class discussion progresses! the teacher should list some of the 9ualities of the memorable speeches on the board or have a

student do it for them. -. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask the class if they can e3plain why having and understanding good skills of speaking might be important. B. #rompt them to consider! again! e3actly what the speaker was doing that made the speech so effective. a. +tudents should make the connection that the speaker has not simply spoken randomly but has used intentional methods of persuasion to create a good speech. (e"iew) $s* the stu ents what they might try to emulate from their spea*er's example if they were gi"ing a speech. II. #rief +ecture an ,ui e Practice %30 minutes' A. Ask students to raise their hands if they are $C or will be $C by the time of the ne3t federal or state election. In a senior class! this should be a substantial portion of the group. ;. .3plain to students that one of the defining characteristics of a democracy is that every single person=s vote counts ,ust as much as every other person=s vote. That means that their vote counts as much as the meth0addicted libertarian who shows up to the polling booth under the influence of illegal drugs or the alcoholic community who stumbles into the voting booth! shouts a few times before pushing random buttons! and then submits their vote before stumbling out again. (This is mainly used for humorous effect! and should ideally be acted in character accordingly). 8. This fundamental egalitarianism (say the word! but be sure to define it) means that the only way students can try to achieve a change on any significant scale is to persuade people. And 6rhetoric7 is the art of persuasion. . Talk about the various methods that persuasion can be used for. .. +how some clips of famous speeches. Bave students ,ot down some of their favorite phrases and what they notice about the attitude of the speaker as they speak. Ask them to always be considering why these speeches might have been effective. $. There are many possible clips that one might wish to show. 5ne good suggestion is to use ? 2=s speech after the #earl Barbor attack because it is iconic and! perhaps more importantly! short. http<%%www.youtube.com%watch>vDE/9FAfAGfs. &. Another speech that would complement the above well is a brief clip of Adolf Bitler. Bis speaking style is important! but it should also be used to illustrate to students that violence wasn=t the only power Bitler had. Indeed! it was his rhetoric that was most dangerous! and it=s an important reason why students need to learn to be critical of rhetoric themselves. http<%%www.youtube.com%watch> vD/bduoGfBAHA1featureDrelated E. 5ther clip suggestions can be found at

www.americanrhetoric.com including film speeches (such as Atticus ?inch=s court scene and en4el Washington in Remember the Titans) and famous presidential speeches. III. In epen ent Practice %4- minutes' A. Bave the students form their desks into three different groups. (This works best with a smaller class. ?or larger classes! additional speeches and groups will probably be needed). ;. When the students have settled themselves! introduce the speeches they will be studying and analy4ing. Three good speeches might be ;arack 5bama=s &((G emocratic Ieynote Address! -eorge W. ;ush=s Address to 8ongress after )%$$! and wight .insenhower=s ?arewell Address (this ensures diversity of politics! setting! message! delivery! etc.) 8. 8onte3tuali4e each speech! briefly noting the time period! audience! and recent events of pertinence. . .ach group will receive a different speech transcript! with one copy per member. .. The groups are to read the speeches and write down phrases they find noteworthy or effective! general criticisms of the speech! and ideas about how they might have used the speech differently. ?. They should discuss each speech as a group. .very member should take notes which the teacher will take up at the end of the period (tell them they will need them for their paper! so the more they write the better). -. As they have not been been introduced (or reintroduced! since they=re seniors) to the specifics of rhetoric! their comments will be rudimentary and largely based on content. The activity as a whole! though! is part pre0assessment! part warm0up for the analysis to come and! as such! is perfectly acceptable at a basic access level. B. When the students have read and discussed for a sufficient amount of time ($(0$@ minutes)! they should all stand up and move to the ne3t group! as in a 8arousel activity. I. When they are done! they should reform their desks and return to their seats (the teacher can have them turn in their notes now or at the end of class! at the teacher=s discretion). I.. /xploration, 0losure, an 1omewor* %20 minutes' A. The teacher should tell the students that they have! in a manner of speaking! ,ust engaged in rhetorical analysis. All they need to do is learn how to focus themselves and how to identify some key factors that better break down the speeches. ;. The teacher should now pass out the 2hetorical Analysis -uide and the essay prompt. This is done at the end of class! but the teacher should urge the students not to panic. They will be working on the guide throughout the unit! building up to the actual writing of the analysis for which they should be well prepared. 8. The teacher should spend the remainder of class pointing out

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important information such as deadlines and e3pectations until class ends. (This will probably need to be reviewed at another point in the unit! at the teacher=s discretion) ?or .** students! this lesson can be very troublesome. epending upon the teacher=s knowledge base and language skills! it may be possible to find some foreign language speeches (like the Bitler speech) for e3cellent speakers of the students= native tongues. The analysis itself remains largely the same! the primary difficulty is ,ust in translating the terms. +tudents could perform the speeches themselves to involve kinesthetic learners. Transcripts of speeches and videos involve both auditory and visual learners. Bigh performing students might be given more comple3 speeches! although the speeches themselves can be analy4ed at basic and advanced levels. Instead of contemporary speeches for the essay! historically relevant speeches might be more challenging and enlightening! but this might be an unnecessary complication. *ower performing students may be more interested in less political speeches! such as those by coaches or various inspirational figures. .valuation A. The students will turn in their 8arousel notes to be graded for completion but checked for 9uality of criticism. This gives the teacher a good idea where each student stands in terms of interest and ability when dealing with speeches before formal instruction. ;. +tudents have done relatively little so far! as this is an introduction to the unit! but they should at least be able to grasp what rhetoric is. If the essay assignment is too intimidating! they will know that they need to pay attention in the future and seek additional help as they progress.

Hotes

-rades A. The notes! as mentioned! will be graded for completion. The rhetorical analysis guide will be taken up eventually! but its importance in this lesson is minimal. ;. The unit centers upon writing a successful rhetorical analysis essay which includes a rubric and more detailed instructions. All assessments in this lesson and those leading up to the completion of the essay are meant to scaffold learning so that the students are ade9uately prepared and the teacher can address areas where the class demonstrates confusion. As such! there are few grades for accuracy this early in the unit. As mentioned! this is one of many lessons in a unit about rhetoric. It is one piece of a larger pro,ect to be worked on and completed as the students progress. It is also a precursor to work on a persuasive speech

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2eflection

presentation! so although studying how to speak and write persuasion is not the e3plicit goal of the lessons! it is an important one. I conducted a lesson somewhat like this! but it was significantly truncated. The students responded well to the point about rhetoric being relevant to a healthy democracy and the potential for how powerful and influential it could be. It was a point I wish I had emphasi4ed more! but one of the most significant limitations of the unit was that it was new to my mentor teacher as well due to changing standards! so we were kind of making everything up as we went along. I=m unsure about introducing such a large assignment at the end of class! but I think it=s best to talk about grades and potentially distracting assignments towards the end so they don=t disrupt the class as it moves forth. I=ll have to gauge reactions to find out whether it=s too much too soon or not! though. +peaking of which! I=m not sure about what 9uality of criticism I=ll get without formal instruction. I would hope the students can pick out some strong lines and powerful content! especially after we=ve discussed it as a class and they begin to see the differences between all the speeches. I definitely think it will be beneficial to have them read and engage the speeches in class. When I did this the first time! I ,ust gave them the speeches and told them to read them which! I think! turned out poorly (they neither read nor truly engaged the te3ts outside of class! in my estimation).

(Appendi3 A) 2hetorical Analysis .ssay


2ough raft ue< ?inal raft ue<
?or this assignment! you will write a fi"e paragraph essay using rhetorical analysis. 62hetoric7 refers to the effective use of language. In this essay! you will analy4e and write about various rhetorical choices the speaker makes. This kind of analysis helps us to evaluate arguments more effectively and respond appropriately. It will also help you prepare for writing your own researched speech in 5ctober. In this assignment! you will choose one of the following speeches. ?or this speech! you will clearly identify the author=s purpose. +ome important 9uestions to consider are< What is the speakerJs reason for writing this work> What are they trying to achieve> Then! you will write about how three of the following rhetorical strategies are used in the speech< I. *ogos (logical appeal) K. .thos (speakerJs credibility) I. #athos (emotional appeal) *. #arallelism and repetition (maintaining a similar sentence structure or repeating phrases) M. Byperboles (e3cessive e3aggerations to make a point) H. Analogies (comparing relationships to make a point) 5. iction (word choice) At some point (or throughout) the essay! you should address who the au ience is and how the speaker tries to reach them specifically. 2emember that your essay should be an analysis! not a summary. o not waste time telling your reader what the te3t saysL focus on how the te3t says it. Bowever! you should use multiple e3amples from the te3t to support your claims. :our own opinion of the sub,ect matter of the te3t is not necessary. This assignment does not ask you to agree or disagree with the author! only to analy4e how he or she is making a point. There is no need to mention yourself at any point in the essay. +tandard essay rules apply. :ou need a clear thesis! an introduction and conclusion! transitions! formal and grammatically correct language! strong paragraphs! etc.

(Appendi3 ;) Hame<

ate<

2hetorical Analysis -uide


Title< +peaker< What is the speakerJs purpose>

Who is the speakerJs target audience> Bow effective is the speakerJs argument> Will it help to change anyoneJs behavior or any policies>

Bow credible and reliable is the speaker> Bow will they benefit if their argument is successful> (ethos)

oes the speaker use logos (logical appeal)> Bow>

oes the speaker use pathos (emotional appeal)> Bow>

What is the tone of the te3t>

oes the speaker use parallelism and repetition! hyperbole! or analogies> #rovide e3amples.

What kind of words does the author use> (.asy to understand words> .motionally charged words> Intellectual words>)

*esson & +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal

.nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts

0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works *esson Title 1 Instructional 06Who and Why in 2hetoric7 5b,ective 0The students will be able to identify purpose and audience in the writing of others and tailor towards specific audiences while honing their purposes in their own writing +tandards PI 300-.3.22 3etermine the writer4s purpose in a writing sample PI 300-.3.23 I entify the targete au ience for a selecte passage Materials 08omputer and pro,ector%+martboard (both preferable! but not re9uired) 0#aper and writing utensils 0What can 2hetoric o for You Bandout (Appendi3 A) Instructional #rocedures #ellringer $cti"ity %20 &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pro,ect and read the following ,ournal entry to the class< Think of a time when you had to convince someone to do something they didnJt want or were reluctant to do. Who was it> What were you trying to get them to do> . Allow a moment for the students to think. .. After waiting! ask the class some of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. #redict how you might have changed your argument if you were talking to a different person (a parent! a sibling! a peer! etc). ii. *ist some other convincing arguments youJve made iii. 8ontrast this occasion with a time that you failed to convince someone to do something iv. esign a better argument than the one you used ?. Instruct students to write a ,ournal entry on the original entry or one of these prompts with at least one hundred words -. As the students are ,ournaling! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. B. 5nce the students have ,ournaled! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). I. As the class discussion progresses! make a T0chart with purposes on one side and audiences on the other. K. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask the class if they can identify some similarities between common purposes and common audiences. a. +tudents should make the connection that oneJs purpose and oneJs audience are closely related and help define each other.

(e"iew) $s* the stu ents how they might change their argument if they were tal*ing to a ifferent person %a parent, a si5ling, a peer, etc'. II. #rief +ecture an ,ui e Practice %20 minutes' A. Tell the students that the most important part of making an argument! ,ust like writing an essay! is identifying your purpose. When analy4ing someone elseJs rhetoric! you should always try to identify what their purpose is in speaking. ThatJs the measurement by which you can ,udge their effectiveness. ;. #rovide students with some e3amples of persuasive rhetoric and ask for their own input. +uggestions might include borrowing money! asking people on dates! making political speeches! and more. 8. After numerous students have spoken! tell students that the first consideration when making a speech or other type of rhetorical appeal should be to consider oneJs audience. The students should already have ideas about why this is so important! but ask them again. . Bave students share their reflections about how they might make different arguments to different people. What sort of language might they use when talking to a teacher compared to talking to a small child> What about the difference between talking to their peers and talking to their grandparents> .. "se some of the e3amples the students provide and play off of them. Bopefully there will be some comic effect of the disparity between approaches (6-et your dirty little hands off my toast! -randmaM7). The students should begin to key into the importance that audience plays. ?. Ask students how oneJs differing audience might change their purpose (for e3ample< If you need to get downtown one day you might try to borrow money from your parents! but you might try to hitch a ride from a friend etc. ;oth accomplish the side goal but both appeals would have different purposes). III. In epen ent Practice %4- minutes' A. #ass out 6What 8an 2hetoric o for You7 (Appendi3 A) handout. ;. 2emind students that their stated purpose should be e3plicit! like in their e3amples. Ie! their purpose is not to get to the movies but to convince their parents to let them borrow the car. 8. Tell students they will need to choose a partner after they have completed the worksheet and the teacher has initialed it (scanning it for accuracy and completion). . +et timer on blackboard for about twenty minutes and let students begin to work. .. While the students are working! the teacher should walk around the room! helping to prompt those who are off task or slow to start ?. .ventually! the first students should begin to finish and the teacher can initial their handouts. These students can begin to trade papers and work 9uietly.

-. As the partnered groups finish! the teacher should again go around and initial papers! asking several students to write their samples on the whiteboard and%or the +martboard. B. After the twenty minutes has passed! have students present their samples. These can be as simple as reading them off the board or can go so far as to be short skits. I. After each student presents! the teacher should solicit reactions from the class. The teacher should also be sure to point out cases of inappropriate arguments or ask the class how the situation might have been handled better (or worse). K. The teacher should make a final offer to see if anyone else has a 9uestion or would like to contribute. I.. /xploration, 0losure, an 1omewor* %- minutes' 8. The students will now have a brief amount of class time to work on their 2hetorical Analysis -uides provided the day before during their introduction to rhetoric. . They should be able to start clearly identifying the purpose and audience of their speakerJs speech and they should have a decent idea about the effectiveness of the argument! in the conte3t of their speakerJs audience. .. The teacher should address any remaining 9uestions and! if time permits! possibly review the speeches shown the previous day until the class ends. . ?or .** students! this lesson should really hit home because they constantly have to modify their very language for specific audiences. The handout could even include scenarios involving non0.nglish speakers to further engage students in the lesson. . +tudents could act out their scenarios to involve kinesthetic learners. They could also employ a variety of approaches incorporating music! dialog! and more in the various ways they try to reach their audience. . Bigh performing students might be given more comple3 situations and e3pected to deliver more structured arguments. *ow performing students may not be able to differentiate much between situations! but will hopefully still grasp the importance of clearly identifying what one is trying to do (purpose) and who the person is trying to convince (audience). I. .valuation A. The students will turn in the 6What 8an 2hetoric o for You7 Bandout to be graded for completion but checked for accuracy (particularly in identifying purpose). This gives the teacher a good idea where each student stands in terms of ability to identify a clear purpose which will be instrumental for their rhetorical analysis papers. ;. +tudents will be e3pected to fill out additional sections of their rhetorical analysis guide. If they cannot! then they

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will discover they have not learned the lesson as well as e3pected and should ideally seek additional help -rades A. The handout! as mentioned! will be graded for completion. The rhetorical analysis guide will be taken up eventually! but its importance in this lesson is incidental. ;. The unit centers upon writing a successful rhetorical analysis essay which includes a rubric and more detailed instructions. All assessments in this lesson and those leading up to the completion of the essay are meant to scaffold learning so that the students are ade9uately prepared and the teacher can address areas where the class demonstrates confusion. As such! there are few grades for accuracy this early in the unit. As mentioned! this is one of many lessons in a unit about rhetoric. It is one piece of a larger pro,ect to be worked on and completed as the students progress. It is also a precursor to work on a persuasive speech presentation! so although studying persuasion is not the e3plicit goal of the lessons! it is an important (hence the emphasis upon 9uestions about 6effectiveness7). The lesson went pretty well. I got some creative answers! and I think the students en,oyed working with each other and role0playing a bit to evaluate each otherJs arguments. +haring them with the class was really a great way of pointing out how similarly or differently the same situation could be handled by different individuals. I was somewhat surprised by how difficult it was for some students to clearly identify what their purpose was! but that may have been a problem of me not e3plaining what I wanted well enough. IJll have to be sure to model clearly and possibly try to check more as the class progresses. The lesson allows for a lot of creativity! which IJd call a strength! although it can (and did) lead to a few school0inappropriate responses that are probably ,ust part of teaching high school students in general. It is a somewhat rudimentary lesson in that it doesnJt really seem to introduce truly new concepts. Audience and purpose ought to be fairly self0evident. Bowever! they are integral aspects of their rhetorical analyses! so I believe the time spent is ,ustified. II.

Hotes

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$ppen ix $ :our name<

#artnerJs name<

ate<

1ow can (hetoric 1elp You) $u ience, Purpose, an /ffecti"eness $cti"ity Instructions< .ach of the following situations presents a problem and some relevant information. "sing rhetoric! try to find a way to get what you need. Identify who youJre trying to convince. Then! write what you want to happen after youJve made your argument. Write e3actly what you would say to your audience. After youJve completed both sides! trade with a partner. ecide whether your partnerJs argument is or isnJt effective based upon their purpose and audience. $. :ou need to get to the movie theater. :ou have a hot date! but your car wonJt start. :our date has his%her cell phone on. :our parents are home for the evening and each has their own car! but they are wary of letting you drive since you kinda0sorta0maybe hit a mailbo3 or two last time. Audience< #urpose< :our argument<

#artner< If you were this personJs audience! would you be convinced> .3plain.

&. :ou need some money. The new Hannah Montana Super-Unicorn-Rainbow Experience 8 is coming out tomorrow! and there is no way youJre going to go a day without getting in on that action. :ou canJt afford it! though. The local grocery store is hiring a cashier. :our parents have some money! but you havenJt done any chores in over a month. Audience< #urpose< :our argument<

#artner< If you were this personJs audience! would you be convinced> .3plain.

E. :ou need more time to do an assignment. :our dog ate your homework last night! but you canJt really blame it because youJre the one who forgot to feed it in the first place. The homework will probably take you thirty minutes to redo. ItJs Thursday! and you know your teacher wonJt start grading until the weekend. :ouJve only had one late assignment before this. :ou have a free enrichment period today. Audience< #urpose<

:our argument<

#artner< If you were this personJs audience! would you be convinced> .3plain.

G. :ou need to get off of work this +aturday. :ouJre scheduled to work +aturday night! but thereJs an awesome party at a friendJs house. 2umor has it there will be music AH dancingM ;est party ever! amirightM :ouJre allowed to switch shifts with a coworker! but the only one who might switch works +unday until midnight. Audience< #urpose<

:our argument<

#artner< If you were this personJs audience! would you be convinced> .3plain.

*esson E +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal

.nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts 0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works 0ommercial $ppeal< Bow 8ommercials 8onvince You to buy and Bow You 8an 8onvince Us to do it too. 0+tudents will analy4e specific rhetorical appeals found in commercials. 0+tudents will construct their own commercials! using these appeals. PI 300-.2.6 +elect the most appropriate strategies for participating productively in a team PI 300-.-.2 Makes inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence in te3t PI 300-.-.- +elect the persuasive device used in an ad or speech PI 300-.7.2 raw an inference from a non0print medium PI 300-.7.3 etermine the impact of production elements on a message 0 8ommercials 0 ?lash drive with commercial files(if youtube is blocked in school) 08omputer and pro,ect%+martboard 0#aper and writing utensils 0;utcher block paper 0Markers 0.thos! *ogos! #athos *ecture Hotes (Appendi3 A) 0.thos! *ogos! #athos Fuick0Analysis Bandout (Appendi3 ;) 0All supplementary information (non0tested! inessential! ,ust for conte3t) was provided by wikipedia.org on )%&G%&(() 0#olitical videos were provided by www.thelivingroomcandidate.org on )%&G%&(().

*esson Title 1 5b,ectives

+tandards

Materials

Instructional #rocedures

0All other videos were captured on www.youtube.com on )%&G%&(() #ellringer $cti"ity %20 &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pro,ect and read the following ,ournal entry to the class< Think of a commercial that really stuck with you! convincing you to buy its product or support for its candidate or idea. ;riefly summari4e the commercial and write about why it was so effective for you. A. Allow a moment for the students to think. ;. After waiting! ask the class some of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. id the commercial primarily convince you by making you feel that you were making the right choice or did it support its points with reason and many facts> ii. escribe the basic plot of the commercial. iii. #redict whether others would feel the same way. iv. 8ompare the commercial you=ve chosen to a different

commercials 8. Instruct students to write a ,ournal entry on the original entry or one of these prompts! writing at least $(( words. . As the students are ,ournaling! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. .. 5nce the students have ,ournaled! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). ?. As the class discussion progresses! write brief descriptions of the reasons the commercials were effective on the board (ie! 6the product looked awesome!7 6the commercial made a good argument!7 6It scared me!7 6the commercial was hilarious). -. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask the class if they can identify some related themes in their responses. a. Ideally! the students will have answers that form the basis for an introduction to the three appeals. If this does not happen! the teacher could provide personal e3amples that would fill in any gaps or suggest popular commercials that the students might be able to e3pound upon. b. It may be a good idea to organi4e the themes on the board. A +martboard might be helpful if the teacher could cut actually cut and paste the ideas from a disorgani4ed batch into coherent groups. (e"iew) $s* stu ents to gi"e a secon thought as to why they were con"ince 5y the a "ertisement they chose. 1a"e they thought of anything new or ifferent a5out the ways it appeale to them8 ,ui e Practice %30 minutes' I. #ass out notes to 6.thos! *ogos! #athos7 lecture. #ro,ect the notes on the +martboard. A. ;riefly go over what each term means! one by one. Also! be sure to define 6appeal!7 possibly by having them relate it to court appeals or something they already find appealing. $. After the definition for each appeal! focus on a few e3amples! from both personal memory and the students= own e3periences. Ask students a few of the following 9uestions. $. Why might this appeal be effective> &. What sort of things or issues would be good to sell or promote using this appeal> E. Is this appeal more or less likely to get people to make smart decisions> G. Bow might this appeal be misused or used to manipulate people> @. Bave you ever felt manipulated yourself (especially after youJve already done what the speaker asked)> ;. "nderline important words with the +martboard pen and write in

some of the students= e3amples and answers in the space provided. II. #ull up the 6.thos! *ogos! #athos Fuick0Analysis7 Bandout on the +martboard! but don=t pass it out yet. In this section of the class! you will model and work together to fill the handout out. 8. 8lip $. $)A$ 6Trident -um7 commercial. http<%%www.youtube.com%watch>vD-fNKk$4*isg $. Ask the class for their input. +ome arguments can be made that logos and pathos are appropriate! but focus on ethos. 6G out of @ dentists agree7 is a strong endorsement from e3perts in the field. &. Ask the class if they consider the ad effective! especially sincere Trident has been showing the ad for forty years. (5ptional< +how clip of &((C 6+9uirrel Attacks ?ifth entist.7 http<%%www.youtube.com%watch>vD3A/A*OB)n3") E. #oint out that G out of @ dentists agree that Trident is good for people who chew gum. Why is that part important> What could it mean> . 8lip &. $)CC 6Willie Borton7 commercial. http<%%www.livingroomcandidate.org%commercials%$)CC $. Ask the class for their input. *ogos might be appropriate! but be sure to focus on pathos. #rovide some conte3t about the election! possibly even doing a straight0up plot summary of the ad as some students might find it confusing. &. Bow did the ad make students feel> Would they be more likely to vote for ;ush after seeing it> Ask them about the tone and colors. E. ?inally! ,ust mention that some found the ad racist and note why. Make no comment either way about it! ,ust bring it to the students= attention in the interest of cultural relevancy. .. 8lip E. 6Tums +ecurity -uard7 commercial http<%%www.youtube.com%watch>vD(5eEM0@NB/. $. Again! ask the class for their input. #athos might be appropriate! but the teacher should press the logos angle. &. Ask students how they felt about the ad. Was it boring> Were they convinced> Why or why not> E. Would they purchase Tums over another brand> III. Independent #ractice (&( minutes) A. How pass out the copy of the handout to the class. ;. o the same activity as before! but this time have students write down their answers without talking to each other. Tell them they will be turning the handout in. 8. "se the four following clips (or comparable other e3amples)! emphasi4ing diversity of tone! appeal! and content. +how each clip twice. i. 8lip G. 6Billary 8linton EAM #hone7 http<%%www.youtube.com%watch> vDAyrAod?"A2g1featureDplayerNembeddedPtDE(

Assessment

ii. 8lip @. 68harles ;arkley% wayne Wade T0Mobile7 http<%%www.youtube.com%watch> vD'FIBCHrHeso1featureDplayerNembeddedPtD'E iii. 8lip '. 6.ducation8onnection.com! #op Kingle7 http<%%www.youtube.com%watch>vDW:+@Ht2OlQF iv. 8lip A. $)'G 6 aisy!7 *;K campaign ad http<%%www.livingroomcandidate.org%commercials%type%fear . After the students are done! take up their handouts so the teacher can get a good idea of the students= understanding! individually. -ive completion grade! as long as obvious effort has been made (appropriate blanks filled in! answers supported with e3amples). .. 2eview each commercial. Many may need to be e3plained to student! especially given the lack of conte3t (at the teacher=s discretion! this can be provided before showing each video or not). ?. 5ptional< 8lip C $)CG 6$)CG7 Macintosh. This clip includes an allusion to a work the class may read later. It is also a seminal work in advertising! so it may be worthwhile for the students to view it simply because of its cultural pertinence. http<%%www.youtube.com%watch>vD5:ecf/Eub#C III. .3ploration! 8losure! and Bomework (2emainder of class time! leading into ne3t class if time is needed) A. The students will now be tasked with creating their own advertisements using at least two different appeals. They may use made up or e3isting products (possibly even issues%candidates! depending on maturity of class)! as long as they are class appropriate. The teacher might even bring sample products to class. The students may also group together if desired! but all group members must participate. The commercial can be presented in a skit form or a visual poster. .ach student should be ready to e3plain which appeals they used in making their advertisements and why they think that appeal would be effective. ;. As the students are working! the teacher should walk around the room to ensure all group members are participating and everyone is on task. +ome students may need help coming up with a product or appeal! so the teacher may wish to bring up the ,ournal entry from the beginning of class as an e3ample of a commercial and product the student appreciated. 8. epending on how long the rest of the lesson ran! the students should either finish their commercial in class that day or be allowed some time on the following school day. #resentations! regardless! will be given the ne3t day. I. .valuation A. The students will turn in the 6.thos! *ogos! #athos Fuick0Analysis7 Bandout to be graded for completion but

Hotes

2eflection

checked for accuracy. This gives the teacher a good idea where each student stands in terms of familiarity and ability to use the three types of appeal ;. +tudents will have their notes and will be able to compare their work with the notes theyJve taken. +tudents can do a 9uick E0&0$! writing what theyJve learned and still want to know. TheyJll also fill out their rhetorical analysis guide for their speech analysis. II. -rades The handout! as mentioned! will be graded for completion. The commercial will be graded based upon participation (all group members are e3pected to be able to respond). The unit centers upon writing a successful rhetorical analysis essay which includes a rubric and more detailed instructions. All assessments in this lesson and those leading up to the completion of the essay are meant to scaffold learning so that the students are ade9uately prepared and the teacher can address areas where the class demonstrates confusion. As such! there are few grades for accuracy this early in the unit. As mentioned! this is one of many lessons in a unit about rhetoric. It is one piece of a larger pro,ect to be worked on and completed as the students progress. It is also a precursor to work on a persuasive speech presentation! so although studying persuasion is not the e3plicit goal of the lessons! it is an important (hence the emphasis upon 9uestions about 6effectiveness7). 5verall! I thought this lesson went well. This plan is somewhat adapted after my initial run through! but there are plenty of areas for improvement. I tend to show too many e3amples and run short on time! so limiting my eagerness to e3pose my students to more commercials is probably a good thing to aim for. I was surprised at the confusion many of my students displayed as to the content of many of the commercials. The political commercials! especially! seemed difficult for them to grasp (which I found ironic! since such manipulative spots are often aimed at low0information voters). I need to do a better ,ob of conte3tuali4ing and maybe even e3plicitly discussing intent and plot in many of these spots. -enerally! as e3pected! students who were on task and paid attention did well. All of them grasped various aspects of appeal! although itJs definitely something that should be reviewed the ne3t day. ?inally! I thought I did a decent ,ob diversifying the political slant of the commercials! but I could possibly use an 5bama commercial (or the will.i.am youtube video) for the sake of e9uity. ;eing an 5bama0voter! like the Hew :ork Times! IJm wary of my own bias seeping through! but thatJs something to work on. IJd also like to discuss the ethics of the approaches used! at some point. The focus on 6effectiveness7 lends itself

to an 6ends not means7 cynicism that while edifying might need to be addressed so my students gain a respect for honest discourse and are not as susceptible to manipulative methods.

Modifications

A. If I had .nglish *anguage *earners! I could probably use +panish (or other foreign language) commercials. It could even prove useful for the entire class because we can focus more on music! body language! or color than on the word0centric appeals. ;. My lesson already has some accommodations for different types of learners! because the commercials can be delivered in a variety of creative (and active) varieties. TheyJre visual but also have a great deal of verbal0linguistic characteristics. If my class really needed to be active! 8. ifferent levels of sophistication of the commercials is a given. Bowever! different levels of students will also re9uire different levels of conte3tuali4ation. While higher level students may understand plot points with little difficulty! lower levels learners may need more support while still learning about the types of argumentative appeals.

(Appendi3 A)

.thos! *ogos! and #athos

/thos is appeal based on the character of the speaker. .thos works by presenting you with an e3pert or a trusted celebrity who recommends a product. +ince they have credentials or you recogni4e them and trust them! you=re more likely to buy the product or believe the argument because the person who=s making it is reliable.
8. 6Bi! I=m an e3pert in this field. ;uy this product. ;eing an e3pert! I should know what=s good for you. +o do it. ;elieve me! I=m an e3pert.7

+ogos is appeal based on logic or reason. *ogos works by presenting you with facts and a supported argument for why you should buy a product or trust an idea instead of using or believing something else. It=s pretty straightforward.
0 6:ou could buy another product from another company. ;ut our product offers M52. good stuff than other brands do. It offers it ;.TT.2 than other brands do. And it offers it 8B.A#.2 than other brands do. ;uy our product. It=s the smarter choice.7

Pathos is appeal based on emotion. #athos works by making you feel like you should do something! regardless of what the facts are. ?or instance! you might feel sympathy for the downtrodden so you donate money. This could be supported by a logical argument (logos) about how the money will help. ;ut often arguments that use pathos ,ust rely on emotionsL donate because it makes you feel good and helps people! who cares how e3actly the money=s spent> This is the appeal that is probably most often used because it is the most effective and the easiest to manipulate people with.
#. 6If you don=t buy our product! your family will die. ;": IT 52 .*+..7 F. 6That commercial sure was funnyM 5n an unrelated note! buy something.7 2. 6That commercial sure was movingM 5n an unrelated note! buy something.7

Hame<

ate< (Appendi3 ;) .thos! *ogos! and #athos

After viewing each commercial! underline the appeal(s) used. +upport your claim(s). Then! briefly state whether you would be more likel to buy the product or vote for the candidate advertised (is the ad effecti!e>). $. #roduct%8andidate advertised< .TB5+< *5-5+< #ATB5+< Is the ad effective>

&. #roduct%8andidate advertised< .TB5+< *5-5+< #ATB5+< Is the ad effective>

E. #roduct%8andidate advertised .TB5+< *5-5+< #ATB5+< Is the ad effective>

G. #roduct%8andidate advertised< .TB5+< *5-5+< #ATB5+< Is the ad effective> (would you be more likel buy the product%vote for the candidate>)

*esson G +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal .nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts

0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works *esson Title 1 Instructional 06I on=t *ike :our Tone! Mr. (Meggs)7 5b,ective 0The students will identify a speaker=s tone and be able to differentiate between mood and tone. +tandards PI 300-.3.22 3etermine the writer's purpose in a writing sample. PI 300-.3.22 I entify a statement that re"eals the author's attitu e. Materials 08omputer and pro,ector%+martboard (both preferable! but not re9uired) 0#aper and writing utensils 0 *yrics and .mpE of ;ruce +pringsteen=s 6;orn in the "+A7 (Appendi3 A) Instructional #rocedures #ellringer $cti"ity %20 &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pro,ect and read the following ,ournal entry to the class< Bow might the author=s attitude towards their sub,ect affect the way they write> ?or instance! would you use different words if you were angry about something than if you were pleased with it> A. Allow a moment for the students to think. ;. After waiting! ask the class some of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. #redict what kinds of words a person who is angry would use. How predict what kinds of words a person who is enrage would use. ii. Illustrate two pictures that are about the same topic or event but from 6painters7 that have opposite feelings about the events. iii. 8ompare how one=s attitude might affect one=s writing vs. how one=s attitude might affect one=s music. iv. 8hange a previous ,ournal entry you=ve written by pretending to have a different emotional reaction to the prompt. 8. Instruct students to write a ,ournal entry on the original entry or one of these prompts with at least one hundred words . As the students are ,ournaling! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. .. 5nce the students have ,ournaled! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). ?. As the class discussion progresses! the teacher should list some of the responses. -. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask the class to identify words that are angry and words that might indicate a

person is pleased. B. #rompt them to consider how something can sound happy but have a darker attitude. "se sarcasm as an e3ample! 6I=m so happy to see you=ve left your pants at home A-AIH -randpaM7 (and remind them of verbal irony while you=re at it). a. +tudents should make the connection that there may be a difference between what they will learn are tone and mood. (e"iew) $s* stu ents for examples of times their "oice has soun e the opposite of the meaning of their wor s. II. #rief +ecture %2- minutes' 8. Introduce the concepts of mood and tone to students. $. Tone 0 The authorJs attitude! stated or implied! toward a sub,ect. +ome possible attitudes are pessimism! optimism! earnestness! seriousness! bitterness! humorous! and ,oyful. An authorJs tone can be revealed through choice of words and details. &. Mood 0 The climate of feeling in a literary work. The choice of setting! ob,ects! details! images! and words all contribute towards creating a specific mood. ?or e3ample! an author may create a mood of mystery around a character or setting but may treat that character or setting in an ironic! serious! or humorous tone. . #rovide some further e3amples for students (sarcasm is good) and try to draw upon popular culture. +atire is also helpful (maybe reference a recent +aturday Hight *ive sketch). III. ,ui e Practice %4- minutes' A. Tell students that you=re about to play the song 6;orn in the "+A7 by ;ruce +pringsteen. on=t give them any other information aside from that. ;. Tell the students to focus on how the music makes them feel. 8. #lay the song. . Ask the students how they felt. Then ask how them to characteri4e the music. Is it upbeat> #atriotic> Koyful> (:ou may or may not want to suggest those words as they are leading). $. Ideally (for the purposes of this lesson) the students will listen to the music more than the lyrics and focus on the positive sound. &. If students do pick up on the difference or have learned of it before! acknowledge that it=s accurate! have the student e3plain it further! and then proceed. .. Tell students that 2onald 2eagan made the same mistake they did in his $)CG presidential bid! looking only at the title of the song and listening to its sound instead of interpreting its words. In other words! he mistook mood for tone. ?. How! provide conte3t for +pringsteen=s song! referencing the /ietnam War and +pringsteen=s politics.

-. #ass out the lyrics to the song and read through them with the students. B. Ask them what words and situations stand out as indicating +pringsteen=s true attitude towards American and the /ietnam War (6yellow man!7 6nowhere to run! nowhere to go7). I. *isten to the song again as a class! having the students try to pay closer attention to the words. K. After the song is over! ask the students why they think +pringsteen chose to use such 6misleading7 music (tone) with such negative lyrics (mood). I.. /xploration, 0losure, an 3iscussion %20 minutes' B. ;riefly discuss what the tones and moods might be for the speeches they=re writing on! emphasi4ing how the conte3t of the event tends to emphasi4e mood while the speaker tends to choose the tone. I. Bave the students fill out e3it slips that specifically identify what they believe the mood and the tone of the speeches they=re analy4ing are. . .** learners should pick up on the mood of +pringsteen=s song! but they may need more information to really understand +pringsteen=s criticisms%point of view. . Audio learners should love this lesson. Iinesthetic learners may get antsy! but they may find some outlet by performing e3amples during the initial discussion (providing the same situation! then having different people with different attitudes perform it). /isual learners may struggle until they get the lyric sheet in front of them! but that=s part of the point of the lesson. . Bigh performing students might be asked to make more inferences from the song lyrics. They might also get the concept faster! allowing the teacher to test another song with the class. *ower performing students will likely need more e3plicit discussion time to better help them understand the differences. A. .valuation . iscussion is the primary method of evaluation. Ideally! the teacher will be able to gauge student learning by comments made in class. +tudents will also respond on their e3it slips! which should be addressed at a later point if they demonstrate student confusion. .. +tudents should hopefully feel free to ask 9uestions throughout. If they find themselves struggling to understand what the difference between +pringsteen=s music and his words is! they will not have grasped mood and tone and should seek further assistance. -rades

Modifications

Assessment

;.

Hotes

2eflection

A. This only grade given might be for participation in the ,ournal and the e3it slip. ;. The unit centers upon writing a successful rhetorical analysis essay which includes a rubric and more detailed instructions. All assessments in this lesson and those leading up to the completion of the essay are meant to scaffold learning so that the students are ade9uately prepared and the teacher can address areas where the class demonstrates confusion. As such! there are few grades for accuracy this early in the unit. The -uided #ractice section may take a shorter amount of time than anticipated depending on how easily the students grasp the concepts. If so! have the students act out common situations! altering their tone while maintaining the same mood (or vice versa). I planned this lesson but had to be absent for a professional development day! so I=m not sure entirely how it went. My mentor teacher! who taught it for me! said that the students didn=t care much for the song choice! but soon warmed up to it as they began to see the comple3ity of +pringsteen=s efforts. This really is a perfect song for this activity! but if I find a more contemporary song that my students might find appealing! I=ll possibly try to use that. 5therwise! as mentioned in the note! this is one of the few lessons that might run short. +ince this is a nuanced and difficult concept! though! this may be a blessing as it allows other creative activities such as the one listed in the advisory note. ?inally! a wise move would be to include the song in the syllabus! ,ust in case. It is political! although who would get upset about an anti0 /ietnam War song over thirty years after the fact is beyond me.

(Appendi3 A) ;orn in the "+A! by ;ruce +pringsteen


Born down in a dead man's town The first kick I took was when I hit the ground You end up like a dog that's been beat too much 'Til you spend half your life just covering up [chorus: Born in the !"#"$" Born in the !"#"$" Born in the !"#"$" Born in the !"#"$" I got in a little hometown jam $nd so they put a rifle in my hands #ent me off to %ietnam To go and kill the yellow man [chorus &ome back home to the refinery 'iring man says (#on if it was up to me( I go down to see the %"$" man 'e said (#on don't you understand( [chorus I had a buddy at )he #ahn *ighting off the %iet &ong They're still there+ he's all gone 'e had a little girl in #aigon I got a picture of him in her arms ,own in the shadow of the penitentiary -ut by the gas fires of the refinery I'm ten years down the road .owhere to run+ ain't got nowhere to go I'm a long gone ,addy in the !"#"$" Born in the !"#"$" I'm a cool rocking ,addy in the !"#"$" Born in the !"#"$"

*esson @ +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal .nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts

0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works *esson Title 1 Instructional 06-iving #oints for +tyle.7 5b,ective 0The students will be able to identify! use! and define parallelism! repetition! hyperbole! rhetorical 9uestion! and analogy. +tandards PI 300-.2.- I entify the rhetorical e"ices use in a complex speech. Materials 08omputer and pro,ector%+martboard (both preferable! but not re9uired) 0#aper and writing utensils 0#ossibly sheet paper or a white board! depending on the teacher=s preference Instructional #rocedures #ellringer $cti"ity %20 &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pro,ect and read the following ,ournal entry to the class< o you believe that there is an 6art7 to language> What makes the writing of a novel from an instruction manual> A. Allow a moment for the students to think. ;. After waiting! ask the class some of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. 8ompose a sample of writing that mimics both 6creative7 writing and 6instructional7 writing but addresses the same topic. ii. 2elate writing to a different kind of art such as music or painting (possibly using the instructional manual%novel parallel). iii. 2ewrite a scene from your favorite novel in an instructional form or vice versa. (If you don=t have a favorite instruction manual! what=s wrong with you>M Immediate ?.) iv. efine 6art.7 8. Instruct students to write a ,ournal entry on the original entry or one of these prompts with at least one hundred words . As the students are ,ournaling! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. .. 5nce the students have ,ournaled! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). ?. The teacher should poll the class and see how many agree that language is art! writing the two numbers on the board. Then the class should discuss the results with each side allowed to defend its point. -. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask those skeptical of language as an art form to consider how creativity

can change a te3t from something boring to something engaging. a. +tudents should make the connection that the way language is used is ,ust as important as what it is meant to address. (e"iew) $s* the stu ents how using creati"e language can 5e more effecti"e than flat information. II. #rief +ecture, ,ui e Practice, an In epen ent Practice %-- minutes' A. This lesson is! in many ways! a series of minilessons each addressed to a different rhetorical device. It follows the 6I do! we do! you do7 modeling strategy. Therefore! lecture! guided practice! and independent practice are constantly cycled through throughout the lesson. ;. ;egin by introducing the concept of a 6rhetorical device!7 possibly comparing it to the camera techni9ues of a cameraman or the brush strokes of a painter. 8. Introduce the above format of 6I do! you do! we do7 to the students. . +egue into 6analogies7 by pointing out that the class has already used three (the instruction manual is to novel as utilitarian is to artistic and the cameraman%painter comparisons). .3plain what an analogy is! possibly giving a formal definition relating to 6shared similarities7 between things or ideas. .. 8onstruct an analogy as a class. The students will likely need some prompting at first! but note that the key is to think of two related things! find a third and then try to identify what component complements or supplements it to the same degree. ?. After a few samples! have each member of the class write two or three of their own (tell them it will be turned in). -. Those who finish should raise their hand and have the teacher e3amine their work and initial their sheet. The teacher should encourage students to write their e3amples on the whiteboard%smartboard. B. After everyone has finished or a sufficient time has passed (some students may be off task or need additional attention later)! have interested students share their analogies. I. The teacher should be sure to ask for class input to gauge understanding of the concept. K. (5ptional) epending on the class dynamics! it may be fun and%or useful to turn the activity into a kind of competition! with the class voting for the best analogy using the paper they write their samples on. In other words! points for style. They probably won=t get the pun! but they=ll have fun anyway. The individual winner or the winner of the day after all the minilessons have been completed can receive e3tra credit or some kind of pri4e. I. This same format should be repeated with parallelism! repetition! hyperbole! and rhetorical 9uestions. *. Ideally! the teacher should draw upon past e3amples in previous

minilessons to segue into the ne3t minilesson (ie! the instructional manual%novel or if a particularly funny in0,oke develops! that might be a good linking idea to use throughout). M. The teacher may wish to clear the board after every round or save the work to create a true sense of accomplishment and emphasi4e how much can truly be accomplished with these devices. I.. /xploration, 0losure, an 1omewor* %20 minutes' A. The teacher should conclude by telling students to look at all they=ve accomplished in the period. Bopefully each student can highlight something they=re proud of. If everything has been left on the board (or! even! written on white sheet paper to be displayed in the class)! it should leave 9uite the visual impression. ;. The students can now consider themselves language artistsM (This could be developed further! with different colors and font styles! but that may prove distracting. +omething for the teacher to consider! at any rate). 8. 2emind the students that these devices are used in all kinds of speeches to create stirring effects and provoke thoughts that would otherwise not occur in their audience. . In whatever time remains! the students should begin to fill out the corresponding section of their 2hetorical Analysis -uide passed out previously. .. The teacher should remember to tally the +tyle #oints! if applicable! and crown the victor the following class period. . ?or .** students! the teacher may wish to provide e3amples in the students= native tongues or allow them to create e3amples using their own languages. 2hetoric! after all! is the art of language! not .nglish. . Iinesthetic learners may wish to engage in performances of their e3amples instead of merely writing them down. Writing and hearing the e3amples should engage auditory and visual learners. . Bigh performing students might be e3pected to create more e3amples or be encouraged to tie in characters and situations from previous literature the class has studied. This is not an idea that would work solely with high achievers! but the added complication may be distracting for lower achievers. A. .valuation A. .ach student will turn in their portion of the 6I do! we do! you do7 assignment! along with their style point votes (if applicable) to be graded primarily for completion (the points are a matter of sub,ective taste). This gives the teacher a good idea where each student stands in terms of being able to use and understand the devices. ;. If students are confused by various prompts or find they cannot fill out the appropriate portion of the rhetorical analysis guide! they will know they have not ade9uately learned the material.

Modifications

Assessment

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-rades A. The individual work! as mentioned! will be graded for completion. The rhetorical analysis guide will be taken up eventually! but its importance in this lesson is minimal. ;. The unit centers upon writing a successful rhetorical analysis essay which includes a rubric and more detailed instructions. All assessments in this lesson and those leading up to the completion of the essay are meant to scaffold learning so that the students are ade9uately prepared and the teacher can address areas where the class demonstrates confusion. As such! there are few grades for accuracy this early in the unit. As mentioned! this is one of many lessons in a unit about rhetoric. It is one piece of a larger pro,ect to be worked on and completed as the students progress. Although the students are not directly analy4ing te3ts in this lesson! being able to appropriately use the rhetorical devices themselves should give them an idea of the potential as well as the basic definition of each one. +tyle and rhetorical devices were something that I definitely screwed up when I originally taught this unit. The way I presented them made them seem more like e3tensions of tone than anything else. I rather like the idea of a 6+tyle #oints7 competition! though. I=m generally hesitant of promoting competition in the classroom! but this setup kind of has a 6rounds of a fight7 feel that will leave students anticipating their ne3t chance to try something new and maybe find better results than they did last time. It also helps students figure out which of their e3amples are most effective based on the responses of their classmates. 5bviously! time is a factor! and I can easily see this being a two day lesson. That wouldn=t be a significant deterrent! though! and might even add to the effect of the 6tournament.7 With that said! the same format repeated so many times may become boring for the students. It might be worthwhile to teach one minilesson a day! but that would re9uire a significant restructuring of the unit and might prove too dis,ointed. It=s definitely something to keep an eye on! though.

;.

*esson ' +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal .nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts

0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works *esson Title 1 Instructional 06A 2hetoric of 5ne=s 5wn7 5b,ective 0The students will read and begin to analy4e a work of ;ritish literature for both its rhetoric and its content. +tandards PI 300-.2.4 Write a rhetorical analysis of a select piece of literature or informational text analyzing a writer's use of rhetorical strategies in relation to the writer's purpose, relationship with au ience, an !or effecti"eness of message. PI 300-.9.3 $nalyze texts to i entify the author's life experiences, attitu es, "iewpoints, an 5eliefs an how these relate to the larger historical, social, an cultural context of his!her worl . Materials 08omputer and pro,ector%+martboard (both preferable! but not re9uired) 0#aper and writing utensils 0 The 6+hakespeare=s +ister7 section of /irginia Woolf=s " Room of #ne$s #wn either in the te3tbook! novel form! or a printed copy. Instructional #rocedures #ellringer $cti"ity %20 &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pro,ect and read the following ,ournal entry to the class< What might you want to use rhetoric to try to convince society to change> Bow might you do it> A. Allow a moment for the students to think. ;. After waiting! ask the class some of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. #redict how effective your rhetoric will be. (What effects will it! realistically! have on society and your audience>) ii. esign a different speech for an audience that already agrees with you. iii. 2elate your rhetoric to a similarly affecting e3perience of your own. iv. *ist which appeals and rhetorical devices you might use. 8. Instruct students to write a ,ournal entry on the original entry or one of these prompts with at least one hundred words . As the students are ,ournaling! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. .. 5nce the students have ,ournaled! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). ?. As the class discussion progresses! the teacher should list some of the topics students would to like to engage and! possibly! some of

the rhetorical methods they would try to use. -. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask the class how effective they believe rhetoric can be in changing minds and society in general. B. #rompt them to consider the effectiveness of the speeches they are writing their essays on. a. +tudents should make the connection that speeches alone cannot effect great change! but they can be important components of social progress. (e"iew) $s* the stu ents what significant steps of social progress they'"e learne a5out an which speeches!pieces of rhetoric might 5e associate with them %&+: an 0i"il (ights, ;<: an =pace, <3( an WWII, +incoln an the 0i"il War, >he 3eclaration of In epen ence an >he (e"olutionary War'. II. #rief +ecture %20 minutes' A. ;egin by introducing /irginia Woolf as a person devoted to change but with little resources aside from her ability with language to pursue it. ;. 8onte3tuali4e her beliefs and society! specifically in relation to " Room of #ne$s #wn% There may be an overview in the te3tbook or preface of the novel that could prove useful. 8. It may also be a good idea to introduce some of Woolf=s ideas not specifically discussed in this e3cerpt. . The students should have read Macbeth previously in the semester! so they should be familiar with the gender roles in +hakespeare=s time. Bowever! a brief review is probably necessary (the teacher can probably 9uestion the class instead of lecturing). .. epending on how much attention the teacher paid to *ady Macbeth! the gender roles in the play itself might be pertinent (*ady Macbeth couldn=t become king! so she encouraged her husband to do it. #redict how this might affect +hakespeare=s fictional 6sister.7) III. (ea ing an 3iscussion as a 0lass %-0 minutes' A. 2ead the e3cerpt as a class. The method of reading doesn=t particularly matter (popcorning seems to be a popular choice of students). ;. The teacher should monitor all students to ensure they are not sleeping. 8alling on them to answer 9uestions may be a good way to avoid confrontation while ensuring they=re attentive. 8. As the students read! be sure to stop them fre9uently to model 6thinking aloud7 about the piece. In the first paragraph or two! the teacher might point out to the class pieces of hyperbole or the overarching analogy of the piece (or they may wish to ask students and only answer if the students don=t figure it out themselves). Then! after subse9uent paragraphs! ask a general 9uestion to the class< $. What are some e3amples of logos thus far> &. oes Woolf want us to feel sorry for +hakespeare=s sister>

What appeal is that an e3ample of> E. 8an anyone find any e3amples of repetition or parallelism> I don=t know if I can! either. III. The teacher may or may not wish to 9uestion for the entire te3t. The students will be doing their own practice analyses during the ne3t lesson! and they need to be given the opportunity to find and analy4e e3amples previously not covered with the class. I.. /xploration, 0losure, an 3iscussion %30 minutes' A. After the class finishes reading! the teacher should ask the class to reflect upon the reading. Although this is not directly related to rhetoric! the piece itself begs e3ploration and it might be a good distraction from the analysis of form to look at content for a change. ;. The teacher should pose a variety of 9uestions to the class! although ideally the class will be engaged enough to ask 9uestions themselves. epending on time constraints! it would probably be prudent for the teacher to tell the class that each member must talk 3 number of times to be given a satisfactory grade for the discussion. +ome e3ample 9uestions might be< I. What might /irginia Woolf=s audience have thought of her content> Bow might a male have reacted differently from a female> II. What specific obstacles did Kulia +hakespeare run into> (Make a list on the board for visual learners) III. o you agree with Woolf=s assertion that a person needs money and privacy to be able to create art> 8. When only a few minutes remain in the class! have students write e3it slips writing whether they believe Woolf=s e3cerpt was effective and give two reasons why. . Take up the e3it slips as the students leave class. . The only real modification that seems applicable for .** students would be to choose a different te3t. There may be something from House on Mango Street that would fit the bill! but I personally don=t have a diverse enough background to come up with many more te3ts. . Iinesthetic learners may wish to act out scenes of be given larger reading roles. /isual learners will probably need the teacher to write pertinent points and information on the board (a smartboard that could load the te3t to a position where it could be directly manipulated would be 9uite helpful in this regard). . Bigh performing students might be asked to read more than ,ust this e3cerpt or might be given a more difficult te3t. Konathan +wift=s " Modest &roposal would be more difficult to read and analy4e as it is not a straightforward appeal. This may or may not be too distant from the scaffolding of the rest of the unit! though. *ower achieving students may be asked

Modifications

to read a less challenging te3t! such as a contemporary editorial or sports review. Assessment A. .valuation A. iscussion is the primary method of evaluation. Ideally! the teacher will be able to gauge student learning by comments made in class. The real engagement is in the following lesson! though. ;. +tudents should hopefully feel free to ask 9uestions throughout. If they find themselves struggling to answer the teacher=s 9uestions in discussion! they will find that they have not followed as closely as they ideally would have.

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-rades 8. The discussion! as mentioned! will be graded for participating a certain number of times! depending on time constraints. . The unit centers upon writing a successful rhetorical analysis essay which includes a rubric and more detailed instructions. All assessments in this lesson and those leading up to the completion of the essay are meant to scaffold learning so that the students are ade9uately prepared and the teacher can address areas where the class demonstrates confusion. As such! there are few grades for accuracy this early in the unit. The most significant problem with this lesson is that it is very discussion heavy! and the discussion is somewhat off0topic for the unit. That=s an acceptable sacrifice in my eyes! as I believe it=s a topic worth discussing and the ideas and effectiveness of those ideas are important aspects of rhetoric. I could understand the argument that it might prove distracting! though! and hopefully I=ll be able to modify if need be. I had originally used Konathan +wift=s " Modest &roposal for this part of the unit and although the students understood the satire! it proved to be a poor choice for rhetoric since it is not straightforward in its appeals. I also found that I ran out of time during the semester before I could get to Woolf=s piece and! since gender studies are a passion of mine! this kills two birds with one stone. The timing of lesson may be off! I=m not sure. " Modest &roposal took two full class periods to read! but this is an e3cerpt so I=m not sure how long it will take. The discussion can be lengthened or shortened as necessitated! though! so I=m not overly concerned.. As noted! the discussion is also not e3clusively about rhetoric! but critical analysis is also a ma,or goal of the course so I feel it=s appropriate. If it proves distracting! I may focus the lesson more.

;.

*esson A +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal .nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts

0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works *esson Title 1 Instructional 06A 2hetorical Analysis of 5ne=s 5wn7 5b,ective 0The students will analy4e a piece of rhetoric and create an outline for it in preparation of doing their own rhetorical analysis. +tandards PI 300-.2.4 Write a rhetorical analysis of a select piece of literature or informational text analyzing a writer's use of rhetorical strategies in relation to the writer's purpose, relationship with au ience, an !or effecti"eness of message. PI 300-.9.3 $nalyze texts to i entify the author's life experiences, attitu es, "iewpoints, an 5eliefs an how these relate to the larger historical, social, an cultural context of his!her worl . Materials 08omputer and pro,ector%+martboard (both preferable! but not re9uired) 0#aper and writing utensils 0 The 6+hakespeare=s +ister7 section of /irginia Woolf=s " Room of #ne$s #wn either in the te3tbook! novel form! or a printed copy. 0 #oem handout! 6?or +ale7 by +hel +ilverstein (Appendi3 A) 0 Atticus=s +peech (Appendi3 ;) 0 +ample 2hetorical Analysis (Appendi3 8) 02hetorical Analysis -uide (#osted in previous lesson plan) Instructional #rocedures #ellringer $cti"ity %2- &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pro,ect and pass out a copy of +hel +ilverstein=s 6?or +ale.7 A. Allow a moment for the students to read it! then have one student read it (perform it) aloud. ;. After waiting! have the class complete two of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. Analy4e the effectiveness of the poem=s speaker. Which rhetorical devices does he use well> Which devices does he use poorly> ii. #redict whether he=ll be successful in selling his sister. iii. esign a better argument%poem for selling one=s sister. 8. Instruct students to answer two of these 9uestions. . As the students are writing! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. .. 5nce the students have finished! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). ?. The teacher should poll the class to see how many think the poem is effective (few if any will likely sincerely raise their hands). -. As the class discussion progresses! the teacher should ask some

basic 9uestions about purpose! audience! the devices used! etc. B. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask the class how confident they feel in their abilities to analy4e rhetoric. (e"iew) Pass out a 5lan* copy of the (hetorical $nalysis ,ui e an ha"e each stu ent fully fill it out for the poem in i"i ually an silently. >ell them this will 5e gra e for accuracy %especially since the class ?ust finishe iscussing most of the answers to the @AuizB moments 5efore'. II. #rief +ecture an ,ui e Practice %2- minutes' A. Tell students that you=re now going to model how you would do a rhetorical analysis. ;. Ask the class if they remember reading Barper *ee=s To 'ill " Mockingbird in their freshman .nglish class. Many of them may not have read it and others will have forgotten reading it! but hopefully a fair number will recall the te3t. 8. -ive a brief plot synopsis leading up to Atticus ?inch=s speech at Tom 2obinson=s trial. If students remember! they can do it for you. ;e sure to include the conte3t of the trial and what=s at stake. . #ass out a copy of Atticus=s speech (Appendi3 ;). .. Watch -regory #eck as Atticus ?inch give the speech as the students read along. http<%%www.americanrhetoric.com%Movie+peeches%moviespeechtok illamockingbird.html ?. After watching! briefly gauge the students= reactions ( o you feel the speech was effective> .tc.) -. Then! pull up a copy of the 2hetorical Analysis -uide on the smartboard and complete it. :ou may wish to ask for student input! but the focus should be on how to do it 6correctly.7 B. Then! walk students through a sample outline of a five paragraph rhetorical analysis. #ay particular attention to the 6thesis7 emphasi4ing purpose and how that purpose is supported by the rhetorical devices and appeals (tell students that we will work more on this later). I. Then! pass out the sample 2hetorical Analysis (Appendi3 8). K. Tell students that this is what the body of a good rhetorical analysis would look like. I. .mphasi4e the focus upon purpose throughout as well as the way you don=t ,ust identify which rhetorical devices and appeals are present but how those devices and appeals support and better con!e the purpose. *. Ask students if there are any 9uestions. III. In epen ent Practice %4- minutes' A. #ass out (yet another set of) copies of the 2hetorical Analysis -uide. ;. +tudents should work individually on a 2hetorical Analysis -uide for Woolf=s 6+hakespeare=s +ister.7 8. When they=re done! they should raise their hand to have the teacher

.. ?. -.

B.

come inspect their work and initial it as complete and (roughly) accurate. As they finish! they should begin working on creating a sample outline of a mock essay on 6+hakespeare=s +ister7 including sketches of their points with e3amples pulled from their 2hetorical Analysis -uide. After about ten more minutes have passed! students should pair with other students and share their outlines. Together! they should make one 6group outline7 to be shared with the class. If students finish early! they can be encouraged to start an outline for their formal rhetorical analysis on their speech. After another ten minutes have passed! pull the class together and have each group share (time permitting). epending on the class environment! the class might wish to criti9ue the choices of appeals%devices as well as the samples. (Try to find good and a few things to improve! if the students don=t). Take up the group outlines when the students are finished.

Modifications

Assessment

I.. /xploration, 0losure, an 3iscussion %- minutes' A. When only a few minutes are left in class! have the students answer the following prompt upon e3it slips. I. *ist three devices or appeals you believe you fully understand and are good at identifying and analy4ing. II. *ist two devices or appeals you believe you need further review of. III. What is one 9uestion you still have about an appeal! device! or rhetorical analysis in general> ;. Take up the e3it slips as the students leave class. epending on the responses! these 9uestions should be addressed the ne3t day. . Again! modification for .** students is troublesome. It may be possible to find a different! more familiar te3t than To 'ill a Mockingbird to do the sample on! but! otherwise! more time in general may be all that can be done. . This lesson provides audio and visuals with the films and numerous samples%discussions. Iinesthetic learners are left without many activities! but you can always have them write on the board in your stead (especially if you have abominable handwriting). . Bigh performing students might be asked to go ahead and write a draft of a rhetorical analysis based on Woolf=s work and pair%share that instead of only an outline. *ower performing students! like the .** students! may ,ust need more time. 8. .valuation 8. The intro poem and analysis guide will both be collected! as will the group outlines and e3it slips. This should give the teacher plenty of assessment information (and a grade for accuracy on the 9ui4) to gauge where more review needs to be done.

. +tudents should be able to reflect well on the e3it slip and look at whether they have a good handle on rhetorical analysis or not. The grade on the rhetorical poem analysis may also help students to see where their deficiencies lay. -rades A. The poem analysis will be graded for accuracy. The rest of the assignments will be graded for completion (the student can either receive an incomplete or full credit! since the teacher initials the guide to permit them to move on). ;. The unit centers upon writing a successful rhetorical analysis essay which includes a rubric and more detailed instructions. All assessments in this lesson and those leading up to the completion of the essay are meant to scaffold learning so that the students are ade9uately prepared and the teacher can address areas where the class demonstrates confusion. epending on the past writing e3perience and ability of students! the outlining section of the writing may go really well or the students may have significant difficulties. #art of the discussion in the following lesson may need to be cut to properly address deficiencies. I presented this sample to the class when I did this lesson! but I didn=t scaffold nearly as well as I should have. The main problem in their own analyses was that they only identified what the appeals and devices wereL they didn=t analy4e how the devices supported the purpose. I=m somewhat concerned that I=m not doing enough that even now! but hopefully this problem will come out in the discussion of the Woolf outlines (something I did not have them do when I did the unit in class). They really responded well to the +ilverstein poem when I used that in class! and I think it=s a great way to do a fun! easy review and a pseudo0 pop 9ui4. 5ne difficulty might be at the sheer volume of work turned in during this lesson. That=s a lot of grading if you have ninety students. Bowever! the various forms of response and assessment should provide the teacher plenty of feedback to ensure they can address significant problems before the analysis is due rather than having them crop up in the formal writing. .

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(Appendix A)

For Sale

by Shel Silverstein

One sister for sale! One sister for sale! One crying and spying young sister for sale! Im really not idding! So "holl start the bidding# $o I hear the dollar# A nic el# A penny# Oh! isnt there! isnt there! isnt there any One id that "ill buy this old sister for sale! %his crying and spying young sister for sale#
&ic t"o and respond on the bac or on your o"n paper'
i. Analy4e the effectiveness of the poem=s speaker. Which rhetorical devices does he use well> Which devices does he use poorly> ii. #redict whether he=ll be successful in selling his sister. iii. esign a better argument%poem for selling one=s sister.

(Appendix () Finch) %o begin "ith! this case should never have come to trial' %he State has not produced one iota of medical evidence that the crime %om *obinson is charged "ith ever too place' It has relied instead upon the testimony of t"o "itnesses "hose evidence has not only been called into serious +uestion on cross examination! but has been flatly contradicted by the defendant' ,o" there is circumstantial evidence to indicate that -ayella ."ell "as beaten savagely by someone "ho led! almost exclusively! "ith his left /hand0' And %om *obinson no" sits before you! having ta en 1%he Oath1 "ith the only good hand he possesses 22 his right' I have nothing but pity in my heart for the 3hief 4itness for the State' She is the victim of cruel poverty and ignorance' (ut! my pity does not extend so far as to her putting a man5s life at sta e! "hich she has done in an effort to get rid of her o"n guilt' ,o" I say 1guilt!1 gentlemen! because it "as guilt that motivated her' She5s committed no crime' She has merely bro en a rigid and time2honored code of our society! a code so severe that "hoever brea s it is hounded from our midst as unfit to live "ith' She must destroy the evidence of her offense' (ut! "hat "as the evidence of her offense# %om *obinson! a human being' She must put %om *obinson a"ay from her' %om *obinson "as to her a daily reminder of "hat she did' ,o" "hat did she do# She tempted a negro' She "as "hite and she tempted a negro' She did something that in our society is unspea able) She issed a blac man' ,ot an old uncle! but a strong! young negro man' ,o code mattered to her before she bro e it! but it came crashing do"n on her after"ards' %he "itnesses for the State! "ith the exception of the sheriff of 6incoln 3ounty! have presented themselves to you gentlemen 22 to this 3ourt 22 in the cynical confidence that their testimony "ould not be doubted7 confident that you gentlemen "ould go along "ith them on the assumption! the evil assumption! that all negroes lie7 all negroes are basically immoral beings7 all negro men are not to be trusted around our "omen! an assumption that one associates "ith minds of their caliber! and "hich is in itself! gentlemen! a lie 22 "hich I do not need to point out to you'

And so! a +uiet! humble! respectable negro! "ho has had the unmitigated %.-.*I%8 to feel sorry for a "hite "oman! has had to put his "ord against t"o "hite peoples' %he defendant is not guilty' (ut somebody in this courtroom is' ,o"! gentlemen! in this country our courts are the great levelers' In our courts! all men are created e+ual' I5m no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and of our 9ury system' %hat5s no ideal to me' %hat is a living! "or ing reality! ,o" I am confident that you gentlemen "ill revie" "ithout passion the evidence that you have heard! come to a decision! and restore this man to his family' In the name of :od! do your duty' In the name of :od! believe %om *obinson'

Appendi3 8 #urpose< To convince the ,ury that Tom 2obinson is not guilty. 2hetorical strategies< *ogos! iction! Tone

Atticus ?inch leaves little to the imagination while logically arguing that Tom 2obinson is but an innocent victim of a racist society. In his first statement! he claims that 6this case should have never come to trial7 because 6the state has not produced one iota of medical evidence.7 This is a compelling argument! because the burden is on the state to prove that Tom 2obinson is guilty. If the state cannot provide enough evidence! then Tom 2obinson must be declared 6not guilty.7 Atticus continues by discrediting the state=s witnesses! to further prove there is not enough evidence to convict Tom. ?inally! he admits that Mayella was beaten. :et he refutes Tom=s involvement by reminding the ,ury that Mayella was beaten by someone who 6led! almost e3clusively! with his left7 while Tom=s 6only good hand7 is his right. Atticus=s argument is strongly supported by the facts< Tom 2obinson is not guilty.

Atticus ?inch=s use of diction goes further! helping him to argue that Tom 2obinson is not only not guilty but is! in fact! a victim of an un,ust and racist society. Atticus does not refer to Tom as a victim! thoughL instead! he uses the word to describe Mayella. ;y using the word 6victim7 to describe Mayella! Atticus avoids seeming like a brute for challenging her story. Bowever! by calling her a 6victim of cruel poverty and ignorance7 he can simultaneously argue that she is not at fault but that it is her society and socio0economic status! not Tom 2obinson! that is to blame. Be again blames their society when he calls the racially motivated assumptions they townspeople make 6evil.7 There is no doubt! from that word! what his opinion is. And in his audience=s mind! the use of such a word must foster the notion that their racism is not merely unpleasant but is deeply! fundamentally wrong. Indeed! by simply using the words 6victim7 and 6evil7 Atticus is essentially saying that everyone is a victim of the oppressive institution of racism and the widespread impact of poverty. And if everyone is a 6victim!7 it is much easier to see how racism! not a fellow 6victim!7 would be the true evil. Tom can=t be guilty if it is society that is the true evil. ?inally! Atticus=s tone throughout the speech leaves little doubt that he! and the audience! should be convinced of Tom=s innocence. Be is sincere! plodding methodically through his speech without any doubt whatsoever. Be is sympathetic with Mayella! but his 6pity does not e3tend so far as to her putting a man=s life at stake.7 Bis contempt of the society in which he lives! as mentioned above! even leads him to categori4e the assumptions it breeds as evil. Be even goes so far as to sarcastically remark that Tom=s greatest crime was to have the 6unmitigated temerity to feel sorry for a white woman.7 Bis ironic use of 6temerity7 indicates his disdain for a community that would punish a human being for feeling concern for another human being. With such scorn for racism and an utter lack of doubt in his claim! the tone of Atticus=s speech cannot help but cause his audience to 9uestion their convictions and! ideally! help to convince them that Tom is innocent.

*esson C +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal .nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts

0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works *esson Title 1 Instructional 0 6Warning< 2hetorical Analysis 8onstruction Ahead7 5b,ective 0The students will construct an outline and begin writing their rhetorical analyses. +tandards PI 300-.2.4 Write a rhetorical analysis of a select piece of literature or informational text analyzing a writer's use of rhetorical strategies in relation to the writer's purpose, relationship with au ience, an !or effecti"eness of message. PI 300-.2.- I entify the rhetorical e"ices use in a complex speech. Materials 08omputer and pro,ector%+martboard (both preferable! but not re9uired) 0#aper and writing utensils 0 2herotical Analysis -uide and appropriate speeches (previously distributed) Instructional #rocedures #ellringer $cti"ity %20 &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pro,ect and read the following ,ournal entry to the class< Why is rhetorical analysis important> Are you convinced that high school students should be re9uired to write an essay about it> A. Allow a moment for the students to think. ;. After waiting! ask the class some of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. 8ompare this assignment to a previous essay assignment. ii. esign a better prompt. iii. Identify what you=re having the most difficulty with during this unit. iv. .stimate how many trees we=ve killed with 2hetorical Analysis -uides so far. 8. Instruct students to write a ,ournal entry on the original entry or one of these prompts with at least one hundred words. . As the students are ,ournaling! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. .. 5nce the students have ,ournaled! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). ?. As the class discussion progresses! the teacher should list some of the reasons given for and against completing rhetorical analyses. It might also be helpful to take a tally of how many are for and against the assignment at this point. -. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask the class if they have any specific re9uests on aspects of the unit they might

want to review. B. 2emind them that they are about to start writing their essay and need to get their 9uestions answered before it=s too late. a. +tudents should make the connection that if they=re confused by now! they=re in pretty deep trouble. (e"iew) $s* the stu ents to clear their es*s an ta*e a 5rief Auiz. %>hey shoul ha"e 5een warne a5out this a ay or two 5efore'. 1a"e them efine ethos, logos, pathos, iction, hyper5ole, an parallelism. 1a"e them gra e it themsel"es on the honors system, moreso to gauge their *nowle ge than to recei"e a gra e %it won't 5e worth many points'. II. #rief +ecture %x minutes, where x is how many minutes are nee e 5y the class for re"iew' A. "sing the ,ournal entries! 9ui4! and students re9uests%comments as a guide! review appropriate concepts before the students begin writing. ;. epending on where this lesson falls in the semester! it may also be prudent to give more e3tensive essay0writing guidance. This will largely depend on how the teacher has felt about student performance to this point in the semester. These are seniors and! presumably! they should be fairly adept at the format if not the content. 8. Try to address only the concerns that significant portions of students have. Individual students may re9uest help during the following portion of the class period. . When finished! instruct students that you will need to see%initial their outline of their essay by the end of class (and possibly their first few paragraphs! as applicable). .. They will have a limited amount of time to finish their essays tomorrow and the rough draft will be due in two classes (ideally! this will be after a weekend)! so they need to make significant progress during this period. III. In epen ent Wor* %C0D x E 2- minutesF $lge5raG WooG' I. +tudents should work individually on their rhetorical analysis essays. K. As they work! the teacher should make themselves available to answer concerns and 9uestions as students have them. I. If students are not forthcoming! the teacher should walk around the room! looking for students who seem to be off task or having trouble. *. +tudents should gradually begin to finish their outlines and raise their hand to ask for the teacher=s initial. The initial is proof of being on task but moreso a way to immediately gauge a student=s understanding. If the student appears to have significant problems! the teacher can use that time to try to conference with them and clarify various concepts. $. I often do not even make the initials mean anything! in terms

of their grade. The students often think it does! but it really is ,ust a way to get them to come to the teacher to receive informal assessment before moving on to the ne3t stage where misconceptions will prove much more damaging. M. Most students will not be able to finish by the end of class. If a student does and the teacher is not otherwise disposed! the teacher can read the draft and give some brief comments. 5therwise! the student can be given permission to go ahead and start typing their draft (since the final will also be typed) or they can try to get a ,ump start on peer review (to be elaborated upon in the ne3t lesson). I.. /xploration, 0losure, an 3iscussion %- minutes' A. A minute or two before class ends! call the students to order and try to gauge how much work they=ve accomplished. This will give the teacher an idea about how much time may or may not be needed during the ne3t class period! especially if significant numbers of students are struggling with the essay. ;. +tudents should also be clearly reminded of impending due dates and the conse9uences of late work. 8. If the teacher has not already! take up the 9ui44es completed earlier. . .** students will simply need more time and help with writing concepts and essay construction. This may translate (pun not intended) into an entirely additional class period depending on deficiencies. . Iinesthetic learners may struggle with being 9uiet! so they may need to be prompted to conference more often. 5therwise! all students need to practice and participate in writing and there=s not much modification that can ad,ust that. . Bigh performing students may not need as much time or review! leaving more time for a grammar or more significant writing mini0lesson. *ower performing students will need a lot more time and help! possibly two lessons worth. A. .valuation A. The teacher will spot0check%initial outlines to immediately assess learning. +tudent 9uestions and comments from the ,ournal will also facilitate teacher assessment. ;. +tudents= performance on the 9ui4 will give a significant indicator to them as to their abilities. They should also be able to gauge their learning by how easy they find the essay to be. -rades A. The 9ui4 will be graded by the students and counted for a small 9ui4 grade. The outline may or may not graded for completion! at the teacher=s discretion.. ;. The rhetorical analysis itself will be a significant grade.

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Assessment

;.

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The rough draft may also be counted for a grade! at the teacher=s discretion. Many teachers might not give their students a chance to write significant portions of their essays in class! but my mentor teacher and others at my internship placement have suggested that! particularly given my demographic! time in class to write is arguably the best way to ensure students finish the paper (as they might not have the time! means! or inclination to do it otherwise). I haven=t had time to gauge how necessary time in class is! but I=m deferring to their ,udgment for now and I consider that my rationale for providing the time. When I first started at my high school placement! I did not give students time to write in class. +o when I asked them to turn their rough draft in at a certain time! only one third of the class had it done! torpedoing my intention to use the period for peer review. Baving learned my lesson! I=m including this lesson in the unit to allow time for the students to complete their essay in class. The most significant problem I=ve encountered with giving class time to write is that students often do not stay on task during the time they=re given. My mentor teacher has encouraged me to try and give them benchmarks! hence the outline being initialed. More paragraphs%progress may need to be re9uired! but that will ,ust be something I=ll have to figure out through further practice. 5therwise! I imagine the teacher will have difficulty conferencing with E( or so students! so this may work best with a smaller class. If too many students are asking 9uestions! though! that indicates a larger problem that probably needs to be addressed to the entire class. Bopefully the ,ournal entry%9ui4 will pick up on this early in the period! but it=s still something I=m e3perimenting with.

*esson ) +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal .nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts

0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works *esson Title 1 Instructional 0 6The .thics of 2hetoric7 5b,ective 0The students will discuss various situations that arise from using rhetoric and continue to practice rhetorical analysis. +tandards PI 300-.2.4 Write a rhetorical analysis of a select piece of literature or informational text analyzing a writer's use of rhetorical strategies in relation to the writer's purpose, relationship with au ience, an !or effecti"eness of message. PI 300-.-.24 3istinguish 5etween the strongest an wea*est points of a gi"en argument. Materials 08omputer and pro,ector%+martboard (both preferable! but not re9uired) 0#aper and writing utensils 0 6War7 by .dwin +tarr lyrics and .mpE%youtube file (Appendi3 A) 0 2hetoric iscussion anticipation guide (Appendi3 ;) Instructional #rocedures #ellringer $cti"ity %20 &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pass out :.T AH5TB.2 2hetorical Analysis -uide. If students roll their eyes! tell them that if they can do it in their sleep! they=re welcome to break out a pillow and get their snoo4e on (productively). 5therwise! it=s rhetoric timeM A. #ass out a copy of the lyrics for 6War7 by .dwin +tarr. (Appendi3 A) ;. Ask the students to 9uietly read the lyrics to themselves. 8. ;efore playing the song! ask the students to pay attention to how +tarr=s performance affects the piece (as opposed to it ,ust being read). . #lay the song. If the teacher does not have an .mpE file of it! it is featured on many youtube links such as http<%%www.youtube.com%watch>vDNdC8GAI?g"g .. After the song finishes! ask the class some of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. 8hange the song from an anti0war song to a pro0war song. .ither rewrite parts of the lyrics or e3plain another method you might use. ii. Identify the strongest and weakest arguments +tarr makes. iii. efend or critici4e +tarr=s highly emotional tactics. iv. -ive e3amples of other anti0war songs you remember. 8ompare them to 6War.7 ?. Instruct students to write a ,ournal entry on the original entry or one of these prompts with at least one hundred words -. As the students are ,ournaling! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are

writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. B. 5nce the students have ,ournaled! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). I. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask the class how effective they consider +tarr=s message. (e"iew) $s* the stu ents to complete an turn in their (hetorical $nalysis ,ui es of @WarB for another Auiz gra e. II. #rief +ecture an In epen ent Practice %2- minutes' A. Ask students if they remember the class=s introductory discussion about the ethics of rhetoric. If they don=t! reference the ways individuals like Bitler and Mc8arthy were able to sway the minds of many people solely through the use of strong rhetoric. ;. Tell students that today the class will be having a discussion about rhetoric! public speaking! and the ways rhetoric is used. 8. Tell them this is not ,ust to get them to consider the ethics of rhetoric but also to get them to start thinking about potential topics that they might like to do their researched speeches on. . #ull up a copy of the anticipation guide on the smartboard. .. Walk the students through the rules for the discussion. They shouldn=t have any problem with them! but it=s important to lay out the ground rules anyway. ?. #ass out the anticipation guide (Appendi3 ;). -. Instruct students to take a few moments to read and respond to each 9uestion. III. 3iscussion as a 0lass %-0 minutes' A. When the students are finished! ask the students to move their desks into a circle. ;. ;egin the discussion by asking students to raise their hands who circled 6true7 and then ask those to raise their hands who circled 6false.7 8. It is often a good idea for those in the minority to speak first so that students don=t end up repeating each other (and more of them have something to respond to). . In the beginning and throughout the discussion! the teacher should play the role of moderator! ensuring students don=t talk over one another and are respectful. .. 5therwise! the students should be the ones pushing the conversation unless the teacher needs to play 6devil=s advocate7 for a particularly one0sided 9uestion. ?. It is up to the teacher to decide whether they want to push students who aren=t talking into responding or let them lose points if they don=t raise their hand to talk. This might also depend on how well the students react and respond to the discussion in general! with some groups needing more prompting than others. -. The teacher may also wish to modify how often students are

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re9uired to talk or even offer e3tra credit for those who participate especially well. B. The discussion should continue for most of the period. It may need to be truncated for time concerns (or the teacher could continue it in the ne3t lesson). I.. /xploration, 0losure, an 3iscussion %- minutes' A. When only a few minutes are left in class! have the students move their desks back into their normal rows. ;. Try to get a feel for how the students liked the discussion (you can e3plicitly ask or ask them what their 6favorite and least favorite parts were7). 8. #ass out e3it slips and ask them to write down the most effective argument they remember. What appeals and rhetorical devices did the speaker use to make their argument most effective> . Take up the slips as the students e3it class. . This is another difficult lesson to modify for .** students. A different song might be more appropriate. iscussion may prove difficult if students have a hard time e3pressing themselves and understanding each other! so it will likely re9uire more time and more patience from the class. It will likely still be a valuable opportunity! though. . Iinesthetic learners will get to move around a bit and may find discussion a good outlet for their energy (with some reminders about waiting their turn from the teacher). Interpersonal learners will especially thrive! whereas more introspective students may struggle. epending on the class makeup! the teacher can ad,ust the re9uired comments to accommodate these types of students (or possibly have them write their responses instead of speaking them). . Bigh performing students might be able to divide into multiple groups and carry on discussions in smaller sets without teacher moderation. This would probably re9uire them to have something to show for their efforts since the teacher won=t be able to monitor them as closely. *ower performing students may need to be prompted a great deal more by the teacher. A. .valuation 8. The teacher will monitor the class discussion so they should be able to tell how students are doing simply by listening. The students will also be turning in another analysis guide and their e3it slip. . +tudents should get an idea of how much they know by how well they can respond and participate in discussion as well as by how their classmates react to them. Additionally! their performance on the analysis guide will be (another) good indication. ;. -rades A. The discussion! as mentioned! will be graded for

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participating a certain number of times! depending on time constraints. The analysis guide will also be graded for accuracy and the e3it slip for participation. ;. The unit centers upon writing a successful rhetorical analysis essay which includes a rubric and more detailed instructions. All assessments in this lesson and those leading up to the completion of the essay are meant to scaffold learning so that the students are ade9uately prepared and the teacher can address areas where the class demonstrates confusion. The main concern would be that students may grow bored with such a lengthy discussion. Indeed! the discussion may run long or may end 9uickly! depending on student interest. The teacher should be prepared for both eventualities. I used 6War7 in class with mi3ed success. The students did pick up on some of his rhetoric! but mainly focused on the 6WA27 part. That was probably moreso my fault because I didn=t do a good ,ob of scaffolding the unit as a whole. I=d also like to find a more contemporary song they might like more! but that will have to wait until I become more familiar with the types of music they=re interested in. I also used this anticipation (in a different lesson) and worked relatively well. +tudents weren=t as engaged as they were for some discussions! and I might need to toy around with the prompts more as I get a better idea as to why that might be. It was also used as a bit of a segue to the research speech! so it may be a tad out of place so early in this unit. With that said! it took a little over an hour to hold the entire discussion! which I interpret as fairly successful. The students did not react well to continuing the discussion during a subse9uent class period (we only have one 9uestion left)! so I=ll probably try to avoid that as much as possible.

War, by Edwin Starr War, huh, yeah What is it good for Absolutely nothing Uh-huh War, huh, yeah What is it good for Absolutely nothing Say it again, y'all War, huh, good God What is it good for Absolutely nothing Listen to me Ohhh, war, I des ise !e"ause it means destru"tion Of inno"ent li#es War means tears $o thousands of mothers eyes When their sons go to fight And lose their li#es I said, war, huh Good God, y'all What is it good for Absolutely nothing Say it again War, whoa, Lord What is it good for Absolutely nothing Listen to me War, it ain't nothing !ut a heartbrea%er War, friend only to the underta%er Ooooh, war It's an enemy to all man%ind $he oint of war blows my mind War has "aused unrest Within the younger generation Indu"tion then destru"tion Who wants to die Aaaaah, war-huh Good God y'all What is it good for Absolutely nothing Say it, say it, say it War, huh What is it good for Absolutely nothing Listen to me

War, huh, yeah What is it good for Absolutely nothing Uh-huh War, huh, yeah What is it good for Absolutely nothing Say it again y'all War, huh, good God What is it good for Absolutely nothing Listen to me War, it ain't nothing but a heartbrea%er War, it's got one friend $hat's the underta%er Ooooh, war, has shattered &any a young mans dreams &ade him disabled, bitter and mean Life is mu"h to short and re"ious $o s end fighting wars these days War "an't gi#e life It "an only ta%e it away Ooooh, war, huh Good God y'all What is it good for Absolutely nothing Say it again War, whoa, Lord What is it good for Absolutely nothing Listen to me War, it ain't nothing but a heartbrea%er War, friend only to the underta%er 'ea"e, lo#e and understanding $ell me, is there no la"e for them today $hey say we must fight to %ee our freedom !ut Lord %nows there's got to be a better way Ooooooh, war, huh Good God y'all What is it good for (ou tell me Say it, say it, say it, say it War, huh Good God y'all What is it good for Stand u and shout it )othing

(Appendi3 ;) Hame< 2hetoric iscussion iscussion 2ules< A. 2aise your hands. This ensures everyone will eventually get a chance to speak. ;. .veryone needs to comment at least twice for credit. The comment needs to add something new to the conversation while staying focused on the topic. 8. 2espect each other. :ou are allowed and encouraged to disagree with each other! but do so in a way that is not insulting or hateful. . on=t worry about being wrong. on=t be afraid to say what you feel and have people disagree with you. That=s part of what a good discussion is about. As a way to start! answer the following 9uestions briefly with True or ?alse. > > > > > > < < < < < < $. I believe that it is mostly the audience=s responsibility! upon listening to a speech or watching a commercial! to seek out the truth! not the speaker=s responsibility to tell it. &. I believe that actions are what matter! not words. E. There=s no use in talking about thingsL no one ever really changes their mind because of what someone else says. G. I like speaking more than I like listening.

@. #ublic speaking is terrifying. (?un statistic< some studies have found that many people consider their fear of public speaking to be greater than their fear of death) '. I care about politics and contemporary issues.

*esson $( +ub,ect Area%-rade *evel "nit Title 1 -oal .nglish I/ 0 $&th *anguage Arts

0 2hetoric and 2hetorical Analysis 0 +tudents will e3plore the fundamental aspects of rhetoric so they can analy4e contemporary rhetorical works and create their own persuasive works *esson Title 1 Instructional 0 6#eer 2eview (And Teacher TooM)7 5b,ective 0The students will edit and revise each other=s papers! moving towards the construction of a final rhetorical analysis essay. +tandards PI 300-.2.4 Write a rhetorical analysis of a select piece of literature or informational text analyzing a writer's use of rhetorical strategies in relation to the writer's purpose, relationship with au ience, an !or effecti"eness of message. PI 300-.2.- I entify the rhetorical e"ices use in a complex speech. PI 300-.2.C Proofrea for errors in capitalization an punctuation. PI 300-.3.2 Proofrea a passage for correct punctuation, mechanics, an usage. Materials 08omputer and pro,ector%+martboard (both preferable! but not re9uired) 0#aper and writing utensils 0+tudent 2ough rafts 0#eer 2eview +heet (Appendi3 A) Instructional #rocedures #ellringer $cti"ity %20 &inutes' I. As the bell rings! pro,ect and read the following ,ournal entry to the class< What are the most important elements to being a good peer reviewer> In addition to grammar and mechanics! what else can a second reader offer> Why do we even need to peer review> .. Allow a moment for the students to think. ?. After waiting! ask the class some of the following 9uestions%prompts if time permits< i. #redict what portion of your rough draft will need the most revision. ii. 8ategori4e the components of a good peer review. iii. efend the choices of the three elements you are analy4ing in your essay. iv. There is no fourth option. 5r is there> iscuss. -. Instruct students to write a ,ournal entry on the original entry or one of these prompts with at least one hundred words. B. As the students are ,ournaling! the teacher needs to take attendance! pass out papers! and ensure that all students are writing or brainstorming by briefly walking around the room and scanning papers. I. 5nce the students have ,ournaled! ask if anyone wants to share. If no one volunteers after a few moments! call on a few students (possibly with e9uity sticks). K. As the class discussion progresses! the teacher should list some of the suggestions students give for being a good peer reviewer as well as suggestions as to what aside from language editing a good

reviewer provides the writer. I. After a fair number of students have shared (@0A)! ask the class how much they have peer reviewed before to get an idea of how familiar they are with the process. *. 2emind them that this essay is primarily about analy4ing rhetoric. That means content will be a more significant part of their essay grade than mechanics and style. a. +tudents should understand that peer review is not ,ust proofreading but also content criticism. (e"iew) $s* the stu ents what they plan to focus the most on when they first start re"iewing. II. #rief +ecture %20 minutes' A. Tell students that one of the duties of their professors in college is to do research and be published in ,ournals. ;ut the catch is that the best research and ,ournals are 6peer reviewed.7 Ask the students what this might mean. ;. *et the students discuss for a few moments. If none of them know! tell them that peer review is a process done by the professor=s peers in their field to ensure that the professor has followed appropriate guidelines and that their work is academically sound. 8. Ask students why this is important. They should respond that it keeps the riffraff out (or something a bit more sophisticated! if you=re lucky). . Tell the students that their ,ob is basically the same< to ensure their peers have followed the directions given and will be submitting well constructed papers. .. A great deal of this section of the lecture will depend on where this unit falls in the semester. If students have not done peer review since their last .nglish class they will need a lot more instruction than if they have done it a few weeks ago for a previous essay. ?. If a student finished early and is brave enough! it would be ideal if they would volunteer to let you pro,ect their essay and let the class begin to review it. 5therwise! a sample from a previous year (or even an intentionally wrong teacher sample might work! although that might seem too inauthentic). -. Walk the class through a sample review! thinking aloud through your reactions. :ou will probably wish to use a peer review worksheet for students to record their efforts. A sample is found in Appendi3 A! although it would probably be wise to adapt it to focus on areas the class seems to struggle with in their writing. B. Make some language corrections! but focus on trying to understand the content. 2emind the students that the most important thing that you=re considering is content and organi4ation! so if the material is understandable! comma splices aren=t that big of a deal. I. ;e sure to comment on what the student does well in their paper. 2emind students that positive feedback can be ,ust as important as criticism and it also dulls the emotional effect of negative feedback (both for the writer and the reviewer).

III. In epen ent Wor* %-0 minutes' A. +tudents should switch rough drafts with each other in pairs. After each student reads the other=s paper! they should scan for grammar errors and then make content criticisms on the peer review worksheet. ;. When both students have finished! they should return their papers and take turns reviewing each other=s comments and criticisms. 8. When they have finished! they should find someone else to trade with and repeat the process. . After they have completed the process twice and have the two peer review sheets to prove it (the teacher should initial both)! if time remains! they should be given permission to begin writing their final draft on the computer. I.. /xploration, 0losure, an 3iscussion %- minutes' A. When about eight minutes remain! the teacher should encourage the students who are typing to save their work and return to class. 5nce everyone is back in class! the teacher should remind students of pertinent deadlines and what components they are e3pected to turn in with their final draft (peer review sheets! rough draft! outline! rhetorical analysis guide! and final draft). ;. The deadline should be within the ne3t week! although the teacher may allow the students to type their papers in class depending upon school e3pectations and the students= economic status%materials commonly found at home. 8. The teacher should then address any final 9uestions until the bell rings. . .** students will! again! need more time. They will also have more problems with sentence mechanics! meaning that peer reviews may need to be more involved. The focus on understandability and content will be even more important for these students. . Iinesthetic learners get to move about and interact with others! which will also help interpersonal learners. Audio and visual learners will be helped by the step0by0step modeling and the various forms of feedback they receive. . Bigh performing students may do more than two peer reviews! although simply raising e3pectations for the 9uality of peer review may be enough. *ower performing students may do only one or have a friend%parent help with the second instead of doing both in class. A. .valuation A. The teacher will spot0check%initial the peer review worksheets +tudent 9uestions and comments from the ,ournal will also facilitate teacher assessment. ;. This lesson is all about the students gauging their level of understanding with the e3tensive personal feedback from peer reviews. They should be able to get a clear view of

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Assessment

where their strengths and weaknesses are after this activity. -rades A. The worksheets that are initialed can be counted as a grade for participation and they will also be included with the final essay draft. ;. The rhetorical analysis itself will be a significant grade. The rough draft may also be counted for a grade! at the teacher=s discretion. If a student is not prepared for this lesson! they should still be re9uired to find reviewers (friends and family are fine). They should also be docked points on their final essay if they have not been absent! at the teacher=s discretion. They should use the class period to still review other=s papers and complete their own. *ike the previous lesson! clear benchmarks are important. The teacher should closely monitor the students= activities to ensure they do the peer review ,ustice. This lesson is very similar to the previous one! and the reflection remains the same < 6When I first started at my high school placement! I did not give students time to write in class. +o when I asked them to turn their rough draft in at a certain time! only one third of the class had it done! torpedoing my intention to use the period for peer review.7 Bopefully this problem will be alleviated by the other measures I=ve taken to scaffold and establish clear benchmarks throughout! in addition to providing work time in class. The other problem I e3perienced with peer review was that students would ,ust say everything was perfect with the other person=s essay! or they would be very hesitant in providing negative criticism. I haven=t decided if it was the form I used or the e3pectations I set (or ,ust la4iness)! but it=s something I will continue to e3periment with. ;.

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2eflection

Appendi3 A

Peer (e"iew Wor*sheet


Hame of 5riginal Writer< Hame of #eer 2eview .ditor< $. What is the writer=s thesis> Where is it located>

&. What is the compelling argument in the paper>

E. oes the paper have E specific reasons or e3amples! and are the e3amples developed using details and logical support>

G. oes the paper have a distinct introduction and conclusion>

@. What E things can the writer do to improve this paper>

'. Fuestion for the original writer of the paper< If you had more time to revise this paper! what E areas would you want to improve>