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RATE OF REACTION

1. Concept Map

Average rate of reaction

RATE OF REACTION 1. Concept Map Average rate of reaction Rate of reaction at a given

Rate of reaction at a given time

Average rate of reaction Rate of reaction at a given time Observable changes in chemical reaction
Average rate of reaction Rate of reaction at a given time Observable changes in chemical reaction

Observable changes in chemical reaction

at a given time Observable changes in chemical reaction Rate of reaction Collision Theory to explain

Rate of reaction

Collision Theory to explain factors affecting rate of reaction

Theory to explain factors affecting rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of

Factors affecting rate of reaction

rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction
rate of reaction Factors affecting rate of reaction 2. Rate of reaction (a) Rate of reaction

2. Rate of reaction

(a) Rate of reaction is the s………………at which reactants react to form products in a chemical reaction.

(b) Classify the following reaction as fast or slow reaction

No.

Example

Fast or Slow Reaction

1

Corrosion of iron nail

 

2

Striking a match

 

3

Photosynthesis

 

4

Neutralization

 

5

Acid with reactive metal

 

6

Ripening of manggo

 

(c) For a fast chemical reaction

Time taken for the reaction to complete is s………………

The reactants are q……………… converted to the products

The rate of reaction is h…………………

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(d)

For a slow chemical reaction

Time taken for the reaction to complete is l………………

The reactants are s……………… converted to the products

The rate of reaction is l…………………

Rate of reaction α

………………

(e) The rate of reaction can be determined by measuring the time taken for an

observable chemical change to occur.

Rate of reaction =

Observable chemical change Time taken

(f) The observable chemical changes in a chemical reaction are

(i) …………………………………………………………………………….

(ii)

……………………………………………………………………………

(iii)

………………………………………………………………………….

(iv)

…………………………………………………………………………

(v)

…………………………………………………………………………

(g) Definition:

Rate of reaction is the change of amount of reactant / product per unit time.

Rate of reaction

change in selected quantity

=

time taken

Example:

(i) If 50.0 cm 3 of hydrogen gas is collected in 20 seconds during a chemical

reaction between magnesium and dilute hydrochloric acid . What is the rate of

reaction?

increase

in volume of hydrogen gas

Rate of reaction =

time taken

Rate of reaction =

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

=

cm 3 s -1

2

(ii)

If time taken for 5.0 gram of magnesium ribbon reacts completely with dilute hydrochloric acid is 25s, what is the rate of reaction?

decrease in mass of magnesium

Rate of reaction =

time taken

Rate of reaction =

=

g s -1 .

3. Suitable observable changes to determine the rate of reaction from graph.

For the reaction bellow

ZnCO 3 (s)

+

2HCl(aq)

Sketch the graph for:

Concentration of HCl / moldm -3

Sketch the graph for: Concentration of HCl / moldm - 3 Concentration of ZnCl 2 /

Concentration of ZnCl 2 / mol dm -3

HCl / moldm - 3 Concentration of ZnCl 2 / mol dm - 3 Concentration of

Concentration of HCl / mol dm -3

2 / mol dm - 3 Concentration of HCl / mol dm - 3 CHEMISTRY MODULE

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

ZnCl 2 (aq)

Time/sMODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG → ZnCl 2 (aq) Time/s + CO 2 (g)

Time/s2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG → ZnCl 2 (aq) Time/s + CO 2 (g) Mass

+

CO 2 (g)

Mass of ZnCO 3 / g

(aq) Time/s Time/s + CO 2 (g) Mass of ZnCO 3 / g Volume of CO

Volume of CO 2 gas / cm 3

+ CO 2 (g) Mass of ZnCO 3 / g Volume of CO 2 gas /

1

time
time

,

s -1

+

H 2 O(l)

Time/sTime/s + CO 2 (g) Mass of ZnCO 3 / g Volume of CO 2 gas

Time/sTime/s + CO 2 (g) Mass of ZnCO 3 / g Volume of CO 2 gas

3

(d)

In a chemical reaction involving release of a gas, it is easier to determine the rate of reaction by measuring the v……………………of gas at a certain time interval.

(e)

Rate of reaction can be measured as average rate of reaction or the rate of reaction

at a particular given time.

(f)

Average rate of reaction is the a………………………value of the rate of reaction

within a specified period of t………………….

(g) Rate of reaction at a given time is the a……………… rate of reaction at that instant

Example: Graph of the total volume of gas liberated against time for a reaction

where gas is given off

Volume of

gas/cm 3

D M E F
D
M
E
F

t 1

To determine the rate of reaction at a given

time t 1 s

- Draw a tangent (line DE) at the point M on

the graph.

- Draw a right-angle triangle DEF

- Measure the length of DF and EF.

- Calculate the gradient of the tangent DE

Time/s

Gradient of the tangent at any point on the curve

change in volume of the gas

= change in time

Rate of reaction at time t 1

=

length of DF

length of EF

cm

3 s -1

Activity:

Table bellow shows the burette reading of hydrogen gas collected at different time

intervals when magnesium ribbon react with hydrochloric acid

Time/s

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

Burette

                     

reading/cm 3

50.00

36.00

25.00

17.00

11.00

8.00

6.00

5.00

4.00

4.00

4.00

Volume of gas collected/cm 3

                     

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(a) Calculate the volume of gas collected (b) Plot a graph of volume of hydrogen gas collected against time.

(b) Plot a graph of volume of hydrogen gas collected against time. CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 ©

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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(c) Based on the graph plotted, determine

(i)

the average rate of reaction in the first 2 minutes

(ii)

the average rate of reaction in the second minute

(iii)

the overall average rate of reaction

(iv)

the rate of reaction at 1 minute

(v)

the rate of reaction at 3 minutes

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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(d)

Compare the rate of reaction obtained in (iv) and (v). Explain your answer.

(e) Write a balance chemical equation of the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid.

4. Factors affecting rate of reaction

I.

Effect of total surface area of reactant on the rate of reaction.

(a)

For a fixed mass of solid reactant, the smaller the size of the reactant the higher the rate of reaction

Smaller size of a solid reactant

 

Larger t…………………… exposed surface area

Rate of reaction is h………………………….

 

Examples

(i)

Cube sugar dissolves slower than that of fine sugar of the same mass in

 

same amount of water and temperature

 

(ii)

Meat cut into small pieces cook faster than meat cut into big lump of the

 

same mass.

 

(iii)

Powdered zinc reacts faster than granulated zinc of the same mass with

 

hydrochloric acid of the same volume and concentration.

(b)

Experiment to investigate the effect of total surface area of calcium carbonate on the rate of reaction

Problem statement:

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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Hypothesis:

Variables:

(i)

manipulated variable:

(ii)

responding variable:

(iii)

fixed variable:

Materials:

Apparatus:

Procedure:

(Diagram)

Results:

(i) Experiment I using large marble chips:

Time/ minute

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

Burette

                       

reading/cm 3

49.50

45.20

42.0

39.00

36.50

34.00

31.80

29.50

27.80

26.20

24.50

23.50

Volume of

                       

gas

collected/cm 3

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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(ii) Experiment II using crushed marble chips:

Time/ minute

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

Burette

                       

reading/cm 3

49.00

39.00

33.00

28.50

25.00

21.50

19.00

16.70

14.70

13.00

11.50

10.00

Volume of

                       

gas

collected/cm 3

1. Plot the graph of total volume of gas collected against time taken for the reaction for experiment I and II on the same axes.

2. Based on the graph, calculate (a) the overall rate of rate of reaction for the first 5 minutes of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and

(i)

large marble chips:

(ii)

crushed marble chips

(b) The rate of reaction at 2.5 minute for

(i)

large marble chips:

(ii)

crushed marble chips:

3. Based on your answers in 2(a) and 2(b), how does the rate of reaction differ?

4. What is the factor that causes the difference in rate of reaction?

5. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

6. Explain why does the rate of reaction decreases with increase of time.

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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7.

If both reactions are allowed to react until completion, is the total volume of gas collected the same? Explain your answer.

8. If the marble chips used in the experiment is in excess, what is the maximum total volume of gas collected? [ 1 mole of gas at room temperature occupies a volume of 24dm 3 ]

Conclusion:

II. The effect of concentration of reactant on the rate of reaction.

(a) When concentration of reactant increases, the rate of reaction increases.

Give one example for the above statement.

(b) Experiment to investigate the effect of concentration of sodium thiosulphate with hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction

Problem statement:

Hypothesis:

Variables:

(i) manipulated variable:

(ii)

responding variable:

(iii)

fixed variable:

Procedure:

(Diagram)

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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Results:

Experiment

1

2

3

4

5

Volume of 0.2moldm -3 sodium thiosulphate solution, V 1 cm 3

45

40

35

30

25

Volume of distilled water added/cm 3

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

20.0

Volume of 1.0mol hydrochloric acid added/cm 3

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

5.0

Total volume of reactant /cm 3

50.0

50.0

50.0

50.0

50.0

Concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution used/moldm -3

         

Time taken/s

16

20

27

41

83

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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1/time , s -1

1/time , s - 1
1/time , s - 1
1/time , s - 1
1/time , s - 1
1/time , s - 1

1. Plot the graph of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution used against time taken for the reaction.

2. Plot the graph of concentration of thiosuphate solution used against 1/time.

3. What does the value of 1/time represents?

4. Based on your graph, state the relationship between

(i)

the concentration of sodium thiosulphate and the time taken for the reaction.

(ii)

the rate of reaction and the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution.

5. What is colour of the precipitate formed and name the precipitate.

6. What is the time taken for the mark ‘X” to disappear if the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution used is 0.10 mol dm -3 ?

7. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction in this experiment.

8. Write an ionic equation for the reaction in this experiment.

9. If dilute sulphuric acid of the same concentration is used to replace hydrochloric acid in this experiment, predict the rate of reaction and explain your answer.

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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Conclusion:

III. The effect of temperature on rate of reaction.

(a) Increase in temperature of reaction, increases the rate of reaction.

Give two examples for the above statement.

(i)

(ii)

(b) Experiment to investigate the effect of temperate on the rate of reaction between thiosulphate solution and dilute hydrochloric acid.

Problem statement:

Hypothesis:

Variables:

(i)

manipulate variable:

(ii)

responding variable:

(iii)

fixed variable:

Procedure:

(diagram)

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Results:

Experiment

1

2

3

4

5

Temperature/ o C

30

35

40

45

50

Time taken/s

55

48

42

37

33

1/time, s -1

         

1. Plot the graph of

(i)

temperature against time and

(ii)

temperature against 1/time.

2. Based on your graph, what is the relationship between rate of reaction with temperature.

3. Write a balance chemical equation for the reaction of this experiment.

4. why is the volume of sodium thiosulphate solution and hydrochloric acid fixed for each experiment?

5. What is the time taken for the mark ‘X’ to disappear when the temperature is 60 o C?

Conclusion:

IV Effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction.

(a) Catalyst is a substance which a……

………

the rate of a chemical reaction while

it remains c……………………. unchanged at the end of the reaction

(b) Special characteristic of catalyst

Catalyst alters the r………………… of a chemical reaction

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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The a………………… of products formed remain unchanged with or

without the catalyst

Volume of

hydrogen

released/cm 3

or without the catalyst Volume of hydrogen released/cm 3 Without catalyst With catalyst Time/s ∑ Only

Without catalyst

With catalyst

Time/s

Only a small amount of catalyst is needed to achieve a b…………change

in the rate of reaction

Increasing the amount of catalyst used generally will i………………….the

rate of reaction

Catalyst may undergo p……………………

Catalyst remains c……………………… unchanged during the reaction

changes

The m……………

same before and after the reaction

Most catalyst are t……………………… elements or compounds of

transition elements such as iron, nickel and copper(II) sulphate, CuSO4

and

chemical composition of the catalyst remain the

Catalyst is s…………………………

in its actio

Example:

When copper(II) sulphate solution is added into a reaction between zinc and

sulphuric acid, the rate of reaction increases but the final quantity of hydrogen

produced is the same the reaction of zinc with hydrochloric acid without copper(II)

sulphate solution.

(c) Experiment to investigate the effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction for decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution.

Problem statement:

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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Hypothesis:

Variables:

(i)

manipulated variable:

(ii)

responding variable:

(iii)

fixed variable:

Apparatus:

Materials:

Procedure:

Observation:

Test tube

Observation

A

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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B

Discussion:

1. What is the effect of manganese(IV) oxide on the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution?

2. What is the function of manganese(IV) oxide in this experiment?

3. Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction in this experiment.

4. Will the mass of manganese(IV) oxide change at the end of the reaction in test tube B?

Conclusion:

(d) Experiment to investigate the effect of the amount of catalyst on the rate of reaction for decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution.

Problem statement:

Hypothesis:

Variables:

(i)

manipulated variable:

(ii)

responding variable:

(iii)

fixed variable:

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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Apparatus:

Materials:

Procedure:

Results:

(i) Experiment 1, using 0.2g of manganese(IV) oxide

Time/s

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

Burette

                       

reading/cm 3

49.70

48.70

47.10

45.70

44.20

43.20

42.00

41.10

40.20

39.50

39.00

38.40

Volume of gas cm 3

                       

(ii) Experiment II, using 0.6g of manganese(IV) oxide

 

Time/s

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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6.0

38.00

6.0

Burette

                       

reading/cm 3

49.00

43.60

40.50

38.00

36.00

34.50

33.00

31.70

30.50

29.70

29.00

28.20

Volume of gas cm 3

                       
 

1.

Plot the graph of total volume of gas against time for experiment I and experiment II on the same axes.

 

2.

Based on your graph, calculate the rate of reaction at 120 seconds for each of the reaction . (i) Experiment I:

 
 

(ii) Experiment II:

 
 

3.

How did the rates of reaction in experiment I and II differ?

 

4.

Which experiment shows the higher rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide?

 

5.

If both experiments are allowed to proceed until completion, is the total volume of gas collected in both experiments the same? Explain your answer.

Conclusion:

(e) Application of catalyst in industry.

28.00

Most catalysts are transition elements or compounds of transition elements. Catalyst is specific in its action and only a small amount is required in a chemical reaction.

Industrial

Product

Equation

Catalyst

process

produced

Haber Process

     

Contact Process

     

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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Ostwald Process

Hydrogenation of vegetable oil

Cracking of

petroleum

Activity:

1. Equation below shows the decomposition of sodium chlorate solution using

manganese(IV) oxide as a catalyst

2NaOCl(aq)

2NaCl

+

O 2 (g)

For the following experiments, sketch graph

(i) volume of gas against time

Experiment 1

100 cm 3 of 0.5 moldm -3 NaOCl + MnO 2

Experiment 2

50 cm 3 of 1.0 moldm -3 NaOCl + MnO 2

Volume of

oxygen/cm 3

of 1.0 moldm - 3 NaOCl + MnO 2 Volume of oxygen/cm 3 Time/s Explain your

Time/s

Explain your answer

(ii) volume of gas against time

Experiment 1

5

g Magnesium + 50 cm 3 of 0.5 moldm -3 hydrochloric acid at room temperature

Experiment 2

5

g Magnesium + 50 cm 3 of 0.5 moldm -3 hydrochloric acid at 50 O C

Volume of

oxygen/cm 3

- 3 hydrochloric acid at 50 O C Volume of oxygen/cm 3 CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 ©

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

- 3 hydrochloric acid at 50 O C Volume of oxygen/cm 3 CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 ©

Time/s

20

Explain your answer

2. For the following experiment, sketch the graph volume of hydrogen against time

Experiment 1

g of excess zinc powder + 100 cm 3 of sulphuric acid 0.5 mol dm -3 + 5cm 3 copper(II) sulphate solution at room temperature

4

Experiment 2

g of excess zinc powder + 100 cm 3 of sulphuric acid 0.5 mol dm -3 room temperature

4

Experiment 3

g of excess zinc powder + 50 cm 3 of sulphuric acid 0.5 mol dm -3 at room temperature

4

Volume of

hydrogen/cm 3

dm - 3 at room temperature 4 Volume of hydrogen/cm 3 Explain your answer 8. Collision

Explain your answer

8. Collision Theory

Time/s

3 Explain your answer 8. Collision Theory Time/s (a) For a chemical reaction to occur, the

(a)

For a chemical reaction to occur, the particles of the reactants must collide with each other. However, not all collisions result in a chemical reaction to form products.

(b)

According to collision theory, only those collisions which

with the c…………………… orientation and

.

achieved a m…………………. amount of energy called activation energy ,

Ea will result in chemical reaction

(c) Collisions of particles of reactants that result in chemical reaction is known as

……………………… collision

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(d) Activation energy , Ea, is defined as the minimum amount of energy of collision that is required for particles of reactant to react or to produce e…………………. collision.

(i) Exothermic reaction

Ea
Ea

Energy

collision. (i) Exothermic reaction Ea Energy Reactant Product (ii) Endothermic reaction Energy Ea Product

Reactant

Product

(ii) Endothermic reaction

Energy

Ea Energy Reactant Product (ii) Endothermic reaction Energy Ea Product Reactant (e) Using Collision Theory to
Ea
Ea

Product

Reactant

(e) Using Collision Theory to explain the factors affecting the rate of reaction.

1. The effect of increase in total surface area of reactant.

Using solid reactant that is smaller in size.

When size of solid reactant is smaller, the total surface area increases

The frequency of collision of particles of reactant increases

The frequency of effective collision increases

The rate of reaction increases.

2. The effect of increase in concentration of reactant.

Increasing the concentration of reactant will increase the number of particles of reactant per unit volume.

The frequency of collision of particles of reactant increases.

The frequency of effective collision increases.

The rate of reaction increases.

3. The effect of increase in temperature of reaction

o

By increasing the temperature of the reactant

o

Increased in temperature, increases the kinetic energy of the reactant particles.

o

The frequency of colliding particles possesses energy higher than the activation energy increases.

o

The frequency of effective collision increases

o

The rate of reaction increases.

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4. The effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction.

Addition of a positive catalyst to a chemical reaction provides an alternative path of reaction that requires a lower activation energy.

The frequency of effective collision increases

The rate of reaction increases.

Energy profile diagrams to show the effect of catalyst on rate of reaction.

Exothermic Reaction

Endothermic Reaction

Ea Ea ’
Ea
Ea ’

Energy

Exothermic Reaction Endothermic Reaction Ea Ea ’ Energy Reactant Product Energy Product Ea ’ Ea Reactant

Reactant

Product

Energy Product Ea ’ Ea Reactant
Energy
Product
Ea ’
Ea
Reactant

Ea – Activation energy without energy Ea – Activation energy with energy

V. The effect of pressure on rate of reaction.

(i)

The effect of pressure only affects the rate of chemical reaction when the reactants Are in the gaseous state.

Eg:

N 2 (g)

+

3H 2 (g)

Eg: N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)

2NH 3 (g)

(ii)

Increased in pressure by increasing the concentration of gas or by reducing the volume of the vessel,

o

the number of particles per unit volume increases.

o

The frequency of collision among the reactant particles increases

o

The frequency of effective collision increases

o

Hence the rate of reaction increases.

Activity:

1. Complete the following table:

Experiment

Factor affect the rate of reaction

Sketch of graph

Explain using collision theory

Two set of experiment is carry out between

 

Volume of gas /

3
3

cm

The rate of reaction in exp I

is ……………… than exp II

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

Time, s

23

marble chip and hydrochloric acid:

The gradient of the curve for exp I is ……………. than exp II

Exp I: Excess of zinc

powder and 50 cm 3 of

0.5

moldm -3

hydrochloric acid Exp II: Excess of zinc

Zinc powder has …………. total surface area

Frequency of collision of zinc and …………………. increases

granule and 50 cm 3 of

0.5

hydrochloric acid

moldm -3

Frequency of ……………… collision increases

Reinforce exercise;

1. Which of the following can be used to determine the rate of the reaction?

I Release of gas per unit time.

II Change of colour intensity per unit time.

III Formation of precipitate per unit time.

IV Increase in the mass of reactant per unit time.

A. I and II

B. III and IV

C. I, II and III

D. II, III and IV

2. An equation of a reaction is as follows

2Fe 2+

+

Cl 2

2Fe 2 + + Cl 2 2Fe 3 + + 2Cl

2Fe 3+

+

2Cl

Green

Brown

In the reaction represented by the equation above, it was found that the change of colour from green to brown was faster when the reactant mixture was heated. This was due to the…

I. decrease in the activation energy.

II. increase in the frequency of effective collision .

III. increase in the kinetic energy of ferrum(II) ions and chlorine molecules.

IV. increase in the frequency of collision between ferrum(II) ions and chlorine molecules.

A. I and II only

B. II and III only

C. I, III and IV only

D. II, III and IV only

3. Table 4 shows the total volume of gas collected at regular intervals in a reaction.

Time / s

0

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

Volume of gas/ cm 3

0

2.0

3.7

5.2

6.4

7.3

8.6

8.6

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4.

What

is the average rate of reaction in the second minute ?

A.

0.040 cm 3 s -1

B.

0.045 cm 3 s -1

C.

0.053 cm 3 s -1

D.

0.062 cm 3 s -1

The

equation below represents the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide solution.

+ 2H 2 O 2(aq) 2H 2 O (l) O 2(g) Which of the following
+
2H 2 O 2(aq)
2H 2 O (l)
O 2(g)
Which of the following are produced when 1 mole of hydrogen peroxide is
decomposed completely ?
[1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room condition;
Avogadro’s constant : 6 X 10 23 mol -1 ]

5

I 2 moles of water

II 12 dm 3 of oxygen gas

III 3 X 10 23 of oxygen molecules

IV 1.2 X 10 24 of water molecules

A

B and IV only

C

D and IV only

I

I

II

II

and

and

III only

III only

An experiment is carried out to study the rate of reaction between marble and hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide gas.

Experiment

Substances

I

Excess marble and 50.0 cm 3 of 2 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid

II

Excess marble and 100.0cm 3 of 1 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid

A

Volume of CO 2 /cm 3

I II
I
II

Time/s

B

Volume of CO 2 /cm 3

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

C

Volume of CO 2 /cm 3

I II
I
II

Time/s

D

25

II

I

Time/s
Time/s

Volume of

CO 2 /cm 3

I

II

Time/s
Time/s

6 The reaction between hydrochloric acid and zinc produces hydrogen gas. The reaction is complete in 50 seconds and the maximum volume of gas produced is 25 cm3. What is the average rate of the reaction?

A. 0.5 cm 3 s -1

C.

2.0 cm 3 s -1

B. 1.0 cm 3 s -1

D.

4.0 cm 3 s -1

7 The diagram shows the energy profile of a reaction. E a is the activation energy for this reaction.

Energy

E a Reactant Ea’ Products
E a
Reactant
Ea’
Products

Reaction path

What will change the activation energy from E a to E a ’?

A. Temperature

C.

Concentration

B. Catalyst

D.

Total surface area

8 Which of the following explains the meaning of effective collision?

A. The collision where its energy is less than the activation energy.

B. The collision that has a low energy

C. The collision which takes place before a reaction

D. The collision that causes a reaction

9 The diagram shows the set up of the apparatus for an experiment to determine the rate of reaction between sodium thiosulphate and sulphuric acid.

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

26

10

Which of the conditions take mark ‘X’ to

10 Which of the conditions take mark ‘X’ to following combination of the shortest time for

following combination of the shortest time for the diappear from sight?

Sulphuric acid Sodium thiosulphate Temperature Volume/cm 3 Concentration/ mol dm -3 Volume/cm 3 Concentration/ mol
Sulphuric acid
Sodium thiosulphate
Temperature
Volume/cm 3
Concentration/
mol dm -3
Volume/cm 3
Concentration/
mol dm -3
/
o C
A 10
1.0
50
0.5
30
B 10
1.0
50
0.5
40
C 10
0.5
50
0.5
30
D 20
0.5
40
0.5
40

In an experiment, of 0.1 mol dm -3 produces oxygen

the decomposition of 25cm 3 hydrogen peroxide solution gas.

Volume of

oxygen

gas/cm 3

P

Q

Time/s

If the experiment is repeated using another solution, which solution will produce curve Q?

A. 25 cm 3 of 0.15 mol dm -3 hydrogen peroxide

B. 20 cm 3 of 0.15 mol dm -3 hydrogen peroxide

C. 15 cm 3 of 0.15 mol dm -3 hydrogen peroxide

D. 10 cm 3 of 0.25 mol dm -3 hydrogen peroxide

11

The following statements are related to the collision theory of a reaction.

I. The total surface area of the reactant particles increases.

II. The kinetic energy of the reactant particles increases.

III. The frequency of the collision between the reactant particles increases.

IV. The number of the reactant particles per unit volume increases.

Which of the following combinations is true about the effect of the rise in temperature on the reactant particles?

A I and II only

C

III and IV only

B II and III only

D

I and IV only

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

27

12

If you want to cook 100 potatoes within a short time, which is the most suitable

method?

A Boil the potatoes in a pan

B Boil the potatoes in a pressure cooker

C Steam the potatoes in a steamer

D Fry the potatoes in a wok

13

Which of the following reactants produces the highest rate of reaction with zinc

powder?

 

A 25 cm 3 of sulphuric acid 0.1 mol dm -3 .

B 25 cm 3 of ethanoic acid 0.1 mol dm -3 .

C 25 cm 3 of nitric acid 0.1 mol dm -3 .

D 25 cm 3 of hydrochloric acid 0.1 mol dm -3 .

14

Which of the following mixture of limestone and 50 cm 3 hydrochloric acid will give the highest initial rate of gas produced ?

A g limestone powder with 0.2 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid

5

B g limestone granules with 0.2 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid

5

C g limestone powder with 0.1 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid

10

D g limestone granules with 0.2 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid

10

15

+ 2 MnO 4 - (aq)

→ 10 CO 2 (g) + 8H 2 O (l) + 2Mn 2+ (aq)

5C 2 O 4 2- (aq) + 16 H + (aq) Ethanadioic ion

manganate (VII) ion

The above equation represents the reaction between ethanadioic acid with acidic potassium manganate (VII) . If excess of acidic potassium manganate (VII) was used, the rate of reaction can be determined by the

A time manganese ion produced

 

B time to decolourised the potassium manganate (VII) solution

C mass of manganese salt produced at a given time

D time taken to collect a certain volume of carbon dioxide

16

In a catalytic reaction, a catalyst will increase the rate of reaction because a catalyst

will

A

decrease the activation energy of the reaction

B

increase the particle energy

C

decrease the effective collision frequency

D

increase the rate of collision between particles

17

Experiment

Mass of copper (II) oxide/g

Volume of hydrogen peroxide /cm 3

Concentration of hydrogen peroxide /mol dm -3

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

28

I

1

50

1.0

II

1

100

0.5

Table 2 Two experiments were carried out to measure the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with copper(II) oxide as the catalyst , with conditions shown in the Table 2. Which of the following graphs shows volume of oxygen releases against time for Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 ?

A

B

Gas experiment II volume experiment I time Gas experiment I volume experiment II time
Gas
experiment II
volume
experiment I
time
Gas
experiment I
volume
experiment II
time
C experiment II Gas volume experiment I time D experiment I Gas volume experiment II
C
experiment II
Gas
volume
experiment I
time
D
experiment I
Gas
volume
experiment II
time

Total gas volume /cm 3

v v/2- 0 10 20 30
v
v/2-
0
10
20
30

Figure 4

time/s

40

18 Figure 4 shows the graph of total volume of gas against time for the reaction between marble and dilute hydrochloric acid. From the graph, it can be

deduced that

A

the rate of reaction at 10 th second is lower than the rate at the 20 th

B

second

C

total volume of gas collected for the first 20 second is v/2 cm 3

D

total volume of the gas collected in this experiment is v cm 3 the maximum rate of gas released is at the 40 th second

19 Among the acids below, which will give the highest initial rate of reaction when 1 g of calcium carbonate powder was added to it ?

A cm 3 0.1 mol dm -3 nitric acid

50.0

B cm 3 0.1 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid

C cm 3 0.1 mol dm -3 ethanoic acid

50.0

50.0

D 100.0 cm 3 0.1 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid

20 The reactions between hydrochloric acid and zinc produces hydrogen gas. The

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

29

reaction is completed in 50 seconds and the maximum volume of gas produced is 25 cm 3 . What is the average rate of the reaction?

A 0.5 cm 3 s -1

B 1.0 cm 3 s -1

C 2.0 cm 3 s -1

D 4.0 cm 3 s -1

Reinforce Exercise for Structural Questions and Essay Questions.

1. The rate of reaction is affected by several factors. One of the factors is the size of particles.

One kilogramme of meat, cut into big pieces, takes a longer time to cook compared to one kilogram of meat cut into smaller pieces.

(a)

Explain the above statement based on the size of the particles.

[2 marks]

(b)

influencing the rate of reaction. Table 1 shows the results of the experiments.

A student carried out three experiments to investigate the effects of the factors

three experiments to investigate the effects of the factors (i) Write the chemical equation for the

(i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric acid. Calculate the maximum volume of hydrogen gas produced. [ Relative atomic mass: Mg,24; molar mass volume: 24 dm 3 mol -1 at room condition] [4 marks]

(ii) Sketch the graphs for the volume of hydrogen gas against time for Experiment I, II and III on the same axes.

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

[3 marks]

30

(iii)

Calculate the average rate of reaction for Experiment I, II and III in cm 3 s -1 . [3 marks]

(iv) Compare the rates of reaction between Experiment I and Experiment II, and between Experiment II and Experiment III. With reference to collision theory, explain why there are differences in the rates of reaction in the experiments.

[8 marks]

2. An experiment was conducted to find out the effects of temperature on the rate of reaction. 50cm 3 of sodium thiosulphate solution 0.05 mol dm -3 at 30 o C was put into a 250cm 3 conical flask. Then the conical flask was placed on an ‘X’ sign on a piece of white paper.

10cm 3 of hydrochloric acid 1.0 mol dm -3 was added to the sodium thiosulphate solution and shaken. At the same time, the stop watch was started. The stop watch was stopped as soon as the ‘X’ sign was no longer visible.

The same steps of the experiment were repeated for sodium thiosulphate solution which was heated to 35 o C, 40 o C, 45 o C and 50 o C.

Figure 1 shows the readings of the stop watch for each of the reaction at different temperatures.

of the stop watch for each of the reaction at different temperatures. 31 CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009

31

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

(a)

Record the time for each reaction in the spaces provided in Figure 1.

(b)

Construct a table and record temperature, time and 1/time for this experiment.

(c)

(i) Draw a graph of temperature against 1/time on the graph paper.

(ii) Based on the graph in c(i) , state the relationship between the rate of reaction and temperature.

(d) Predict the time taken as soon as the sign ‘X’ to be not longer visible if this experiment is repeated at 55 o C.

(e)(i) State the variables involved in this experiment.

Manipulated variable:

Responding variable:

Constant variable:

(ii) State how you would manipulate one variable while keeping the other variables constant.

(f) State the hypothesis for this experiment.

(g) From the above experiment, the student found a relationship between temperature and rate of reaction. The same situation can be applied in our daily lives, for example, keeping food that is easily spoiled in the refrigerator.

Using your knowledge of chemistry, state the relationship between temperature and the rate at which food turns bad.

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

32

3(a) Food stored in a refrigerator last longer than food stored in a kitchen cabinet. Explain why.

[4 marks]

(b) A group of pupils carried out three experiments to investigate the factors affecting the

rate of a reaction. Table 7 shows information about the reactants and the temperature used in each

experiment.

Experiment

Reactants

Temperature / o C

I

Excess calcium carbonate chips and 30 cm 3 of 0.5 mod dm -3 hydrochloric acid

30

II

Excess calcium carbonate chips and 30 cm 3 of 0.5 mod dm -3 hydrochloric acid

40

III

Excess calcium carbonate powder and 30 cm 3 of 0.5 mod dm -3 hydrochloric acid

40

Table 7.

Graph 7 shows the results of these experiments.

40 Table 7. Graph 7 shows the results of these experiments. (i) Calculate the average rate

(i) Calculate the average rate of reaction for experiment I.

marks]

[2

(ii) Based on Table 7 and graph 7, compare the rate of reaction between:

Experiment I and Experiment II

Experiment II and Experiment III

In each case explain the difference in rate of reaction with reference to the collision theory.

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

[ 10 marks]

33

(iii)

The chemical equation below shows the reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid.

CaCO 3 + 2HCl

calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. CaCO 3 + 2HCl CaCl 2 + CO 2 + H

CaCl 2 +

CO 2 +

H 2 O

Given that the relative atomic mass of C=12, O=16, Ca=40 and the molar volume of any gas is 24 cm 3 mol -1 at room temperature and pressure.

Calculate the maximum volume of carbon dioxide gas produced in Experiment II. [4 marks]

4. Diagram 6 shows two experiments to investigate one factor that influences the rate of a reaction.

one factor that influences the rate of a reaction. (a) What is the factor that influences

(a)

What is the factor that influences the rate of reaction in both experiments? [1 mark]

(b)

The reaction in the experiment is represented by the following equation:

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

34

CaCO 3 (s) + 2HCl(aq)

CaCO 3 (s) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l)

CaCl 2 (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l)

(i)

Among the products stated in the equation, which is the most suitable to be chosen to determine the rate of reaction?

[1 mark]

(ii)

State one reason for choosing the product in 6(b)(i)

[1 mark]

(c) State two controlled variables in both experiments.

 

1.

2.

[2 marks]

(d) The results for both experiments are represented by graph 6.

Quantity of product x
Quantity
of product
x

Time

Based on Graph 6:

(i)

Experiment II has a higher rate of reaction. How does the graph show this?

(ii)

What has happened to the reactants at time x?

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

Key:

Experiment I

Experiment II

[1 mark]

[1 mark]

35

CHEMISTRY MODULE 2009 © HAK MILIK JPN PAHANG

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