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2/12/2014

Aircraft Structural Design

Schrenks approximation
Classical wing theory: for an elliptical wing,
spanwise air load (lift) distribution is of elliptical
shape.
Schrenks approximation for a non-elliptical wing:
assumes that the load distribution on untwisted
wing or tail has a shape that is the average of the
actual planform shape and an elliptical shape of
the same span and area.
The total area under the lift load curve must
equate to the required total lift.
2/12/2014

Aircraft Structural Design

Schrenks approximation

Schrenks method essentially states that the resultant load


distribution is an arithmetic mean of:
A load distribution representing the actual planform shape
An elliptical distribution of the same span and area
2/12/2014

Aircraft Structural Design

Schrenks approximation

Here the semi-span wing area = area of an


elliptical quadrant = S/2.
2/12/2014

Aircraft Structural Design

Schrenks approximation
Semi Elliptical Area:
1
4
=
2 =
2 4 4

But for an ellipse:

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4
2
2 + 2 = 1 = 1

Aircraft Structural Design

Schrenks approximation
Schrenkss approximation is then to put wy
(N/m) in place of cy and put L (N) in place of S,
yielding the following expression for load
distribution over the wing as a function of
spanwise distance y (m):
4
2
=
1

2/12/2014

Aircraft Structural Design

Schrenks approximation
For a tapered wing with taper ratio =

= =
2
2
2

=
+

4

2
= 1 + =
4
1+
2/12/2014

Aircraft Structural Design

Schrenks approximation
Now:

2
1 +
1

2
2
=
1+
1
1+

Then: replacing with and S with L, we obtain the


expression for the load distribution over the span:

2
2
=
1+
1
1+

2/12/2014

Aircraft Structural Design

Schrenks approximation
Schrenkss approximation for load distribution
over a tapered wing is therefore the average
of the following two distributions:
4
2
=
1

And:

2/12/2014

2
2
=
1+
1
1+

Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
Based on results obtained for base (Lb) and
additional (La) lift on a tapered/twisted wing.
Base lift: lift generated by the twist of a wing.
We will focus here on untwisted wings whereby
only the additional lift distribution is of interest.
For detailed discussions see reference below:
Theory of Wing Sections by Ira H. Abbott And Albert
E. Von Doenhoff, Dover Publications, Inc. NY, 1959.
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Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
Consider an arbitrary wing with a specified
surface area S, total span b, a taper ratio = ct/cr
and an aspect ratio A = b2/S.

cr

yi

Station i

c(y)

Station i+1

ct

yi+1

b/2

Station (i) = Station (yi/(b/2)) = Station (0, 0.2, 0.4,


etc.)
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Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
As seen before:

2
= 1 +
1

And:

2/12/2014

= 1+
2

Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
According to this method, the local lift coefficient
cL at a given Station (i) can be determined using:
= (/)
where ci is the chord length at Station (i) and La is a
coefficient determined from Tables.
Once cL is determined, calculate local lift force Li
using:
= ( 2 )
Where: = (+1 )(+1 + )/2
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Aircraft Structural Design

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Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
Li acts midspan between station i and i+1 .
Shear forces and bending/twisting moments
at each station can then be determined from a
balance of forces and moments.
Vi

yi

Vi+1

Li

Mi+1

Mi
Inboard (wing root)

Station i

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yi+1

Outboard (wing tip)

Station i+1
i+1
Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation

= +1 +
= +1 + (+1 )/2
+ +1 (+1 )

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Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
General case of a wing at an Angle of Attack
L N

= () + ()
= () + ()
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Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation

=
=
=
=

(/)
( )
(/ )
( )

= () + ()
= () + ()
= +1 +
= +1 + (+1 )/2 + +1 (+1 )
= +1 +
= +1 + (+1 )/2 + +1 (+1 )

2/12/2014

Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
Wing torque:
The value of the wing torque (torsion
moment) is related to the magnitude and
direction of the pitching moment of the wing
plus the moment caused by the normal lift
(N) acting about the shear centre of the wing
box (neglecting the contribution of P).

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Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
Ni

Mo

SC

Myi

Station i

AC

Station i+1

Myi+1

= +1 + +
= (2 )
= (/)
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Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
Example 1:
A tapered wing has a half span of 6 m, a root
chord of 2.6 m and a tip chord of 1.6 m.
Assuming the a/c is at an AOA = 20o calculate
all applicable loads using the Anderson Tables
for air load approximations. Assume CL = 1.9, CD
= 0.2, Cmo = -0.05 and that the a/c is in flight at
an airspeed V = 100 m/s and = 1.225 kg/m3.

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Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
Solution:
= ct/cr = 1.6/2.6 = 0.62 0.6 (for Andersons
tables)
S = (b/2)(1+ ) cr = 6(1+0.62)(2.6) = 25.2 m2
A = b2/S = (12)2/25.27 = 5.7 6 (for Andersons
tables)
We now use the Anderson tables to obtain La at
the various stations for ct/cr = 0.6 and A = 6. For
example at Station 0, La = 1.267 while at Station
0.975, La = 0.340. From those values of La we
proceed to determine all applicable loads.
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Aircraft Structural Design

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Andersons approximation
STATION
0.0000
0.2000
0.4000
0.6000
0.8000
0.9000
0.9500
0.9750
1.0000

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yi

(m)

0.0000
1.2000
2.4000
3.6000
4.8000
5.4000
5.7000
5.8500
6.0000

C i (m)

Si

2.6000
2.4000
2.2000
2.0000
1.8000
1.7000
1.6500
1.6250
1.6000

3.0000
2.7600
2.5200
2.2800
1.0500
0.5025
0.2456
0.2419
0.0000

(m )

1.2670
1.2180
1.1320
1.0020
0.8000
0.6150
0.4660
0.3400

cL

cD

1.9444
2.0249
2.0530
1.9990
1.7733
1.4434
1.1269
0.8348
0.0000

0.2047
0.2132
0.2161
0.2104
0.1867
0.1519
0.1186
0.0879
0.0000

V z (N)

Vx

34859
33399
30918
27237
11128
4335
1654
1207
0

-8686
-8322
-7704
-6787
-2773
-1080
-412
-301
0

144737
109878
76479
45560
18323
7196
2861
1207
0

-36063
-27377
-19056
-11352
-4565
-1793
-713
-301
0

(N)

Mx

(N.m)

385697
232928
121113
47890
9560
1904
396
91
0

Aircraft Structural Design

Li

(N)

35728
34231
31689
27916
11405
4443
1695
1237
0

Di

(N)

3761
3603
3336
2939
1201
468
178
130
0

M z (N.m)

M y (N.m)

-96101
-58037
-30177
-11932
-2382
-474
-99
-23
0

72568
52354
34477
19306
7157
2690
1046
437
0

c mo

Mo

-0.0512
-0.0533
-0.0540
-0.0526
-0.0467
-0.0380
-0.0297
-0.0220
0.0000

-2445
-2162
-1835
-1469
-540
-199
-74
-53
0

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Boeing 707
Example 2:
Consider the wing loading of a Boeing 707 in
flight at a point where the total lift on the
wing L = 750 KN. Determine wing load
distribution using an airload elliptical
approximation (assume level flight at 0 AOA)

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Aircraft Structural Design

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Boeing 707

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Aircraft Structural Design

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Boeing 707
Airload elliptical approximation:

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Aircraft Structural Design

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Boeing 707
The wing final load distribution is established
once the net effect of all relevant loads is
accounted for. The plot below illustrates the
net resultant of all distributed loads, i.e.,
before accounting for engine weights.
30
25

wy (KN/m)

20
Structures load
(KN/m)

15
10

Fuel load (KN/m)

5
0
-5 0

10

20

30

Net load (KN/m)

-10

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Aircraft Structural Design

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Boeing 707
y(m)
20
19
18
17
16
15
14.5
14.5
14
13
12
11
10
9.5
9.5
9
8
6
4
2
0

wy (KN/m)
0
7.458198246
10.41138283
12.58238904
14.33121019
15.79867423
16.451
16.45100794
17.05755198
18.15129477
19.10828025
19.94820034
20.68532015
21.018
21.018769
21.33029988
21.89128517
22.78517201
23.40276824
23.7656235
23.88535032

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Air load delta Structures load/m Structures load delta


0
-1.5
0
3.729099123
-1.625
-1.5625
8.934790537
-1.75
-1.6875
11.49688593
-1.875
-1.8125
13.45679961
-2
-1.9375
15.06494221
-2.125
-2.0625
8.062418558
-2.1875
-1.078125
-2.1875
8.377137995
-2.25
-1.109375
17.60442337
-2.375
-2.3125
18.62978751
-2.5
-2.4375
19.5282403
-2.625
-2.5625
20.31676025
-2.75
-2.6875
10.42583004
-2.8125
-1.390625
10.58707497
21.61079252
44.67645718
46.18794025
47.16839174
47.65097382

-2.875
-3
-3.25
-3.5
-3.75
-4

-1.421875
-2.9375
-6.25
-6.75
-7.25
-7.75

Aircraft Structural Design

Fuel load/m Fuel load delta Engine load delta


0
0
0
0
0
0
-3
0
0
-3.277777778 -3.138888889
0
-3.555555556 -3.416666667
0
-3.833333333 -3.694444444
0
-3.972222222 -1.951388889
0
-18
-4.111111111 -2.020833333
0
-4.388888889
-4.25
0
-4.666666667 -4.527777778
0
-4.944444444 -4.805555556
0
-5.222222222 -5.083333333
0
-5.361111111 -2.645833333
0
-18
-5.5
-2.715277778
0
-5.777777778 -5.638888889
0
-6.333333333 -12.11111111
0
-6.888888889 -13.22222222
0
-7.444444444 -14.33333333
0
-8
-15.44444444
0

29

Boeing 707
Spanwise distance (m)
20
19
18
17
16
15
14.5
14.5
14
13
12
11
10
9.5
9.5
9
8
6
4
2
0

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Net load/m
-1.5
5.833198246
5.661382827
7.429611258
8.775654636
9.840340897
10.29127778
10.291
10.69644087
11.38740588
11.94161359
12.3787559
12.71309793
12.84438889
12.844
12.95529988
13.11350739
13.20183868
13.01387935
12.57117905
11.88535032

Net load
0
2.166599123
5.747290537
6.545497043
8.102632947
9.307997766
5.032904669
-18
5.246929661
11.04192337
11.66450973
12.16018474
12.54592692
6.389371705
-18
6.449922192
13.03440363
26.31534606
26.21571803
25.58505841
24.45652937

Shear Force Bending Moment


0
0
2.166599123
3.249898685
7.91388966
14.03743361
14.4593867
31.76956884
22.56201965
58.38290496
31.87001742
94.90692126
36.90292208
114.6166085
18.90292208
114.6166085
24.14985175
128.0032668
35.19177512
168.7160036
46.85628485
221.4045433
59.0164696
286.5011053
71.56239651
364.3364652
77.95176822
404.9096923
59.95176822
404.9096923
66.40169041
439.723018
79.43609405
525.6763139
105.7514401
763.4945402
131.9671581
1053.644574
157.5522165
1394.334066
182.0087459
1782.808087

Aircraft Structural Design

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