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Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )


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Hhhh6TEP6TA TPYA h 60hAbh0|0 PA3hThP
P066hh6K0h 4EEPAhh

K.H. 3A5P0hh


cxonor nuuoc ynpasneue uenoseuecku pecypcau

Pe|ove+doea+o | usda+us Veeedovcmee++ou |ovuccueu
no npoeccuo+ane+ou nepenodcomoe|e u noeeae+us |eanuu|a(uu
coc,dapcmee++ex cn,a(ux edepane+ex opca+oe ucnon+umene+ou enacmu


Hocksa
3A0 4ucauqopu
hT 3A0 KuoPyc
2002


YK 316
5EK 88.5
312
/emop
|puu Vuxaunoeuv 3apodu+ - qortop rcuxonoru+ecrux uayr, rpoeccop, sas. raeqpou couaneuou rcuxonoruu
aryneteta rcuxonoruu Vl/

oq peqarueu qortopa arouonu+ecrux uayr, rpoeccopa /.1. 3,|oeou

Pe(e+se+me:
qortop unococrux uayr, +neu-ropp. PAl P.l. F+oec|uu
qortop arouonu+ecrux uayr, rpoeccop |.n. nea+oe

3a6poqu K.H.
312 cuxonoru nu+uoctu u yrpasneuue +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu. - V.: 1uuctatuuopn, 2002. - 360 c.

ISBN 5-7866-0158-7

8 qauuon y+euo-netoqu+ecron rocouu paccnatpusaktc netoqonoru+ecrue rponenM u repcrertusM passutu
rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu, rpusoqtc pesynetatM anrupu+ecrux uccneqosauuu u rpartu+ecrux rpunoeuuu
cospeneuuou rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu r saqa+an paspaotru u peanusauu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu.
n rocyqapctseuuMx cnyaaux u creuanuctos, ctyqeutos, cnyaateneu, rpoxoqaux rpoeccuouaneuyk
reperoqrotosry u rosMaakaux rsanuurauk, u acrupautos cootsetctsykaux arynetetos yuusepcutetos, ocoeuuo
qn tex us uux, rto creuanusupyetc ro creuaneuoctn cuxonoru nu+uoctu, 3rouonu+ecra rcuxonoru,
3rouonura u Couonoru tpyqa u sautoctu.

YK 316
55K 88.5

l|| tpyqa Vuutpyqa Poccuu, 2002
ISBN 5-7866-0158-7 0opnneuue. 8A0 1uuctatuuopn, 2002



PEh60hE. Y6T0h+h06Tb +E0EKA h3HEhPKEh6P 60hAbh0h 6hTYAhh:
3
P05EHb |YHAhh3Ahh 6hX00|h+E6K0h TE0Phh h PAKThKh

onutu+ecrue u arouonu+ecrue peopnM s Poccuu uatonruynuce ua cepeesuMe rponenM rocyqapctseuuoro u
oaectseuuoro perynuposauu couaneuMx rpoeccos, s ton +ucne rpnoro yrpasneuu unu. 3tu rponenM
oycnosneuM uuMnu rpuuuranu oprauusauu usuu u qeteneuoctu nkqeu, creuurou repexoquoro repuoqa,
sosuuruoseuuen uosMx couaneuMx euoneuos, rpeqronarakaux pacaupeuue u+dueud,ane+ex ceood, pocm
s+avuvocmu venoeevec|ou nuv+ocmu, eospacma+ue omeemcmee++ocmu venoee|a e onpedene+uu cocmee++ou
c,dee.
lapqy c o+esuquMnu ronouteneuMnu noneutanu peopn, rpu repexoqe poccuucroro oaectsa r pMury
ouapyunoce nuoectso ueratusuMx sneuuu. Cyaectseuuo yxyqaunace arouonu+ecra cutyau, yran yposeue
usuu, ysenu+unoce paccnoeuue oaectsa ro yposuk qoxoqos u t.q. 8repsMe s 1993 r. roctouuMn artopon uaaeu
usuu ctana espaotua; ee yposeue noet sospactu s ua+ane tpeteero tMc+enetu sa c+et crpMtou opnM qo 8-
12 nnu +enoser (rpu 72 nnu +enoser arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu ctpauM 3Al). pu rpoeccuouaneuou
nurpauu us 15 nnu +en. onee 4 nnu +en. opatunuce s cnyM sautoctu, oquaro tpyqoyctpouctso espaotuMx
rpaqau qae rocne ux repeoy+euu octaetc uepeaeuuou rponenou. Ctpyrtypa poccuucroro pMura pao+eu
cunM pesro ucraeua: qon espaotuMx creuanuctos sMcorou rsanuurauu s pqe peruouos qocturaet 60%; s
1993 r. ua csooquon pMure rosunuce sMrycruuru oaeopasosateneuou u rpoeccuouaneuou aron, ux +ucno s
1995 r. rpesMcuno nunnuou +enoser.
partu+ecru paspyaeuM rpeuue cssu rpoeccuouaneuou aronM u tpyqosou cepM: qo 50% sMrycruuros
sysos, onee 60% sMrycruuros cpequeu u qo 80% sMrycruuros ua+aneuou rpoeccuouaneuMx aron rocne sMrycra
octaktc uetpyqoyctpoeuuMnu. 8 enon, eeroquo rocyqapctso tepet us-roq routpon onee 1 nnu sMrycruuros.
n cpasueuu s Frouuu tpyqoyctpausaetc cpasy rocne sMrycra qo 92%; s CLA 84% ectectseuuuros u 38%
rynauutapues (+epes 6 nec. 94 u 78% cootsetctseuuo, a +epes 9 nec. 96 u 94%).
3tu usneueuu couaneuMx octotenects cyaectseuuMn opason snukt ua rcuxonoru+ecryk cepy oeuru,
otuoaeuue r xoqy peopn, y+actue s uux rourpetuMx nkqeu.
laau uccneqosauu rorasMsakt, +to s uosMx ycnosux cuneuo usneuunace rcuxonoru rar nonoqeu, tar u
sspocnMx. peqe scero usneuunace cuctena nu+uoctuMx euuocteu u oeuor: pesro yrano +ysctso coctseuuoro
qoctouuctsa, ysepeuuocte s sastpaauen que (onee 60% sMrycruuros rpoeccuouaneuou aronM ue unekt
usueuuMx rnauos, a qo 80% us uux ue ysepeuM s ton, +to cnoryt uautu roqxoqayk paoty). Pesro yneueaunace
sua+unocte tpyqa, raqaet rpectu rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu u rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa. 8Mop rpoeccuu
ctan cepeesuou usueuuou rponenou: rony+euuMe uanu qauuMe yrasMsakt ua pacxoqeuue uutepecos (ysne+euuu)
u peanuu rpoeccuouaneuoro sMopa, ua pactyaee paccornacosauue oeuor y sspocnMx u nonoqMx nkqeu.
0tne+euuMe euoneuM uaxoqt csoe rpoqoneuue s ton, +to cyaectseuuo sospactaet cnouocte u tecte
usueuuMx cutyauu nu+uoctu.
0cneqosauu ouapyusakt rcuxu+ecroe uarpeuue u ctpecc onee +en y 50% rpaqau, a ctpyrtypa ux
nu+uoctuMx saaut qenouctpupyet crpMtMe u suMe teuqeuuu r arpeccuu. Auanus uuqusuqyaneuMx cenautu+ecrux
rpoctpaucts rorasMsaet, +to s poccuucron routuureute rpuopetakt rosutusuoe ssy+auue u cnuaktc tarue
nu+uoctuMe u roseqeu+ecrue xapartepucturu, rar cuna u roupoutau, corepuu+ectso, roqasneuue u rounurt.
8 ycnosux repexoquoro repuoqa rpeu rcuxonoru+ecra teopu ue cpaatMsaet, rocronery ctpoeuue,
yuruu u passutue rcuxuru ro+tu scerqa ek paccnatpusaktc sue cssu c passutuen tou peaneuou couaneuou
cutyauu, tex rourpetuMx ycnosuu, s rotopMx uset u qeuctsyet qauuMu uuqusuq. Ceroqu poccuucra rpartu+ecra
rcuxonoru passusaetc s ronuon otpMse ot teopetu+ecroro suauu, saunctsy u aqartupy (+acto ue sronue
neraneuMn opason) paspaotauuMe sa pyeon netoqM u texuuru oeuru u rcuxonoru+ecroro sosqeuctsu.
0quospeneuuo pacaupkaac rcuxonoru+ecra rpartura sMsnet orpauu+euuocte sqpasoro cnMcna, rotopMu
ue rossonet oeuusate u rporuosuposate couaneuMe u rcuxonoru+ecrue rocneqctsu rpuuunaenMx peaeuuu.
otep usueuuMx opueutupos u repcrertus cuuaet yctou+usocte +enosera, cosqaet yrposy ero nu+uou u
rpoeccuouaneuou esoracuoctu. 8 atou cutyauu ueoxoquno cosqauue oaeuauouaneuou cuctenM
rcuxonoru+ecroro corposoqeuu u roqqepru +enosera ua usueuuon rytu. 8auo ot+etnuso cosuasate, +to
peaeuue atoro rnacca rponen neut s pycne paseumu+ u nepeve+e a|(e+moe c,va+umap+ou |,nem,pe: tonero
uay+ua rcuxonoru u ee rpartu+ecrue rpunoeuu crocouM oecre+ute pauouaneuoe yrpasneuue u
canoyrpasneuue yctou+usMn passutuen +enosera rar rpaqauuua u rpoeccuouana. 3to osua+aet, +to s
oaectseuuon cosuauuu qonua copnuposatec cosepaeuuo uosa roueru otuoaeuu r +enosery: kouen
ynpasneu uenoseuecku pecypcou, s otnu+ue ot rpeueu roueruu yuea uenoseueckoro qakopa.
Ynpasneue uenoseuecku pecypcou rpeqronaraet uccneqosauue u rpartu+ecroe paspeaeuue pqa uacyauMx
qn Poccuu rponen, s +actuoctu, sorpocos opnuposauu, passutu u corposoqeuu rpaqaucrou u
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
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rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM +enosera, t.e. cosqauu, socrpoussoqctsa u pauouaneuoro ucronesosauu
upasctseuuoro, uutennertyaneuoro u rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana ctpauM. Tara paota rpeqronaraet oropy ua
c,va+umap+eu s ronuon cnMcne atoro cnosa |ovnne|c +a,| o venoee|e.
la cospeneuuon atare saueuaun aneneuton yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon ctauosutc auanus u
pauouanusau csseu ved, ve++s(uvuc+ e xode peopv cucmevavu opasoea+u+ u sa++mocmu. Auanus
poccuucrou cutyauu rorasMsaet, +to rcuxonoru+ecru uauonee tpyquMnu ctauostc noneutM repexoqa neqy
pasnu+uMnu sseuenu oaeopasosateneuou, rpoeccuouaneuou aron u cepou rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa.
Pesynetaton yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon, c oquou ctopouM, qonuo ctate cosda+ue |o+mu+ce+ma
xopoao nodcomoene++ex cne(uanucmoe, otse+akaux tpeosauun pMura so scen rpoeccuouaneuon crertpe: ot
penecneuuura u rpeqrpuuunaten qo uaenuoro paotuura u rocyqapctseuuoro cnyaaero (+uuosuura). C qpyrou
ctopouM, qn atoro routuureuta qonua Mte oecre+eua npod,|mue+a+ sa++mocme. Cneqosateneuo, uyuM
creuaneuMe nexauusnM yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon rar ua eqepaneuon, tar u ua peruouaneuon yposux.
leoxoqunM rporpannM rpoeccuouaneuoro ctauosneuu u passutu +enosera s opasosateneuMx y+peqeuux,
passutu repcouana ua rpeqrputux.
8Mxoq us tpyquocteu, sarouonepuo sosuuraux s xoqe tpaucopnauu poccuucroro oaectsa u s rpoecce
roctpoeuu pMuo+uou arouonuru, sosnoeu nuae rpu cneqykaux tpex ycnosux:
roctpoeuue yuqaneutaneuou uay+uou rcuxonoruu s uosou rapaqurne;
cosqauue cnyM rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu s panrax oaeuauouaneuou cuctenM;
rcuxonoru+ecroe rpocseaeuue uaceneuu (s repsyk o+epeqe, sseqeuue rcuxonoruu s oaeopasosateneuyk
arony).
Peaeuue repe+ucneuuMx sMae saqa+ tpeyet paspaotru uosMx uarpasneuuu u s passutuu rcuxonoru+ecrou
teopuu, u s cosqauuu uosMx netoqos uccneqosauu, oeuru, corposoqeuu u roqqepru rpoeccos opasosauu u
rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa, tarux, rar:
auanus rpoeccos usuu cyerta, rotopMu, ronuno usy+euu qeteneuoctu, srnk+an M s ce rpoeccM
passutu +enosera; rosneuu u yqosnetsopeuu rotpeuocteu; socrpoussoqctsa u passutu +enose+ecrux
otuoaeuuu;
usy+euue uuterpauu nuuuu usuu u cyqe rourpetuMx cyertos s couaneuMx rpoeccax oprauusauu u
qsueuu oneaux u nanMx rpyrr, t.e. uccneqosauue naccosuquMx rpoeccos u sneuuu; ssaunocsseu
uuqusuqyaneuoro u oaectseuuoro cosuauu; roseqeuu nkqeu s oprauusaux;
uccneqosauue rcuxonoru+ecrux ocuosauuu tar uasMsaenMx pMuo+uMx rpoeccos: qsueuue coctseuuoctu;
uuuosauouuMe u ctpyrtypuMe rpeopasosauu rpeqrputuu; uuqusuqyaneuo-nu+uoctuMe ocoeuuoctu
rpoussoqctsa u rotpeneuu; rcuxonoru roseqeuu ua pMure u qp.
8aqa+a yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon s otnu+ue ot saqa+ y+eta +enose+ecroro artopa rpeqronaraet
pacrpMtue sosnouocteu u sarouonepuocteu passutu cyerta rar uuqusuqa, uaxoqaeroc s uerpepMsuon
ssaunoqeuctsuu c nupon s csoen nuauaen orpyeuuu, s orpeqeneuuou couaneuou cpeqe. n atoro uyuM ue
tonero paquraneuMe repeneuM s rouertyaneuou ase rcuxonoruu (rotopMe u uankqaktc s uaae spen s
nuposou rcuxonoru+ecrou uayre u rparture), uo u cosqauue rpuuuruaneuo uosMx netoqos auanusa, oeuru u
sosqeuctsu ua rpoeccM passutu cyerta.
laronuun, +to passutue teopetu+ecrou u rpurnaquou rcuxonoruu ua ase rpeqMqyaeu rapaqurnM y+eta
+enose+ecroro artopa s rpoeccax rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu u s oprauusauouuon yrpasneuuu cosqano s
70-e roqM secena noauyk ocuosy qn peaeuu enMx rnaccos rpartu+ecrux saqa+, s ton +ucne c rpuneueuuen
raysaneuMx rpuuuros. 8 +ucne atux saqa+: saqa+u yrpasneuu nkqenu (ux roseqeuuen, otuoaeuunu,
crocouoctnu u t.r.); sorpocM rpoertuposauu qeteneuoctu u cyertos qeteneuoctu; rponenM oeuru
rpoeccuouaneuo sauMx ra+ects; roctpoeuue rcuxonoru+ecrux roptpetos uuqusuqos u t.r. 8ce ato uaano auporoe
rpuneueuue s paspaotre rcuxonoru+ecrux acrertos tpyqa, yrpasneuu, sqpasooxpaueuu, oopouM, opasosauu u
qp., t.e. artu+ecru sanouno ocuoss ncxonoruecko kynsyps orpeqeneuuoro cno rpaqau Poccuu.
epexoq ua rapaqurny yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon, s rpuuure, noet ctate tarun e noauMn
ocuosauuen rar uosoro sutra passutu ote+ectseuuou rcuxonoruu, tar u paquraneuoro usneueuu ocuos
rynauutapuou rynetypM poccuucroro oaectsa.
Cosqauue uosMx otpacneu rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru |a,sane+ou u |o+cmp,|mue+ou ncuxonocuu rossonut onee
to+uo opnynuposate teopetu+ecrue rponenM u cosqasate onee noauMe usneputeneuMe rpoeqypM rpu
peaeuuu saqa+ quaruocturu nu+uoctu, oeuru yposu ronreteutuoctu, repcrertus nu+uoctuoro passutu +enosera,
yrpasneuu roseqeuuen u qp.
C rpartu+ecrou to+ru speuu repexoq r yrpasneuuk +enose+ecrun pecypcon rpeqronaraet passutue rar
rocyqapctseuuMx, tar u uerocyqapctseuuMx cucten u cosqauue uosMx netoqos:
5
auanusa, rporuosa u yrpasneuu pMuron tpyqa u rpoeccuu;
auanusa, rporuosa u yrpasneuu pMuron y+euMx ycnyr;
paspaotru u orMtuou peanusauu peruouaneuMx (runotuMx) rporpann yrpasneuu u passutu +enose+ecrux
pecypcos.
8 panrax atux uauouaneuMx couaneuMx uuctutytos noryt artusuo passusatec cneqykaue suqM rpartu+ecrou
qeteneuoctu:
ncxonorueckoe conposoqeue rpaqaucko npoqeccouansuo kapseps +enosera, srnk+a ckqa
sorpocM opueutauu, roucynetauu u ronoau rpu rnauuposauuu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, rpu sMope
usueuuoro rytu, rpu sxoqeuuu s pMuor tpyqa, rpu peaeuuu sosuurakaux repcouaneuMx rponen;
paise nepcouana npeqnp, srnk+akaee s ce sMop pauouaneuMx couaneuMx rnauos u
oprauusauouuMx ctpyrtyp, cornacosauue rporpann passutu rpoussoqcts u texuonoruu c rporpannanu u rnauanu
roqrotosru, reperoqrotosru u rosMaeuu rsanuurauu paotuuros scex yposueu;
cepqka nepcouana s cootsetctsuu c neqyuapoquMnu rpasunanu, rpoeccuouaneua roucynetau u
oeuka npoqeccouansuo kouneeuuoc paotuuros (y+actuuros couaneuoro u arouonu+ecroro rpoecca).

auua ruura rocsaeua paccnotpeuuk artyaneuMx rponen paspaotru meopemuvec|ou u npu|nad+ou
nepco+onocuu ua ase teopuu u netoqonoruu couaneuou rcuxonoruu, rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu, rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu
u qpyrux rpurnaquMx pasqenos rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru; usnoeuuk uay+uMx ocuosauuu peaeuu rpurnaquMx
rcuxonoru+ecrux saqa+, rnasuMn opason, sadav ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu rar ua uuqusuqyaneuon
yposue, tar u ua yposue oprauusauu u oneaux rpyrr nkqeu; sMpaotre rpartu+ecrux peroneuqauu qn
oprauusauu u rposeqeuu paot s cepe a|mue+ou co(uane+ou nonumu|u, noddep|u u conpoeode+u+
cpada+c|ou u npoeccuo+ane+ou |apeepe venoee|a. Coqepaauuc s ruure natepuan rpeqctasnet coou
ocuosauuoe ua rpuuurax cuctenuoctu u ronrnercuoctu ooaeuue u passutue pqa roueruu, rpeqctasneuuMx s
pasnu+uMx pasqenax cospeneuuou teopetu+ecrou rcuxonoruu. 3tu rpuuurM u roueruu ronouteneuo
saperoneuqosanu ce s couaneuou rparture, u ux rpuneueuue qonuo crococtsosate rosMaeuuk uaqeuoctu u
qoctosepuoctu, rar otqeneuMx vemodoe ncuxonocuvec|u ooc+oea++oco peae+u+ npa|muvec|ux sadav, tar u
paspaotre +oeex cne(uanusupoea++ex co(uane+ex mex+onocuu ronrnercuoro xapartepa.
8 usqauuu paccnatpusaktc netoqonoru+ecrue rponenM orpeqeneuu oerta u rpeqneta rcuxonoru+ecrux
uccneqosauuu s cepe artusuou couaneuou ronuturu; qauM opnynuposru ocuosuMx saqa+ rpurnaquou rcuxonoruu
u rcuxoquaruocturu; orpeqeneuM ocuosuMe rponenM cospeneuuou repcouonoruu u rorasauo, rar s paspese
cyertuoro auanusa u c rouctpyrtusuMx rosuuu noryt Mte peaeuM uerotopMe sauMe teopetu+ecrue u
rpartu+ecrue rponenM cosqauu u rpuneueuu rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu s ycnosux cospeneuuMx poccuucrux
peopn.
8 repson rpunueuuu rpoauanusuposaua ueoxoqunocte passutu u cosepaeuctsosauu netoqos u
netoqu+ecrux rpuenos rposeqeuu rcuxonoru+ecrux ocneqosauuu, rocronery ata rponena rpeqctasnet ocoMu
uutepec s cssu c oneaun pasuoopasuen onacteu rpartu+ecroro rpuneueuu rcuxoquaruocturu u otcytctsuen
equuMx rpuuuros oprauusauu tarux ocneqosauuu.
Creuaneuo paccnotpeuM rponenuMe sorpocM, cssauuMe c rpunoeuunu rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru r uauonee
sua+unMn usueuuMn cutyaun, orpeqenkaun rputu+ecrue noneutM rpoeccuouaneuoro u rpaqaucroro
ctauosneuu +enosera, ero roseqeuu s peaneuou usuu so ssaunoqeuctsuu c qpyrunu nkqenu u s pasuMx
octotenectsax usuu. puseqeuM pesynetatM auanusa rpuuuros u roqxoqos, ucronesyenMx s rpartu+ecrou
rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu (s coroctasneuuu c ocuosuMnu rpuuuranu u roqxoqanu oaeu u couaneuou rcuxonoruu,
rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu) rpu usy+euuu co(uane+ex |o+ma|moe nuv+ocmu, uccnedoea+uu noeede+u+ venoee|a e
opca+usa(u+x u t.q.
8 enon auanus seqetc s cssu u s routercte coqepauu peaneuMx saqa+, sosuurakaux s usuu rourpetuoro
+enosera, tpeykaux rcuxonoru+ecrou roucynetauu u ronoau. C atux e rosuuu paccnatpusaktc tpeosauu r
rcuxonoru+ecrun rpoeqypan u netoqan, orpeqenktc sosnouoctu rouctpyrtusuou rcuxonoruu u uane+aktc
rytu rpoqyrtusuoro rpartu+ecroro ucronesosauu cyaectsykaux teopetu+ecrux rpuuuros u roqxoqos, oeueua
ueoxoqunocte paspaotru uosMx.
Auanusupyetc uay+uoe oecre+euue rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrou paotM c ronoaek rpeqnaraenoro astopon
teopetu+ecroro roqxoqa u c rpuneueuuen |o+(en(uu |o+cmp,|mue+ou ncuxonocuu, oecre+usakaux paspaotry
noqeneu nu+uoctu c y+eton ocoeuuocteu u nexauusnos rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu cyerta.
peqronaraetc, +to paccnotpeuuMe s ruure rpuuurM u roueruu noryt Mte onee aertusuo ucronesosauM
qn oeuru canux quaruoctu+ecrux texuonoruu oeuor uaqeuoctu u qoctosepuoctu pesynetatos rcuxonoru+ecrux
ocneqosauuu, a tare s otuoaeuuu uosMx netoqu+ecrux rpuenos, oecre+usakaux ueoxoqunyk u qoctato+uyk
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aqersatuocte rpunoeuu rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu u texuonoruu s saqa+ax opnuposauu u corposoqeuu
rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM +enosera.
0tqeneuMe natepuanM rocsaeuM paccnotpeuuk sorpocos passutu teopetu+ecrou u rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu
c y+eton orMta poccuucrux peopn, ocoeuuocteu tpaucopnauouuoro repuoqa poccuucroro oaectsa, ryteu
paspaotru artusuou couaneuou ronuturu rocyqapctsa u cosqauu uosMx (ssaneu paspyaeuuMx peopnanu)
couaneuMx uuctutytos, oecre+usakaux rpartu+ecryk roqqepry uaceneuuk s peaeuuu coctseuuMx
rcuxonoru+ecrux rponen, s oaen routercte paspaotru co(uane+ex mex+onocuu u vexa+usvoe ,npaene+u+
venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu, rar ronnertusuMnu, tar u uuqusuqyaneuMnu.
VatepuanM, usnoeuuMe s uactoaeu ruure, noryt Mte ronesuM ue tonero creuanuctan-rpoeccuouanan s
onactu rcuxonoruu, roseqeu+ecrux u rynauutapuMx uayr. 0uu tare rossont rpasuneuo opueutuposatec s
sosnouoctx rcuxonoruu u ten, rto coupaetc unu ye ucronesyet rcuxonoru+ecrue suauu qn peaeuu
coctseuuMx usueuuMx rponen.
pu roqrotosre atou ruuru astop rony+un ueoeuunyk roqqepry u ronoae co ctopouM csoux copatuuros,
y+euuros u ronner ro Vuuuctepctsy tpyqa u Vuuuctepctsy opasosauu Poccuu, Poccuucrou araqenuu uayr,
Poccuucrou araqenuu rocyqapctseuuou cnyM, 1uuaucosou araqenuu rpu pasutenectse P1 u nuorux qpyrux,
rotopMn ou rpuuocut csok canyk ucrpeuukk naroqapuocte.
Astop xoten M otnetute sqece sua+uteneuMu srnaq s paspaotry rpartu+ecrux sorpocos rpuneueuu
rcuxonoruu co ctopouM csoux cotpyquuros paotuuros eraptaneuta rpoeccuouaneuoro oy+euu u passutu
+enose+ecrux pecypcos Vuutpyqa Poccuu, a tare pyrosoquteneu u cotpyquuros uaaux peruouaneuMx oprauusauu
rpeqe scero eutpos sautoctu u eutpos rpoopueutauu Kpacuopcroro u Kpacuoqapcroro rpa, Fpocnascrou,
+enuucrou, Vocroscrou u Capatoscrou onacteu, +ee y+actue s peruouaneuMx rpoertax rossonuno rposectu
sua+uteneuMe ro oeny u sauoctu anrupu+ecrue uccneqosauu u ocyaectsute rpartu+ecryk arpoauk pqa
teopetu+ecrux sMsoqos u peroneuqauu astopa u ero y+euuros.
Astop rpuuocut rnyoryk naroqapuocte csoun ueusneuuMn ronoauuran - rperoqasatenn, acrupautan u
ctyqeutan raeqpM couaneuou rcuxonoruu u scero rcuxonoru+ecroro aryneteta Vocroscroro ropoqcroro
reqaroru+ecroro yuusepcuteta, - pesynetatM ux uccneqosauuu rossonunu astopy rposepute u yto+uute pq sauMx
ronoeuuu teopetu+ecroro u netoqu+ecroro ropqra.
Astop sMpaaet ocoyk rpusuateneuocte Lenruuy 6opucy Auqpeesu+y u 8yrosou Autouuue 1eqoposue, es
ronoau rotopMx ata ruura spq nu ysuqena M cset.
|. 3apodu+

PA3E I. HET000|h+E6KhE P05EHb PhHEhEhhP 6hX00|h+E6KhX 3hAhhh
60hAbh0h PAKThKE

|nasa 1. hcok cy6Lekuoro auania

1.1. iauoqecse uenoseka c upou: ncxonorueck acnek

XX ser ser couaneuMx u uay+uo-texuu+ecrux pesonkuu xapartepusyetc pesro sospactakaunu tenranu
couaneuoro u uay+uo-texuu+ecroro rporpecca, rotopMe paquraneuMn opason usneukt can croco cyaectsosauu
u opas usuu cospeneuuoro +enosera, ero otuoaeuu c nupon, s rotopon ou uset u qeuctsyet.
/e ua repson yposue uay+uoro auanusa sce onee suMn ctauosutc rayaeec pacaerneuue orpyakaero
uac nupa s cootsetctsuu c turanu +enose+ecrux ssaunoqeuctsuu: c,se|m-ose|m+ev u c,se|m-c,se|m+ev*.
* ovoe 5.1. Vetoqonoru+ecrue u teopetu+ecrue rponenM rcuxonoruu. V.: layra, 1984.

Tar, c oquou ctopouM, orpyakauu +enosera nup pasqenetc s rpusM+uou quxotonuu ua rpupoqy nup
ose|moe u oaectso nup c,se|moe (cpasuute apuctotenesM 1usury u Vetausury). o auanoruu c atou
quxotonueu s +enose+ecrou rynetype, rorqa pe+e uqet o rosuauuu nupa, rpuuto sMqente qsa ocuosuMx rnacca
uayr: rpupoquMe (ectectseuuMe) u oaectseuuMe (couaneuMe).
C qpyrou ctopouM (s cootsetctsuu c tou e norurou, uo ye s neuee rpusM+uou quxotonuu), +enose+ecroe
rosuauue sMqenet qsa qpyrux rnacca oertos, coroctasunMx, uo ue cosraqakaux c uassauuMnu sMae,
ectectseuuMu nup u ucrycctseuuMu nup. pu aton ueoxoquno otnetute, +to u ectectseuuMu, u ucrycctseuuMu
nupM srnk+akt s ce rar npupod+ee ose|me, tar u co(uane+ee c,se|me, u ato osua+aet, +to oe rapM
yrasauuMx rnaccos, so scron cny+ae +actu+uo, nepece|asmc+.
Tarun opason, uapqy c ectectseuuMn nupon, c rotopMn ssaunoqeuctsyet +enoser u rotopMu nM rpusMrnu
7
qenute ua oaectso u rpupoqy, cosqaetc, opnupyetc sce onee tecuo orpyakauu +enosera nup
ucrycctseuuMu, cosqauuMu +enoseron u roq+uueuuMu ero enn. 3to nup rynetypM, nup texuuru u texuonoruu,
apxutertypM u ucrycctsa nup, rotopMu s cootsetctsuu co csounu sarouanu ctauosutc uopnatusuMn (ye ro
+enose+ecrun nepran).
|crycctseuuMu nup, cosda++eu venoee|ov e npo(ecce eco de+mene+ocmu, srnk+aet s ce s ra+ectse csoux
roqrnaccos aneneutM couaneuou u texuonoru+ecrou rynetypM, s coctas rotopMx sxoqt:
uosMe opyqu u cpeqctsa rpeopasosauu rpupoqM (opyqu tpyqa u cuctenM rponManeuuoro u
auepretu+ecroro, tpaucroptuoro u arpotexuu+ecroro rpoussoqctsa);
couaneuMe texuonoruu u cpeqctsa rpeopasosauu oaectsa (cuctenM u cpeqctsa opasosauu,
sqpasooxpaueuu, uqeonoruu u ronuturu, cuctenM cssu, yrpasneuu, uuopnauu u qp.);
uosMe cpeqctsa roqqepauu u passutu rynetypM +enose+ecrou usuu (apxutertypa, ucrycctseuuMe
arocuctenM, cpeqctsa yrpasneuu roroqou, rynetypa tpyqa u otqMxa, usu+ecra rynetypa u t.q.).
8ce atu oertM, ucrycctseuuo cosqauuMe u roq+uueuuMe enn +enosera*, opasykt +oeee cocmo++u+ vupa,
rotopMe es y+actu +enosera ectectseuuMn ryten ue sosuurnu M. |x cyaectsosauue cano ro cee ue
rpotusope+ut ectectseuuMn, rpupoquMn sarouan so scron cny+ae roteuuaneuo tarue coctouu nupa u
cpeqctsa yrpasneuu atunu coctouunu nornu M Mte.
* | canony +enosery, xot M +actu+uo, rocronery uuorqa ouu sMxoqt us-roq routpon +enosera, u ato rar pas ropoqaet tar
uasMsaenMe rnoaneuMe rponenM +enose+ectsa. {puvev. aem.)

octato+uo cuo, +to yrasauuMe coctouu nupa u cpeqctsa yrpasneuu unu cosqaktc +enoseron qn
qoctueuu ero coctseuuMx eneu. |ctopu rorasMsaet, +to cosqasaenMe +enoseron cpeqctsa yrpasneuu
coctouunu nupa c te+euuen speneuu ctauostc sce onee noauMnu. 0uu crocouM rpusectu r uerpeqsuqeuuMn
rocneqctsun s xoqe ux rpuneueuu, qenouctpupy cnoane+ocme sosnouMx qeuctsuu +enosera, rotopMe
snktc rpu+uuanu savem+ex cdeucoe e cocmo++uu orpyakaeu +enosera cpeqM (8ennu u oreaua, rocnoca,
atnocepM, nutocepM, uocepM, uoocepM u t.q.). 8Mxoq yronuytMx cpeqcts us-roq routpon noet rpusectu
ue tonero r ueqoctueuuk enu, uo u r uerorpasunMn pesynetatan texuoreuuMn u couoreuuMn ratactpoan.
lo rocronery atu coctouu nupa (cosqauuMe +enoseron) s rpuuure ue rpotusope+at rpupoquMn
(ectectseuuMn) sarouan, to ouu ectectseuuo cma+oe+mc+ peane+evu aneve+mavu o|p,as(eu venoee|a cpede u,
s csok o+epeqe, snukt ua +enosera, uerotopMn opason opnupykt ero. +enoser, cosqasauu atot ucrycctseuuMu
nup, can orasMsaetc rorpyeuuMn s ueryk cnece ucrycctseuuoro u ectectseuuoro nupa, u rpu aton ou ueuseuo
ecm,naem eo esauvodeucmeue |a| c ecmecmee++ev, ma| u c uc|,ccmee++ev vupov, u, tarun opason, cav
+euse+o usve++emc+ roq sosqeuctsuen rpousseqeuuoro s xoqe ero qeteneuoctu ucrycctseuuoro nupa.
8 cssu c roctouuo pactyaeu rotpeuoctek s rosuauuu sarouos +enose+ecroro ssaunoqeuctsu, ropoqakaero
ucrycctseuuMu nup, crnaqMsaetc eae oquu rnacc uayr uayru o texuure u texuonoruu. lyuo rpusuate, oquaro,
+to atot rnacc opnupyetc secena oquoctopouue, srnk+a s ce rpeqe scero pesynetatM rosuauu nuae
cpedcme u vemodoe npeopasoea+u+ nupa, t.e. cpeqcts u netoqos cosqauu ucrycctseuuoro nupa. pu aton es
otseta octaetc sorpoc o ton, s +en coctot sarouonepuoctu Mtu u rpeopasosauu canoro +enosera, rotopMu
cosqaet atot nup u uset s uen.
o uaaeny nueuuk, yrasauuoe ucrnk+euue us cepM rosuauu +enosera rar cyerta rpeopasosauu nupa
sunoce cneqctsuen secena cnaoro qoryaeuu o canoqoctato+uoctu toro suauu, rotopoe qakt uan texuu+ecrue
uayru, suauu o texuure, texuonorux u cpeqctsax rpeopasosauu orpyakaeu +enosera cpeqM, t.e. o cnocoax
cosda+u+ uc|,ccmee++oco vupa, nodvu+e++oco (en+v venoee|a. Vouo rorasate, oquaro, +to pesynetatM peaeuu
+enose+ecrux saqa+ (rar crocoM qoctueuu +enose+ecrux eneu) rpeqctasnkt coou nuae srnk+euuyk,
y+teuuyk +acte rpeopasosauuMx coctouuu nupa, torqa rar cneqctsu rpeqrpuutMx rpeopasosauuu (uosMe
coctouu nupa) noryt sMxoqute qanero sa rpeqenM repsoua+aneuo oosua+euuMx eneu. pu aton tarue
ucrnk+euuMe, uey+teuuMe ux +actu noryt sutec +e,vepe++ou nnamou sa docmue+ue nocmaene++ex (eneu.
Tarosa, s +actuoctu, rponena rnoaneuoro rounurta s cospeneuuou roctauosre: ocuosua ene yuu+toeuue
rpotusuura npu+(unuane+o voem eme docmuc+,ma, uo tonero sa c+et ,+uvmoe+u+ oeux |o+nu|m,s(ux
cmopo+ (qa u scero +enose+ecroro oaectsa s cospeneuuon ero rouunauuu)*. 8 enon tara ctpateru
ouapyusaetc u ua Mtoson yposue oquun us pacrpoctpaueuuMx crocoos cuueuu couaneuoro uarpeuu s
oprauusauu snetc yqaneuue oeux rounurtykaux ctopou.
* Vouceee l.l. 8 pasqynex o yqyaen. V., 1998.

poqona rpuseqeuuMe sMae paccyqeuu, roq+epruen, +to c to+ru speuu ronuotM auanusa cuctenM
ssaunoqeuctsuu +enosera sauo otopaate ero rosuuk cootsetctsykaun opason: rpu scron auanuse
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otuoaeuuu +enosera c ero orpyeuuen ueoxoquno rpuuunate so suunauue s coctase atoro orpyeuu ue tonero (u
qae, noet Mte, ue ctonero) ectectseuuMe rpupoquMe oertM, uo u oertM yronuytoro sMae ucrycctseuuo
cosqauuoro nupa. 3to secena cuneuMe apryneutM s ronesy passusakauxc s rocnequee spen rynetypuo-
uctopu+ecrux rpuuuros rosuauu; atu e apryneutM roqtsepqakt ueoxoqunocte mex+u|o-mex+onocuvec|oco u
a|onocuvec|oco uccnedoea+u+ venoeevec|ux esauvodeucmeuu.
8auo unete s suqy, +to venoeevec|ue a|(uu, t.e. qeuctsu cyerta, orpeqenkaue xapartep ero snuuuu ua
rpupoqy u ua oaectso, s pesynetate noryt rpusoqute r uosMn yctou+usMn coctouun rpupoqM u oaectsa,
rotopMe u opasykt uosMu nup, ucrycctseuuo cosqauuMu +enoseron.
leoxoquno otnetute, qae yqy+u ucrycctseuuo cosqauuMn, atot nup passusaetc, ysenu+usaetc s oene,
ctauosce +actek +enose+ecrou usueuuou cpeqM, +enose+ecroro orpyeuu. Tarun opason, ucrycctseuuoe
orpyeuue pacaupetc, ysenu+usace s yqeneuon otuoaeuuu qn raqoro +enose+ecroro uuqusuqa, qn raqoro
cyerta, orpeqen ussectuMn opason crertp u rnyuuy ero ssaunoqeuctsu c nupon s enon.
3ta ocoeuuocte us+e e usve++s(evc+ u ,eenuvueas(evc+ uc|,ccmee++ov o|p,e+uu qenaet
+enose+ecruu poq u +enose+ecroro uuqusuqa cyaectseuuo otnu+uMn ot poqa u uuqusuqos uuMx usMx cyaects. n
rocnequux - ux orpyeuue, ux cpeqa outauu eocnpouseodumc+ ecmecmee++o, npocmo u pec,n+p+o so scron
cny+ae, tan nM ue uankqaen cuoro, eneuarpasneuuoro pacaupeuuoro socrpoussoqctsa uuqusuqyaneuoro
orpyeuu.
8 roue+uon c+ete nouo crasate (unu rpusuate), +to s dp,cux ueex coo(ecmeax +e c,(ecme,em
u+dueud,ane+oco +opvomeopvecmea (uaronuun, +to ucrycctseuuMu nup uopnatuseu). 8osnouo, +to ato
uopnotsop+ectso crnaqMsaetc ctuxuuuo rar rpoecc aqartauu r usneukaunc ycnosun cpeqM, roq+uueuuMu,
uarpunep, qapsuuoscrun sarouan asonkuu suqos, es artusuoro cosqauu u pacaupeuu atux canMx uopn, es
artusuoro u yctou+usoro rpeopasosauu nupa u canoro cyerta.
laronuun tare, +to ocosuauuMu sMop enu, rpeqneta u cpeqcts yqosnetsopeuu rotpeuoctu ato a|m
npouseone+oco ,npaene+u+ vomuea(ueu u (enenonaca+ue co ctopouM cyerta, t.e. art ero a|mue+ou
cavopec,n+(uu. 6onee toro, nouo crasate, +to ocpa+uve++ocme tar uasMsaenou op,duu+ou de+mene+ocmu
ueom+ex coctout ue s ton, +to ouu ucronesykt orpauu+euuMe cpeqctsa qn qoctueuu csoux eneu (to+uee qn
yqosnetsopeuu csoux rotpeuocteu, rar, uarpunep, ranararoccruu sekpor, sopou u qp.), a s ton, +to ouu +e
nepedasm e co(uane+eu onem uauqeuuMx unu opyquu tpyqa, t.e. +e omden+sm op,du+ om npo(ecca
npeopasoea+u+ vupa.
Ten canMn ouu ue cosqakt ueoxoqunou asM qn pacaupeuuoro socrpoussoqctsa orpyeuu, rorqa opyque
ctauosutc oerton uutepeca s ra+ectse sosnouoro (u torqa roteuuaneuo rpuneuenoro) cpeqctsa qoctueuu
sosnouoro (u torqa roteuuaneuo usneuenoro) coctouu nupa*.
* 8 taron cny+ae ene sMctyraet rar opas enaenoro coctouu nupa, u qauua rourpetua ene ctauosutc s pq sosnouMx - u
cpequ nuoectsa sosnouMx eneu uaqo sMpate uauonee rpeqro+tuteneuyk. {puvev. aem.)

|neuuo s aton sauon cnMcne +actek ucrycctseuuo cosqauuoro nupa snktc ue tonero rpoqyrtM
+enose+ecroro tpyqa, uo u saurcuposauuMe un u sMueceuuMe sue cyerta cpeqctsa u crocoM ero tpyqa, a
uneuuo: mex+u|a u mex+onocu+. 8 aton cnMcne repcrertusM passutu uuopnauouuou texuuru u
uuopnauouuMx texuonoruu rar pas u otpaakt otne+euuyk sMae teuqeuuk ro sce oneaeu texuusauu u
texuonorusauu orpyakaeu +enosera ucrycctseuuou cpeqM (ecnu nouo rpuneuute sqece atu tepnuuM), ro sce
oneaeny sMueceuuk u urcauu s creuu+ecrux opyqux tpyqa tex opn u cpeqcts rpeopasosauu
orpyakaeu qeuctsuteneuoctu, rotopMnu osnaqesaet +enoser.
8epotuo, sece cnMcn uay+uo-texuu+ecroro rporpecca coctout ue ctonero s ton, +toM rony+ate sce oneaee u
oneaee ronu+ectso rpousseqeuuoro +enoseron rpoqyrta, a s ton, +toM sce onee passusate u cyaectseuuMn
opason coeepae+cmeoeame cavu cpedcmea npeopasoea+u+ vupa, t.e. cosdaeame +oeee mex+onocuvec|ue
npo(ecce. |neuuo tarun opason rosnktc pasuoopasuMe aemovamusupoea++ee cucmeve ,npaene+u+ (AC/):
AC/ texuonoru+ecrunu rpoeccanu; AC/ oprauusauouuoro tura; AC/ oy+akaue; AC/, rotopMe ctauostc
aertusuMnu cpeqctsanu rpoertuposauu unu rotopMe astonatusupykt, s ussectuon cnMcne, tsop+ecruu
rpoecc (uarpunep astonatusuposauuMe cuctenM uay+uMx uccneqosauuu) u t.q.
8ce ato rpusoqut r tony, +to paquraneuMn opason neuetc tar uasMsaenoe nuauaee orpyeuue +enosera
(t.e. ero nurpocpeqa): ouo ctauosutc sce onee u onee ucrycctseuuMn, sce neuee u neuee rpupoquMn. Tarun
opason, ato paquraneuoe usneueuue nurpoorpyeuu +enosera sctyraet s oaytunMu u octpMu rounurt co scen
unoreuetu+ecrun passutuen +enose+ectsa, co scen ero rpeuun rpupoquMn orMton.
le arsusaneutua (a nuae +actu+uo aqersatua) saneua uatypaneuou ruau ua ucrycctseuuyk; uatypaneuou
uuopnauu ua cpeqctsa naccosou ronnyuurauu, u s ton +ucne TV; uatypaneuMx usu+ecrux ycunuu ro repeqeny
9
nupa u oaectsa ua uosMe u uoseuaue texuonoruu, sce ato ropoqaet peaneuMe rounurtM rpoanoro u
cospeneuuoro orMta, rpoanou u cospeneuuou rynetypM uuqusuqyaneuou usuu, a cneqosateneuo, ctauosutc oquou
us repsMx rpu+uu ctpeccos cospeneuuoro +enosera.
|crycctseuuoe nurpoorpyeuue ctauosutc sce onee rpucroconeuuMn r +enose+ecrun rotpeuoctn,
roq+uueuuMn +enose+ecrun enn u sce neuee corpotusnkaunc +enosery (ero usu+ecrun u ynctseuuMn
ycunun). 0uo ctauosutc sce neuee cornacykaunc c ectectseuuMnu, rpusM+uMnu u uankqaenMnu s rpupoqe
sarouanu passutu u qsueuu ectectseuuoro nupa.
Taroe nuauaee orocpeqosauue routartos cyerta Sb c nupon, taroe, tar crasate, nuauaee ternu+uoe
orpyeuue cospeneuuoro +enosera, sapauee sce onee u onee rpucroconeuuoe u roq+uueuuoe +enose+ecrun
enn, roue+uo e, paquraneuMn opason neuet u repcrertusM canoro +enosera, u ocoeuuoctu ero passutu,
rocronery tpeyet ot uero sce neueae u neueae ycunuu ceu+ac u sqece u, ctano Mte, neueae
canorpeopasosauuu, canoperynuu cyerta Sb repeq nuon corpotusnkaeroc (qoctueuun enu Sb) nupa.
Cneqosateneuo, ctauostc neueae ero orMt u crertp ero aemovopusvoe (sosnouMx coctouuu canoro
+enosera), neueae orMt u crertp rpeoqoneuu corpotusneuuu nupa ryten sonesMx ycunuu cyerta Sb u
repeyropqo+euu ero notusos u eneu.
lyuo ocoo roq+epruyte, +to terepe, s taron nurpoorpyeuuu, uet rpnoro u uerocpeqctseuuoro routarta c rar
M spaqeuou, ueussectuou, ueroutuou u uerpucroconeuuou r +enosery rpupoqou. lecnotp ua ycrexu uayr u
texuonoruu, tarue sctpe+u sosnouM s uatypaneuon nupe, u ucrycctseuuMu nup, so scron cny+ae sueaue,
sMctyrun, noet Mte, sorperu usua+aneuMn enn rar couaneua saauta ot uux, uo ato noraneua saauta. |
roatony sce onee tenMnu ctauostc couaneuMe u rcuxonoru+ecrue rocneqctsu qeuctsu ctuxuuuMx cun, t.e.
qoctato+uo noauMx u rora ue yrpasnenMx cun rpupoqM, sMsMsakaux oneaue rpupoquMe u couaneuMe rpusucM,
ratarnusnM u ratactpoM.
| roatony sce onee sanetuMnu (to+uee, ocosuasaenMnu) ctauostc otqaneuuMe rocneqctsu uerpasuneuou, c
to+ru speuu qeuctsykaux rpupoquMx sarouos, +enose+ecrou artusuoctu. Pe+e uqet ue o (uMue) nuauaux
rocneqctsux, nanosanetuMx ua oue oaero pactyaero narorony+u, pactyaero +enose+ecroro ronopta.
0tqaneuuMe otrnoueuu ot xoqa qeuctsu rpupoquMx sarouos ectectseuuoro nupa satparusakt usneueuu
coctouuu rnoaneuMx cep u rnauetM s enon.
8ce ato, s +actuoctu, ycunusaet ueoxoqunocte s creuaneuon auanuse csseu, cyaectsykaux s cuctene
teopu arcrepuneut rpartura, tar e rar u s qetaneuMx uccneqosauux qeuctsu +enose+ecrux rpu+uu,
ocoeuuocteu perynuu u rocneqctsuu eneuarpasneuuou artusuoctu +enosera. lankqaetc o+esuquoe,
ocoeuuo cuneuo sanetuoe ua rparture ,eenuve+ue eosvo+ocmeu venoee|a enu+me +a npupod, u
npeopasoeeeame o|p,as(uu vup u o|p,as(ee eco o(ecmeo (uo ue sece nup, u ue sck rpupoqy, u ue sce
oaectso). pu aton cosepaeuuo ue cuM repcrertusM +enose+ecrux sosnouocteu usneute canoro ce, onee
toro, ctauosutc o+esuquMn, +to atu sosnouoctu ue pactyt.
Tarun opason, ato cosqauuoe u coxpaueuuoe ycununu, ronnertusuMn cosnectuMn tpyqon qpyrux nkqeu u
orMton scero +enose+ectsa sueaue o+esuquoe noryaectso cospeneuuoro +enosera, rotopMu nano usneuunc ro
csoun rcuxousuonoru+ecrun sosnouoctn*, rpusoqut r tony, +to sce onee octpo oayaaetc rpotusope+ue
neqy ero u+dueud,ane+evu (ncuxousuvec|uvu) cnoco+ocm+vu u peane+evu eosvo+ocm+vu no op,duu+ov,
npeopasoea+us nupa. 8ce onee sua+unMnu ctauostc oauru, cyaectsosasaue u rpeqe, uo torqa ueoaytunMe
ro csoun rocneqctsun, rotopMe cssMsaktc terepe c eae neuee sanetuMn qsueuuen peaneuoro nupa (ou
otqeneu ot cyerta Sb texuurou u rynetypou usuu). 8ce onee oracuMn ctauosutc ueqoy+et peaneuMx sarouos
qsueuu nupa.
* 8o scron cny+ae, o atux usneueuux rpartu+ecru uu+ero ue ussectuo.

outuo, +to s atux ycnosux cyaectseuuo sospactet pone coctseuuo uayru, rotopa rar pas u otrpMsaet atu
sarouM. layra otsetctseuua sa ux uctuuuocte u to+uocte oua qaet netoqM usnepeuu u ropperuu* otrnoueuuu ot
atux sarouos, sce onee +ysctsuteneuMe u uaqeuMe.
* laronuun, +to ropperu otrnoueuuu ot atux sarouos cosepaaetc s coctseuuMx qeuctsux +enosera, t.e. s canon Sb, s otnu+ue ot
ropperuu otrnoueuuu ot enu, rotopa cosepaaetc uneuuo s qeuctsux cyerta Sb uaq nupon. Tarun opason, rpyr orte sanMraetc,
uo sua+uteneuo qaneae, rose, u ue scerqa ua oquon u ton e cyerte. {puvev. aem.)

Texuura c atou to+ru speuu (xot ato u ue scerqa o+esuquo) ctauosutc ue rpocto ycunutenen +enose+ecrux
sosnouocteu, uo qeuctsuteneuo c|pemevu eosvo+ocm+vu venoee|a, ue scerqa un otpaaenMnu u
ocosuasaenMnu s otnu+ue ot ero coctseuuMx sosnouocteu. 8 nkon cny+ae ato osua+aet, +to pactyaue
sosnouoctu texuuru rossonkt sce oneae u oneae artyanusuposate yrasauuMe crpMtMe sosnouoctu +enosera
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10
ro rpeopasosauuk nupa.
laqo otnetute, oquaro, +to sMae uqet pe+e o crpMtMx sosnouoctx +enosera sooae, a coscen ue
rourpetuoro cyerta rourpetuou qeteneuoctu. 3to tare ueo+esuquoe rpotusope+ue neqy pactyaunu orMton
+enose+ectsa u peaneuMnu sosnouoctnu rourpetuoro +enosera +acto ropoqaet unnksuk uesepotuMx
sosnouocteu u ecroue+uoro roteuuana rourpetuoro uuqusuqa. Cootsetctseuuo o+eue sauo route, +to +enoser
qoneu uay+utec uararnusate ue tonero orMt nosumue+ex peae+uu peanusauu sosnouocteu, uo u orMt
oauo| qn ropperuu peaneuMx qeuctsuu.
3tu ua sueauuu ssrnq pactyaue crpMtMe sosnouoctu uuqusuqa sce onee u onee artyanusupykt peaneuMe
enu +enosera, rotony +to rpu uanu+uu (u rpu aqersatuou oeure) tarux ronoccaneuMx sosnouocteu cospeneuuou
texuuru u uosMx texuonoruu ctauostc qoctuunMnu u roteuuaneuo peanusyenMnu rpartu+ecru sce enu qae
te, rotopMe pauee rasanuce autactu+ecrunu u uecMto+uMnu.
Tarun opason, poct crertpa uuqusuqyaneuMx eneu rpusoqut r tar uasMsaenony eospacma+us nompe+ocmeu.
pu aton crertp rotpeuocteu cyerta Sb pacaupetc es cootsetctsykaero pacaupe+u+ cne|mpa
omeemcmee++ocmu. pyrunu cnosanu, ctauosutc suo ueqoctato+uMn nexauusn oeuru sepotuMx rocneqctsuu, a
ato, rar nM rorasMsanu pauee*, noet ue corposoqatec pacaupeuuen crertpa perynuu roseqeuu, rotopoe
ctpoutc ua ase yronuytMx oeuor sepotuMx rocneqctsuu, cneqosateneuo ue ysenu+usaetc quarasou
coctouuu canoro cyerta.
* 3apodu+ |.V. 0+epru teopuu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu. V., 1997.

Cnousaeec ronoeuue qen tpeyet creuaneuoro suunauu r tarun rpoeccan rar omeemcmee++ocme (u
nepa otsetctseuuoctu) sa roctauosry enu, sa sMsneuue crertpa u orpeqeneuue repe+u roue+uMx eneu u t.r.
0tnetun, +to repe+ucneuuMe rpoeccM ato ncuxuvec|ue npo(ecce, ro rpauueu nepe, s ton cnMcne, rar ux
orpeqenet oaa rcuxonoru qn rourpetuoro cyerta Sb. eno s ton, +to qn aertusuou perynuu
uuqusuqyaneuoro roseqeuu tar uasMsaenMe qanerue enu, qaneuocte rotopMx s rpuuure cootsetctsyet
paury sosnouocteu, qonuM Mte ocos+a+e ceuvac, a rocneqctsu ux peanusauu npedeuduve ceuvac, r
noneuty rpuutu peae+u+ +a deucmeue. 8 rpotusuon cny+ae, qaneueuaee qsueuue nupa nuae vacmuv+o
,npaen+evoe +enoseron, uo sMssauuoe r usuu ucronesosauuen uosMx noauMx cpeqcts u texuur, ctasaux
qoctyruMnu scneqctsue passutu rporpeccusuMx texuonoruu, noauocte rotopMx c to+ru speuu sosnouocteu
qoctueuu enu ctana coroctasunou c qeuctsuen sarouos qsueuu nupa, noet rpusectu r nuposMn
ratactpoan. leoxoquno, +toM ato eesea++oe deue+ue:
Mno roq+uueuo u cornacosMsanoce c ectectseuuMn, rpasuneuMn qsueuuen nupa;
cosepaanoce s cootsetctsuu c ocosuauuMn orMton u s uarpasneuuu r rpasuneuo u otsetctseuuo
roctasneuuMn repcrertusuMn enn;
ocyaectsnnoce c y+eton scex sosnouMx ueratusuMx rocneqctsuu, rotopMe noryt Mte cneqctsunu ueto+uo
rpuutMx ceuvac +enose+ecrux peaeuuu, uo cneqctsunu otqaneuuMnu u, noet Mte, ueopatunMnu qn
rocneqykaux roroneuuu +enose+ectsa, paspyaakaunu rpoeccM oaectseuuoro u rpupoquoro (ectectseuuoro)
passutu +enosera.
Crasauuoe sMae osua+aet, +to pactyaee noryaectso texuuru s ycnosux uay+uo-texuu+ecroro rporpecca,
pacaupeuue crpMtMx sosnouocteu rpeopasosauu nupa u oaectsa s otpaeuuon, orocpeqosauuon suqe,
rocseuuo rpusoqut r sosuuruoseuuk ot+etnuso sane+aenMx s uaae spen tar uasMsaenMx rnoaneuMx rponen
+enose+ectsa.
K +ucny atux rponen otuoctc tarue, uarpunep, rar:
rponenM ra+ectsa uapoqouaceneuu (cpasuute rponeny passutu +enosera s rpeopasyenon un nupe);
rponenM passutu +enose+ecrux oaects u rponenM cocyaectsosauu pasnu+uMx cooaects u rocyqapcts c
pasnu+uMn couaneuMn yctpouctson;
rponenM oxpauM orpyakaeu cpeqM. Pe+e uqet o spequMx qn rocneqykaero passutu +enosera u scero
usoro u usneukaux nup cneqctsux +enose+ecrou artusuoctu.
Ckqa e nouo otuectu auepretu+ecrue, rpoqosonectseuuMe u uuMe rponenM, cssauuMe c uepauouaneuMn
ucronesosauuen orpauu+euuMx pecypcos, c uepauouaneuMn rpupoqoronesosauuen. 3to passusa satpouytyk
pauee rponeny souuM u nupa rponena repcrertus sMusauu +enose+ectsa ua rnauete c orpauu+euuMnu
pecypcanu, s orpauu+euuon rpoctpauctse u s oaen speneuu. Cano ato sMusauue tpeyet rouunauu
no|ane+ocmu u tarou e ocpa+uve++ocmu arouuau scroro +enosera rar noraneuou cepM ssaunoqeuctsu
+enosera c nupon u c qpyrunu nkqenu (a tare cooaectsanu nkqeu). Tarou noraneuMu xapartep uuqusuqyaneuoro
ssaunoqeuctsu rar cyert-oertuoro, tar u cyert-cyertuoro, tpeyet ssaunuoro cornacosauu u yssMsauu
otqaneuuMx +enose+ecrux eneu, a tare otqaneuuMx (ot roteuuaneuMx eneu) +enose+ecrux peaeuuu.
11

1.2. cxonoruecke acneks ryuauapusx npo6neu

Kar Mno rorasauo sMae, sospactakaee noryaectso texuuru rpusoqut r tony, +to s uaau quu c ocoou
octpotou ocosuaetc uosa, opnupykaac rar cnoane+a+ nponeva nponeva venoee|a u eco ponu e
nepcne|muee ,cmouvueoco paseumu+ vupa: +enosera rosuakaero, +enosera rpeopasykaero orpyakayk ero
qeuctsuteneuocte, +enosera, usyaero s atou qeuctsuteneuoctu. | s peaeuuu atou rponenM, roue+uo, ocooe
necto rpuuaqneut venoee|os+a+us rar ocoou rynauutapuou uayre: oua rossonet route sarouM qsueuu
canoro +enosera; sarouM, yrpasnkaue ero couaneuou artusuoctek, ero rpeopasykaeu qeteneuoctek.
pu aton uaa auanus passusaetc tar e, rar u pauee, rorqa s cootsetctsuu c tpen sMqeneuuMnu uanu
ronroueutanu ssaunoqeuctsu (us repsoro yposu quxotonuu) nM sarouonepuo sMsoqunu opnuposauue tarux
onacteu rosuauu unu rnaccos uayr, rar +a,|u o o(ecmee, +a,|u o npupode, +a,|u o mex+onocuu u mex+u|e.
Cosepaeuuo s tou e norure sarouonepuo sMqenetc vemeepmeu |ovno+e+m rosuauu yrasauuMx sMae
quxotonuu, to+uee, ouapyusaetc vemeepmeu ose|m, omeemcmee++eu sa oe duxomovuu! - u nouo
sMqenute +oeeu |nacc +a,|, oequukauu suauu o aton +etsepton u secena cyaectseuuon oerte,
oequueuuMu oaunu ssaunocssnu |ovnne|c +a,| o venoee|e.
0 ueoxoqunoctu creuaneuou paspaotru u uay+uoro oocuosauu rponen oaero ronrnercuoro
+enoserosuauu nuoro rucanu s rocnequue roqM 6.l. Auauees, 8.l. Aauacees, 8.. Kysenuu, B.C. Cteruu, P.l.
Fuoscruu, V.l. Pytresu+ u qpyrue ote+ectseuuMe unocoM, couonoru u rcuxonoru*.
* /+a+eee 5.l. +enoser rar rpeqnet rosuauu. .: l/ 1969; /+a+eee 5.l. 0 rponenax cospeneuuoro +enoserosuauu. V.: layra, 1977.

8 xoqe tarou paspaotru sMsnetc ueoxoqunocte cyaectseuuou repeneuM s oertuo-rpeqnetuon routercte
rcuxonoru+ecrux paccyqeuuu, a rnasuoe rosnetc uosoe rouunauue rpuuuruaneuoro csoeopasu ueoqa
npakueckoro npeo6paiosau oerta peaneuoctu c oquou ctopouM, u ueoqa ero noiuau c qpyrou, a ato, s
csok o+epeqe, rpeqronaraet cyaectseuuo uosoe roctpoeuue rosuasateneuou rapaqurnM rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru
ue tonero ua auanutu+ecrou, uo u ua rouctpyrtusuou (t.e. roteuuaneuo rpeopasykaeu) ocuose.
o cyaectsy atu e sorpocM s tou unu uuou nepe ctauosunuce rpeqneton pasnManeuuu u Teupa qe Lapqeua,
u kceeua Casa, u nuorux qpyrux rpyruMx unocoos, couonoros u rcuxonoros, rar ote+ectseuuMx, tar u
sapyeuMx. 8 rocnequue roqM oquun us uauonee uutepecuMx astopos, paotakaux s aton uarpasneuuu, snetc
pyccruu unoco, autporonor |.T. 1ponos*. Kpauue ronesuMnu qn rouunauu cyaectsa sosuurakaux sqece saqa+
ctanu paotM ote+ectseuuMx autporonoros u atuorpaos (s repsyk o+epeqe k.8. 6ponne), couonoros (l.8.
0curosa, V.l. Pytresu+a u qp.), rpasoseqos (8.l. Kyqpsesa), unocoos u y+euMx pqa qpyrux creuaneuocteu**.
* 1ponoe n.T. epcrertusM +enosera. V., 1983.
** ponena +enosera s saraquou unocouu. V.: porpecc, 1988.

0 aton ne+tanu K. Vaprc u 1. 3urenec, suqesaue s repcrertuse passutu cuctenM uayr ctauosneuue
+enose+ecroro ectectsosuauu u ectectseuuou uayru o +enosere. 3ty e tpyqueuayk saqa+y passutu uay+uou
quanerturu s orpeqeneuuon cnMcne unen s suqy u 8. |. euuu, rotopMu, rosop o repcrertusax cosqauu uay+uou
quanerturu, srnk+an s repe+eue ueoxoqunMx qn atoro uay+uMx qucurnuu ue tonero unococryk teopuk
rosuauu, uo u rcuxonoruk rosuauu, rcuxonoruk peeura, rcuxonoruk +enose+ecroro (oaectseuuoro =
couaneuoro) passutu.
8osspaaace r tene uaaero auanusa, otnetun +pessM+auuo sua+unyk tar uasMsaenyk nequatopuyk pone
cospeneuuou texuonoruu u texuuru: ece ve+ee ea+ou, ve+ee c,(ecmee++ou no codepa+us u ve+ee s+avuvou no
osev, cma+oeumc+ pone +enocpedcmee++oco eosdeucmeu+ venoee|a ua nup (ua rpupoqy u oaectso).
cuxonoru+ecru ato osua+aet, +to cuuaetc u tepetc (nacrupyetc) rpeuuu cnMcn tex rpusM+uMx
rcuxousu+ecrux qeuctsuu +enosera, rotopMe ou rpusMr cosepaate, ssaunoqeuctsy c nupon s csoeu rpeueu
uctopuu.
C passutuen uay+uo-texuu+ecroro rporpecca sce onee sauou ctauosutc pone orocpeqosauuMx, yrpasnkaux
sosqeuctsuu. pyrunu cnosanu, +pessM+auuo sauou ctauosutc pone curuaneuMx, yrpasnkaux, ronauquMx
sosqeuctsuu, t.e. tarux, s rotopMx rpartu+ecru ytpa+usaetc o+esuquoe cootsetctsue, rpnoe roqoue qeuctsuu c
opyquen u qeuctsuu ro uerocpeqctseuuony rpeopasosauuk nupa. Terepe canu qeuctsu ctauostc csoero poqa
curuananu, a opas, rnau qeuctsu rpespaaaetc s curuan curuanos, u so stopou ronosuue XX sera sosuuraet
rponena roquposauu/qeroquposauu peaneuMx yrpasnkaux sosqeuctsuu +enosera s tepnuuax sosqeuctsuu ua
rpeopasyenMu nup u oeuru sepotuMx cneqctsuu atux sosqeuctsuu. 8anetun, +to nuorue us rocnequux sooae ue
roqupyktc s qeuctsux +enosera c cospeneuuou texuurou, u sua+ut ue noryt Mte qeroquposauM rpno us atux
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12
qeuctsuu.
C atou to+ru speuu, noet Mte, uecronero ro-uuony, uo ro-rpeueny rpauue octpMnu octaktc oaue
rponenM yrpasneuu. | s atot rnacc terepe roraqakt ue tonero te xopoao ussectuMe, rcuxonoru+ecru
ocsoeuuMe rponenM yrpasneuu nkqenu, rotopMe cropee snktc rponenanu pyrosoqctsa nkqenu u
oprauusaunu (cn. rn. 8 u 9). 8 atou cssu artyaneuMnu u ro-uuony rcuxonoru+ecru ocnMcneuuMnu ctauostc
rponenM uccneqosauu coqepauu yrpasneuu u rosMaeuu aertusuoctu rpoeccos u cucten yrpasneuu,
t.e. uccneqosauue tarux rpoeccos u cucten, rotopMnu yrpasnet +enoser u rotopMe roq ero ronauqanu,
roq+uuce ero sosqeuctsun, rpeopasykt xoq u te+euue nuposMx (rpupoquMx u couaneuMx) coMtuu.
puctyra r usy+euuk oaux rponen yrpasneuu c +enoseroseq+ecrou to+ru speuu, rpeqctasnetc ynectuMn
rposectu uerotopMe cpasueuu u paccnotpete uctopu+ecrue atarM u ra+ectseuuMe yposuu passutu texuuru u
texuonoruu, nexauusnos u naauu u ocoeuuoctu ux rpuneueuu.
Tar, |naccuvec|uu vexa+usv sMctyraet rar ycunutene (a rose u +actu+uMu saneuutene) usu+ecrux
sosnouocteu +enosera ro rpeopasosauuk nupa. 8qece, so scron cny+ae, ua repsMx ropax, cyaectsyet
orpeqeneuuoe roqoue rpeuux qeuctsuu +enosera ro rpeopasosauuk nupa u qeuctsuu c nexauusnon. punepon
rpoctoro nuueuuoro rpoctpauctseuuoro otopaeuu snetc pM+ar; rpyrosoe otopaeuue roqouoro nuueuuoro
qsueuu rpeqctasnkt sopot, suut; speneuuoe roqoue ronucract u t.q. 0quaro so scex cny+ax paoma,
coeepaaeva+ venoee|ov c novo(es ma|oco vexa+usva, o|aseeaemc+ +e ve+eae paome, coeepaaevou uv es
vexa+usva: c ronoaek nexauusna ysenu+usaetc noauocte qeuctsu u rpeopasyetc (roqupyetc?) ero
uarpasneuue. | s aton cny+ae uqeaneuMu nexauusn, uarpunep nexauusn es tpeuu, ue rpusoqut r nuaueu
paote.
Coscen uuoe qeno rnaccu+ecra naauua. 8 ueu cosepaaetc yrpasnenoe +enoseron rpeopasosauue auepruu
(s ton +ucne sa c+et suytpeuuero pecypca auepruu), u sqece r yrpasneuuk nexauusnon qoasnetc yrpasneuue
rotoranu qoronuuteneuou auepruu. pu aton noauocte ue tonero coxpauetc, uo u sMpaatMsaetc,
rpeopasyetc, ycunusaetc. 8 aton rpunepe rosnktc nepeee cuc+ane (rotopMe cneqyet paccnatpusate rar
|ode ,npaen+s(ux deucmeuu), rotopMe noryt Mte ue cornacosauM c rpusM+uMnu qeuctsunu +enosera s
orpyakaen nupe. Tar, ua rpocton rpunepe raposou naauuM yrpasneuue roqa+eu rapa uurar ue cssauo c
ycunuen ua rycratene. C qaneueuaun passutuen naauu +acte yrpasnkaux qeuctsuu repeqaetc tar
uasMsaenMn astonatan, t.e. peryntopan, rotopMe canu ctauostc ue tonero tpaucntopanu, uo u artusuMnu
nexauusnanu reuepauu yrpasnkaux qeuctsuu (t.e. ouu u sMpaatMsakt, u ycunusakt atu qeuctsu). 8 qauuon
cny+ae uqeaneuou naauuou rpusuaetc tara, rotopa ue rpusoqut r nuauun rotepn auepruu.
Vouo sanetute, +to s qauuon cny+ae uanu+ectsykt opatuMe cssu o coctouuu oerta yrpasneuu u
otrnoueuux ero ot saqauuoro qsueuu. 8necte c ectrun peryntopon rpu ucrpasuon peryntope-astonate taroe
yrpasneuue artu+ecru ucrnk+aet oauru yrpasneuu s qeuctsuteneuoctu sapa+ee useecm+e u sada+e
udeane+oe ,npaene+ue unu udeane+oe deue+ue; ussectuo coctouue oerta yrpasneuu u orpeqeneua soua
qoryctunMx yrnoueuuu ot atoro qsueuu. Cneqosateneuo, uqeaneuMu peryntop uauny+aun opason paotaet s
ussectuMx ycnosux: nuo rpu ussectuMx sosnyaeuux, nuo rpu nanMx otrnoueuux ot saqauuMx peunos. 8necte
c ten rosneuue tarux peryntopos sMsMsaet r usuu rpuuuruaneuo uosMe saqa+u: sosuurakt uosMe sorpocM,
cssauuMe c uccneqosauuen +ysctsuteneuoctu u yctou+usoctu cucten c perynuposauuen ro nuuuu opatuou cssu.
aneueuauu rporpecc cssau c rosneuuen cyrepastonatos, astonatusuposauuMx yrpasnkaux cucten u,
uaroue, oneaux uuopnauouuMx cucten. 0quaro rocronery ux ocyqeuue rpeqctasnet creuaneuMu
rcuxonoru+ecruu uutepec, ouo qaetc s qpyrux, s ton +ucne uaaux rynuraux [76; 90; 137; 182; 185 u qp.].
8auo eae pas opatute suunauue ua to, +to cospeneuuMe +enose+ecrue ssaunoqeuctsu u +enose+ecrue
rotpeuoctu opnupyktc uneuuo s aton cnouon, ectectseuuon u ucrycctseuuon, orpyeuuu. pu aton
ucrycctseuuoe, cosqauuoe +enoseron orpyeuue sce oneae snuet ua opnuposauue ero coctseuuMx
rotpeuocteu. la ato s csoe spen ueoquorpatuo opaaanu suunauue rar y+euMe, tar u rparturu, u ocoeuuo
ronutu+ecrue u rocyqapctseuuMe pyrosoqutenu. 8 +actuoctu, ueoquorpatuo qernapuposanoce, +to
co(uanucmuvec|oe coc,dapcmeo ctasut repeq o(ecmeoeedavu y+euMnu u rparturanu sadav, +a,v+o
ooc+oea++oco ,npaene+u+ npo(eccov opvupoea+u+ nompe+ocmeu cpada+ uaaero oaectsa, +to ua uactoaen
atare couaneuoro passutu a|m,ane+ou cma+oeumc+ nponeva opvupoea+u+ pas,v+ex nompe+ocmeu.
8ooae sorpoc yrpasneuu rpoeccon opnuposauu +enose+ecrux rotpeuocteu ctauosutc oquun us canMx
octpMx rcuxonoru+ecrux sorpocos, rotopMe, r coaneuuk, qo uactoaero speneuu ue rony+unu qoctato+uo rnyorou
paspaotru, tar rar ue cuM rora eae ro-uactoaeny nexauusnM, orpeqenkaue rpupoqy +enose+ecrux
rotpeuocteu*.
* Teopuu nu+uoctu. C., 1999.

13
Ecnu s uerotopon cnMcne onee unu neuee routua rpupoqa ectectseuuMx (uonoru+ecrux) rotpeuocteu
+enosera, to o rotpeuoctx, ropoqeuuMx u ropoqaenMx raqMu pas nupon, ucrycctseuuo cosqauuMn +enoseron,
s rotopon rpartu+ecru ue orpauu+euM sosnouoctu ero rosuauu u rpeopasosauu, rcuxonoru+ecra uayra rora
eae suaet nano.
epe+ucneuuMe sMae u nuorue qpyrue rponenM, sosuurakaue s peaneuou cospeneuuou rparture, ctast
uay+uyk rcuxonoruk u rpartu+ecroro rcuxonora repeq ueoxoqunoctek cosepaute cyaectseuuMu cra+or,
ra+ectseuuo usneuute xapartep uay+uoro nManeuu s rosuauuu nupa (usneuute rosuasateneuyk rapaqurny). 3tu
ra+ectseuuMe cqsuru s nupososspeuuu cssauM c ueoxoqunoctek s repsyk o+epeqe uay+uo otopasute
repcrertusuMe +enose+ecrue sneuu, repcrertusuMe teuqeuuu passutu oaectsa, +enosera, rynetypM, texuuru
u t.r.
8ecena rpasqoroqouo, +to usneueuue uay+uo-rcuxonoru+ecroro nManeuu rotpeyet otpaeuu ue tonero
teryaero noneuta, uo u teuqeuuu passutu coctouuu nupa, t.e. sactasut uac repeutu ot movev+oco
uccnedoea+u+ cuctenM csseu +enosera c nupon | uccnedoea+us u+mepeanoe us+u +enosera. Taroe uccneqosauue
corpeuo c otpaeuuen, pacrpMtuen u oeurou sosnouMx rocneqctsuu, sMssauuMx taroro poqa usneueuunu:
usy+euuen couaneuMx u rpupoquMx, ectectseuuMx u ucrycctseuuo cosqauuMx coMtuu, rpoeccos, sneuuu u
oeurou ux snuuu ua yuruouuposauue u passutue +enose+ecrou rcuxuru, ua opnuposauue u
usueqeteneuocte yqyaero +enosera.
Cosepaeuuo o+esuquo, +to crasauuoe sMae rpeqronaraet paquraneuyk repeneuy uccneqosatenecrou
rapaqurnM. 0quaro atoro ueqoctato+uo. lnasuoe ato peauteneuMu rosopot rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru ot teopuu r
rparture; paquraneua rouertyaneua csse yuqaneutaneuMx pasqenos rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru c rpartu+ecrunu
rotpeuoctnu passutu +enose+ecroro oaectsa: ueoxoquno ectroe cootueceuue yuqaneutaneuMx rponen
rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru c tenu rponenanu, rotopMe ctauostc orpeqenkaunu s te+euuu cospeneuuoro
couaneuoro u uay+uo-texuu+ecroro rporpecca.
la aton rytu, ro uaaeny nueuuk, ecte uecronero sauMx sex.
1. 8 repsyk o+epeqe ato paspaotra cssuoro routuuuoro arrapata u rourpetuou netoqonoruu rcuxonoruu;
creuaneua paspaotra u qaneueuaee passutue oquoro us saueuaux rpuuuros equuctsa teopuu, arcrepuneuta
u rparturu.
2. 8o-stopMx, ato creuaneuMe sorpocM, cssauuMe c paspaotrou u rouunauuen ponu pacaupkaeroc
uuctpyneutapu rosuauu, ocueuu u rpeopasosauu +enose+ecrux sneuuu ua ase suauuu yuqaneutaneuMx
rcuxonoru+ecrux sarouos, t.e. paspaotra rponen oeuru u yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon.
3. 8-tpeteux, ato ot+etnusoe pasnu+ue uccneqosatenecrou u rpartu+ecrou rpeopasykaeu rcuxonoruu:
rouunauue pasnu+u neqy peaneuMnu oertanu c oquou ctopouM u uqeaneuMnu oertanu c qpyrou. C
repsMnu nM ctanrusaenc s peaneuou usuu, ottanrusaenc ot uux s rosuauuu u suose sosspaaaenc r uun s
rpoecce u pesynetate rpunoeuu suauuu. 8topMe snktc coctseuuo pesynetatanu rosuauu, ouu ctauostc
rar M oertanu-urcatopanu, otpaakaunu u urcupykaunu cyaectseuuMe ctopouM u cyauoctuMe noneutM
qsueuu +enosera (s ton +ucne ero passutu) s opne uay+uoro suauu.
4. |, uaroue, s-+etseptMx, cyaectseuuo uuoe roctpoeuue rapaqurnM rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru ue tonero ua
auanutu+ecrou, uo u ua rouctpyrtusuou (t.e. roteuuaneuo rpeopasykaeu) ocuose. 8qece rpuuuruaneuo qonua
Mte sanoeua sosnouocte cuutesa uay+uoro suauu us pasuMx pasqenos canou rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru, a tare
rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu c pesynetatanu qpyrux (cneuMx) uayr s uarpasneuuu peaeuu peaneuou saqa+u.
Kpone toro, ro norure usnoeuu cneqyet paccnotpete uerotopMe yuqaneutaneuMe sorpocM ncuxonocuvec|oco
a|cnepuve+mupoea+u+ u ncuxonocuvec|ou duac+ocmu|u. 8 to e spen rpuqetc oryctute uerotopMe creuaneuMe
sorpocM passutu teopetu+ecrou rcuxonoruu, rotopMe s csoux cyaectseuuMx qetanx sMxoqt sa rpeqenM sanMcna
uactoaeu ruuru. 8 oaen, rpuqetc uapyaute tpaquuk u uneuuo s cssu c yssrou uassauuMx sMae rponen
neqy coou pacrpMte cano qsueuue rcuxonoru+ecroro rosuauu, orpeqenute rputu+ecrue noneutM passutu
ote+ectseuuou rcuxonoruu. VM ronaraen, +to c atux rosuuu ctauyt cuee ocoeuuoctu u creuura peaeuu c
ronoaek rcuxonoruu u ua ase ee qoctueuuu rpartu+ecrux saqa+ yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu,
qsueuuen +enosera: ero roseqeuuen, ero qeteneuoctek u ssaunoqeuctsuen c orpyakaeu ero rpupoquou u
couaneuou cpeqou.
0tne+euuMe ocoeuuoctu peaneuMx oertos rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa c y+eton oosua+euuMx sMae uqeu
rouctpyrtusuoro roqxoqa rossonkt uan orpeqenute rcuxury |a| cucmev,, ,npaen+s(,s noeede+uev u
de+mene+ocmes c,se|ma, eco esauvodeucmeuev c o|p,as(uv vupov. Taroe orpeqeneuue, s rpuuure,
noru+ecru secena otnu+aetc ot qpyrux cyaectsykaux orpeqeneuuu u nuae +actu+uo cosraqaet c oaun
rouunauuen rcuxuru, copnynuposauuMn s pycne cuctenuoro roqxoqa (6.1. onos, 19751984). octouuctso atoro
orpeqeneuu s ton, +to ouo rossonet uan copnynuposate qpyroe sauoe ytsepqeuue: |o+cmp,|mue+eu nodxod
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
14
mpe,em us,vame ncuxuvec|ue +ene+u+ +e mone|o e edu+uv+ex cocmo++u+x esauvodeucmeu+ c,se|ma c vupov,
+e mone|o e cve+e amux cocmo++uu e omdene+ee vove+me epeve+u (t.e. ctatu+uo), uo e deue+uu c,se|ma
esauvodeucmeu+ e cucmeve cavux amux esauvodeucmeuu, a sua+ut s peaneuou aronoru+ecrou uuae cyerta.
8necte c ten taroe orpeqeneuue rossonet paccnatpusate paoty rcuxuru rpu yrpasneuuu roseqeuuen
cyerta, qsuyaeroc s cuctene ero peaneuMx ssaunoqeuctsuu c nupon, rar yuruouuposauue cno+ou
u+opva(uo++ou cucmeve ,npaene+u+ usve++s(uvc+ u usve++s(uv vup c,se|mov.
|s atux ytsepqeuuu sMteraet oquo ronesuoe rouunauue ponu oneaux uuopnauouuMx cucten s
rpartu+ecrou qeteneuoctu +enosera. Vouo crasate, +to ucrycctseuuMe uuopnauouuMe naauuM s yqyaen
noryt Mte u, sepotuo, yqyt ucronesosauM ue tonero u qae ue ctonero qn toro, +toM opaatMsate
uuopnauk u rpoussoqute anroputnu+ecrue, pytuuuMe sM+ucneuu, cronero qn toro, +toM ua uux
otpaatMsate pasnu+uoro poqa teopetu+ecrue noqenu peaeuu peaneuMx saqa+; ctpoute nMcneuuMe,
teopetu+ecrue peaeuu atux saqa+ ro auanoruu c ten, rar ato qenaet +enoser: cosqasate cnouMe nMcneuuMe
noqenu qn rposeqeuu uqeaneuMx nMcneuuMx arcrepuneutos*. 0paotra cnouMx nMcneuuMx noqeneu,
roctauosra uqeaneuMx nMcneuuMx arcrepuneutos ato, ro uaaeny nueuuk, oqua us repcrertusuMx yuruu u
cep rpuneueuu uoseuaeu sM+ucnuteneuou u uuopnauouuou texuuru.
* 8 rpotusosec peaneuMn arcrepuneutan.

8epotuo, oquou us rpuuuruaneuMx xapartepuctur cnouMx cucten u rpoeccos yrpasneuu (ucrycctseuuoro u
ectectseuuoro tura) snetc to, +to u cavu cucmeve ,npaene+u+, u npo(ecce npeopasoea+u+ vupa mec+o
ce+sa+e c acuvvempuv+evu esauvodeucmeu+vu. 0uu s ton unu uuon cnMcne cssauM tare c artusuMnu
qeuctsunu cyerta u roatony, roue+uo e, unekt naccy rcuxonoru+ecrux to+er rpunoeuu s raqon
ronroueute (sseue), s raqon ysne, nuuuu yrpasneuu, s raqon nore, rotopMu oecre+usaet cano ato
yrpasneuue. cuxonoru+ecruu routerct nM uaxoqun s opyqux tpyqa, s cpeqctsax u cuctenax astonatusauu atux
opyquu, s cpeqctsax u cuctenax yrpasneuu astonatusuposauuMnu cuctenanu (uuopnauouuMx cuctenax) u t.q.
Ten ue neuee uyuo eae pas creuaneuo otnetute to octotenectso, +to eutpaneuou uqeeu rouctpyrtusuoro
roqxoqa s rcuxonoruu snetc ,npaene+ue venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu, rpeqycnatpusakaee, s +actuoctu,
rcuxonoru+ecroe rpoertuposauue cyerta, ssaunoqeuctsykaero c nupon u ero rpeopasykaero, t.e. s repsyk
o+epeqe cyerta qeteneuoctu. outuo, +to rcuxonoru+ecroe oocuosauue, sMop u sMpaotra quqartur, tartur
u texuonoruu rpeopasosauu atoro cyerta s sua+uteneuou nepe sasuct ot toro, r rarun yposun, r rarun
noran, cuctenan u roqcuctenan rcuxuru nM arennupyen.
0tckqa ectectseuuo enauue paccnotpete ctpyrtypy u quuanury cuctenM rcuxuru, rotopa cana snetc
cuctenou perynuu u yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun roseqeuuen u qeteneuoctek. 8 uerotopon cnMcne nouo crasate,
+to saqa+a yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu (ronnertusuMnu unu uuqusuqyaneuMnu) srnk+aet s ce
rcuxonoru+ecroe rpoertuposauue cyerta qeteneuoctu ot pasposueuuoro, ueyropqo+euuoro, ueoprauusosauuoro
routuureuta qo oprauusosauuoro eneuarpasneuuoro cooaectsa s cootsetctsuu c oaeu saqa+eu roucra cpa+u(
unu npedenoe eosvo+ex npeopasoea+uu cavoco c,se|ma, t.e. uccneqosauu crertpa ero rcuxu+ecrux coctouuu.
Ectectseuuo tare, +to peaeuue atou saqa+u rotpeyet orpeqeneuuou netoqonoru+ecrou yssru sceu ctpyrtypM
rcuxu+ecrux sneuuu, t.e. s repsyk o+epeqe yuruu, rpoeccos, coctouuu u csoucts, s uerotopoe yropqo+euuoe
u cssuoe nuoectso s panrax tar unu uua+e orpeqeneuuou vodenu nuv+ocmu. pu aton enecoopasuo +etro
orpeqenute (sMcuute) rpauuM qeuctsu tex sarouos, rotopMe orpeqenkt quuanury qsueuu cyerta s
saqauuon uutepsane ero usueuuoro rytu.
Tarun opason, sauou teopeturo-rcuxonoru+ecrou saqa+eu ctauosutc sMsneuue sosnouMx sou, sMqeneuue
rpauu sosnouMx u uesosnouMx rpeopasosauuu cyerta, t.e. orpeqeneuue onacmu u cmpamecuu eosvo+ex
{u amuvec|u npuevnevex) peae+uu dn+ |nacca sadav npeopasoea+u+ c,se|ma de+mene+ocmu u nouc|a
mex+onocuu ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uv pec,pcov. anee sMpauuMe ctpateruu u texuonoruu yrpasneuu
qetepnuuupykt sMop rourpetuMx tpaertopuu qsueuu cyerta suytpu yrasauuMx rpauu. 8 xoqe atoro
rpoucxoqut roucr sepotuMx tpaertopuu qsueuu cyerta, ortunaneuMx s uerotopon rputepuaneuo cuon
cnMcne, u, uaroue, peanusyetc sMop u aertusuoe ucronesosauue cpeqcts ocyaectsneuu sMpauuMx
uarpasneuuu, t.e. ose|mue+ex eco deue+uu edone mpae|mopuu eco us+e++oco n,mu.

1.3. Paise uenoseka s ueumxc coansusx ucyax (npo6neus ncxonoruecko eop
coansuo npakk)

Kpaka copuecka pepocneksa. Paccnatpusa uctopuk pasnu+uMx aron u uarpasneuuu rcuxonoruu,
nouo ouapyute, +to rpartu+ecru sece auanus +enose+ecroro roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu uqet rar M e mpex
15
nnoc|ocm+x.
epea+ rpusM+ua qn cospeneuuou ote+ectseuuou rcuxonoruu ose|mue+a+, a to+uee, ose|m+a+
nnoc|ocme, rqe sce yposuu u ronroueutM +enose+ecrou usueqeteneuoctu u roseqeuu rpeqctasneuM s
uankqaenou oertuou opne u roqqaktc oertusuou peructpauu, routponk u usnepeuuk. 8 atou rnocroctu
sce yrasauuMe sneuu paccnatpusaktc rar M s oertusuon routercte. 0quaro, rar nM ysuqun rosquee, atot
acrert auanusa qanero ue ronou, a ero ocuosauu ue sronue noru+ecru sasepaeuM.
3mopa+ nnoc|ocme tare onee unu neuee rpusM+ua qn ote+ectseuuou rcuxonoruu ato c,se|mue+a+
nnoc|ocme, ua rotopou penercupyktc sce yronuytMe sMae yposuu u ronroueutM qeteneuoctu. 3ta
rnocrocte rpeqctasnet rar M cyertusuyk rpoeruk, cyertuoe otpaeuue oertusuou rnocroctu - ua ueu
rpeqctasneuM: ucxoqua cutyau, ene, crocoM qoctueuu enu (enesou yposeue); yposeue texuonoru+ecroro u
anroputnu+ecroro orucauu qeteneuoctu; uopnatusuMu yposeue, cssauuMu c opyqunu tpyqa u cosnectuou
oprauusaueu paotM c qpyrunu nkqenu. To ecte sqece penercupyetc sce to e canoe, +to rpoucxoqut s
oertusuou qeteneuoctu, a otpaaetc sce ato s ronose cyerta.
laroue, mpeme+ nnoc|ocme coctseuuo cyertuoro auanusa roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu snetc, ro uaaeny
nueuuk, uauonee sauou qn rocneqykaero passutu rcuxonoru+ecrou teopuu ato nnoc|ocme c,se|mue+oco
paspeae+u+ sadavu. 8qece sanoeu saueuauu ucxoquMu ryurt cyertuoro auanusa, rotopMu coctout s cuon
rpeqctasneuuu toro arta, +to repsoua+aneuo s ronose cyerta otpaaetc saqa+a (unu rponena), saua qn
ero usueqeteneuoctu. | ato repsoe otpaeuue saqa+u peaneuMn cyerton usueqeteneuoctu ropoqaet
qeuctsuteneuo onee to+uoe rouunauue nuorux rcuxonoru+ecrux euoneuos. Kar rorasMsakt orMt uaaux
uccneqosauuu u paotM uaaux ronner u y+euuros, c atou to+ru speuu ctauostc onee cuMnu
nuoectseuuocte u nuoroqetepnuuautuocte uuqusuqyaneuoro roseqeuu.
Tara otpaeuua saqa+a, orpaaeuua rotpeuoctek cyerta, sMctyrakaa csoeopasuou passeptrou
usueuuou cutyauu, sMsnet ueoxoqunocte rony+euu rpeqneta yqosnetsopeuu rotpeuoctu us qauuou
cutyauu (snecte c rpeqMqyaeu uctopueu qsueuu nupa). 3to osua+aet, +to sc uanu+ua cutyau s enon, sece
crertp uanu+uMx coctouuu nupa ctauosutc c,se|mue+o o|paae++ev u+me+(u+vu nompe+ocmeu c,se|ma.
pu aton rotpeuoctu uuqusuqyaneuoro cyerta rpoertupyktc ua crertp coctouuu nupa, u s +enose+ecrou
qeteneuoctu, s rpoecce eneuarpasneuuou cneuM coctouuu oertusuoro nupa, orasMsaktc cssauuMnu s
edu+ov deue+uu vomue c opasov (enu. |neuuo s aton uerpepMsuon qsueuuu notus opas enu rpu
teopetu+ecron peaeuuu saqa+u rar pas u uaxoqutc ucrona mex+onocu+ unu cnoco peae+u+ roctasneuuou
(cyerton) saqa+u. 8aten oua oeuusaetc cyerton c to+ru speuu rpuennenoctu texuonoruu (rnaua u ctpateruu
qeuctsu). | saten ye peanusyetc yrpasneuue sueauunu qeuctsunu cyerta, rpeopasykaee ucxoquyk
cutyauk u opnupykaee texuonoru+ecryk ero+ry rpartu+ecroro peaeuu qauuou saqa+u.
8 aton cny+ae teopetu+ecroe peaeuue rar M oertususupyetc opatuo s orpyakauu nup; s aton
rpartu+ecron qeuctsuu, rotopoe u ecte qeuctsuteneuoe peaeuue saqa+u, uauqeuua texuonoru srepsMe
ctauosutc sseqeuuou s repsyk ero+ry (opnyny) oertusuoro qsueuu nupa, t.e. m,da, cde +avu+aemc+
ose|mue+eu a+anus de+mene+ocmu e +opvamue+ex acne|max, m,da, cde ,e ecme mex+onocu+.
Cpasuusa uauqeuuoe peaeuue c ye cyaectsykaunu, rpuennenMnu u rpuutMnu oaectson, a tare c
uanu+uMnu pecypcanu u opyqunu tpyqa, cyert repexoqut r peaeuuk qpyrou saqa+u usneueuu unu coxpaueuu
cyaectsykaux uopn, t.e. ux usneueuu c to+ru speuu uauqeuuMx un peaeuuu (s ton +ucne uosMx, ueoM+uMx,
ocyaectsn uopnotsop+ectso) unu, uaoopot, ux coxpaueuu u roq+uueuu uuqusuqyaneuo uauqeuuMx peaeuuu
cyaectsykaun couaneuMn uopnan. Tarun opason, suquo, +to aneneut tsop+ectsa cyerta rosnetc rar pas
uneuuo ua ctMre atux qsyx rnocrocteu. otpeuocte cyerta, orpaausakaa (u cana orpaaeuua s rpoecce
peaeuu saqa+u) qoctueuue enu rar rpeqneta yqosnetsopeuu rotpeuoctu, u can rpoecc yqosnetsopeuu
rotpeuoctu rorasMsakt, +to avo(u+ eecm,naem |a| npoe|(u+ c,se|ma (nuv+ocmu) +a cpadue+m
{,doenemeope+u+) nompe+ocmu. 3to osua+aet, +to ecnu rotpeuocte yqosnetsopetc roctouuo, to anouu Mte
ue qonuo. Ecnu yqosnetsopeuue rotpeuoctu sqpyr rpepMsaetc, to rpaqueut narcunaneu u narcunaneua
qonua Mte anou.
8auo, +to s paccnotpeuuou sMae tpexrnocroctuou ctpyrtype nouo ouapyute te noneutM u te aneneutM,
rotopMe Mnu uauqeuM u uccneqosauM s uctopuu rcuxonoruu. Tar, uarpunep, auporo u roqpouo uccneqyktc
tarue sneuu, rar notus, rotpeuocte, ene; aepeutuMu cuutes ucxoquou cutyauu, opas cutyauu, opas
rotpeuoro pesynetata (xot ato u ue o+eue cuMu tepnuu). |sy+aktc s pasuMx acrertax rpoecc peae+u+ sadavu,
ee|mop vomue (ene, cdeuc vomuea +a (ene u t.q.
Tarun opason, nuorue sneuu, aneneutM u xapartepucturu cyertuoro ssaunoqeuctsu u perynupykaero ero
rcuxonoru+ecroro nexauusna Mnu (+actu+uo u usonuposauuo) ouapyeuM, orpeqeneuM u uccneqosauM s uctopuu
oaeu, teopetu+ecrou u arcrepuneutaneuou rcuxonoruu. 8necte c ten nuorue us teopetu+ecrux roueruu
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octaktc ue cssauuMnu equuMn netoqonoru+ecrun routercton, qo cux rop ue uauqeuM rar coequukaue ux cssu,
tar u pasequukaue ux rpauuM u creuu+ecrue rpusuaru. PaccnotpeuuMu sMae tpexrnocroctuou auanus
suocut uosMu noneut s uccneqosatenecryk paoty. Cyte ero coctout s orpasqauuu ueoxoqunoctu repexoqa ot
rpoeccyaneuoro r saqa+uony roqxoqy.
8necte c ten otckqa ctauosutc cuMn, +to rpoecc passutu u rporpecc s passutuu rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru
orasMsaetc tecueuaun opason cssauuMn c rouunauuen toro, +to +enose+ecruu artop uyuo ue tonero
y+utMsate s pasuMx cepax qeteneuoctu, uo u artusuo un yrpasnte. 3to osua+aet, +to paseumue
,+dave+mane+ex pasdenoe ncuxonocuu don+o udmu no nu+uu pac|pemu+ ncuxonocuvec|ux vexa+usvoe (npuvu+
u cmp,|m,pe ux deucmeu+), rotopMe s qeuctsuteneuoctu pacrpMsaktc tonero s yrasauuou sMae mpemeeu
nnoc|ocmu rpuseqeuuoro auanusa, t.e. e +e+opvamue+ov, meopvec|ov, c,se|mue+ov, u+dueud,ane+ov peae+uu
sadavu.
6ospeueuuse npo6neus paucqopuaouuoro nepoqa. Kar nM ye rosopunu, ronutu+ecrue, couaneuMe u
arouonu+ecrue peopnM s Poccuu ctanrusaktc c rponenanu rocyqapctseuuoro u oaectseuuoro perynuposauu
couaneuMx rpoeccos (s ton +ucne rpnoro yrpasneuu unu). 3tu rponenM oycnosneuM sosuuruoseuuen uosMx
couaneuMx euoneuos, uuMx rpuuuros oprauusauu usuu u qeteneuoctu nkqeu s repexoquMx ycnosux,
rpeqronarakaux poct sua+unoctu +enose+ecrou nu+uoctu u ee otsetctseuuoctu s orpeqeneuuu coctseuuou
cyqeM.
8repsMe ua+anu cornacosauuo opnuposatec oe setsu couaneuou ronuturu rocyqapctsa: co(uane+a+
sa(uma |pusuc+ex cp,nn +acene+u+ u a|mue+oe ,npaene+ue pe+|ov mp,da u sa++mocmes, opvupoea+ue
npoeccuo+ane+oco nome+(uana a|o+ovu|u.
/|mue+a+ co(uane+a+ nonumu|a rpeqronaraet ycuneuue rocyqapctseuuoro snuuu ua csse neqy
rpoeccuouaneuMn opasosauuen u rpoeccuouaneuMn tpyqon rpu seqyaeu ponu tpyqa. Pasequueuue tpyqa u
rpoopasosauu nuae ysenu+ut ye cyaectsykauu paspMs neqy pMuron tpyqa u pMuron opasosateneuMx ycnyr
rpoeccuouaneuou aronM.
+enose+ecrue pecypcM, ux aertusuoe ucronesosauue snktc saueuaun artopon passutu arouonuru
Poccuu. 0quaro rposoquna ua oneauuctse rpeqrputuu raqposa ronutura ue cootsetctsyet ctpateruu pMuo+uMx
peopn, +to cqepusaet sosnouoctu peanusauu rporpann yctou+usou ctaunusauu, ousneuu rpoussoqctsa u
ctpyrtypuou repectpouru arouonuru, rosMaeuu ra+ectsa u rourypeutocrocouoctu poccuucrou rpoqyruu.
Kar yqet rorasauo s pasqene III, passutue raqposoro roteuuana u pauouaneuoe ucronesosauue +enose+ecrux
pecypcos snetc oquun us ocuosuMx uarpasneuuu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu rocyqapctsa; ouo uneet enek
rosMaeuue rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouuoro yposu repcouana, passutue rpoeccuouaneuou opueutauu,
ycuneuue tpyqosou notusauu. 3to uarpasneuue qonuo ocyaectsntec +epes ycuneuue rocyqapctseuuoro
sosqeuctsu ua ctpyrtypy u ra+ectso rpoeccuouaneuoro (raqposoro) roteuuana uauouaneuou arouonuru,
ceptuurauk rpoeccuouaneuMx raqpos s neqyuapoquon ctauqapte, paspaotry u peanusauk ronrnercuMx
eqepaneuMx, neotpacnesMx u peruouaneuMx rporpann passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos, cosqauue aertusuou
cuctenM rpoeccuouaneuou opueutauu u corposoqeuu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, cosepaeuctsosauue
cuctenM rpoeccuouaneuou roqrotosru u reperoqrotosru uesautoro uaceneuu, a tare repcouana rpeqrputuu,
srnk+a ckqa peanusauk qonrocpo+uou ctpateruu rpoeccuouaneuoro passutu u aertusuoro ucronesosauu
raqpos rocyqapctseuuou cnyM. Vexauusn rocyqapctseuuoro snuuu ua opnuposauue u pauouaneuoe
ucronesosauue aertusuoro raqposoro roteuuana arouonuru snetc ronrnercuMn, oxsatMsakaun sce yposuu
septuranu yrpasneuu.
osnetc ueoxoqunocte ocosuauuoro yrpasneuu u canoyrpasneuu passutuen +enosera rar rpaqauuua u
rpoeccuouana, a ato osua+aet, +to s oaectseuuon cosuauuu oopnnetc cosepaeuuo uosa roueru
otuoaeuu r +enosery |o+(en(u+ ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uv pec,pcov s otnu+ue ot rpeueu |o+(en(uu ,vema
venoeevec|oco a|mopa.
Taroe yrpasneuue rpeqronaraet artusuyk oropy ua ronrnerc uayr o +enosere, s rotopon cnuaktc, c oquou
ctopouM, teopetu+ecra u rpurnaqua couonoruu, a c qpyrou teopetu+ecra u rpurnaqua rcuxonoruu,
srnk+akaue s ce couaneuyk rcuxonoruk u rcuxonoruk tpyqa, rcuxonoruk u rcuxoquaruoctury nu+uoctu u qp.
pu peaeuuu rourpetuMx sorpocos couaneuou ronuturu ato csoqutc r sosqeuctsuk ua tpu ocuosuMe
coctasnkaue: ycnosu usuu u qeteneuoctu otqeneuMx uuqusuqos u couaneuMx rpyrr, nenu+uoctuMe
otuoaeuu s pasnu+uMx cepax qeteneuoctu, rpoecc passutu canoro cyerta opnuposauue otqeneuou
nu+uoctu. 3ta tpuaqa rposnetc, ouapyusa csok creuury, s pasnu+uMx cepax: opasosauu, tpyqa u
otqMxa; sautoro u csooquoro speneuu +enosera u t.q. 0ua orpeqenet coqepauue rpartu+ecrux saqa+:
cosqauu ycnosuu qn tpyqa, opasosauu u csooquoro speneuu cyerta;
roqqepauu u passutu +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu s tpyqe, opasosauuu u s csooquon speneuu;
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ctauosneuu u passutu +enosera rar cyerta tpyqa, opasosauu u coctseuuou usuu.
8aueuaun aneneuton couaneuoro yrpasneuu rpoeccon oaectseuuoro rpoussoqctsa +enosera rar
rpaqauuua u rpoeccuouana ctauosutc yrpasneuue s cuctenax opasosauu u sautoctu, u ocoeuuo
rpoeccanu u nexauusnanu repexoqa ot opasosauu r tpyqy u opatuo. Pesynetaton taroro yrpasneuu qonuo
ctate cosqauue passepuytoro so scen rpoeccuouaneuon crertpe routuureuta xopoao roqrotosneuuMx
creuanuctos, srnk+akauxc s rpoecc rpoussoqctsa oaectsa so scen ero oene: ot penecneuuura,
rpeqrpuuunaten qo uaenuoro paotuura u rocyqapctseuuoro cnyaaero (+uuosuura). 8 aton cny+ae yrpasneuue
+enose+ecrun pecypcon ctauosutc s qeuctsuteneuoctu yrpasneuuen couaneuMnu rpoeccanu usuu nkqeu ua
tou unu uuou tepputopuu, s tou unu uuou arouuae, a ue tonero qeteneuoctu rpoeccuouanos s tou unu uuou
oprauusauu, s ton unu uuon y+peqeuuu.
Taroe yrpasneuue +enose+ecrun pecypcon rpeqronaraet rpeqe scero yrpasneuue ero ra+ectson. 8qece uneetc
s suqy passutue rpoeccuouaneuoro u uutennertyaneuoro roteuuana oaectsa; pauouaneua oprauusau u
ucronesosauue ye uarorneuuoro roteuuana +enose+ecrux crocouocteu s pasnu+uMx cepax rpoussoqctseuuou,
xosuctseuuou u ronutu+ecrou qeteneuoctu.
0o(uane+a+ nonumu|a, srnk+a s ce uecronero saueuaux uarpasneuuu qeteneuoctu oaectsa,
uerocpeqctseuuo satparusaet usoro cyerta, ero peaneuMe otuoaeuu u cuctenM ssaunoqeuctsuu c
orpyakaeu ero qeuctsuteneuoctek. 8 atou cssu repeq rcuxonoru+ecrou uayrou u repeq +enoseroseqeuuen
sooae sosuurakt uosMe rponenM:
1) auanus rpoeccos usuu cyerta (ue cosraqakaux c rpoeccanu qeteneuoctu u ue uc+eprMsaenMx unu):
passutu +enosera;
rosneuu u yqosnetsopeuu rotpeuocteu;
rpoussoqctsa u passutu otuoaeuuu so nuoectse cyertos u so nuoectse cyert-oertos;
2) sMcueuue toro, rar us usuu rourpetuMx cyertos crnaqMsaktc couaneuMe rpoeccM:
rpoeccM oprauusauu u qsueuu oneaux rpyrr naccosuquMe rpoeccM u sneuu;
rpoeccM ssaunocssu uuqusuqyaneuoro u oaectseuuoro cosuauu;
rpoeccM rpoussoqctsa u rpoeccM rotpeneuu;
rpoeccM oneua (pMuo+uMe rpoeccM) u qp.;
3) orpeqeneuue ctpyrtypM u artopos yrpasneuu yrasauuMnu couaneuMnu rpoeccanu, srnk+a rpoussoqctso
u socrpoussoqctso canux +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu s oaeuuu, s cenee, s tpyqe, s pacrpeqeneuuu coctseuuoctu u
rpoqyrtos qeteneuoctu, s rotpeneuuu u t.q.
laronuun, +to uqe y+eta +enose+ecroro artopa s cosqauuu uosMx naauu u texuonoruu Mna secena
rporpeccusuou u oecre+una passutue pasuoopasuMx rpunoeuuu arcrepuneutaneuou rcuxonoruu so
ssaunoqeuctsux +enoser naauua, pacrpMna rytu rosMaeuu aertusuoctu rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu.
8necte c ten ata uqe rpusena r roucry sosnouocteu yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun roseqeuuen, yrpasneuu
crocouoctnu u uutepecanu +enosera u s roue+uon pesynetate r passutuk rcuxonoruu qeteneuoctu s otpMse ot
rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu, u qanee, r artu+ecrou denepco+uu|a(uu npu|nad+oco ncuxonocuvec|oco s+a+u+,
rpotusoroctasneuuk npo(eccoe ae|mue+oco noeede+u+ u npo(eccoe paseumu+ venoee|a.
Ctpyrtypa +enose+ecrou rcuxuru, yuruouaneuMe sosnouoctu, sarouonepuoctu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu
roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu, roucr pasuoopasuMx turonoruu (sue u es y+eta peaneuo qeuctsykaero cyerta)
rpartu+ecru ua sece XX ser ctanu rpeqnetanu rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa. Koue+uo, rpu aton cyaectsosana
rcuxonoru passutu u qeuuuposanuce pasuoopasuMe rpuuurM passutu, uo ato Mnu uccneqosauu passutu
rcuxuru, a ue passutu cyerta, u s passusakaenc cyerte ucranu sarouonepuoctu rosneuu uosMx
rcuxu+ecrux ctpyrtyp u yuruu.
la uaa ssrnq, uneuuo sqece cneqyet ucrate rpu+uuy cospeneuuoro rpusuca rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru, a coscen ue
s ueqoctatre rsanuuuposauuMx creuanuctos unu cpeqcts ua rposeqeuue uccneqosauuu: ato npunansus
kpic noseqeuuecko napaqrus.
3adava ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uv pec,pcov e omnuvue om sadav ,vema venoeevec|oco a|mopa npednonacaem
us,ve+ue e+ove+oe, pac|pemue eosvo+ocmeu u sa|o+ovep+ocmeu paseumu+ c,se|ma |a| (enocm+oco
c,(ecmea, +axod+(ecoc+ e +enpepee+ov esauvodeucmeuu c vupov e ceoev nuauaev o|p,e+uu e ceoeu
a|onocuvec|ou +uae.
Cootsetctseuuo paspaotra rcuxonoru+ecrux ocuos yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon rpeqronaraet:
uay+uoe orpeqeneuue rpoecca passutu cyerta (pacaupeuue oena u ctpyrtypM ero aronoru+ecrou uuau
rar poct uuqusuqyaneuou csooqM cyerta; ysenu+euue uuqusuqyaneuoro pasuoopasu so nuoectse cyertos, s
ton +ucne sa c+et nu+uoctuoro passutu; poct +ucna u ra+ectsa peaaenMx usueuuMx rponen u t.q.);
uccneqosauue sarouos passutu cyerta (orpeqeneuue ctpyrtypM u ectectseuuoro xoqa passutu cyerta s
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
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ero aronoru+ecrou uuae; sosnouoctu rpeopasosauu arouuau u rpeopasosauu canoro cyerta; orpeqeneuue
rpu+uu u uarpasneuu passutu u t.r.);
usy+euue nexauusnos u qeuctsykaux artopos passutu; orpeqeneuue rapanetpos u rputepues passutu;
paspaotry texuur u texuonoruu oeuru coctouu u sosqeuctsu ua rpoeccM passutu cyerta.
8ce atu sorpocM, s sua+uteneuou nepe uosMe qn teopetu+ecrou rcuxonoruu, orpeqenkt (enee +anpaene+u+
paspaom|u |o+cmp,|mue+ou u |a,sane+ou meopuu ncuxonocuu. pu aton orasMsaetc ueoxoqunMn
paccnatpusate od+oepeve++o mpu ,poe++ a+anusa ncuxuvec|ux +ene+uu:
yposeue ctpyrtypM cyerta (u orpeqeneuue rcuxuru rar yuruu yrpasneuu roseqeuuen s auporon cnMcne,
srnk+akaeu s ce crocouoctu, uutepecM, coctouu, notusM, repeusauu, uanepeuu u t.q.);
yposeue yuruu cyerta (auanus euoneuonoruu u sarouonepuocteu roseqeuu, otuoaeuuu u qeteneuoctu;
pacrpMtue rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnos ux perynuu; usy+euue nu+uoctu rar cyerta rcuxu+ecrou qeteneuoctu u
t.q.);
yposeue passutu cyerta ua uutepsane ero usueuuoro rytu (auanus sosnouocteu cyerta, usy+euue ero
usueuuoro rytu, nuuuu usuu, couaneuou u rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM; pacrpMtue rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnos
passutu, nu+uoctuMx saaut u uuteuuu, ryteu roqqepru u corposoqeuu rpaqaucroro u rpoeccuouaneuoro
ctauosneuu).
Kpone toro, ueoxoquno usy+ate cyert s ero peaneuon orpyeuuu, rpu aton ocooe sua+euue rpuopetakt
cneqykaue rcuxonoru+ecrue auanusM:
auanus cyerta s ero aronoru+ecrou uuae (raysaneuMe ocuosM uuqusuqyaneuoro roseqeuu);
auanus cyerta u ero usneueuuu s ycnosux oprauusauu (oprauusauouuoe roseqeuue u sosnouoctu
yrpasneuu s oprauusauu);
auanus usneueuuu cyerta s usneukaeuc oprauusauu (peaneuMe usueuuMe rytu u rcuxonoru+ecrue
rpu+uuM ux uuqusuqyaneuoro pasuoopasu).
outuo, +to qn atoro uyuM ue tonero paquraneuMe repeneuM s rouertyaneuou ase rcuxonoruu (rotopMe u
uankqaktc s uaae spen s nuposou rcuxonoru+ecrou uayre u rparture), uo u ueoxoquno cosqasate
rpuuuruaneuo uosMe netoqM auanusa, oeuru u sosqeuctsu ua rpoeccM passutu cyerta.

1.4. hosa napaqrua ncxonorueckoro auania coansusx co6s iaqau ncxonoruecko eop

PaccnotpeuuMe sMae sorpocM otuoctc r +ucny yuqaneutaneuMx, uo es uux ctauosutc uesosnouMn
aertusuoe peaeuue sosuurakaux uosMx rpartu+ecrux saqa+. laronuun, +to passutue rpeqMqyaeu rapaqurnM
cosqano secena noauyk ocuosy qn peaeuu enMx rnaccos rpartu+ecrux saqa+, s ton +ucne c rpuneueuuen
raysaneuMx rpuuuros s rpurnaquou u rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu rpu peaeuuu saqa+ yrpasneuu nkqenu (ux
roseqeuuen, otuoaeuunu, crocouoctnu u t.r.), s rpoertuposauuu qeteneuoctu u cyertos qeteneuoctu, s
oeure rpoeccuouaneuo sauMx ra+ects, roctpoeuuu rcuxonoru+ecrux roptpetos uuqusuqos u t.r. u sce ato
uaano auporoe rpuneueuue s paspaotre rcuxonoru+ecrux acrertos tpyqa, yrpasneuu, sqpasooxpaueuu,
oopouM, opasosauu u qp.
|ccneqosauu, rposeqeuuMe uanu s rocnequue roqM u roq uaaun pyrosoqctson, rossonunu yto+uute roctauosry
pqa yuqaneutaneuMx sorpocos, paspaotate roueruu aronoru+ecrou uuau cyerta, turos ero ssaunoqeuctsu
c orpyakaun nupon, pacrpMte oayk cxeny rcuxonoru+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu, srnk+akayk
s ce acrert ee passutu, rorasate ssaunocsse rpoeccos u yuruu rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu u perynuu
roseqeuu.
0aa roctauosra rponenM rossonuna npednoume |o+|pem+ee ncuxonocuvec|ue vodenu sadavu, peaaenou
cyerton, vodenu nuv+ocmu, vodenu npoeccuo+ane+oco cma+oene+u+ u paseumu+ venoee|a. 3rcrepuneutaneuMe
u anrupu+ecrue uccneqosauu sMsunu uosMe euoneuM s rpoeccax rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu u perynuu:
rpespaaeuue rponenM s saqa+y qn cyerta (+ysctsuteneuocte r rponene, ctpyrtypuposauue saqa+u,
cyertusua noqene saqa+u, rpuutue saqa+u, ee cyertusuoe peaeuue, paspaotra anetepuatus u ctpateruu,
oeura sepotuMx rocneqctsuu, oeura ortunaneuoctu peaeuu u qp.) u aertusuoe ee peaeuue unu otras ot
peaeuu;
rcuxonoru+ecruu nexauusn reuepauu u cyertuMe ucto+uuru uuqusuqyaneuMx oauor roseqeuu,
sosnouMe crocoM ux quaruocturu u ropperuu;
cyertuMe rputepuu xopoaero u rpasuneuoro roseqeuu (rputepuu ortunaneuMx ctpateruu);
uerotopMe euoneuM cenauturu rounurtuMx cutyauu u pacaerneuue oeuo+uo-notusauouuou cepM
(notusM oy+euu, qeteneuoctu, cyaectsosauu u passutu);
rcuxonoru+ecruu nexauusn roctpoeuu rcuxu+ecroro opasa, rapaqorc enu u qeteneuoctu, ocoeuuoctu
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roctpoeuu cyertusuMx rnaccuurauu u oeuor, nexauusnM rpuutu peaeuu o ua+ane u rperpaaeuuu
qeuctsu, ctpyrtypa rcuxonoru+ecrou rotosuoctu r qeuctsuk s tou unu uuou cutyauu.
PaspaotauuMe teopetu+ecrue noqenu rocne ux anrupu+ecrou arpoauu nernu s ocuosy cosqauu aqersatuoro
(teopuu) usneputeneuoro netoqa, rossonkaero to+uo opnynuposate usneputeneuMe rpuuurM u rputepuu rpu
peaeuuu rpartu+ecrux saqa+ quaruocturu nu+uoctu u nu+uoctuoro passutu. 0quu us tarux rpuuuros rpno cssau
c yuqaneutaneuMnu rateropunu rcuxonoruu, c saqa+anu opasosauu u passutu +enosera:
paissamc cy6Lek pemae cso npo6neus s 6onee mpokou cnekpe iueuusx cya, 6onee
sqqeksuo c ueusmu iapaau;
uosse nokoneu nqe qonus pemas cso npo6neus nyume, ueu us pemaeu cso.
PacrpMtue rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnos perynuu rossonet sMsute to, rar cyert rouunaet u/unu
rpuuunaet saqa+y, rar ou rpuctyraet r ee peaeuuk, rar ou uaxoqut uosMe peaeuu, rar ou atu peaeuu sosspaaaet
s oertusuMu nup s suqe saurcuposauuoro couaneuoro (couanusuposauuoro) +enose+ecroro orMta. Taroe
qsueuue cyerta so nuoectse saqa+ u auanus atoro qsueuu s routercte saqa+u rossonet, ronuno rpo+ero,
qosoneuo to+uo cssate neqy coou pasnu+uMe rcuxu+ecrue yuruu, rpoeccM, coctouu u csouctsa
uuqusuqyaneuoro cyerta s equuyk noqene nu+uoctu c qeuctsykaun nexauusnon perynuu roseqeuu.
8 uactoaeu ruure xotenoce M onee roqpouo pasopate uneuuo atu sorpocM, rpuuuna so suunauue o+eue
ectrue, uo ue scerqa o+esuquMe cssu neqy rcuxonoru+ecrou teopueu, arcrepuneuton u couaneuou rparturou;
rorasate qsueuue u creuury sapoqeuu, paspeaeuu u sosspaaeuu s rpartury yuqaneutaneuMx
rcuxonoru+ecrux rponen; rorasate nuorocnouuocte u nuoroyposuesocte atoro qsueuu.
8 aton e rnk+e xotenoce rorasate to, rarun opason cssauM u ssaunoqeuctsykt teopu u arcrepuneut (rorqa
arcrepuneut ctauosutc, c oquou ctopouM, ocoou opnou uay+uou rparturu, a c qpyrou snetc noqenek
peaneuou qeuctsuteneuoctu) u s +en coctot tpyquoctu ssaunuou uuteprpetauu, ssaunuoro qsueuu pasuMx
opn ooaeuuoro +enose+ecroro orMta s yronuytou sMae tpuaqe.
0cuosuou natepuan ruuru, ectectseuuo, ua+uuaetc c paccnotpeuu uerotopMx sauMx, ua uaa ssrnq, rponen
oaeu u +actuou vemodonocuu coepeve++ou ncuxonocuu. 3tot natepuan roq+uueu oaeu uqee rorasate
ueoxoqunocte rouctpyrtusuoro roqxoqa r uccneqosauuk rcuxu+ecrux sneuuu u paccnotpete creuury
rpuneueuu rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu s peaeuuu rpartu+ecrux saqa+.
8 repsou +actu ruuru paccnatpusaktc unococrue, noru+ecrue u rcuxonoru+ecrue ocuosauu, uctoru
rpeqnaraenoro roqxoqa r peaeuuk coctseuuo rcuxonoru+ecrux saqa+ c enek uanetute onee to+uyk ux
roctauosry s pasuMx rcuxonoru+ecrux routerctax u s acrerte uay+uo-uccneqosatenecrou u uay+uo-rpartu+ecrou
rapaqurn.
8 atou cssu paccnatpusaktc rar tpaquuouuMe, tar u uerotopMe uosMe saqa+u, sosuurakaue repeq
teopetu+ecrou rcuxonorueu s cssu c sarpocanu rparturu: auanus u cuutes qeteneuoctu; rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus
saqa+; auanus u cuutes orpeqeneuuoro rnacca +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu, t.e. uccneqosauue rcuxonoru+ecrux
acrertos yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu u, onee auporo, couaneuMnu sneuunu u rpoeccanu s uuqusuqax u s
oprauusaux. pu aton qaetc tare auanus pqa saueuaux (s qauuon routercte) rateropuu rouctpyrtusuou
rcuxonoruu; rnaccuurau u ssaunocsse uerotopMx rcuxu+ecrux sneuuu u qp.
0qua us (e+mpane+ex udeu ruuru rorasate sosnouocte repexoqa ua yrpasneuue +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu,
ua+uua ot uuqusuqyaneuoro cyerta u rou+a cosoryruMn; ot ueoprauusosauuoro routuureuta r cosuateneuo
qeuctsykaeu +enose+ecrou oprauusauu. etaneuoe pacrpMtue atou uqeu s routercte oaero sanMcna ruuru
rpeqronaraet orpeqeneuue u uccneqosauue ctpyrtypM u opn rcuxonoru+ecroro rpoertuposauu cyerta,
orpeqeneuue ataros u sMsneuue tex rponen, rotopMe sosuurakt ua raqon us atux ataros u ua ctMre neqy
uunu. 8auo rpu aton ronuute, +to scroe opyque tpyqa snetc csoeopasuMn ycunutenen +enose+ecrux
sosnouocteu ro rpeopasosauuk nupa, cosqauuk ucrycctseuuoro nupa +enose+ecrou rynetypM.
0coeuuoe ra+ectso taroro ycunuten coctout s ton, +to cano ato cpeqctso ro csoeu rpupoqe ctauosutc
couaneuMn (rar rpousseqeuuoe +enoseron qn yqosnetsopeuu csoux rotpeuocteu u scero +enose+ecroro
oaectsa). Vouo qae ytsepqate, +to +en oneae ctauosutc tarux nequatopos neqy cyerton qeteneuoctu
u yrpasneuu u oertanu tpyqa u yrpasneuu, ten onee couaneuou ctauosutc rpoeccuouaneua qeteneuocte
+enosera, ten qaneae ou otxoqut ot rpnMx, uerocpeqctseuuMx ssaunoqeuctsuu c oertanu rpunoeuu ero
qeuctsuu u ero ssaunoqeuctsue c nupon ctauosutc acunnetpu+uMn.
Ecnu rosopute sooae, to +en qaneae yxoqut taroe ssaunoqeuctsue +enosera c nupon ot rnaccu+ecroro
uektouoscroro (arsusaneutuoro) ssaunoqeuctsu, ten oneae ouo ctauosutc ssaunoqeuctsuen uearsusaneutuMn.
Cneqosateneuo, sospactakaee ycuneuue sosnouocteu +enosera sa c+et pactyaeu couanusauu ero qeuctsuu (u
cpeqcts ux cosepaeuu), sa c+et yropa ua rcuxu+ecroe, uutennertyaneuoe perynuposauue qenaet ssaunootuoaeuu
cyerta u oerta ssaunoqeuctsu sce onee acunnetpu+uMnu.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
20
3tot, eae cosepaeuuo ue usy+euuMu, e+ove+ acuvvempuu venoeevec|oco esauvodeucmeu+ ropoqaet enMu
pq rcuxonoru+ecrux ro csoeny rpoucxoqeuuk unnksuu nerroctu yrpasneuu, u nouo rpeqronoute, +to poct
acunnetpuu ssaunoqeuctsu rpno cssau c sosuuruoseuuen atux unnksuu.
Paccnotpun qn rpunepa rpeqeneuMu cny+au yrpasneuu s ectro sarporpannuposauuou couaneuou
oprauusauu (astoputapuoro, sMcoroastonatusuposauuoro unu apneucroro tura). 8 aton cny+ae oqua ronauqa, oquu
rpuras rpusoqt s qsueuue oneaue naccM nkqeu, ronoccaneuMe rotoru auepruu unu naccusM uuopnauu,
srnk+akt s qeno orponuMe pecypcM: +enose+ecrue, natepuaneuMe, texuu+ecrue, texuonoru+ecrue u qp., t.e.
rpusoqt r cyaectseuuMn natepuaneuMn u sronue peaneuMn cqsuran s orpyakaeu qeuctsuteneuoctu.
pu aton rayaac (uankqaena) nerrocte otqauu tarou ronauqM uurar ue cpasuuna c ten aerton,
rotopMu oua noet rpoussectu u rpoussoqut, snu ua te+euue nuposMx coMtuu. (8anetun, +to rpuseqeuuMu
rpunep qaet uankqaenMu otset ua rputu+ecruu qn rpeueu teopetu+ecrou rcuxonoruu sorpoc, rar e
uqeaneuoe rcuxu+ecroe noet yrpasnte natepuaneuMnu rpoeccanu: seqe s qauuon cny+ae naccuposauuoe
qeuctsue rpoussenu ue ssyr, ue cotpceuue sosqyxa, a coqepauue ronauqM, cooaeuue.)
Tarun opason, emopa+ (e+mpane+a+ ude+ ruuru coctout s ytsepqeuuu ueoxoqunoctu ronrnercuo
uccneqosate sece crertp ssaunoqeuctsuu +enosera c orpyakaun ero nupon. Vuoectso uosMx rcuxonoru+ecrux
rponen, sosuurakaux rpu aton, coctout s ton, +to pacaupeuue yrasauuoro crertpa ssaunoqeuctsuu, ero
ctpyrtypuposauue oquospeneuuo c pocton sosnouocteu rpeopasosauu rpupoqM u oaectsa c ueuseuoctek
rpusoqt r sospactauuk sepotuoctu rosneuu ueratusuMx rocneqctsuu (oauor) +enose+ecrux qeuctsuu.
3tot euoneu peaneuo rposnetc s otne+aenon rpartu+ecru scenu rcuxonoranu sospactauuu
rcuxonoru+ecrou euM qeteneuoctu, euM oauo+uMx peaeuuu*. | s to e spen, can poct euM oauor
+acto ocuetc nuae pactyaeu cnouoctek cospeneuuou texuuru, xot, rar cuo us rpeqMqyaero, rpupoqa ero
cosepaeuuo uua.
* ovoe 5.1. Vetoqonoru+ecrue u teopetu+ecrue rponenM rcuxonoruu. V., 1984.

0tne+euuMu ueyctpauunMu poct euM oauru qoneu ocosuasatec nuon, rpuuunakaun peaeuue. Ten canMn
yrpasneuue, rpeopasosauue nupa cyaectseuuo oner+aetc s +actu peanusauu rpasuneuMx ronauq (sa c+et
rpuneueuu naauu, opyquu) u pesro otroaaetc s +actu sospactauu otsetctseuuoctu sa oauo+uMe qeuctsu.
Cneqosateneuo, s rparture sosuuraet rponena rosMaeuu uaqeuoctu peaeuuu u nuuunusauu oauor +enosera.
pu aton cuo, +to passutue cospeneuuMx opyquu tpyqa uqet uneuuo ro yrasauuou pauee nuuuu ysenu+euu
sosnouocteu cyerta rpu rpeopasosauuu nupa u oner+euu rpoeccos yrpasneuu.
partura rorasMsaet, +to qn rpeqyrpeqeuu unu ronreucauu sosnouMx oauor yrpasneuu cosqaktc
uoseuaue cuctenM u cpeqctsa yrpasneuu u routpon, s ton +ucne yronuytMe pauee oneaue
astonatusuposauuMe u oneaue uuopnauouuMe cuctenM. Coctseuuo, cospeneuuMe uuopnauouuMe cuctenM
u sM+ucnuteneuMe cetu ecte uerotopa rorMtra rosMcute uaqeuocte sMpaotru u rpuutu peaeuu, rosMcute
uaqeuocte yrpasneuu uneuuo sa c+et opaotru sce oneaux u oneaux oenos uuopnauu, rotopMe Mnu M
ueoxoqunM u qoctato+uM qn rpuutu rpasuneuMx peaeuuu.
cuxonoru+ecru ato osua+aet yctauosneuue sosnouMx rpauu uerpasuneuMx peaeuuu; opueutauk s ctopouy
rpuutu onee sepuMx peaeuuu, t.e. roqcrasru pasuoro poqa; ronoae s reuepauu nuoectsa ucxoquMx rurotes;
roucr ueqoctakaeu uuopnauu; oner+euue sM+ucneuuu u t.q.
C rcuxonoru+ecrou to+ru speuu ato rpusoqut r roctauosre yuqaneutaneuou rponenM ee+c+e+u+ npupode
oauov+ex peae+uu u deucmeuu venoee|a, uccneqosauue rotopou tecuo cssauo c routunu saqa+u, couaneuou
uopnM ee peaeuu u tsop+ecrou artusuoctu +enosera (ero uopnotsop+ectson). 3ta cosoryruocte rponen
coctasnet coqepauue mpemeeu (e+mpane+ou udeu rouctpyrtusuoro roqxoqa rcuxonoru+ecroro uccneqosauu
rpoeccos roctauosru u peaeuu rourpetuMn cyerton sosuurakaux repeq uun saqa+.
euctsuteneuo, sMpaotra u rpuutue peaeuu snktc, rar nM otne+anu, yuqaneutaneuou qetepnuuautou
+enose+ecroro roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu*. eno s ton, +to ouu snktc ue equuctseuuMnu qetepnuuautanu
atoro roseqeuu.
* 3apodu+ |.V. poeccM rpuutu peaeuuu ua ceucopuo-repertusuon yposue // cuxonoru+ecrue rponenM rpuutu peaeuu. V.,
1976; 3apodu+ |.V., eedee /.l. cuxousuonoru u rcuxousura. V., 1977.

ouunauue atoro, sMqsuraet pq uosMx rcuxonoru+ecrux rponen, opasykaux vemeepm,s (e+mpane+,s udes
ruuru. Cyte ee coctout s ton, +toM pasopatec ue tonero s pesynetatax paotM rcuxu+ecrux yuruu, uo u
pacrpMte peaneuMe rcuxonoru+ecrue nexauusnM ux qeuctsu. n atoro rotpeosanoce rpeqe scero eae pas
paccnotpete npedvem-ose|m+ee om+oae+u+ s rcuxonoruu, u s rarou-to ctereuu usve+ume ee
uccnedoeamenec|,s napaducv,. Kar nM otne+anu sMae, rouctpyrtusuMu roqxoq tpeyet usy+ate rcuxu+ecrue
21
sneuu ue tonero s coctouux ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c nupon, ue tonero s cneue atux coctouuu s otqeneuMe
noneutM speneuu (t.e. ctatu+uo), uo s qsueuuu cyerta ssaunoqeuctsu s cuctene atux ssaunoqeuctsuu, t.e. s
peaneuou aronoru+ecrou uuae cyerta.
3to rpeqronaraet us,ve+ue paome ncuxu|u |a| cucmeve ,npaene+u+ c,se|mov, deu,(uvc+ e cucmeve eco
peane+o c,(ecme,s(ux esauvodeucmeuu c vupov, t.e. rpeqronaraet usy+ate rcuxury |a| cno+,s
u+opva(uo++,s cucmev, ,npaene+u+ usve++s(uvc+ u usve++s(uv vup c,se|mov.
pu aton cnMcn rpeqnaraenoro rouctpyrtusuoro roqxoqa s rcuxonoruu coctout s ton, +to ou pacrpMsaet
nexauusnM u rpeqnaraet sosnouMe crocoM yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu, rpu aton rpeqycnatpusa
ncuxonocuvec|oe npoe|mupoea+ue c,se|ma rar enoctuoro cyerta, uaxoqaeroc s uerpepMsuon
ssaunoqeuctsuu c nupon. Tarou cyert ssaunoqeuctsu s rpoecce ctauosneuu nu+uoctu, opnuposauu ero
rpaqaucrou u rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM canopeanusyetc s repsyk o+epeqe rar artusuMu cyert qeteneuoctu.
8 enon oaa roueru ruuru copnuposaua tar, +to s rpoecce usnoeuu natepuan sactasnet astopa (u
+utaten) uua+e ssrnuyte ua pq tpaquuouuMx, rnaccu+ecrux rponen rcuxonoruu; uua+e ssrnuyte ua uctopuk
ctauosneuu u passutu rnaccu+ecrux rcuxonoru+ecrux sneuuu.

|nasa 2. po6neus nepcnekss pais npakuecko ncxonor

2.1. po6neus cauosneu npakuecko ncxonor

|ctopu ctauosneuu rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu ueuseuo rpusoqut uac r usy+euuk sosnouocteu rpuneueuu
uay+uMx rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu s rparture +enose+ecrou usuu. pu aton, paccnatpusa uay+uMe ocuosM
rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu, nM ueuseuo rpuxoqun r ocyqeuuk cucmeve ncuxonocuvec|ux npu+(unoe, |amecopuu
u vemodoe u ux om+oae+u+ | peane+ocmu.
Cneqyet uaronuute, +to uccneqosauue cuctenM uay+uMx u rpartu+ecrux netoqos rcuxonoruu rar pas u
coctasnet rnasuoe coqepauue |o+|pem+ou vemodonocuu ncuxonocuvec|ou +a,|u. euctsuteneuo, ecnu roqxoqute
ctporo noru+ecru, to netoqonoru rpeqctasnet coou y+euue o netoqax uayru (rosuauu, ocueuu u
rpeopasosauu sneuuu u oertos, sxoqaux s cepy uutepeca qauuou uayru). pu aton cana rourpetua
netoqonoru ue esotuocuteneua u ueespasnu+ua r tony suauuk, rotopoe nouo rony+ute c ronoaek atux
netoqos, tar e rar u r tou cepe peaneuoctu, rotopa usy+aetc, ocuetc u usneuetc c ux ronoaek.
0tnetun rpeqe scero, +to s rpartu+ecron rpuneueuuu rcuxonoruu sauo pasnu+ate coctseuuo uay+uMe netoqM
(opasykaue enoctuyk cucteny qoMsauu u rpuneueuu suauu) u netoqM s ctporon cnMcne atoro cnosa
ueuay+uMe, rpunepM rotopMx secena nuoro+ucneuuM s rcuxonoru+ecrou rparture (u rotopMe qosoneuo +acto
rpuneuktc s uaaeu oMqeuuou usuu). C ronoaek rocnequux noryt opnuposatec pasnu+uMe rpartu+ecrue
peaeuu u cyqeuu, rotopMe nM otuocun r oronorcuxonoru+ecrony yposuk yposuk sqpasoro cnMcna. K
uay+uMn rcuxonoru+ecrun netoqan rpeqsnktc secena ectrue tpeosauu*, ux creuura orasMsaetc tecuo
cssauuou c oaeu netoqonoru+ecrou u teopetu+ecrou rosuueu tou unu uuou rcuxonoru+ecrou qucurnuuM, toro
unu uuoro uay+uoro uarpasneuu.
* /+a+eee 5.l. 0 rponenax cospeneuuoro +enoserosuauu. V., 1977.

VM ye yrasMsanu [71; 89; 97], +to cuctena uay+uMx netoqos rcuxonoruu c canoro ua+ana pasusaetc ua qse
rpuuuruaneuo pasuMe rpyrrM, pasnu+akauec ro enn ux rpuneueuu. 3to +a,v+o-uccnedoeamenec|ue u +a,v+o-
npa|muvec|ue vemode. Ecnu repsMe opueutuposauM rnasuMn opason ua qoMsauue suauu, to stopMe ua
npuve+e+ue +a,v+oco s+a+u+ s rparture. 3tu netoqM rpuneueuu suauu onaqakt csoeu, rora eae nano
usy+euuou creuurou, uo uneuuo ouu coctasnkt ocuosuou apceuan cpeqcts paotM rpartu+ecroro rcuxonora.
K coaneuuk, srnote qo uactoaero speneuu ussectuMe rnaccuurauu rcuxonoru+ecrux netoqos ue qenakt
atoro sauoro pasnu+u, u s nuoro+ucneuuMx paotax ro oaeu, arcrepuneutaneuou u rpurnaquou rcuxonoruu c tou
unu uuou ctereuek roqpouoctu ocyqaktc, rpeunyaectseuuo, netoqM qoMsauu suauu.
8cneqctsue atoro nuorue rpartu+ecrue netoqM (s repsyk o+epeqe rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrue tectM) +acto rony+akt
uesepuoe ocseaeuue u uuteprpetauk: r uun roqxoqt c tenu e nepranu u oeuranu, rar u r uay+uo-
uccneqosatenecrun netoqan.
laa auanus rorasMsaet, +to oe uassauuMe rpyrrM netoqos opasykt uerotopyk enoctuyk cucteny, rotopa,
ecnu nouo tar sMpasutec, rpeqctasnet coou oce qsueuu uay+uoro suauu. epsa rpyrra (netoqM
qoMsauu suauu) oecre+usaet, rosop cnosanu Vaprca, eocxode+ue om |o+|pem+oco | acmpa|m+ov,, t.e.
opnuposauue tena uayru, unu coctseuuo opnuposauue suauu. 8topa rpyrra rpoeqyp, s oaen cnMcne
cssauua c repsou, oecre+usaet qaneueuaee (uo terepe ye rouctpyrtusuoe) qsueuue suauu, qaneueuaee ero
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
22
eocxode+ue om acmpa|m+oco | |o+|pem+ov, ose|m,.
Auanus u qaneueuaa paspaotra cuctenM uay+uo-rcuxonoru+ecrux netoqos, ro uaaeny nueuuk, qonuM Mte
roq+uueuM oaeu uqee equuctsa rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru. C oquou ctopouM, ueoxoquno qoctato+uo to+uo pacrpMte
ato equuctso, t.e., ua+uua auanus ot oaux rponen rourpetuou netoqonoruu, +epes ee ctpyrtypy nouo rorasate
oayk csse suauu u netoqa, pacrpMs ssaunocssu sarouos, teopuu rateropuu u netoqos rcuxonoruu (tara paota
+actu+uo rpoqenaua 6.1. onosMn*). C qpyrou ctopouM, cneqyet ocoo paccnotpete sorpocM cosepaeuctsosauu
sceu cuctenM rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu. 8 aton acrerte ouapyusaetc cua ueoxoqunocte roctpoeuu uosou,
rouctpyrtusuou rcuxonoruu, rotopyk nouo paccnatpusate s suqe uay+uou asM rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu.
* ovoe 5.1. Vetoqonoru+ecrue u teopetu+ecrue rponenM rcuxonoruu. V., 1984.

|neuuo s aton routercte s ruure uqet pe+e o cuctene suauu, o cuctene netoqos, o cuctene rateropuu u t.q.;
cosnectuoe passutue atux cucten rossonet cosepaeuctsosate ctpyrtypy rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu, s ton +ucne
cuutesuposate uosMe netoqM. | s aton e routercte xotenoce M eae pas sepuytec r sorpocy o quanerture
oerta u rpeqneta rcuxonoruu. lacronero nouo cyqute ro ten qucryccun, rotopMe seqytc ceu+ac s
rcuxonoru+ecrou uayre, qo cux rop ue copnuposanoce to+uoe rpeqctasneuue rpeqneta cospeneuuou rcuxonoruu, u
roatony qoctato+uo cnao eae passuto rouunauue cuctenM rcuxonoru+ecrux netoqos rar netoqos routarta c
rpeqneton (rpu uccneqosauuu), tar u c oerton (s rpartu+ecrou paote). Tara rytauua s pacrpMtuu
ssaunootuoaeuuu rpeqneta u netoqa, rpeqneta u oerta seqet r tony, +to +acto uccneqosatene rnoxo
uqeutuuupyet u onacte rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu, s rotopou ou uaxoqutc, u croco rpuneueuu atoro suauu s
peaneuou usuu.
0tnetun, +to cyaectsykaee qsueuue neqy rpeqneton u oerton orpeqenet cyaectseuuMu noneut
passutu rouctpyrtusuou rcuxonoruu. 8 to e spen uarpasneuue atoro qsueuu ecte rpauue saua oce,
opueutupyce sqone rotopou, nouo sMsute creuury coctseuuo uay+uo-uccneqosatenecrou paotM,
ocoeuuoctu uay+uo-rpartu+ecrou paotM u, rpone toro, uarpasneuuo copnuposate ycunu ro cssu uayru c
rparturou. lassauuMe sMae rponenM rpno cssMsaktc c peaeuuen rpartu+ecrux saqa+. pu aton rnacc tarux
saqa+ (c rosuuu rouctpyrtusuou rcuxonoruu) orasMsaetc secena auporun: ou srnk+aet s ce saqa+u,
sosuurakaue rar s creuu+ecrou rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu +enosera, tar u ua scen ero usueuuon rytu.
Pactyaue rotpeuoctu couaneuou rparturu sce octpee uaronuuakt o ton, +to rcuxonoru+ecra uayra qonua
rosepuytec r rparture, cootsetctseuuo sce octpee ctauosutc ueoxoqunocte paccnotpete sosnouMe opnM u
rytu sueqpeuu rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu s rpartury. Cosepaeuuo cuo, +to sce ato octauetc narunu roenauunu
qo tex rop, rora nM ue pacrpoen to+uo, rar rourpetuo cosepaaetc ato sueqpeuue, s +en creuura
rpeopasosauu suauu u netoqa ua raqon atare qsueuu suauu ot yuqaneutaneuou uayru r rpartu+ecrou
usuu. pu aton ueoxoquno u ato yqet ronesuou +actek yqyaeu rouctpyrtusuou rcuxonoruu ocoo
paccnotpete pasnu+uMe rpuuurM, pasnu+uMe roqxoqM r oerty u rpeqnety s teopetu+ecrou u coctseuuo
rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu.
lasepuoe, uet uyqM ocoo uaronuuate, +to u rpuuurM, u roqxoqM ecte saua +acte enoctuoro
rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu, rotopa orpeqenet, ro uaaeny nueuuk, cootsetctsykayk opue+ma(us cne(uanucma-
ncuxonoca (t.e. uay+uyk, rosuasateneuyk rosuuk uccneqosaten unu rouctpyrtusuo-rpeopasykayk rosuuk
rpartura). Kpone toro, oua tare orpeqenet cnoco paome c peaneuMn oerton: rpeqeneuoe yneueaeuue
snuuu rcuxonora rpu uay+uon uankqeuuu unu narcunaneuo routponupyenoe sosqeuctsue ua ocneqyenoro s
rpartu+ecrou paote.
8 qauuon routercte nM ro-rpeueny ucronesyen ue sronue rpusM+uMu tepnuu oert rcuxonoruu, rotony +to
ose|m+a+ cmopo+a rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru u rparturu +acto satyaesMsaetc c,se|m+ou npu+adne+ocmes
usy+aenMx euoneuos. cuxonoru-teopeturu, orpeqen ocoeuuoctu +enose+ecrou rcuxonoruu s ra+ectse
roue+uou enu u rnasuoro uccneqosatenecroro pesynetata uaaeu uayru, +acto uecrpaseqnuso saMsakt o ton, +to
ee saqa+eu snetc usy+euue ec+|oco c,se|ma (dp,cuvu cnoeavu, ecex onadas(ux ncuxu|ou c,se|moe) eo
ecev cne|mpe ncuxuvec|ux e+ove+oe. Tarun opason, s +ucno oertos rcuxonoruu srnk+aktc nkqu u
usotuMe, ux cooaectsa u ux ssaunootuoaeuu. 0quaro qae rpu roctauosre oaux netoqonoru+ecrux sorpocos
cosuateneuo unu ueocosuauuo cyaktc yronuytMe oertuMe panru rcuxonoruu, u ee onacte orpauu+usaetc
tonero usy+euuen rcuxuru +enosera. |s atoro rpoucteraet nuoectso pasuoro poqa uerputuocteu rpeqe scero s
canou teopetu+ecrou rcuxonoruu. lo ato rpeqnet ocooro pasrosopa. +toM ue yxoqute s ctopouy ot saqa+, ctoaux
repeq qauuou rnasou, yto+uun, +to yqen rpuneute tepnuu ose|m ncuxonocuvec|ou +a,|u s tex cny+ax, rorqa
yqen unete s suqy nuoro+ucneuuMe u pasuoopasuMe peaneuMe oertM, rotopMe coctseuuo u snktc
uocutennu rcuxuru (unu rpeqctasnkt ux s uccneqosatenecrou u rpartu+ecrou qeteneuoctu rcuxonora).
8 yqyaen nM yqen cosuateneuo yrotpente uneuuo atot oauu, xot u neuee rpusM+uMu tepnuu, rocronery
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can oert rcuxonoruu noet sMcse+usatec repeq uanu pasuMnu rpaunu s sasucunoctu ot yuruu, rotopyk ou
sMronuet s uactoauu noneut: ose|m nos+a+u+ (rpu uccneqosauuu); oert rpuneueuu suauuu ose|m
ocnedoea+u+ (s rcuxoquaruocture); ose|m usve+e+u+ (s cny+ax rporuosuposauu); ose|m eosdeucmeu+ (rpu
yrpasneuuu u ropperuu).
outuo, +to s raqon taron cny+ae yronuytMe yuruu peanusyktc c ronoaek cuctenM cootsetctsykaux
netoqos u cpeqcts, t.e. creuaneuou texuonoruu u texuuru (uccneqosauu, quaruosa, rporuosa csooquoro
usneueuu, eneuarpasneuuoro usneueuu rar M rpotus ectectseuuoro qsueuu u t.q.). Tare routuo, +to rpu
aton oertM uayru noryt unete pasnu+uyk rpupoqy: ouu canu noryt Mte peaneuMnu u uqeaneuMnu oertanu, a
noryt Mte orucateneuMnu unu qeuctsykaunu noqennu peaneuMx oertos s sasucunoctu ot xapartepa
peaaenMx saqa+. pyrunu cnosanu, oert rcuxonoru+ecroro suunauu noet neutec, uo ot atoro coqepauue
teopetu+ecrux rponen, xapartepucturu rpartu+ecrux rcuxonoru+ecrux saqa+ cyaectseuuMn opason noryt u ue
usneutec.
0qua us rnasuMx saqa+ nuauaero passutu rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru coctout s ton, +toM rorasate, +to cano
rouunauue oerta rcuxonoruu rar oerta peaneuoctu, sMop netoqa paotM c uun s ro+tu ucrnk+uteneuou nepe
orpeqenktc cuctenou asosMx rateropuu, yuqaneutaneuMnu rpuuuranu rcuxonoruu u ocuosuMnu roqxoqanu,
rotopMe s ueu cyaectsykt. pu aton qanero ue scerqa yqactc pacrpMte uctopu+ecryk csse pasnu+uMx roqxoqos,
ux rpeenctseuuocte, ux qeuctsuteneuMe pasnu+u.
8 csete atux saqa+ u c y+eton repcrertus rcuxonoru+ecrou rparturu ctauosutc routuMn, uacronero senura
pone netoqonoruu u teopuu: rpuuuros u noqeneu, rateropuu u netoqos s roctpoeuuu, cuctenatusauu,
cosepaeuctsosauuu rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu. le scerqa, oquaro, ocosuaetc, +to pone atux e aneneutos
(netoqonoruu u teopuu) usneuetc rpu usneueuuu yuruu rcuxonoruu, s +actuoctu, s rpuneueuuu
rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu.
|qe passutu |o+cmp,|mue+ou ncuxonocuu |a| ase npa|muvec|ou paome orupaetc ua rpoctoe
rpeqronoeuue o ton, +to suauue o tex unu uuMx sneuux qeuctsuteneuoctu, s qauuon cny+ae suauue o
rcuxu+ecrux sneuux, noet rossonute uan yrpasnte atunu sneuunu. |sneueuue rosuuu creuanucta
repexoq ot orucauu, rouunauu, ocueuu sneuuu r yrpasneuuk unu ato u ecte tot suytpeuuuu noneut,
rotopMu sMsMsaet passutue rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu. 8 aton cnMcne orasMsaetc secena ronesuMn opatute
suunauue ua ectectseuuMe opnM taroro yrpasneuu roseqeuuen +enosera (qetepnuuauu!), rotopMe cnounuce
uctopu+ecrun opason s xoqe passutu +enose+ecroro oaectsa u rotopMe qn rcuxonora, yqy+u suo
sMqeneuuMnu, sMctyrakt rar uerotopMe netoqonoru+ecrue rpuuurM, uarpunep tarue, rar npu+(un ucmopusva,
npu+(un o(ecmee++o-ucmopuvec|ou demepvu+a(uu, npu+(un ompae+u+ u t.q. outuo, +to uauonee oaue
opnM u netoqM yrpasneuu rcuxu+ecrou perynueu usueqeteneuoctu, pacrpMtMe u cnousauec s uctopuu
passutu +enose+ectsa u +enose+ecroro oaectsa, rar M urcupyktc qn uay+uou rcuxonoruu s suqe ee asosMx
rpuuuros. 0quaro ue neuee sauo ronuute, +to atu rpuuurM seqyt csoe rpoucxoqeuue us rparturu: ato
osua+aet, +to uneuuo s rparture ouu peaneuo paotakt. pyrunu cnosanu, nerro rorasate, +to rpuuurM,
snkauec otrpasuMnu to+ranu s uay+uon rosuauuu, s rparture cyaectsykt rar passusakauec, rar
qeuctsykaue, rar pesynetat nuoronetuero orMta +enose+ectsa.
3ta quanertura rpuuuros orasMsaetc +pessM+auuo sauou s rpartu+ecron otuoaeuuu, rocronery oua
ectectseuuo cssMsaet teopuk u rpartury.
8osspaaace s aton routercte r pasnu+uk neqy rpeqneton u oerton rcuxonoruu, cneqyet otnetute, +to s
nkon cny+ae, rorqa suauue us orpeqeneuuou onactu rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru ucronesyetc qn uccneqosatenecrux
nuo qn rpartu+ecrux eneu, ueoxoquno to+uo rpeqctasnte, raroe rpeqnetuoe coqepauue sa uun ctout, unu,
xot M, ua raron rpeqnetuon coqepauuu ato suauue ctpoutc (t.e. rouunate, rar ato rpeqnetuoe coqepauue
otuocutc r peaneuoctu). C paccnotpeuuou sMae to+ru speuu rpeqnet uayru (unu onactu uayru: reqaroru+ecrou,
uueuepuou, couaneuou, nequuucrou u qpyrux otpacneu rcuxonoruu) ato sMqeneuue, actparu uerotopMx
cyaectseuuMx qn rosuakaero +enosera csoucts peaneuoro oerta (cyaectseuuMx c to+ru speuu uccneqosaten,
paotakaero s tou unu uuou uay+uou onactu).
Pauee nM otne+anu, +to ato ecte repsMu aar actparuu, uo ato oquospeneuuo u canMu sauMu aar s nkou
uayre. 8 +actuoctu, ot toro, rar rcuxonoru orpeqenut csou rpeqnet, rarue csouctsa peaneuoro oerta oua yqet
c+utate cyaectseuuMnu qn ce, a rarue ue cyaectseuuMnu, +to oua yqet rpuuunate so suunauue, a +to ue
yqet ot atoro yqet sasucete xapartep passutu canou rcuxonoruu rar s teopetu+ecron, tar u s rpartu+ecron
otuoaeuuu.
Cyaectsykaa cuctena rcuxonoru+ecrux qucurnuu ecte cuctena roctpoeuu u ropperuu actpartuoro suauu
ua u o actpartuon rpeqnete. lecnotp ua to, +to cano ato suauue, onee unu neuee aqersatuo otpaakaee
peaneuMu nup u peaneuoro cyerta, sosuuraet so ssaunoqeuctsuu, s pasuoro poqa routartax c peaneuMn oerton.
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8 aton routercte ouapyusaetc qosoneuo touruu teopetu+ecruu noneut. Ecnu rpusuate, +to rcuxonoru+ecra
uayra ue ctpoutc ua ronou opnaneuou norure, torqa oua (s rpoecce csoero passutu, corposoqakaeroc
passutuen ee rpeqnetuMx rpeqctasneuuu) uneet qeno c peaneuMn oerton. |ua+e rosop, s roqasnkaen
oneauuctse cny+aes oua ue passusaetc sue routarta c peaneuMn oerton.
lecnotp ua ato, s rcuxonoruu qo cux rop +acto cneausaktc creuaneuoe (uay+uoe) npedcmaene+ue o
ose|me, t.e. npedvem, u cav peane+eu ose|m. erro route, +to qn uccneqosaten, rposoqaero arcrepuneut,
ucrMtyenMu u rpeqnetuoe rpeqctasneuue o ucrMtyenon artu+ecru oquo u to e. Vouo crasate, +to rpu
uccneqosauuu (s cuny netoqa) pasuuM sqece ocoou uet, u qn uayru, uasepuoe, oneaou eqM toe uet.
Tar octout qeno s tex onactx rcuxonoruu, qn rotopMx rpeqnet orpeqeneu qoctato+uo to+uo: uarpunep,
copnynuposauo cuoe pasnu+ue neqy uopnou u ratonorueu s rcuxure (+to, ro uaaeny nueuuk, u snetc
coctseuuo rpeqneton nequuucrou rcuxonoruu). 8 taron cny+ae te peane+ee ose|me, rotopMe ocmasmc+ e
npedenax +opve, tar e rar u te, rotopMe ocmasmc+ e npedenax onpedene++ou namonocuu, +e +en+smc+
cne(uuvec|u u+mepec+evu dn+ uccnedoeamen+ s yrasauuon sMae cnMcne.
Vouo crasate, +to rnasua teopetu+ecra u repsa rpartu+ecra saqa+a nequuucrou rcuxonoruu, rar nouo
rpeqctasute, ato uqeutuurau (sosnouoro ratonoru+ecroro coctouu!) cyerta, a oquun us rnasuMx netoqos
u repsMx aaros s atou onactu rcuxonoruu ctauosutc rnuuu+ecra rcuxoquaruoctura. Tara rcuxoquaruoctura
uyua rar pas s cuny rpartu+ecrou ueoxoqunoctu ynete pasnu+ate uopny u ratonoruk. ocneqykaue aaru
uccneqosauu u rpartu+ecrou paotM (uarpunep rcuxoteparu) srnk+akt s ce pasnu+uMe crocoM ropperuu
uqeutuuuposauuoro otrnoueuu.
Ecnu e atot touruu noneut octanc sue ron speuu, ecnu ue oayaate pasnu+u neqy rpeqneton u peaneuMn
oerton, rotopoe ue scerqa neut ua rosepxuoctu (rar, craen, s cny+ae nequuucrou rcuxonoruu), torqa u
sosuurakt cepeesuMe oauru. 8 aton cny+ae rpuuuruaneuo rpuennenMu netoq rnuuu+ecrou rcuxoquaruocturu
(creuaneuo u opueutuposauuo passutMu s panrax nequuucrou rcuxonoruu) uerpasonepuo repeuocutc s qpyryk
onacte rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru, s qpyryk cepy peaneuoctu (uarpunep, s onacte rcuxonoruu tpyqa, rotopa
sauunaetc rpeunyaectseuuo uopnaneuMn cyerton).
ocuun ato onee roqpouo. Kar crasauo sMae, qn nequuucrou rcuxonoruu saueuaeu saqa+eu snetc
rcuxoquaruoctura uapyaeuuu, orupakaac ua suauue rnaccuurauu ratonoruu, ua teopuk u netoqM roctpoeuu
rpauu neqy uopnou u ratonorueu. pu aton ouapyusaetc, +to xapartep yrasauuou rpauuM cyaectseuuo
sasucut ot eneu rpartu+ecrou paotM ropperuu, teparuu u t.q.
0tckqa routuo, +to netoqM, rotopMe paspaotauM qn peaeuu oquux saqa+, +acto orasMsaktc
ueaqersatuMnu s uuMx ycnosux, rocronery neuetc u cnMcn, u coqepauue canou rpartu+ecrou saqa+u. Ten ue
neuee unekauuc orMt rpartu+ecrou paotM rcuxonoros canMx pasuMx uarpasneuuu rorasMsaet, +to
ueoquorpatuo sctpe+aktc tarue rnoxo ocuunMe cutyauu, rpu rotopMx netoqM, rpuutMe u paspaotauuMe
qn rnuuu+ecrux cny+aes (uarpunep qn oeuru otrnoueuuu qauuoro suqa ratonoruu ot uopnM), ucronesyktc s
paote c uopnaneuMnu cyertanu (qn quepeuuauu coctseuuo uopnM, uarpunep s enx rpootopa,
nu+uoctuoro uccneqosauu, s cnyax rcuxonoru+ecrou ronoau u t.q.).
0tne+euuoe pauee ueqoctato+uoe suunauue r pasnu+un neqy rpeqneton u oerton rcuxonoruu rar pas u
rpusoqut r tony, +to teopetu+ecrue rcuxonoru+ecrue rpeqctasneuu csooquo repeuoctc s uuMe onactu suauu.
8 +actuoctu, ysrue, creuaneuMe suauu u netoqM us oquou onactu rcuxonoruu repesoqt s qpyryk, rpu aton ue
opaaa suunauu ua creuury saqa+ u creuury pasnu+uu rpeqnetuoro coqepauu atux onacteu.
Tarun opason, ueoxoquno rpusuate, +to uay+ua rcuxonoru uneet qeno rar c rpeqneton, tar u c peaneuMn
oerton, u atot routart c peaneuMn oerton ocyaectsnetc rocpeqctson cuctenM anrupu+ecrux netoqos.
0quaro rpu aton s rourpetuou netoqonoruu rcuxonoruu sosuuraet nuoectso nano usy+euuMx rponen*, rotopMe
cssauM c sorpocanu rnaccuurauu pasnu+uMx netoqos, ux ssaunootuoaeuuu, rpauu ux rpuneueuu,
aqersatuoctu saqa+an uccneqosauu u t.q. 3tu rponenM octaktc, uecnotp ua to, +to yrasauuMu routart sronue
peaneu u rpoucxoqut qoctato+uo +acto u +to cuctena anrupu+ecrux netoqos s uccneqosatenecrou +actu rcuxonoruu
passuta qosoneuo cuneuo.
* 0tnetun, +to rouctpyrtusua rcuxonoru paquraneuo neuet uccneqosatenecryk rapaqurny: rpeqnaraetc uqtu ue ot rpeqnetuoro
coqepauu r peaneuou saqa+e, a uaoopot, ot peaneuou saqa+u r pacrpMtuk ee rpeqnetuoro coqepauu. {puvev. aem.)

2.2. 0 npequee, o6Leke iaqauax npakuecko ncxonor

VM ye yronuuanu, +to saqa+a uccneqosatenecrux anrupu+ecrux rpoeqyp coctout s ton, +toM roppertuposate
teopetu+ecrue suauu, rony+euuMe s onactu rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru, yto+ute pesynetatM, uarorneuuMe s ee
uccneqosatenecrou +actu, u cnMcn atou ropperuu coctout s ton, +toM cqenate atu suauu onee nusrunu r
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uctuue, onee aqersatuMnu peaneuoctu. Tarun opason, anrupu+ecrue netoqM u routart c peaneuMn oerton
sMctyrakt s suqe ocoou opve npa|mu|u ouu cnyat cpeqctson rpartu+ecrou sepuurauu teopetu+ecrux
ronoeuuu.
/ronuytMe sMae routartM c peaneuMn oerton uyuM rcuxonoru+ecrou uayre qn toro, +toM rosMcute
uctuuuocte suauu, s repsyk o+epeqe, suauu teopetu+ecroro. 8qece uaxoqut csok rourpetusauk ussectua
opnyna naprcusna, rnacaa, +to sMcaun rputepuen uctuuM snetc rpartura. Cosqasa ocoyk,
creuu+ecryk +a,v+,s npa|mu|,, s qauuon cny+ae anrupu+ecrue netoqM, rcuxonoru ucronesyet ee
uerocpeqctseuuo qn rosMaeuu uctuuuoctu suauu, u s aton cnMcne meopemuvec|a+ ncuxonocu+
uerocpeqctseuuo +e uveem dena c peane+ev ose|mov.
|ua+e octout qeno s rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu. ae roctpoeuua ua xopoaeu uay+uou ocuose rpartu+ecra
rcuxonoru +enocpedcmee++o +e uveem dena c npedvemov (s otnu+ue ot teopetu+ecrou rcuxonoruu) oua scerqa
uneet qeno c peaneuMnu oertanu s ux ectectseuuon orpyeuuu. 0quaro u sqece rposnetc otne+euua pauee
ocoeuuocte +enose+ecroro rosuauu, rotopa coctout s ton, +to nkqu s csoux paccyqeuux u qeuctsux ro+tu
scerqa save++sm peane+eu ose|m onpedene++ev npedvem+ev eco no+uva+uev.
Tar, s uueuepuo-rcuxonoru+ecrux uccneqosauux u paspaotrax +enoser-orepatop rpeqctasnetc rar
uerotopa cuctena rcuxu+ecrux rpoeccos. 8 to e spen pyrosoqutene s rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu sMctyraet qn
rcuxonora rar uerotopMu uaop crocoos roseqeuu unu ctuneu pyrosoqctsa (yrpasneuu). Auanoru+uo, aroneuur
(qa u nkou +enoser), rotopMu snetc rpeqneton socrutauu u opnuposauu (unu ropperuu), paccnatpusaetc
rar uerotopoe actpartuoe opasosauue nu+uoctuMx xapartepuctur.
pyrunu cnosanu, raqMu pas rpartu+ecruu rcuxonor suqut tar unu uua+e orpeqeneuuMu rpeqnet s peaneuon
oerte. | pacrna+usaetc sa ato oauranu s paote, rocronery rpartu+ecra rcuxonoru uneet qeno c
peaneuMn enoctuMn cyerton, rotopMu oequuet s cee sce u nu+uoctuyk ctpyrtypy, u cucteny rcuxu+ecrux
csoucts, yuruu u rpoeccos, u asucuoe uonoru+ecroe ocuosauue rcuxuru (peaneuyk cucteny
ueupousuonoru+ecrux rpoeccos), u cucteny yuruouaneuMx (u rpo+ux) rcuxu+ecrux coctouuu co csoeu
quuanurou.
oatony cyaectseuuMn ctauosutc cneqykaee octotenectso: creuanuct-rcuxonor ueusneuuo actparupyetc
ot peaneuoctu, peaa ty unu uuyk rpartu+ecryk saqa+y, u te crocoM, c ronoaek rotopMx ou ato qenaet, noryt
sMrnqete rpusM+uMnu c to+ru speuu uayru, uo orasMsaktc uesepuMnu c to+ru speuu rparturu.
Tarun opason, cuo, +to oert u rpeqnet uay+uou u rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu - pasnu+uMe seau, u ux
cneausauue qoryctuno nuae s ussectuou nepe (xot, roue+uo, u uerpasuneuo), a c to+ru speuu oaeu rosuuu
uccneqosaten ux +actu+uoe cosraqeuue u saneaeuue sosnouo nuae s uayre. lo ecnu ouo u qoryctuno s uayre,
to cosepaeuuo ueqoryctuno s rparture.
8 rparture peaneuMe oertM ato usMe cyertM, ouu tpeykt rouunauu ux peane+ex om+oae+uu eo ecev
v+ocoopasuu u srnk+euu ux s routerct peane+ex us+e++ex cum,a(uu. ouunauue npupode peane+oco ose|ma
npu paome npa|muvec|oco ncuxonoca don+o onupamec+ +e mone|o +a onpedene++oe npedvem+oe
npedcmaene+ue, |omopoe cnounoce e ncuxonocuvec|ou +a,|e (unu ee onacmu), +o u +a m, peane+ocme, e
|omop,s e|nsve+ amom peane+eu ose|m.
VM otne+anu pauee u ocyqanu s tercte qauuou ruuru, +to cyaectsykt pasuMe roqxoqM r rouunauuk
cyertuou peaneuoctu u orpeqeneuuk canou rcuxuru. Tar, uarpunep, rcuxura uuorqa qeuuupyetc rar cuctena
rcuxu+ecrux qeteneuocteu; s qpyrux cny+ax oua orpeqenetc cuctenou qeteneuocteu, rotopMe ocyaectsnet
+enoser; s-tpeteux, ronaraetc, +to +enoser srnk+aetc s cucteny otuoaeuuu c qpyrunu nkqenu u ato orpeqenet
ero rcuxury. Cyaectsyet rpeqctasneuue o ton, +to rcuxura +enosera orpeqenetc ero uonoru+ecrou
rouctutyueu, s ton +ucne ctpoeuuen tena unu ocoeuuoctnu yuruu uepsuou cuctenM, u ato eae oquu u toe
ro-csoeny rpasuneuMu acrert cyertuou peaneuoctu.
Tarun opason, qae s panrax uay+uou rcuxonoruu cyaectsyet nuoectso pasuMx teopetu+ecrux rpeqctasneuuu
o cyertuou peaneuoctu, rotopMe cyaectseuuMn opason snukt ua opnuposauue noqeneu usueuuMx cutyauu
u nexauusnos roseqeuu +enosera, rotopMnu orepupyet rpartu+ecruu rcuxonor.
0quaro s peaneuou usuu raqMu +enoser srnk+eu s enoctuyk u yuuraneuyk cucteny nuoroopasuMx
uuqusuqyaneuMx otuoaeuuu (oaectseuuMx u rpoussoqctseuuMx) canoro pasuoro paura: c qpyrunu nkqenu, c
oaectson, rocyqapctson, c nupon rpoeccuu, rpoctpauctson sosnouMx suqos qeteneuoctu u t.q. 8 atou
cnouou cuctene coctseuuMx otuoaeuuu passusaetc, qeuctsyet, opnupyetc otqeneuMu (uuqusuqyaneuMu)
+enoser.
Cneqosateneuo, s otnu+ue ot cutyauu uccneqosauu s peaneuou usuu uuqusuqa sc cuctena otuoaeuuu
+enosera c orpyakaeu cpeqou qonua Mte terepe (ye s rpartu+ecrou saqa+e) paccnotpeua ue s uay+uon rnaue,
a s tou rnocroctu, rotopa ectectseuuo sosuuraet s peaneuou usuu cyerta s rnocroctu eco peane+ex
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nponev*.
* 8 aton cyauocte rouctpyrtusuou rcuxonoruu u ocuosuou ee netoq. {puvev. aem.)

Tarunu rponenanu noryt Mte tpyquoctu passutu cyerta, tpyquoctu ero couaneuou aqartauu, tpyquoctu
rpoeccuouaneuoro cosepaeuctsosauu, suytpunu+uoctuMe rounurtM u t.q. Crertp peaneuMx usueuuMx rponen
secena pasuoopaseu, uo s sasucunoctu ot cyertuoro coqepauu raqou us uux yqet raqMu pas ro-csoeny
cuutesuposatec uanu+uoe rcuxonoru+ecroe suauue. lurorqa ue noet Mte ucrnk+eua sepotuocte toro, +to
tpyquocte, uarpunep, couaneuou aqartauu noet Mte cssaua c nuoectson pasuoopasuMx rpu+uu coscen ue
osateneuo couaneuoro ropqra: ocoeuuoctnu rpeqMqyaero socrutauu, ocoeuuoctnu tenocnoeuu,
csouctsanu tenrepaneuta u t.q.
Tarun opason, suauue o cyerte, rotopoe +acto pacronaraetc s secena qanerux qpyr ot qpyra onactx
rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru (s pasuMx ee uay+uMx qucurnuuax), rpu peaeuuu rpartu+ecrux saqa+ qonuo Mte copauo
u cuutesuposauo s routercte tou peaneuou usueuuou tpyquoctu, rotopa cosqaet rcuxu+ecroe unu couaneuoe
uarpeuue y peaneuoro rourpetuoro cyerta.
Fcuo, +to (s paccnatpusaenon routercte) ato oneaa u uenerra rponena, ten onee, +to sauo ot+etnuso
suqete pasnu+u neqy ten, +to ncuxonocu+ d,vaem o ose|me (s uayre), t.e. o rpeqnetuou ctopoue qena, u ten,
+to coou ose|m npedcmaen+em e peane+ocmu. 3to rnyoruu netoqonoru+ecruu noneut, rpeqctasnkauu
uerocpeqctseuuMu uutepec qn rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu. lankqaenMe sneuu u xapartepucturu peaneuou usuu
rpeqctasnkt artu+ecru rnasuMu ucxoquMu ryurt orpeqeneuu peaneuoro cyerta (rar oerta rpartu+ecrou
rcuxonoruu): oertusuocte ero cyaectsosauu, yuuraneuocte, quuanu+uocte (sueau u suytpeuu) u
uesepotua cnouocte.
8 to e spen, rorqa pe+e uqet o oerte rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru, qae orMtuMe rpartu+ecrue rcuxonoru
sMctyrakt rpeunyaectseuuo rar uccneqosatenu, socrutauuMe s tpaquuouuon rouunauuu rcuxonoruu, rotopoe
rpeqronaraet, +to oerton uay+uou rcuxonoruu snetc +enose+ecra rcuxura, a ato uerpasuneuo. o cyaectsy
oerton rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru u rparturu, ecnu unete s suqy qeuctsuteneuo sece oen yuruu rcuxonoruu,
snetc rourpetuMu uuqusuq (usotuoe unu +enoser) u rpu aton uuqusuq, srnk+euuMu s cucteny ero usueuuMx
otuoaeuuu, u ato orpeqenet creuury atu+ecrou rosuuu rcuxonora. K coaneuuk, (a noet Mte, r c+actek)
uenes ussne+e us atoro uuqusuqa ero rcuxu+ecryk coctasnkayk, xot rocnequ, s roue+uon c+ete, u
uutepecyet uay+uyk rcuxonoruk. |neuuo roatony s rparture sosuurakt otne+euuMe pauee tpyquoctu s paote
rpartu+ecroro rcuxonora: rorqa ocyaectsnetc qsueuue r oerty rpartu+ecrou qeteneuoctu, sosuuraet
ueoxoqunocte uararnusate ue tonero rcuxonoru+ecroe suauue, uo u suauu rurueuu+ecrue, autporonoru+ecrue,
couonoru+ecrue, reqaroru+ecrue u t.q.
partu+ecra saqa+a tpeyet yneuu cuutesuposate pasuoopasuoe rynauutapuoe u couaneuoe suauue ua
rourpetuon cyerte s ero peaneuou usueuuou cutyauu. pu aton tarou cuutes can ro cee rpeqctasnet
uesepotuo tpyquyk saqa+y, rocronery rnaccu+ecrue rcuxonoru-uccneqosatenu s qeuctsuteneuoctu usy+akt paoty
tonero oquou +actu enoctuoro uuqusuqa, sauunaktc tonero oquou creuu+ecrou, xot u o+eue cnouou, sMcaeu
ero yurueu yurueu perynuu u canoperynuu roseqeuu u usueqeteneuoctu cyerta.
Koue+uo e, rcuxonoru u rcuxonoru unekt s atou cutyauu ueconueuuoe rpeunyaectso; ouo coctout s ton, +to
rcuxonoru uaroruna uauonee sauMe qn atux eneu suauu o cuctene, yrpasnkaeu roseqeuuen u
qeteneuoctek. lo uneuuo ata creuura orpeqenet ocoeuuoctu u otnu+u netoqos uay+uou u rpartu+ecrou
rcuxonoruu.
0cuosuse uanpasneu nepcnekss npakuecko ncxonor. epcrertusuMe arouonu+ecrue u
couaneuMe enu passutu peopnupyenoro poccuucroro oaectsa saqakt ocuosuMe uarpasneuu passutu
rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu. Kar nM ye otne+anu, atu uarpasneuu srnk+akt s ce rnaccM peaneuMx saqa+,
rotopMe qonuM peaate rcuxonoru, paotakaue s pasnu+uMx cepax oaectseuuou rparturu.
8 onactu npouseodcmea u mp,doeou de+mene+ocmu ato a|o+ovu|o-mex+onocuvec|ue sadavu, rotopMe
srnk+akt s ce:
rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus texuuru u texuonoruu tpyqosou qeteneuoctu;
auanus, arcreptusy rpoqyrtos tpyqa;
rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus rpoeccuu u cuutes uosMx opn tpyqosou qeteneuoctu;
roqrotosry +enosera r rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu s canon auporon cnMcne;
yrpasneuue rpoussoqctseuuMn ronnertuson u t.q.
8 aton uarpasneuuu nuoro u rnoqotsopuo paotakt ote+ectseuuMe rcuxonoru: 6.1. onos, A.A. KpMnos, A.|.
Kutos, A.8. 1unurros, E.A. Knunos, 8.. Laqpuros, 0.A. Kouorruu u qp.
epe+ucneuuMe sMae saqa+u, uecnotp ua ux rparnatu+uMu suq, ue noryt Mte peaeuM es suauu rcuxonoruu;
27
snecte c ten ux uay+uo oocuosauuoe peaeuue noet oecre+ute qaneueuayk rynauusauk tpyqa, rosMaeuue ero
aertusuoctu u rpoussoquteneuoctu; noet crococtsosate pocty couaneuou artusuoctu paotuuros, pacrpMte u
peanusosate qeuctsuteneuyk socrutateneuyk yuruk tpyqa opvupoea+ue nuv+ocmu npoeccuo+ana u
onmuvusa(us om+oae+uu e npouseodcmee++ou opca+usa(uu.
8 onactu opasosauu u socrutauu, uqeonoruu u ronuturu tare nerro uautu couaneuMe saqa+u rpartu+ecrou
rcuxonoruu. |x peaeuue otrpMsaet sosnouoctu u orpeqenet rytu uopnaneuoro passutu rpaqauuua, s ton +ucne
ero uutennertyaneuoro, atu+ecroro u actetu+ecroro passutu; saqaet texuonoruu opnuposauu uuqusuqyaneuoro
cosuauu, yrpasneuu u canoyrpasneuu s rpyrrax u cooaectsax, cosqauu oaectseuuMx otuoaeuuu s
ronnertuse c y+eton sarouonepuocteu repcouaneuoro passutu u oaeuu nkqeu. 8qece tare unektc ruouepcrue
paotM ote+ectseuuMx uccneqosateneu: 6.l. Auaueesa, K.A. Aynexauosou, 8.8. asMqosa, 6.1. onosa, E.C.
Kysenuua, A.M. Vatkaruua, E.8. Lopoxosou u qp.
epe+ucneuuMe u uerotopMe qpyrue saqa+u orpeqenktc rpartu+ecrou ueoxoqunoctek opnuposauu ocuos
rynauuctu+ecrou rcuxonoruu s ycnosux pactyaux nu+uMx csooq u qenorpatusauu oaectseuuou usuu, cosqauu
uosMx, ueaqnuuuctpatusuMx nexauusnos rocyqapctseuuoro yrpasneuu, perynuposauu pMuo+uMx oaectseuuMx
otuoaeuuu u opnuposauu rpaqauuua u rpoeccuouana uosoro qenorpatu+ecroro oaectsa.
Tarun opason, saqa+u rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu coctot s ton, +toM, ucronesy qoctueuu rcuxonoru+ecrou
uayru, y+utMsa sarouonepuoctu opnuposauu u yuruouuposauu rcuxuru, ocoeuuoctu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu
qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu +enosera, oecre+ute uauny+aee passutue u ucronesosauue +enose+ecroro pecypca, rar
ronnertusuoro, tar u uuqusuqyaneuoro. ene rpu aton oner+ute ycnosu usuu u tpyqa +enosera, ycropute
rpoecc rpuopeteuu oaux u creuaneuMx suauuu u yneuuu, narcunaneuo rosMcute aertusuocte
cosuateneuMx rpocouaneuMx opn roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu.
8aqa+u, roctasneuuMe repeq rpartu+ecrou rcuxonorueu, otpaakt rotpeuoctu oaectsa u rocyqapctsa,
repcrertusM ux passutu; ouu peaneuo sosuurakt s rourpetuMx opnax usueqeteneuoctu nkqeu. VM ye
otne+anu, +to ueynenoe unu uerpasuneuoe ux peaeuue rpusoqut r oneaun (+acto ueorpasqauuMn) couaneuMn u
arouonu+ecrun rotepn. larpotus, rpanotua roctauosra u peaeuue tarux saqa+ c y+eton u rpasuneuMn
rpuneueuuen suauuu, uarorneuuMx uay+uou rcuxonorueu, nossonkt rony+ate cyaectseuuMu couaneuMu u
arouonu+ecruu aert.
poecc rpanotuoro rpuneueuu rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu s peaeuuu rourpetuMx saqa+ rparturu noet
rpoucxoqute nuae torqa, rorqa rcuxonor ot+etnuso ocosuaet qeuctsuteneuyk rotpeuocte s peaeuuu tou unu uuou
saqa+u u yneet aqersatuo oeuusate csou sosnouoctu s ee peaeuuu.

2.3. 4yuk ueoqs npakuecko ncxonor. Heoqonoruecke npo6neus

Pasuoopasue saqa+ u opn rpuneueuu rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu orpeqenet oc+oe+ee ,+|(uu npa|muvec|ou
ncuxonocuu. 8 repson rpunueuuu atu yuruu nouo pasqenute ua qse rpyrrM: ro crocoy u opne
qeteneuoctu rcuxonora u ro crocoy ucronesosauu rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu s peaeuuu rourpetuMx saqa+.
K nepeou cp,nne ,+|(uu rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu rpartu+ecrux suqos qeteneuoctu rcuxonora otuoctc
roucynetatusua, arcreptua, rpoertuposo+ua, uopnatusuo-ctauqaptusupykaa qeteneuoctu u t.q.
8 csoe spen nM ua+uuanu ocyqeuue atux suqos qeteneuoctu s cssu c rponenanu ctauosneuu
rcuxonoru+ecrou cnyM s CCCP*. 8qece otnetun tonero to, +to atu yuruu tecuo cssauM c opca+usa(uo++ev u
npaeoeev nonoe+uev creuanucta, sautoro peaeuuen rpartu+ecrux saqa+. Tar, rpu ocyaectsneuuu
|o+c,nemamue+ou de+mene+ocmu rpeqronaraetc, +to rcuxonor paspaatMsaet u oeuusaet sosnouMe sapuautM
peaeuuu tou unu uuou rpartu+ecrou saqa+u, uo ue qaet ctporou peroneuqauu o sMope oquoro us uux. pu
ncuxonocuvec|ou a|cnepmuse sarnk+euue arcrepta ye paccnatpusaetc rar secroe ocuosauue qn taroro sMopa.
pu npoe|mupoea+uu de+mene+ocmu +enosera (rpoertuposauuu cyerta tpyqa, cpeqcts u peunos
rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu) rcuxonor orpeqenet texuu+ecroe saqauue ua paotuura, pao+ee necto unu
ua creuaneuocte c y+eton sosnouocteu +enosera u rpetsopet s usue ato texuu+ecroe saqauue s cosnectuou
paote c qpyrunu creuanuctanu.
* 3apodu+ |.V. ponenM paspaotru rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu // cuxonoru+ecruu ypuan. 1980. T.1, N 2.

Peanusau repe+ucneuuMx yuruu rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu rpeqronaraet cosqauue oprauusauouuMx ocuos
rcuxonoru+ecrou cnyM, creuaneuyk roqrotosry raqpos, orpeqeneuue ponu u ctatyca rpartu+ecroro rcuxonora.
Paota s onactu rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu tpeyet y+utMsate ocoeuuoctu tex cep oaectseuuou rparturu, rqe
rpuneuktc rcuxonoru+ecrue suauu, u, roue+uo, creuury ue tonero otpacnu, uo u peruoua.
0 otpacnesou creuure rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu nM ye rosopunu pauee* u rorasanu, +to ocoeuuoctu
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
28
otpacnu s qoctato+uou ctereuu snukt ua enu, xapartep u opnM paotM rcuxonora.
* 3apodu+ |.V. Voqene nu+uoctu s rcuxoquaruocture. V., 1994; 3apodu+ |.V. 0+epru teopuu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu.
V., 1997.

Tarun opason, yuruu rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu, otueceuuMe uanu r repsou rpyrre, cyaectseuuo cssauM c
oprauusauouuMn oopnneuuen u passutuen sceu cuctenM rcuxonoru+ecrou cnyM, c peaeuuen ronrnerca
oprauusauouuo-uay+uMx sorpocos.
3mopa+ cp,nna ,+|(uu rpeqctasnet coou oprauusauk u rpuneueuue coctseuuo rpartu+ecrux netoqos
rcuxonoruu oua orpeqenetc crocoanu ucronesosauu rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu. 0ua s oneaeu ctereuu, +en
repsa, cssaua c qsueuuen rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu ro nuuuu teopu arcrepuneut rpartura. Auanus atou
rpyrrM yuruu pacrpMsaet uerotopMe rponenM paspaotru uay+uMx ocuos rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu u
sosnouMe uarpasneuu ux uccneqosauu.
lyuo crasate, +to opnM u netoqM peaeuu rpartu+ecrux saqa+ +acto orasMsaktc oaunu qn aupororo
rnacca rponen u ycnosuu, uecnotp ua ux otpacnesyk u peruouaneuyk creuury. 8qece nM sMqenen tpu
ocuosuMe yuruu, raqa us rotopMx peanusyetc rpu ronoau cuctenM creuaneuMx netoqos u rpuenos:
ncuxoduac+ocmu|a (cocmaene+ue ncuxonocuvec|ux nopmpemoe u sa|nsve+uu), ncuxonpoc+ocmu|a (nocmpoe+ue
ncuxonocuvec|oco npoc+osa) u ncuxonocuvec|oe ,npaene+ue (|oppe|(u+ u noddep|a).
pu qaneueuaen ux paccnotpeuuu nouo yqet ysuqete, +to atu yuruu cyaectseuuo pasnu+aktc ro crocoy
ucronesosauu rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu.
epsa yuru ncuxoduac+ocmu|a coctout rpeqe scero s oeure cutyauu: enek oeuru snetc
sM+neueuue rcuxonoru+ecrou cyauoctu rpartu+ecrou saqa+u, t.e. opnynuposra peaneuou rponenM s tepnuuax
rcuxonoru+ecrux cutyauu, usy+euuMx unu usy+aenMx s teopetu+ecrou u arcrepuneutaneuou rcuxonoruu. 8 aton
rpoecce rpoucxoqut oeura rcuxonoru+ecrux xapartepuctur cyaectsa u ycnosuu canou saqa+u, ocoeuuocteu
peaakaero ee cyerta; pacrpMtue sosnouMx rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnos u crocoos ee peaeuu.
Cutyau oeuusaetc rpu ronoau netoqos rcuxoquaruocturu: cosepaaetc rcuxonoru+ecra rnaccuurau u
auanus saqa+. 8 pesynetate nM uqeutuuupyen peaneuMe saqa+u s rnaccax rcuxonoru+ecru peaaenMx;
uqeutuuupyen csouctsa u ra+ectsa nkqeu u ronnertusos s cuctene rcuxonoru+ecrux rateropuu. 8qece
saueuaun tpeosauuen snetc npa|muvec|a+ eanud+ocms rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos.
Cyaectsykt sauMe cneqctsu rcuxonoru+ecrou oeuru cutyauu, s +actuoctu, rcuxoquaruocturu saqa+. Vouo
oeuute crocouocte rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru peaute paccnatpusaenyk saqa+y. 6onee toro, ecnu ata saqa+a ue
peaaena, to ucxoq us pesynetatos rcuxoquaruocturu nouo roctasute repeq rcuxonoru+ecrou uayrou uosMe, s ton
+ucne yuqaneutaneuMe rponenM.
8topa yuru ncuxonpoc+ocmu|a, unu coctasneuue rcuxonoru+ecroro rporuosa, sarnk+aetc s oeure
sosnouou quuanuru auanusupyenMx saqa+ s uosMx ycnosux. 8qece rpoucxoqut oeura ryteu passutu cutyauu,
netoqos peaeuu yrasauuou saqa+u, cootueceuue u cootsetctsue rpauu rnacca rcuxonoru+ecrux u peaneuMx saqa+.
ocne quaruocturu saqa+u nM repexoqun r oeure toro, rar nouo pacaupute onacte rpuneueuu rcuxonoru+ecrux
suauuu: repeuectu rony+euuMe peaeuu s uosMe, eae ue uccneqosauuMe ycnosu.
3ta yuru peanusyetc rpu ronoau cuctenM netoqos rporuosa, s ton +ucne rporuosa rocneqctsuu rpuutMx
rpartu+ecrux peroneuqauu.
VM suqenu, +to rpuneueuue rcuxoquaruocturu orupaetc rpeqe scero ua unekauec suauu rcuxonoruu,
roatony rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrue netoqM nouo orpeqenute rar anrupu+ecrue netoqM uqeutuurauu peaneuoro
oerta. pu rporuose rpuneuenMe netoqM cyaectseuuo aupe, roatony teopetu+ecra ocuosa rporuosa qonua
Mte onee ocuosateneuou. Peanusau rporuoctu+ecrou yuruu s rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu orupaetc rar ua
anrupu+ecrue, tar u ua teopetu+ecrue netoqM. 8 aton cny+ae usneuetc cnMcn uqeaneuMx oertos
rcuxonoru+ecrou teopuu. C oquou ctopouM, rpuneueuue teopetu+ecrux netoqos rossonet oeuute roseqeuue
uqeaneuMx oertos s uosMx ycnosux, a c qpyrou (rpu rpuneueuuu anrupu+ecrux netoqos qn rporuosa) canu
arcrepuneutaneuMe rpoeqypM noryt sMctyrate rar uqeaneuMe oertM qn orpeqeneuuoro rnacca rpartu+ecrux
saqa+. 3to osua+aet, +to asou rporuosa s nkon cny+ae sMctyraet teopetu+ecruu pesynetat, roatony tpeyetc
oeuute ero roteuuaneuyk npa|muvec|,s +ade+ocme.
8 otnu+ue ot rcuxoquaruocturu u rcuxorporuocturu (cootueceuu peaneuou cutyauu u uay+uMx rcuxonoru+ecrux
suauuu), tpete yuru ncuxonocuvec|oe ,npaene+ue sarnk+aetc s rpartu+ecron sornoaeuuu uay+uoro
suauu s qeuctsux u peroneuqaux rcuxonora. 8qece rpoucxoqut yronuytoe pauee sosspaaeuue uay+uoro suauu
s peaneuyk usue, u ato sMsMsaet pesryk cneuy netoqos ot anrupu+ecrux u teopetu+ecrux rpoeqyp, roxoux ua
uccneqosatenecrue, nM repexoqun r rpartu+ecrony sosqeuctsuk ua nkqeu u ronnertusM. oatony tpetek yuruk
nouo orpeqenute rar yrpasnkayk, a cucteny netoqos, rpuneuenMx rpu ee peanusauu, cneqyet oosua+ute rar
29
cucmev, vemodoe ncuxonocuvec|oco eosdeucmeu+.
Peanusau atou yuruu ua rparture tpeyet rpeqctasneuu teopetu+ecroro suauu s sMcaeu, rourpetuou u
rouctpyrtusuou opne. 3to, roue+uo, rpeqsnet qoronuuteneuMe tpeosauu r uay+uou rcuxonoruu, s +actuoctu,
mpeoea+u+ peane+ocmu (ro opne), |o+cmp,|mue+ocmu (ro coqepauuk) u c,va++ocmu (ro enn) cuctenM
netoqos rcuxonoru+ecroro sosqeuctsu.
Cynnupy sMaecrasauuoe, nouo sMsute pasnu+u yuruu stopou rpyrrM. pu rcuxoquaruocture peaneuo
saqauM sce oertM: ussectuM nkqu, rpartu+ecrue saqa+u u ycnosu, s rotopMx atu saqa+u qonuM Mte peaeuM.
pu rporuose +acte oertos saqaua peaneuo, a +acte tonero roteuuaneuo, tar rar uet sosnouoctu cosqate u
anrupu+ecru uccneqosate sce saqa+u u ycnosu. pu sosqeuctsuu uerotopMe oertM qonuM Mte cosqauM ua
ocuosauuu rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu: uyuo copnuposate uerotopMe ueoxoqunMe rcuxu+ecrue ra+ectsa nkqeu,
nuo saqate u peanusosate uerotopMe ycnosu saqa+u, nuo usneuute ycnosu usuu cyerta u t.q.
8auo roq+epruyte, +to ocyqaenMe yuruu rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu peanusyktc rar rpu auanuse u
peaeuuu enoctuou saqa+u, tar u rpu paccnotpeuuu otqeneuMx ee ronroueutos: rpu paote c nkqenu, rpyrranu u
ronnertusanu; rpu oeure u usneueuuu ronroueutos u ycnosuu ux qeteneuoctu.
|s atoro, s +actuoctu, cneqyet, +to atu yuruu canu opasykt cssuyk cucteny rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu,
rotopa, s csok o+epeqe, qonua Mte roqsepruyta creuaneuony auanusy. Ectectseuuo, +to sMqeneuuMe sMae
yuruu uepaspMsuo cssauM c cuctenou netoqos ux peanusauu, roatony s qaneueuaen ocyqeuuu rpartu+ecrux
rpunepos u uay+uMx rponen nM yqen paccnatpusate ux snecte.
Dcoe++ocmu vemodoe rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu qoctato+uo sMryrno rposnktc s pacrpoctpaueuuou onactu
rnaccu+ecrou rcuxoquaruocturu rpu oeure rcuxu+ecrux ra+ects uuqusuqos, ocoeuuo tex us uux, rotopMe
snktc uauonee sauMnu qn rourpetuoro suqa qeteneuoctu. Auanus roraet, +to u s aton cny+ae nouo
ouapyute cepeesuMe rponenM netoqonoru+ecroro u teopetu+ecroro ropqra, peaeuue rotopMx noet Mte
uauqeuo nuae rpu opaaeuuu r yuqaneutaneuMn rcuxonoru+ecrun uccneqosauun.
CnMcn uuqusuqyaneuou rcuxoquaruocturu coctout s ton, +toM qate oeury ocuosuMn rcuxu+ecrun csouctsan
rourpetuoro +enosera ro otuoaeuuk r oaun sarouonepuoctn u csouctsan, pacrpMtMn s cuctene
rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu s oaeu u quepeuuaneuou rcuxonoruu u rcuxousuonoruu. Kar nM ye otne+anu,
aty oeury nouo paccnatpusate rar pesynetat uqeutuurauu peaneuoro oerta s tepnuuax u s cuctene
rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu. oatony quaruoctu+ecrue saqa+u tpeykt rpuneueuu cnouMx ronrnercuMx rpoeqyp u
rocneqykaeu uuteprpetauu quaruoctupyenMx csoucts u ra+ects s tepnuuax rateropuu u uqeaneuMx oertos
rcuxonoruu.
Vouo sMqenute pasuMe sapuautM rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux roqxoqos, s pycne rotopMx opnupyktc rourpetuMe
netoqM rony+euu, opaotru u uuteprpetauu qauuMx. epsMu sapuaut (oquu us pacrpoctpaueuuMx)
rpeqycnatpusaet |avecmee++,s |naccuu|a(us ocoeuuMx csoucts +enosera ro otuoaeuuk r oaeu
(reuepaneuou) cosoryruoctu nkqeu unu qoctato+uo oneaou (perpeseutatusuou) sMopre us uee. 8aqa+a coctout s
ton, +toM sMsute rpuuaqneuocte qauuoro uuqusuqa r uerotopony rnaccy* s orpeqeneuuon nuoectse
rcuxu+ecrux ra+ects (uarpunep turos uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu oprauusauu uutennertyaneuou,
anououaneuou u sonesou cepM, turos tenrepaneuta u t.q.).
* |nektc s suqy rnaccM s opnaneuo-noru+ecron cnMcne. {puvev. aem.)

lauonee pacrpoctpaueuuMe netoqM u rpuenM tarou rnaccuurauouuou quaruocturu pasnu+uMe aranM,
rpounu, orpocuuru, atapeu tectos u qpyrue uearrapatypuMe u arrapatypuMe netoquru, auporo ussectuMe s
quepeuuaneuou rcuxonoruu u rcuxousuonoruu. 0quun us rpocteuaux, uo sauMx rpunepos noet cnyute
quepeuuaneua quaruoctura csoucts uepsuou cuctenM, paspaotauua s ote+ectseuuou arone
quepeuuaneuou rcuxousuonoruu*. pyrou rpunep - ato quaruoctura turos nu+uoctu c ucronesosauuen
cnouMx ctpyrtypuMx orpocuuros unu uccneqosauue turos uutennerta rpu ronoau atapeu tectos**.
* P,canoe 3.V. cuxonoru u rcuxousuonoru uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu: uerotopMe utoru u nuauaue saqa+u cuctenuMx
uccneqosauuu // cuxonoru+ecruu ypuan. 1980. T. 1, N 5.
** /+acmasu /. cuxonoru+ecroe tectuposauue. V., 1982.

VetoqM rnaccuurauouuou quaruocturu noryt rpuneutec rar c uccneqosatenecrou enek, tar u qn peaeuu
rpartu+ecrux saqa+. |ccneqosatenecra ene coctout s ton, +toM ua ocuosauuu auanusa uerotopMx xapartepuctur
rorynuu orpeqenute yctou+usMe turu+uMe opasosauu (rnaccM, rnactepM, tarcouM u t.q.).
pu aton rpeqronaraetc, +to xapartep roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu uuqusuqa rpno sasucut ot ocoeuuocteu
rnacca, r rotopony ou otueceu. Tarun opason uesuo peanusyetc npu+(un a|eueane+m+ocmu,
esauvosave++evocmu npedcmaeumeneu |nacca. 3tot rpuuur u ero rpuneuunocte s rcuxonoruu creuaneuo ue
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uccneqosanuce, oquaro ero auporo ucronesykt u s uay+uMx, u s rpartu+ecrux enx, rorqa ua uuqusuqa repeuoct
xapartepucturu rnacca, r rotopony ou rpuuaqneut, a yctauosneuuMe qn rnacca sarouonepuoctu c+utaktc
uctuuuMnu u qn raqoro rourpetuoro ero rpeqctasuten.
8topou sapuaut quaruoctu+ecroro roqxoqa o+eue tecuo cssau c repsMn ro ucxoquMn uqen, netoqan u
uuteprpetauu: ou rpeqctasnet coou cneqykauu, onee sMcoruu yposeue auanusa u ooaeuu ucxoquMx
anrupu+ecrux qauuMx. 3tot sapuaut roqxoqa rpuuto uasMsate npedcmaene+uev peane+oco ose|ma e
v+ocovep+ov npocmpa+cmee. Cano ato rpoctpauctso srnk+aet s ce orpauu+euuMu uaop ra+ectseuuMx
rpusuaros, rotopMe, rar ronarakt, nouo uuteprpetuposate s rcuxonoru+ecron cnMcne u rotopMe c+utaktc
qoctato+uMnu qn orucauu peaneuMx oertos.
|cxoqua teopetu+ecra rpeqrocMnra coctout s ton, +to nouo uautu ueoneaoe +ucno cnao cssauuMx
rpusuaros, rpu ronoau rotopMx yqaetc orucate ocneqyenMu oert rar to+ry s nuoronepuon rpoctpauctse atux
rpusuaros*. Ecnu qeuctsuteneuo yqaetc orucate uerotopMe csouctsa rourpetuoro uuqusuqa s taron suqe, torqa,
ronesyce creuaneuMnu rpoeqypanu opnaneuoro nuoronepuoro auanusa, nouo orpeqenute ero noranusauk s
sMpauuou cuctene roopquuat. 8 aton cny+ae cyaectsyet roteuuaneua sosnouocte cpasueuu pasnu+akauxc
neqy coou uuqusuqos, qae ecnu ouu rpuuaqneat r oquony u tony e rnaccy. 8seqeuue ronu+ectseuuou nepM
rpusuaros qaet qoronuuteneuyk sosnouocte onee to+uo uqeutuuuposate peaneuMu oert.
* 8anetun, +to s otnu+ue ot repsoro sapuauta rcuxoquaruoctu+ecroro roqxoqa ctpyrtypa nuoronepuoro rpoctpauctsa sqece +acto
sMupaetc arpuopuo, ucxoq us uerotopMx teopetu+ecrux coopaeuuu; uarpunep, nouo sMpate nuueuuoe sertopuoe rpoctpauctso unu
rpoctpauctso ronuuonos nuoectseuuou perpeccuu u t.q. {puvev. aem.)

KourpetuMnu ocuosauunu sMopa arpuopuou cuctenM roopquuat s qauuon sapuaute quaruoctu+ecroro roqxoqa
snktc creuaneuMe uqeaneuMe oertM: pasnu+uMe nuororapanetpu+ecrue noqenu rcuxu+ecrux opasosauuu.
8 ra+ectse tarosMx noryt sMctyrate noqenu nu+uoctu, ua+uua ot rpocteuaux rnocrux u rou+a uepapxu+ecrunu
ctpyrtypuMnu noqennu. punepM peanusauu atoro roqxoqa xopoao ussectuMe u secena pacrpoctpaueuuMe
quaruoctu+ecrue rpoeqypM: artopuMe, roppenuouuMe u perpeccuouuMe noqenu u netoqM; noqenu u netoqM
cenautu+ecrux quepeuuanos; netoqM nuoronepuoro aranuposauu u t.q. 3tu netoqM rpuneuktc snecte c
opnaneuMnu rpuenanu opaotru qauuMx; s uerotopMx ronesuMx cny+ax ouu rossonkt orpeqente
nuuunaneuMu uaop rpusuaros (oceu sMpauuou cuctenM roopquuat), rpu ronoau rotopMx nouo c qoctato+uou
ronuotou orucate quaruoctupyenMu oert unu rnacc oertos.
C teopetu+ecrou to+ru speuu sauo, +to stopou sapuaut quaruoctu+ecroro roqxoqa uneet qeno c otuoaeuunu
uearsusaneutuoctu, t.e. tarunu, rotopMe rossonkt pasnu+ate u yropqo+usate ocneqyenMe oertM. 8osuuraet
pq rponen sMopa nepM qn taroro yropqo+euu, rocronery sqece, s otnu+ue ot tpeteero sapuauta, rotopMu
yqet paccnotpeu qanee, ata nepa ue scerqa noet Mte orpeqeneua ectectseuuMn opason. |neuuo s aton
cnMcne oquou us uauonee octpMx rponen quaruocturu snetc cma+dapmusa(u+ o(e+o| pasnu+uMx aran s
atapex tectos.
Tpetuu sapuaut quaruoctu+ecroro roqxoqa nouo orpeqenute rar duac+ocmu|, no amano+,, t.e. quaruoctury
ryten cpasueuu (otueceuu r uerotopony atanouuony oerty). 8osnouM qsa cny+a: atanou cosraqaet c
peaneuMn oerton unu ero uet cpequ peaneuMx oertos. 8 repson cny+ae yqen rosopute o uqeutuurauu ro
anrupu+ecrony atanouy. 8 ra+ectse anrupu+ecrux atanouos noryt sMctyrate rsanuuuposauuMe creuanuctM,
arcreptM, uuctpyrtopM u t.q. 0uu +acto cnyat peaneuMnu opueutupanu qn peaeuu nuorux saqa+ otopa,
roqrotosru u socrutauu.
8 ton cny+ae, rorqa canoro atanoua uet cpequ peaneuMx oertos, enecoopasuo, ua uaa ssrnq, rosopute o
quaruocture ro uqeaneuony atanouy unu, +to, sepotuo, ny+ae o duac+ocmu|e no udeane+ov, ose|m,. Ecnu uqtu
ot tpeosauuu rparturu, t.e. paccnatpusate aty rponeny c to+ru speuu oecre+euuoctu rpartu+ecrux saqa+
yuqaneutaneuMnu uccneqosauunu, to torqa uqeaneuMu oert qoneu sMctyrate rar oqua us ocuosuMx
rateropuu rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa. Ecnu e qsuratec s qpyron uarpasneuuu ot teopuu r rparture, to torqa
uqeaneuMu oert sMctyraet rar qeuctsuteneua nepa cpasueuu peaneuMx oertos (rocronery ou qoneu
coqepate saueuaue, c to+ru speuu peaaenMx saqa+, csouctsa u ra+ectsa peaneuoro oerta).
Ecnu paccnatpusate atanou s ra+ectse ocooro rpeqctasuten rnacca, to torqa octaneuMe aneneutM rnacca
uyuo oeuusate s ectectseuuou nepe ro ctereuu nusoctu unu roqou atony atanouy. Ecnu orpeqeneuM
yuru roqou u rputepuu rpauuM nuoectsa oertos, to sce nuoectso o+eue nerro orucate; s aton cny+ae ue
uyuo unete repe+eue csoucts, rotopMnu qonuM onaqate ero aneneutM.
le sqasace s teopetu+ecrue qetanu rpeunyaects taroro orucauu, otnetun, +to atanou sMctyraet sqece rar
yuuraneua to+ra otc+eta; teopetu+ecruu auanus csoucts atanoua, pacrpMtue ero rpupoqM rpeqoctasnkt
orateuaue sosnouoctu coequueuu uay+uoro suauu c rparturou ero ucronesosauu. 0tnetun tonero, +to s
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ra+ectse taroro atanoua sronue noet sMctyrate |o+cmp,|mue+a+ vodene nuv+ocmu unu auanoru+ua vodene
ncuxuvec|ou pec,n+(uu noeede+u+ (cn. qanee).
8 oneauuctse peaneuMx saqa+ quaruoctura ro uqeaneuony oerty snetc uauonee repcrertusuMn
crocoon sueqpeuu rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu s rpartury.
VM qosoneuo roqpouo octauosunuce ua auanuse ocuosuMx netoqos quaruocturu s rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu ue
tonero rotony, +to ouu auporo pacrpoctpaueuM, uo u rotony, +to atu netoqM artu+ecru neat s ocuose nkou
uccneqosatenecrou u rpartu+ecrou paotM. Cosepaeuuo o+esuquo, +to rpeqe +en rarun-to opason ucronesosate
apceuan rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu s rpartu+ecrux enx (yqe to uccneqosauue unu rnuuura, arona, rpoussoqctso
unu yrpasneuue), ueoxoquno to+uo orpeqenute oert, c rotopMn nM uneen qeno. 8 aton coctout cyte
rpuneueuu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos.
outuo, +to auanus rpuneueuu qpyrux rpartu+ecrux netoqos (rporuosa u yrpasneuu) tare qoneu rpusectu r
roctauosre nuorux uosMx teopetu+ecrux rponen. Taros, uarpunep, netoq rporuosa, rotopMu snetc ocuosuMn
rpu peaeuuu stopou saqa+u rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu (rocne quaruocturu). Ee peaeuue rpeqycnatpusaet, s
+actuoctu, otset ua sorpoc o ton, +to rpousouqet c uuqusuqon, rotoporo nM ocneqyen s qauuMu noneut, rpu
usneueuuu ycnosuu ero usueqeteneuoctu. larpunep, crpasutc nu ou c peaeuuen uerotopou uosou saqa+u; rar
yqyt passusatec ero creuaneuMe crocouoctu; rar yqyt yuruouuposate uasMru, nouo nu ux coxpauute s
ueoM+uMx ycnosux qeteneuoctu (rpu rosMaeuuou rcuxu+ecrou uarpeuuoctu, s ycnosux oracuoctu u t.r.)?
lnasuoe otnu+ue netoqos rporuosa ot netoqos quaruocturu, rar nM ye yrasMsanu, coctout s ton, +to rpnou
routart c ocneqyenMn oerton s qauuMu noneut artu+ecru otcytctsyet. 8aqa+u rporuosa tpeykt
osateneuoro opaaeuu r teopetu+ecrun rouctpyrun. Tarun opason, suquo, +to yuru rporuosa s
rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu ueusnepuno oneae, +en yuru quaruosa, srnk+aet s ce teopetu+ecrue netoqM u
suauu rcuxonoruu. 6onee toro, cana uqe rporuosa, qae ecnu ucronesyktc netoqM anrupu+ecroro
rporuosuposauu, orupaetc ua o+eue cuneuMe, uo ue sronue qorasauuMe teopetu+ecrue qoryaeuu.
Pe+e uqet o tar uasMsaenon nocm,name nocmene++ocmu usve+e+uu, rotopMu secena +acto, xot u uesuo,
rpuneuetc qn oocuosauu rporuosa rpu peaeuuu rpartu+ecrux saqa+. ocuun cyte atoro roctynata. larpunep,
nM arcrepuneutaneuo noqenupyen uerotopMe sosnouMe cutyauu u saqa+u peaneuou qeteneuoctu; rpu aton
anrupu+ecrue ycnosu ue cnuaron cuneuo otnu+aktc ot tex, qn rotopMx ctpoutc rporuos*. 8aten nM uankqaen
uerotopMe rcuxonoru+ecrue aertM s atux cnoqenuposauuMx ycnosux. Torqa roctynat roctereuuoctu usneueuuu
ytsepqaet, +to uankqaenMe uanu aertM nano otnu+aktc ot rpeqronaraenou peaneuoctu, t.e. ux nouo
ucronesosate rar qoctato+uoe ocuosauue qn rporuosa.
* 8 ua+ane atoro pasqena nM yronuuanu, +to rpu ronoau routu uqeaneuMu oert nouo uccneqosate naopatopuMu arcrepuneut
tonero s tex cny+ax, rorqa ou ctpoutc rar noqene peaneuou saqa+u. 8 aton cny+ae naopatopuMu arcrepuneut sMctyraet s ponu
uqeaneuoro oerta qn nuoectsa rpartu+ecrux cutyauu, u torqa s ton e ropqre sosuurakt nponeve coomeemcmeu+ uqeaneuoro u
peaneuoro oerta, t.e. yuruu roqou; ronuotM nuoectsa peaneuMx oertos, ropoqaenMx uqeaneuMn; rputepues rpauu nuoectsa
u t.q. {puvev. aem.)

laronuun, +to s quaruocture teopetu+ecroe suauue rcuxonoruu sMctyraet rar uerotopa ucxoqua cuctena
roopquuat, a paota seqetc anrupu+ecrunu netoqanu. poruos sua+uteneuo oneae orupaetc ua rnyorue
netoqonoru+ecrue rpuuurM u sMupaet csoun netoqu+ecrun opyquen teopetu+ecrue rpoeqypM: rpu ux ronoau
rpeopasyetc anrupu+ecroe suauue o +enosere, t.e. cosepaaetc repexoq ot uanu+uMx, ucxoquMx cutyauu r ten
cutyaun, qn rotopMx opnupyetc rporuos.
1yuru rcuxonoru+ecroro sosqeuctsu, tar e rar quaruocturu u rporuosa, peanusyetc rpu ronoau
creuaneuMx netoqos u rpuenos sosqeuctsu ua rcuxu+ecrue ra+ectsa, roseqeuue, qeteneuocte peaneuoro
+enosera. |neuuo s atou yuruu rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu octpee scero sMctyrakt netoqonoru+ecrue rponenM,
ot+etnusee scero rposnetc ee uqeonoru+ecra pone: sqece rar s seprane otpaaktc qeuctsuteneuMe enu
oaectsa. 8 ueqenorpatu+ecrux oaectsax ato ycuneuue couaneuoro u pacosoro uepaseuctsa,
qerepcouanusau +enosera, rnaccosoe roqasneuue rpasaeu sepxyarou tpyqauxc nacc, rpoucxoqaee ua oue
noauou rporarauqM rousepreuuu, couaneuoro raptuepctsa u qp. 8 rynauuctu+ecru opueutuposauuMx oaectsax
ato couaneuMu ortunusn, qaneueuaa qenorpatusau u rynauusau scex cep oaectseuuou usuu,
aertusuoe passutue nu+uoctu raqoro +neua oaectsa.
Vemode ncuxonocuvec|oco eosdeucmeu+ (,npaene+u+) rpeqycnatpusakt cuutes rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu us
pasuMx onacteu rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru, u sqece sosuuraet saqa+a netoqonoru+ecroro u teopetu+ecroro
oocuosauu taroro cuutesa. Cuctena netoqos yrpasneuu, rpuneuenMx rpartu+ecrou rcuxonorueu, roue+uo,
qonua unete uepapxu+ecroe ctpoeuue u srnk+ate s ce tarue pasuoopasuMe crocoM sosqeuctsu, rar:
rpnoe u rocseuuoe yrpasneuue;
sosqeuctsue cnoson (rcuxonoru+ecruu tpeuuur, suyaeuue), rpunepon, otuoaeuunu u ycnosunu usuu;
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pasnu+uMe opnM oprauusauu texuonoruu u peunos tpyqa, srnk+akaue s ce oequueuue u pasqeneuue
pasnu+uMx suqos tpyqa, ocsoeuue cneuMx rpoeccuu, ysenu+euue ponu oaectseuuoro canoyrpasneuu;
yrpasneuue ryten uarpasneuuoro otopa, roqopa u oy+euu nkqeu;
yrpasneuue sMopon qoctyruMx (paspeaeuuMx) opn roseqeuu u qp.
Cuctena netoqos rcuxonoru+ecroro yrpasneuu sepraneuo otpaaet cucteny uccneqosatenecrux netoqos,
uarpasn rcuxonoru+ecroe suauue s cepy rpartu+ecrou qeteneuoctu nkqeu. 0qua us rnasuMx ee ocoeuuocteu
coctout s ton, +to ucronesyenMe s rparture rpuenM u rpoeqypM +acto paquraneuo otnu+aktc ot ussectuMx
rcuxonoru+ecrux rpoeqyp. 8 aton cnMcne nuorue netoqM sosqeuctsu uoct, ua repsMu ssrnq,
uercuxonoru+ecruu xapartep: uarpunep orpauu+euue qoctyruMx cpeqcts u rpuenos qeteneuoctu. (0quaro cneqyet
scronuute, +to uneuuo orpauu+euue u routpone uerotopMx snukaux artopos u ycnosuu ato osateneuoe
tpeosauue, qae atpuyt rcuxonoru+ecroro arcrepuneuta.)
8necte c ten uneuuo s ton u coctout cnoueuaa saqa+a rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru, +to qn peanusauu yuruu
yrpasneuu qonuM Mte paspaotauM netoqM, unekaue rnyuuuyk rcuxonoru+ecryk ocuosy. 3tu netoqM uyuo
qosectu qo tarou opve, |omopa+ cmana e paomame e peane+ou us+u, a s+avum nepecmana e eme
ncuxonocuvec|ou u rpespatunace M s peaneuMe oaectseuuMe, nenu+uoctuMe u qpyrue otuoaeuu.
8 +ucne rourpetuMx vemodoe ncuxoduac+ocmu|u cneqyet pasnu+ate, so-repsMx, u+mpoc|onuvec|ue vemode:
uerocpeqctseuuMe, tarue, rar canouankqeuue (s ton +ucne srnk+euuoe, oquu us sapuautos rotoporo auporo
ussecteu roq uassauuen tpyqosoro netoqa), canoauanus u t.r.;
orocpeqosauuMe: rnyuuuMe uutepsek, auanuectu+ecrue orpocuuru, auretM-canooeuru u t.r.
pyryk rpyrry netoqos rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu nouo uassate a|cmpac|onuvec|uvu:
orpoc, aureta arcreptua oeura, oeura qpyrux nkqeu (uarpunep V0lX*, l0** u qp.);
tectM creuaneuMx crocouocteu u otqeneuMx yuruu;
tectM noqenu qeteneuoctu, noqenu nu+uoctu, noqenu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu u t.q.
* V0lX netoq ooaeuu uesasucunMx xapartepuctur rpeqnoeu K.K. natouosMn qn coctasneuu ronrnercuoro
ncuxonocuvec|oco nopmpema nuv+ocmu.
** l0 netoq rpyrrosou oeuru nu+uoctu auporo rpuneuetc s cospeneuuou couaneuou rcuxonoruu u rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu.

Canoctoteneuyk rpyrry opasykt |ovnne|c+ee vemode:
atapeu u creuaneuMe uaopM tectos;
nuoroaraneuMe orpocuuru;
rpoertusuMe tectM, s ocuose rotopMx neut suauue u ycsoeuue couaneuMx uopn (uqeanos, rpasun roseqeuu
u t.r.).
0cuosua ene netoqos rcuxoquaruocturu, rar yrasMsanoce, uqeutuurau ocneqyenoro oerta s tepnuuax
rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu, pesynetaton rotopou snetc roctpoeuue routuoro rcuxonoru+ecroro roptpeta atoro
oerta.
Vemode ncuxonocuvec|oco npoc+osa (pac+eta) asupyktc ua suauuu rcuxonoru+ecrux sarouos u srnk+akt s
ce tarue opnM, rar:
rporuos cyaectsosauu (rorqa ro ronrnercy ussectuMx ra+ects rpeqronaraetc ueussectuoe);
rporuos ycreauoctu yuruouuposauu (s ton +ucne yuruouuposauu s uuMx ycnosux);
rporuos yctou+usoctu (cyaectsosauue s arctpenaneuMx ycnosux u orpeqeneuue rpauu atoro cyaectsosauu,
uarpunep s ycnosux ctpeccosMx sosqeuctsuu) u qp.
Vemode ncuxonocuvec|oco eosdeucmeu+ (yrpasneuu, s ton +ucne rcuxonoru+ecrou ropperuu roseqeuu,
passutu, ctpyrtypM nu+uoctu u coctouuu cyerta) ocuosauM ua suauuu aertos u nexauusnos qeuctsu tex unu
uuMx artopos, snukaux ua csouctsa u coctouu rcuxuru, ua roseqeuue u qeteneuocte nkqeu. 3tu netoqM
srnk+akt s ce yrpasneuue c ronoaek sueauux artopos, tarux, uarpunep, rar:
couaneuoe yrpasneuue rpurasauue, rpuuyqeuue, yeqeuue, suyaeuue, sapaeuue, repeuoc (roqpaauue),
rooapeuue, uarasauue u t.q.;
yrpasneuue cpeqou outauu, ycnosunu tpyqa u Mta;
yrpasneuue +epes otuoaeuu (+epes snuuue ua cucteny otuoaeuuu, s rotopyk srnk+eu cyert).
8osnouo tare yrpasneuue c ronoaek usneueuu suytpeuuux artopos: canosocrutauue, canoyrpasneuue,
aytotpeuuur, rpyrrosou tpeuuur u t.q.
Cpequ netoqos rcuxonoru+ecroro sosqeuctsu enecoopasuo pasnu+ate:
yuruouaneuoe yrpasneuue;
roppertupykaee sosqeuctsue;
asonkuouuoe (passusakaee) yrpasneuue.
33
8o scex cny+ax pe+e noet uqtu o pasnu+uMx rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnax u o pasnu+uMx rcuxonoru+ecrux
aqpecax qeuctsu yrpasnkaux artopos. Tar, nouo sMqenute npu+,das(ee ,npaene+ue, unu rpeccuur, s ton
+ucne raccusuMu (+epes yctauosneuue unu cutue orpauu+euuu ua ctereue csooqM qsueuu cyerta) u artusuMu
(+epes roctauosry saqa+ u eneu qeteneuoctu, rpuuyqeuue u rpuras). |uMe nexauusnM qeuctsu |oc+umue+oco
,npaene+u+: ouu paotakt ryten yeqeuu (apryneutauu) u suyaeuu (qosepue, sepa). 0quun us sapuautos
roruutusuoro yrpasneuu snetc uuopnauouuoe yrpasneuue +epes uuopnauouuyk asy rpuutu peaeuuu,
opnuposauue nueuuu u oeuor, ucronesosauue sua+unou uuopnauu u qesuuopnauu u t.q.
Paspaotra u rnaccuurau pasnu+uMx opn rcuxonoru+ecroro sosqeuctsu rotpeyet creuaneuMx ycunuu.
6oneaoe pasuoopasue rourpetuMx opn peanusauu paccnotpeuuMx sMae yuruu u netoqos rpartu+ecrou
rcuxonoruu qenaet ocoeuuo artyaneuou rponeny uay+uoro oocuosauu, oeuru uaqeuoctu u orpeqeneuu
rpauu qeuctsu atux netoqos. Fcuo, +to peaeuue atou rponenM uaxoqutc sue onactu coctseuuo rpartu+ecrou
rcuxonoruu roucr ero sosspaaaet uac r netoqonoru+ecrun u teopetu+ecrun sorpocan, neaaun s panrax
yuqaneutaneuMx uccneqosauuu.

|nasa 3. cxoqaruocka nuuocusx xapakepck. hcop ocuosuse nou

3.1. Kouen ncxoqaruock

Vouo ytsepqate, +to rcuxoquaruoctura rar canoctoteneua otpacne rcuxonoruu copnuposanace
otuocuteneuo ueqasuo: can tepnuu rcuxoquaruoctura rosunc nuae s 1921 r. s paote V. Popaaxa c
auanoru+uMn uassauuen*.
* Rorschach M. Psychodiagnostik. Bern; Leipzig, 1921,

8 rocneqykaen qauuoe routue passusanoce, u s roue+uon utore uccneqosauu, rposoqunMe s panrax
rcuxoquaruocturu, coctasunu canoctoteneuMu pasqen rcuxonoruu, cssauuMu, c oquou ctopouM, c o(eu meopueu
ncuxonocuu, a c qpyrou c duepe+(uane+ou ncuxonocueu nuv+ocmu. poecc passutu rcuxoquaruocturu
roq+uunc csoun oertusuMn sarouonepuoctn; rpu aton repuoqu+ecru rosMaanace u cuuanace rorynpuocte
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos, oquaro r uactoaeny speneuu oaerpusuauuou snetc rpartu+ecra ronesuocte
oocuosauuoro u rsanuuuposauuoro rpuneueuu rcuxoquaruocturu s pasnu+uMx onactx rpartu+ecrou
qeteneuoctu +enosera.
0cuosuou rpu+uuou yctou+usou teuqeuuu passutu rcuxoquaruocturu, ro uaaeny nueuuk, ctano to, +to oua ro
cyaectsy snetc roueutpuposauuMn sMpaeuuen ocuosuMx qoctueuuu s onactu oaeu, quepeuuaneuou
rcuxonoruu u rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu. 0aa teopu rcuxonoruu rar uayru o sarouonepuoctx passutu u
yuruouuposauu rcuxuru, rpeqctasnkaeu coou ocoyk opny repcouaneuou perynuu usueqeteneuoctu
+enosera, ctana opnuposatec scneqctsue uapactauu rosuasateneuoro uutepeca r ocueuuk rpu+uu,
orpeqenkaux ocoeuuoctu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu s pasnu+uMx cutyaux u rossonkaux opnuposate
rpeqctasneuue o sosnouMx qeuctsux u roctyrrax rar o pearuu ua oertusuMe octotenectsa u ux usneueuue.
pu aton u teopetu+ecra, u rpartu+ecra rcuxoquaruoctura unekt qeno c uuqusuqyaneuMnu ocoeuuoctnu
passutu u yuruouuposauu rcuxuru rourpetuou nu+uoctu, orupace ua oaue teopetu+ecrue ronoeuu
rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu u oaeu rcuxonoruu, otpaakaue atu ocoeuuoctu qn +enosera rar cyerta sooae.
pyrunu cnosanu, teopetu+ecra rcuxonoru opueutuposaua ua roucr sarouonepuocteu, orpeqenkaux
qeteneuocte u roseqeuue +enosera s pasnu+uMx cutyaux, s to spen rar rcuxoquaruoctura ctpenutc sMsute
uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu atux e sarouonepuocteu u ouapyute rpeqe ussectuMe sarouonepuoctu s
ueussectuMx ocneqyenMx.
0quun us cepeesuMx ocuosauuu qn yctou+usou teuqeuuu rocneqosateneuoro passutu rcuxoquaruocturu rar
cpeqctsa rosuauu sarouonepuocteu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu rourpetuou nu+uoctu
snetc to, +to rpartu+ecrue rotpeuoctu (a tare netoqM u texuonoru) oeuru uuqusuqyaneuMx crocouocteu u
otqeneuMx ra+ects unekt rnyorue uctopu+ecrue ropuu. Tar, eae s tpeteen tMc+enetuu qo u. a. rposoqunuce
uaronuuakaue cospeneuuMe ocneqosauu ucrMtauu sMrycruuros aron pesuero 8asunoua, rotopMe rotosunu
rucos*. 8 Erurte tare cyaectsosana cuctena repcouaneuMx ucrMtauuu, rossonkaa otupate tex, rto nor ctate
peon**. 6oneaoe sua+euue oeure uutennertyaneuMx ra+ects rpuqasan uarop, roqupa y+euuros s csok
arony***. 8 Kutae sa 2200 net qo u. a. cyaectsosana cuctena rposepru crocouocteu y nu, enakaux saute
qonuoctu rpasutenectseuuMx +uuosuuros. Xopoao ussectuM rpunepM ucronesosauu aaxnat s ra+ectse cpeqctsa
qn ucrMtauu nyqpoctu.
* a+davaee V./. 8asunoucrue rucM. V.: layra, 1983.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
34
**/ea+ecoe n.0. TectM s couonoru+ecron uccneqosauuu. V.: layra, 1982.
*** lonu(e+ l.l. |ctopu+ecrue atkqM pesueu lpeuu: uarop. Vocrosutuuu. V.: layra, 1955.

Crucor tarux rpunepos nouo rpoqonute. 8auo, +to sce ouu csuqetenectsykt o oquon: nkqu ye nuoro net
uasaq rpuneunu pasnu+uMe cpeqctsa u crocoM qn oeuru uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu, +toM, ocuosMsace
ua tarux oeurax, coctasute rpeqctasneuu o sosnouMx qeuctsux u roctyrrax oeuusaenou nu+uoctu.
6oneauuctso uccneqosateneu, auanusuposasaux uctopuk passutu rcuxoquaruocturu rar canoctoteneuoro
pasqena rcuxonoruu, c+utakt, +to oua copnuposanace ua ase arcrepuneutaneuou rcuxonoruu,
quepeuuaneuou rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu, rpurnaquou nequuucrou rcuxonoruu, rcuxonoruu tpyqa u yrpasneuu,
rcuxonetpuru u tectonoruu. Kaqoe us repe+ucneuuMx uarpasneuuu tar unu uua+e usy+ano oaue unu
uuqusuqyaneuMe sarouonepuoctu u ocoeuuoctu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu.
3rcrepuneutaneua rcuxonoru, opueutuposauua s ua+ane csoero passutu ua rcuxousu+ecrue netoqM*,
roctereuuo ctana sce oneae suunauu yqente rponene uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu. 3to Mno oycnosneuo
snuuuen sMcaux rcuxu+ecrux yuruu ua rpoeccM opnuposauu oayaeuuu u rpoeccM socrputu qoctato+uo
rpoctMx ctunynos u curuanos. Tar, orasanoce, +to qae spen rpoctou ceuconotopuou pearuu u ra+ectso
ouapyeuu cnaMx curuanos pasnu+uou noqaneuoctu sasuct ot cyertusuMx yctauosor u uuqusuqyaneuMx
pasnu+uu**.
* 3rcrepuneutaneua rcuxonoru / Peq. . 1pecc, X. uae. V 1966.
** 3apodu+ |.V., lon,u+oe 3.3. CyertusuMe rputepuu ortunaneuoctu peaeuu rcuxousu+ecrou saqa+u u nu+uocte //
cuxonoru+ecruu ypuan. 1990. T. 11, N 6.

uepeuuaneua rcuxonoru, ro nueuuk oquoro us ee ocuosateneu, usy+aet tonero cyaectseuuMe pasnu+u s
rcuxu+ecrux yurux u csouctsax, a ue uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu rourpetuou
nu+uoctu*. oatony s panrax quepeuuaneuou rcuxonoruu +aae scero uccneqyktc otqeneuMe usonuposauuMe
sarouonepuoctu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu. lecnotp ua ato, rcuxoquaruoctura u quepeuuaneua rcuxonoru ue
rpotusope+at, a ssaunuo qoronukt qpyr qpyra, tar rar usy+euue rourpetuou nu+uoctu uesosnouo es y+eta tarux
sarouonepuocteu.
* Stern W. Differentielle Psychologie. Leipzig, 1921.

purnaqua rcuxonoru nu+uoctu, tar e rar u rpurnaqua rcuxonoru tpyqa u yrpasneuu, rpeqctasnet coou
onacte rpartu+ecroro rpuneueuu rcuxoquaruocturu, passutue rotopou ctunynupyet cosepaeuctsosauue rar
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqur, tar u netoqonoruu rcuxoquaruocturu s enon. oatony uuorqa rpoucxoqut
cneausauue atux qsyx uarpasneuuu, u rcuxoquaruoctury c+utakt rpurnaquou rcuxonorueu, a rpurnaquyk
rcuxonoruk csoqt r rcuxoquaruocture*. oqouoe cneausauue spq nu nouo c+utate enecoopasuMn, une s
suqy to, +to rpurnaqua u rpartu+ecra rcuxonoruu ue orpauu+usaktc rcuxoquaruocturou**. 0quaro ouo
csuqetenectsyet o ton, +to rora ue sMqeneua +etra rpauua u ue cuo orpeqeneuo ronoeuue rcuxoquaruocturu s
rpeqenax rcuxonoruu.
* Guthke H. Psychodiagnostik im Lehrnprozess, Berlin, 1972.
** Du Bois P. A History of Psycholigical Testing. Boston, 1970; 3apodu+ |. ponenM paspaotru rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu //
cuxonoru+ecruu ypuan. 1980. T 1, N 2.

8ua+uteneuoe snuuue ua rcuxoquaruoctury orasana tar uasMsaena tectonoru. 3to sMssauo ten, +to
tectonoru tpaquuouuo pacronarana rpartu+ecrunu cpeqctsanu usy+euu uuqusuqyaneuoctu, rnaccu+ecrun
rpunepon rotopMx snktc netoquru, rpeqnoeuuMe . V. Kettennon*. ocneqykaue rorMtru oeuru nu+uoctu
s enon c ronoaek tectos ropoqunu oneaoe ronu+ectso pasuoopasuMx netoqur, +acto qynupykaux qpyr qpyra,
a uuorqa u ropoqakaux rpotusope+usMe pesynetatM.
* Cattell R.B. Description and measurement of personality. New York, 1946.

ocneqosateneuoe passutue rcuxoquaruocturu ocuetc rpeqe scero roctouuo coxpaukaeuc
rotpeuoctek s rpartu+ecron ucronesosauuu ee s ra+ectse cpeqctsa peaeuu pasnu+uMx saqa+, cssauuMx c
ueoxoqunoctek oeuru nu+uoctuMx ocoeuuocteu, sMsneuuen uuqusuqyaneuMx csoucts uutepecos u
crocouocteu. /e qoctato+uo rpusM+uMn ctano rpuneueuue rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos s rpoecce peaeuu
saqa+ rpoopueutauu, rpoeccuouaneuoro otopa u pacctauosru raqpos, uuqusuqyanusauu rpoeccuouaneuou
roqrotosru, orpeqeneuu rcuxonoru+ecrou cosnectunoctu.
ocnequee uneet ocooe sua+euue, tar rar rossonet oocuosauuo sMupate cpeqctsa u crocoM yrpasneuu
cosnectuou qeteneuoctek (passutuen oprauusauouuMx otuoaeuuu), rotopMe scerqa unenu oneaoe sua+euue s
35
rpurnaquou rcuxonoruu u ctauostc sce onee artyaneuMnu ua cospeneuuon atare passutu oaectsa. Luporoe
pacrpoctpaueuue netoqos rcuxoquaruocturu crococtsyet ycreauony peaeuuk yronuytMx saqa+, uo snecte c ten
ropoqaet nuoro qoronuuteneuMx rponen, cssauuMx c oocuosauuoctek ux rpartu+ecroro rpuneueuu,
otuoaeuuen r rony+aenMn c ux ronoaek pesynetatan, orpeqeneuuen repcrertus passutu.

3.2. Heoqs ncxoqaruocuecko pa6os

8 uactoaee spen rcuxoquaruoctura pacronaraet sua+uteneuMn apceuanon netoqos, rossonkaux rposoqute
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrue ocneqosauu. 8ce atu netoqM ueoquorpatuo rnaccuuuposanuce, ooaanc orMt ux
rpartu+ecroro rpuneueuu u paspaotru. 8 uactoaee spen rpuuto sMqente uecronero rnaccos
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos.
1. VetoqM usy+euu qoryneutauu o +enosere. 8aqa+a usy+euu qoryneutauu cop auanuectu+ecrux qauuMx u
coctasneuue rpeqctasneuu o ocoeuuoctx roseqeuu, o uctorax uopnaneuoro u auonaneuoro passutu. 8
ronrnercuon usy+euuu +enosera raqMu us creuanuctos qoneu ynete +utate qoryneutauk ronner u +eprate us
uee te cseqeuu, rotopMe ueoxoqunM eny qn coctasneuu ronuoro rcuxonoru+ecroro roptpeta +enosera, ronuou
raptuuM ero yuruouuposauu u passutu.
Tar, uarpunep, sauMn qoryneuton qn rcuxonora, paotakaero s cepe opasosauu u sautoctu, snetc
reqaroru+ecra xapartepuctura y+aaeroc, otpaakaa qauuMe o rpoqonuteneuoctu ero oy+euu u socrutauu s
cootsetctsykaen y+euon saseqeuuu, roqpouMu auanus ycresaenoctu, roseqeuu, neporputuu, rposeqeuuMx s
enx rosMaeuu ycresaenoctu (uuqusuqyaneua ronoae, roucynetauu u t.q.). 3tu qauuMe noryt orasatec
ronesuMnu, uarpunep rpu auanuse ocoeuuocteu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctauosneuu u ocuosauuu sMopa yqyaeu
rpoeccuu, rpu uccneqosauuu oy+aenoctu, rpu rporuosuposauuu tenros rpoeccuouaneuoro passutu y+aauxc.
Vouo ucronesosate tare u qpyrue qoryneutM, rotopMe qoctyruM rcuxonory: nu+uoe qeno, uorpauk,
xapartepuctury, otsMsM orpyakaux, uctopuk ero ceneu u t.r.
2. VetoqM usy+euu rpoqyrtos qeteneuoctu. 3tu netoqM auporo ucronesyktc ua rparture*.
* /+acmasu /. cuxonoru+ecroe tectuposauue. V.: eqarorura, 1982. T. 1-2; /+a+eee 5.l. 0 rponenax cospeneuuoro +enoserosuauu.
V.: layra, 1977.

Auanusupy roue+uMu pesynetat qeteneuoctu +enosera, nouo route ocoeuuoctu rpoecca ero paotM, a
sua+ut roqoutu r rouunauuk ocoeuuocteu ero rcuxuru u uerotopMx +ept ero nu+uoctu. 8 rpoqyrtax qeteneuoctu
+enosera o+eue +acto u qosoneuo sepuo otpaaetc ero otuoaeuue r qeuctsuteneuoctu, r nupy u r nkqn, rpupoqe,
yposeue passutu ynctseuuMx, ceucopuMx u notopuMx uasMros, aertusuou u sonesou cepM.
n rpasuneuou oeuru pesynetatos qeteneuoctu +enosera ueoxoquno suate:
rcuxonoru+ecrue nexauusnM rony+euu toro unu uuoro pesynetata;
ycnosu, s rotopMx ouu rony+euM;
turu+uMe satpyqueuu s qoctueuuu toro unu uuoro pesynetata qn pasuMx rpyrr ucrMtyenMx, s ton +ucne
tpyquMx u otctakaux;
netoqM, rossonkaue ouapyute roqnuuuMe rpu+uuM satpyqueuuu ua raqon us ataros usuu.
3. Vetoq uankqeuu. lankqeuue rossonet cyqute o coctouuu tex unu uuMx rcuxu+ecrux yuruu s rpoecce
croutauuou qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu +enosera rpu nuuunaneuon sneaatenectse co ctopouM rcuxonora.
lankqeuue qonuo oecre+usate ectectseuuocte rcuxu+ecrux rposneuuu u rpu aton Mte eneuarpasneuuMn.
pu uankqeuuu uaqo +etro urcuposate ero pesynetatM. Ctereue artusuoctu uccneqosaten so spen
uankqeuu noet Mte pasnu+uou: ot raccusuoro es scroro sneaatenectsa s uankqaenyk qeteneuocte qo
cuctenatu+ecroro uankqeuu (uarpunep s rpoecce cuctenatusuposauuMx sautuu). lay+uoe uankqeuue
otnu+aetc ten, +to cop artos orpeqenetc saqa+eu uccneqosauu u uarpasneu ua pacrpMtue tou
sarouonepuoctu, rotopa usy+aetc uccneqosatenen.
euuocte pasnu+uMx suqos uankqeuu ueoquuarosa. accue+oe +ansde+ue qaet cseqeuu o ectectseuuon
roseqeuuu +enosera. 8 ato spen uccneqosatene suqut ero rar enoctuyk nu+uocte, noet saurcuposate
ocoeuuoctu ero ssaunootuoaeuuu c qpyrunu nkqenu, c ero orpyeuuen, tosapuaanu, ronneranu, pyrosoqutennu
u roq+uueuuMnu.
K ueqoctatran, orpauu+usakaun cepy rpuneueuu atoro netoqa, otuoctc: sMuqateneua rosuu
uccneqosaten, otcytctsue sosnouoctu rostopuoro uankqeuu, orucateneua opna urcauu uankqeuuu,
ueoxoqunocte qnuteneuoro speneuu qn rony+euu qoctosepuMx cseqeuuu.
/|mue+oe +ansde+ue (uankqeuue s rpoecce cuctenatusuposauuMx sautuu) auporo rpuneuetc s
ote+ectseuuou u sapyeuou rcuxonoruu u reqarorure u rpeqctasnet coou oquy us noquurauu netoqa ronesoro
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
36
unu uatypuoro arcrepuneuta, a uneuuo: netoqa ectectseuuoro arcrepuneuta, paspaotauuoro y+euuron 8.V.
6extepesa A.1. asypcrun*.
* as,pc|uu /.1. 0+epr uayru o xapartepax. V., 1917.

lauonee sauMnu suqanu uankqeuu rpu rcuxonoru+ecron unu rcuxonoro-reqaroru+ecron ocneqosauuu
snktc uankqeuue sa ocuosuMnu suqanu qeteneuoctu +enosera: rpoeccuouaneuMn tpyqon, urpou,
roscequesuMn roseqeuuen, oaeuuen. 0uu rossonkt, ronuno scero rpo+ero, oeuute coctouue +enosera, s
+actuoctu ero paotocrocouocte.
4. Vetoq eceqM. 6eceqa rpeqctasnet coou creuaneuo oprauusosauuMu netoq copa artos o rcuxu+ecrux
sneuux s rpoecce nu+uoro oaeuu ro sapauee coctasneuuou rporpanne.
Vetoq eceqM auporo ucronesyetc qn orpeqeneuu opueutuposru +enosera s orpyakaen rpoctpauctse u
speneuu (rpyr rpeqctasneuuu, sosnouocte ooaeuuu), sMsneuu ocoeuuocteu u notusos ero roseqeuu,
otuoaeuu r cee u r nupy u t.q. 3tot netoq rossonet uerocpeqctseuuo s xoqe eceqM pacrpMte rpu+uuM
nu+uoctuMx rponen u satpyqueuuu (ua paote, s y+ee, s otuoaeuux c nkqenu), a tare oeuute xapartepuMe
ocoeuuoctu nu+uoctu (rpeqro+teuu, crnouuoctu, uutepecM u qp.)*.
* Meister D. Behavioral analysis and measurement methods. Wiley, 1985.

Tarun opason, eceqa qaet uerotopMe rpeqctasneuu o yposue passutu tpyqosou, rosuasateneuou u y+euou
qeteneuoctu u csouctsax nu+uoctu. Coqepauue eceqM sapeupyetc s sasucunoctu ot peaneuou cutyauu,
ocoeuuocteu ocyqaenou rponenM u uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu usy+aenoro. pu usy+euuu ocoeuuocteu
rcuxu+ecroro passutu netoq eceqM ucronesyetc +aae scero rar ucxoquMu atar qn repsu+uoro suaronctsa nuo
rar oquu us scronorateneuMx netoqos.
8auou pasuosuquoctek netoqa eceqM snetc vemod u+mepees, rotopMu s qaneueuaen rposnetc s
nuoro+ucneuuMx vemodax onpoca u ux noquuraux.
5. puneueuue netoqos uankqeuu u eceqM roqrotasnusaet sosnouocte ucronesosauu qn onee to+uoro u
qetaneuoro usy+euu sosuuraeu rponenM oquoro us canMx cuneuMx u creuu+uMx netoqos rcuxonoru+ecroro
uccneqosauu netoqa arcrepuneuta. Vetoq arcrepuneuta coctout s noqenuposauuu orpeqeneuuMx usueuuMx
cutyauu u rpeqronaraet cop qauuMx s creuaneuo cnoqenuposauuMx u sapauee crouctpyuposauuMx ycnosux.
Voqenuposauue rar oqua us pasuosuquocteu arcrepuneuta sarnk+aetc s ton, +to arcrepuneutatop oprauusyet
sMronueuue usy+aenMx qeuctsuu s uerpusM+uMx, uecronero ucrycctseuuMx ycnosux. larpunep, ecnu ueoxoquno
sMcuute oquy us +actuMx ocoeuuocteu uutennertyaneuou qeteneuoctu y+aaeroc sosnouocte ocnMcneuu
noru+ecrux csseu, arcrepuneut noet coctote s ton, +to ucrMtyenony rpeqnaraetc qn +teuu creuaneuo
coctasneuuMu terct, a saten ero rpoct repecrasate ocuosuoe coqepauue, coctasute rnau u t.q.
0aun noneuton rpu rposeqeuuu scex arcrepuneutos snetc to, +to ucrMtyenony rpeqnaraetc ro
orpeqeneuuou uuctpyruu sMronuute saqauue, rpeqctasnkaee coou noqene oM+uou uutennertyaneuou, urposou
unu rarou-nuo qpyrou qeteneuoctu.
Tarun opason, noqenupyenMe s arcrepuneute art, qeteneuocte, qeuctsue unu rpoecc qonuM Mte
rpeopasosauM s qoctato+uo cuo notusuposauuoe, rpoctoe, qoctyruoe qn rouunauu qeuctsue. Kpone toro,
notusuposra atoro qeuctsu ue qonua rposouposate ueratusuMe pearuu, a uaoopot crococtsosate
yctauosneuuk routarta c ucrMtyenMn, +to rossonut rposectu ocneqosauue onee rnyoro u taateneuo.
Vetoq arcrepuneuta, rar u qpyrue rcuxonoru+ecrue netoqM, qoneu oecre+ute sMsneuue ue tonero
ueratusuMx, uo u rosutusuMx sosnouocteu +enosera, qate oertusuoe rpeqctasneuue o rcuxonoru+ecron
coctouuu +enosera, a, rpone toro, s pqe cny+aes oecre+ute rony+euue cseqeuuu o ero oy+aenoctu.
poseqeuue arcrepuneuta tpeyet orpeqeneuuou roqrotosru. 3rcrepuneut rpartu+ecru scerqa rposoqutc
tonero rocne roqpouoro usy+euu qoryneutauu, copa auanuesa, rposeqeuu eceqM u uankqeuu. 8ce atu
atarM rossonkt coctasute rpeqsaputeneuoe rpeqctasneuue o ucrMtyenon u uanetute ctpateruk ero usy+euu.
lyuo crasate, +to netoq arcrepuneuta neut s ocuose cosqauu ocoMx rpartu+ecru-opueutuposauuMx rpoeqyp
rcuxonoru+ecroro ocneqosauu, rotopMe ussectuM uMue roq canoctoteneuMn uassauuen ncuxonocuvec|ux
mecmoe.
Taroe paccnotpeuue netoqa arcrepuneuta uneet o+eue sauoe netoqonoru+ecroe sua+euue. euctsuteneuo,
rpoeqypa nkoro tectuposauu coctout s oprauusauu qn ocneqyenoro orpeqeneuuou arcrepuneutaneuou
cutyauu. 6onee roqpouo rpartu+ecroe sua+euue roqouou tpartosru netoqos tectuposauu u arcrepuneuta
paccnotpeuo s rocneqykaux rnasax ruuru.
6. cuxoquaruoctu+ecrue tectM. lauonee rpusM+uMnu u qoctato+uo auporo ocseaeuuMnu s uay+uou u
rpartu+ecrou nutepatype orasanuce sorpocM, otuocauec r rnaccu+ecrou texuure rcuxoquaruocturu
37
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrun tectan. 3tu sorpocM srnk+anu s ce uctopuk u rpoucxoqeuue tectos, rpasuna ux
roctpoeuu u rputepuu ux aertusuoctu, rpasuna u ropqor rpuneueuu pasuMx ro csoeu rpupoqe tectos u
roqxoqM r ronrnercuony rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrony ocneqosauuk.
ponena rcuxonoru+ecrux tectos rpuuaqneut r +ucny uauonee cnouMx, rpotusope+usMx u uauonee
sarytauuMx rponen oaeu, quepeuuaneuou u reqaroru+ecrou rcuxonoruu. la ato yrasMsan eae s 20-x roqax 8.
Ltepu, rucasauu, +to ro otuoaeuuk r tectan s rpeysenu+euuMx uaqeqax u rpeqespeneuuMx tpeosauux uet
ueqoctatra, tar e rar u s eccnMcneuuMx uaraqrax u ecrnoquou rputure*.
* ut. ro: Meister D. Behavioral analysis and measurement methods. Wiley, 1985.

lecnotp ua cnouocte rponenM rpuneueuu tectos s rcuxoquaruocture, ouu o+eue +acto ucronesyktc s
rparture rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux ocneqosauuu. Vuoroopasue rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos ocuetc
pasnu+uen eneu, rotopMe qocturaktc s rpoecce ux ucronesosauu, u teopetu+ecrux roueruu, ua ase rotopMx
ouu paspaatMsaktc. Artusuocte rpuneueuu tarux netoqos qn peaeuu pasnu+uMx rpartu+ecrux saqa+
repuoqu+ecru neuetc. 3to oycnosneuo pqon rpu+uu, otuocauxc rar r ocoeuuoctn canux netoqos, tar u r
oeure rony+aenMx c ux ronoaek pesynetatos, orpeqenkaux s roue+uon utore rpartu+ecryk ronesuocte
rcuxoquaruocturu.
enu rpuneueuu netoqos rcuxoquaruocturu sasuct ot coqepauu rpurnaquMx saqa+, rpeqronarakaux oeury
u y+et uuqusuqyaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrux ocoeuuocteu cyerta. n rpoopueutauu ato sMsneuue
crocouocteu, qn rpoeccuouaneuoro otopa oeura ycreauoctu s tou unu qpyrou rpoeccuouaneuou
qeteneuoctu, qn pacctauosru raqpos orpeqeneuue cootsetctsu uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu u
yuruouaneuMx osauuocteu, qn oeuru rcuxonoru+ecrou cosnectunoctu s cosnectuou qeteneuoctu
sMsneuue sosnouocteu ro orasauuk ssaunuoro snuuu.
Koueruu, coctasnkaue netoqonoru+ecryk ocuosy netoqos rcuxoquaruocturu, neuktc s sasucunoctu ot
pesynetatos teopetu+ecrux u arcrepuneutaneuMx uccneqosauuu s onactu oaeu rcuxonoruu u pasnu+uMx ee
pasqenos, a tare rocseuuo sasuct ot sosspeuuu u rpeqro+teuuu ux astopos. 0quou ux rnk+esMx rponen
paspaotru netoqonoru+ecrou asM rcuxoquaruocturu snetc orpeqeneuue necta u ponu noqenu nu+uoctu s
rcuxoquaruocture. ponena ata s uactoaee spen ronuoctek ue peaeua, rocronery ee peaeuue rpeqronaraet
ronrnercuoe coequueuue suauuu us pasnu+uMx pasqenos rcuxonoruu. 6onee roqpouo snuuue atou rponenM ua
passutue rcuxoquaruocturu yqet paccnotpeuo qanee. 8qece e nouo orpauu+utec rouctataueu toro, +to
otcytctsue equuou rouertyaneuou asM s rcuxoquaruocture cyaectseuuo cuuaet ee sosnouoctu ro peaeuuk
rourpetuMx rpartu+ecrux saqa+.

3.3. Kpaka cop npueueu ecossx ueoqk. Kpka qoceu

pounnkctpuposate otcytctsue ueoxoqunMx equuMx roqxoqos nouo rpatrou uctopu+ecrou crpasrou o
teuqeuux s rpartu+ecron ucronesosauuu tectosMx netoqur, rotopMe paspaatMsaktc s panrax tectonoruu.
laronuun ocuosuMe sexu ucronesosauu tectos.
8 1883 r. 1peucuc lanetou rynuryet oenuctyk nouorpauk, s rotopou coqepatc orucauu pqa
paspaotauuMx un ctauqaptusosauuMx ucrMtauuu qn oeuru ceucopuMx u rcuxonotopuMx crocouocteu.
6naroqap atony, sMqsuuyta un eae s 1869 r. uqe quepeuuaneuou rcuxonoruu ctauosutc ua penecM
rpartu+ecru ocyaectsunMx naccosMx ocneqosauuu*.
* ut. ro: McDougall W. An introduction to social psychology. Boston; Luce, 1908; Xonn |.0., u+dceu l. Teopuu nu+uoctu. V., 1997.

8 1890 r. s ctatee, orynurosauuou s aurnuucron ypuane Mind, y+euur lanetoua eunc Varruu Kattenn*
srepsMe yrotpenet tepnuu tect, osua+akauu yrsaneuo rpoa, ucrMtauue.
* Cattell D. Mental tests and measurement // Mind. 1890. Vol. 15.

8 ua+ane 90-x roqos XIX s. 3nune Kperenuu sMqsuraet uqek rpuneueuu netoqos arcrepuneutaneuou
rcuxonoruu r saqa+an rcuxonoru+ecrou u rcuxuatpu+ecrou quaruocturu. C ua+ana XX sera K. Crupneu repsMn
peanusyet ye rony+usayk rpusuauue uqek ua rparture rpuneuuteneuo r oeure uutennertyaneuMx crocouocteu*.
puneusauec un netoquru oxsatMsanu tarue rcuxu+ecrue yuruu, rar socrputue, rante, opasosauue
accouauu u rcuxonotopura.
* Spearman D. General intelligence, objectively determined and measured // Amer. Journ. of Psychology. 1904. N 15.

Koue XIX u ua+ano XX ss. xapartepusyktc MctpMn passutuen netoqos rcuxonoru+ecrou quaruocturu
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
38
pasnu+uMx uutennertyaneuMx xapartepuctur nu+uoctu, u sce ato uarpasneuue s enon rony+aet s rpyrax
creuanuctos oaee uassauue ve+muvempuu, unu usvepe+u+ u+menne|ma.
8 1897 r. lepnau 3uurays rynuryet cooaeuue o paspaotauuou un netoqure ucrMtauu crocouoctu r
saronuuauuk rporyaeuuMx cnos s tercte. 1artu+ecru ato Mn repsMu rcuxonoru+ecruu tect ua nMcnuteneuMe
crocouoctu.
8 1908 r. Anepeq 6uue u Tonac Cunou orynurosanu ocuosuou sapuaut csoeu Vetpu+ecrou aranM
uutennerta, oecre+usaeu usnepeuue tar uasMsaenoro ynctseuuoro sospacta uuqusuqa. 8 1912 r. 8unen Ltepu
rpeqnoun usnepte uutennert peeura s tepnuuax roauueuta uutennertyaneuoctu (IQ), sM+ucnenoro ryten
qeneuu ynctseuuoro sospacta ua xpouonoru+ecruu sospact.
8 1916 r. rpoeccop Cteuopqcroro yuusepcuteta ekuc Tepneu sasepaun repepaotry aranM 6uue Cunoua
rpuneuuteneuo r ycnosun aurnosM+uMx ctpau*. (oq pyrosoqctson . Tepneua srocneqctsuu Mnu usqauM eae
qse repepaotru atou aranM, ussectuMe rar aranM Cteuopq 6uue**.) 3to Mn repsMu uuqusuqyaneuMu tect
oaero uutennerta, uaaeqauu naccosoe rpartu+ecroe rpuneueuue; ou sunc s ton unu uuon otuoaeuuu
rpoopason scex rocneqosasaux sa uun tectos ynctseuuMx crocouocteu.
* Terman L.M. The Measurement of Intelligence. Boston, 1916.
** Terman L.M., Merill M.E. Stanford - Binet Intelligence Scale. Boston, 1960.

8 1910 r. pyccruu rcuxonor l.|. Pocconuno orynurosan csok netoqury oeuru pasnu+uMx ynctseuuMx
crocouocteu ua ocuose y+eta suytpuuuqusuqyaneuMx (uutpauuqusuqyaneuMx) pasnu+uu, t.e. ryten roctpoeuu
uuqusuqyaneuMx rcuxonoru+ecrux rpouneu*.
* Pocconuvo l.n. cuxonoru+ecrue rpounu. +. 1. Vetoqura. C., 1910.

3tot netoq rony+un auporoe pacrpoctpaueuue rar s uaaeu ctpaue, tar u sa pyeon, rpeqsocxutus ua uecronero
qectunetuu uqek tar uasMsaenMx tectosMx atapeu, rotopMe s uactoaee spen ronesyktc oneaou
rorynpuoctek s ctpauax 8araqa.
8 roqM repsou nuposou souuM creuaneua ronuccu Anepuraucrou rcuxonoru+ecrou accouauu,
sosrnasnena Poepton |eprcon, paspaotana Apneucruu tect uutennerta. 3to Mn repsMu rpyrrosou tect
oaero uutennerta. la ocuose ero rpuneueuu Mna ocyaectsneua uutennertyaneua coptuposra 1 nnu 727 tMc.
perpytos anepuraucrou apnuu.
Auanoru+ua cutyau crnaqMsaetc s pyccrou apnuu: cua+ana so speneua pyccro-roucrou, a saten u repsou
nuposou souuM s apnuu sseqeuo rpartu+ecru roronosuoe nequro-rcuxonoru+ecroe ocneqosauue perpytos u
nnaqaux ouepos*. cuxonoru+ecrue tectM ua+anu sasoesMsate esporeucruu u anepuraucruu routuueutM.
Ctpenuteneuoe aectsue neutunetpuu u rcuxonoru+ecroro tectuposauu ro atun qsyn routuueutan rpoqonaetc s
qsaqaton ctonetuu, oxsatMsa, s repsyk o+epeqe, aurnosM+uMe ctpauM.
* Cn.: 5,pnav,| .1. cuxoquaruoctura nu+uoctu. Kues, 1989; /+acmasu /. cuxonoru+ecroe tectuposauue. V., 1977; cuxoquaruoctura:
teopu u rpartura / oq peq. l.1. TanMsuuou. V., 1986.

8 roue 30-x roqos asuq 8ercnep rynuryet csou netoquru uuqusuqyaneuoro tectuposauu: arany qn
usnepeuu uutennerta sspocnMx (rocnequ repepaotra qatupyetc 1955 r.); arany qn usnepeuu uutennerta
roqpoctros (1949 r.) u arany qn usnepeuu uutennerta qeteu qoaroneuoro u nnaqaero qoaroneuoro sospacta
(1967 r.). 0cuosuoe rpeunyaectso atux netoqur ro cpasueuuk co aranou 6uue Cunoua sarnk+aetc s
sosnouoctu roctpoeuu ux ro tury atapeu, coctoaux us uecronerux cytectos, +to rossonet orpeqente IQ s
otuoaeuuu otqeneuMx ynctseuuMx crocouocteu.
8 roqM stopou nuposou souuM s CLA pasnu+uMnu suqanu tectuposauu Mno oxsa+euo csMae 9 nnu +enoser,
cpequ rotopMx ocuosua nacca soeuuocnyaaue. 8 88C Mna cosqaua creuaneua tectosa atape qn
rnaccuurauu rypcautos netuMx y+unua (runot, onapqup, atypnau).
Apneucruu tect uutennerta sunc rpoopason nuorux rocneqykaux rpyrrosMx tectos oaero uutennerta,
cpequ rotopMx s uactoaee spen uauonee auporo rpuneuktc tarue atapeu, rar uepeuuaneuMe tectM
crocouocteu u TectM aroneuMx crocouocteu*. ocnequ us atux atapeu rpuneuetc qn otopa
autypueutos s yuusepcutetM u ronnequ. Eeroquo +epes uee rpoxoqut orono 2 nnu +enoser.
* Wechsler D. WAIS Manual. New York, 1955.

8 enon e s ua+ane 60-x roqos s oaeopasosateneuou u sMcaeu arone CLA eeroquo rpuneunoce orono 250
nnu equuu pasnu+uMx ctauqaptusosauuMx tectos, oneayk +acte rotopMx coctasnnu uutennertyaneuMe tectM*.
* Wechsler D. Manual for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. New York, 1967.

39
Auanoru+ua cutyau crnaqMsaetc u s Espore. Tar, s Aurnuu s 1972 r. oquu nuae lauouaneuMu ouq
reqaroru+ecrux uccneqosauuu rpeqnoun aronan orono 3,5 nnu equuu pasnu+uMx uutennertyaneuMx tectos. /e r
rouy 20-x roqos rpuneueuue pasnu+uMx tectos ynctseuuMx crocouocteu (s repsyk o+epeqe, rpyrrosMx) rpuuno
ua 8araqe ctone naccosMu xapartep, +to nuorue astopM qn xapartepucturu atoro sneuu ucronesykt tarue
routu, rar yn, aruqenu, rcuxos. | qeno sqece ue tonero s nacataax rpuneueuu tectosMx netoqur,
rnasuoe sarnk+aetc s ton, +to s csoen roqasnkaen oneauuctse atu netoquru uocunu (qa u ceu+ac uoct) pro
sMpaeuuMu anrupu+ecruu xapartep. Xot s ux rouctpyuposauue snoeuo uenano tsop+ecrou sMqynru,
usopetateneuoctu, ten ue neuee ouu, rar rpasuno, ue unekt roq coou cronero-uuyqe paspaotauuou
teopetu+ecrou asM.
3to racaetc ue tonero rouunauu canou cyauoctu tectosoro netoqa, uo u pacrpMtu coqepauu u
ocoeuuocteu tex rcuxu+ecrux csoucts, rotopMe sMupaktc s ra+ectse rpeqneta ucrMtauu s ton unu uuon tecte.
AstopM nuorux uutennertyaneuMx tectos otrposeuuo sasunu, +to atot sorpoc ux nano saotut, rnasuoe uanu+ue
onee unu neuee tecuou roppenuouuou cssu c rporuosupyenMn roseqeuuen.
Cootsetctsykaee rpeqo copnynuposan s csoe spen . Tepneu, rMtasauuc oocuosate cneroe
tectuposauue yna auanorueu c rpuneueuuen anertpu+ectsa: xot, rucan ou, rpupoqa atoro sneuu ro-uactoaeny
ue pacrpMta, ten ue neuee ouo ue tonero ycreauo usnepetc, uo u auporo ucronesyetc s rpartu+ecrux enx*. |
ceroqu, uecnotp ua Mctpo pactyaee rouunauue saraquMnu tectonoranu ponu teopetu+ecroro suauu, ata
uerpasonepua, nexauuctu+ecra auanoru sce eae orasMsaet snuuue ua otqeneuMx astopos, rpu+en tarux
ussectuMx, rar, uarpunep, l. Auseur**.
* Terman L.M. The Measurement of Intelligence. Boston, 1916.
** Eysenk H. The Structure of Human Personality. L., 1960.

la ocuose rpuneueuu uutennertyaneuMx tectos u s cootsetctsuu c teopueu usnepeuu spoqeuuoro uutennerta
s CLA, Aurnuu u qpyrux esporeucrux ctpauax s auporux nacataax artu+ecru ocyaectsnetc uutennertyaneua
cerperau aroneuuros. pu aton qeneuue ua uutennertyaneuMe ctpatM ctauosutc ro+tu ueopatunMn:
ueqoctatru teopuu, rasanoce, sronue ronreucuposanuce rponaquMn oenon ctatuctu+ecroro natepuana, cosqas
unnksuk oertusuoctu usnepeuuu.
Pasona+euue rporpeccusuMnu rcuxonoranu teopuu usnepeuu spoqeuuoro uutennerta s sua+uteneuou ctereuu
ctunynuposano rpotectM auporux cnoes oaectseuuoctu rpotus uutennertyaneuou cerperauu aroneuuros,
rocronery ueynepeuuoe u usspaaeuuoe rpuneueuue neutunetpuu rpuseno r tony, +to qetu uusaux u
nanooecre+euuMx cnoes uaceneuu rpartu+ecru nuaanuce sosnouoctu rony+ute ronuoeuuoe cpequee
opasosauue, ue rosop ye o sMcaen.
8 pesynetate s 60-x roqax nyuuuraneuMe snactu lek-|opra u qpyrux ropoqos CLA sMuyqeuM Mnu usqate
qupertusy o rperpaaeuuu ucronesosauu s aronax rpyrrosMx uutennertyaneuMx tectos. Ten ue neuee s
sanacruposauuon suqe uutennertyaneua ceneru rpoqonaet rparturosatec u s CLA, u s Aurnuu.
8araquMnu tectonoranu sa rocnequue qectunetu usqau pq yuqaneutaneuMx tpyqos ro teopuu tectos*.
0quaro to, +to oosua+aetc atun tepnuuon, s qeuctsuteneuoctu uaxoqutc qanero ot rcuxonoru+ecrou teopuu. Kar
crpaseqnuso otne+aet 3uu Auactasu, yrasauua sMae teopu tectos ato ue rcuxonoru+ecra, a natenaturo-
ctatuctu+ecra teopu, oxsatMsakaa tarue sorpocM, rar rpupoqa tectosou oeuru, aranM u netoqM orpeqeneuu
uaqeuoctu tectos u t.r.**
* Cn.: Anastasi A. Psychological testing. 6-th ed. New York, 1988; Gulliksen H. Theory of mental tests. New York, 1950; Mehrens W., Lehman I.
Measurement and evaluation in education and psychology. New York, 1984; Thorndike R.L. Applied psychometrics. Boston, 1982; Psychological
testing. An inside view / Ed. by M. Zeidner, R. Mast. Palo Alto, 1992.
** Anastasi A. Psychological testing. New York, 1988.

8 aton nM u canu yeqaenc, suaronce c yrasauuMnu sMae tpyqanu, a tare co creuaneuMnu
ote+ectseuuMnu paotanu ro rponenan rcuxonoru+ecroro tectuposauu*.
* Paucopodc|a+ P.F. partu+ecra rcuxoquaruoctura. Canapa, 1999.

0quaro orMt rpuneueuu neutunetpu+ecrux tectos qoctato+uo yequteneuo rorasMsaet, +to rpnoe
rpunoeuue +actuMx rcuxonoru+ecrux teopuu (rpu otcytctsuu roqxoqaux noqeneu nu+uoctu, ux uuterpupykaux,
tar e rar u rpu otcytctsuu roqxoqaux noqeneu perynuu roseqeuu, rqe rcuxura sMctyraet rar peryntop
roseqeuu) rpusoqut r ueratusuony rpartu+ecrony pesynetaty, uecnotp ua suqunyk u oocuosauuyk uaqeuocte
natenatu+ecrux, texuonoru+ecrux noqeneu teopuu tectos. 8ce ato yrasMsaet ua ueoxoqunocte creuaneuoro
auanusa cootuoaeuuu u csseu neqy noqennu pasuoro poqa u ra+ectsa: noqennu rcuxuru rar peryntopa
roseqeuu, noqennu nu+uoctu rar uuterpatopa rcuxuru, noqennu rpeqctasneuu qauuMx u noqennu ux
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opaotru.
ae rocne toro, rar ctanu oopnntec pasnu+uMe teopuu ynctseuuoro passutu peeura (uarpunep .C.
8Mrotcroro, X. uae, . 6pyuepa), sapyeua neutunetpu rpoqonana octasatec csoeopasuou natenaturo-
ctatuctu+ecrou qucurnuuou, usonuposauuou ot qoctueuuu rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru.
pocnequs uctopuk neutunetpu+ecrou nMcnu ot A. 6uue qo uaaux queu, roqpouo paccnotpes paotM .
Tepneua, +. Crupneua, . Tepctoua, . 8ercnepa, . lunopqa, X. uae, oquu us uctopuros tectonoruu rpuxoqut
r sMsoqy, +to uu oqua teopu unu noqene ue ctana ocuosou qn raroro-nuo ynctseuuoro tecta, sa ucrnk+euuen
passe +to paot . lunopqa*. lanu+ue s aton repe+ue uneu A. 6uue, . Tepneua, . 8ercnepa noet rorasatec
uecronero ueouqauuMn, rocronery yrasauuMe astopM soanu s uctopuk rar cosqatenu secena rorynpuMx
tectosMx netoqur. apaqorc, oquaro, sarnk+eu s qpyron: uu oquu us uux ue ronoun s ocuosy cosqauuoro un tecta
raryk-nuo +etro copnynuposauuyk roueruk nu+uoctu, orpauu+usauce nuae +actuMnu teopetu+ecrunu
paccyqeuunu, xot raqMu Mn qoctato+uo ussecteu u csounu teopetu+ecrunu paotanu.
* Anastasi A. Psychological testing. N.Y., 1988; P,canoe 3.V. cuxonoru u rcuxousuonoru uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu: uerotopMe utoru
u nuauaue saqa+u cuctenuMx uccneqosauuu // cuxonoru+ecruu ypuan. 1991. T. 12, N 5.

+. Crupneu u X. uae sooae ue sauunanuce rouctpyuposauuen tectos, uo repsMu us uux auporo ronesosanc
tectosMnu netoquranu qn oocuosauu csoeu teopuu oaero (general) artopa. orMtru paspaotate pq
tectos, ocuosauuMx ua arcrepuneutaneuMx netoqurax X. uae (a sua+ut, u ua ero roueruu ynctseuuoro
passutu*), rora ue rpusenu r cosqauuk tarux uuctpyneutos, rotopMe sManu M sa cteuM uccneqosatenecrux
naopatopuu.
* uae Y. |spauuMe rcuxonoru+ecrue tpyqM. V., 1969.

+to e racaetc . lunopqa, to, xot ou u ronoun s ocuosy csoux tectos orpeqeneuuyk teopetu+ecryk
roueruk, rocnequ, oquaro, orasanace ueqoctato+uo usuecrocouou co ctporo rparnatu+ecrou to+ru speuu.
VM otne+anu, +to ato ue otuocutc uarpnyk r tar uasMsaenMn nu+uoctuMn tectan, rocronery ouu, rar rpasuno,
unekt roq coou onee conuquyk teopetu+ecryk ocuosy (xot u sqece s enon pqe cny+aes nM ctanrusaenc c
rpunepanu ronoro anrupusna)*.
* 3apodu+ |.V. Voqene nu+uoctu s rcuxoquaruocture. V., 1994.

Kar ye otne+anoce, uctopu rouctpyuposauu nu+uoctuMx tectos socxoqut r 1912 r., rorqa P. Topuqaur ua+an
paspaatMsate sorpocuuru qn orpeqeneuu rpeonaqakaux uutepecos nu+uoctu. lo repsMn qeuctsuteneuo
nu+uoctuMn tecton, rony+usaun rpartu+ecroe rpuneueuue (u orasasaun snecte c ten sua+uteneuoe snuuue ua
rocneqykaee passutue canoorucateneuMx tectos), Mn nu+uoctuMu uuseutapuu qn sMsneuu uesposos y
soeuuocnyaaux, rpeqnoeuuMu s 1919 r. Poepton 8yqsoptcon*.
* Woodworth R.S. Personal Data Sheet. Chicago, 1920.

Ecnu rpoqonute osop uctopuu passutu u rosneuu nu+uoctuMx tectos naurosoro tura, to xpouonoru+ecruu
repe+eue uauonee sua+uteneuMx netoqur yqet sMrnqete cneqykaun opason:
1927 r. 3qsapq Ctpour rynuryet Kapto+ry rpoeccuouaneuMx uutepecos;
1928 r. rosnetc tect crnouuoctu r qonuuuposauuk roq+uueuuk lopqoua 0nnropta;
1928 r. rynuryetc tect nu+uoctuMx euuocteu, paspaotauuMu lopqouon 0nnropton u 1unurron 8epuouon;
1940 r. Ctapr Xataseu u eunc VarKuunu rynurykt Vuuuecotcruu nuoroasuMu nu+uoctuMu uuseutapuu
(MMPI) oquu us uauonee rorynpuMx ua 8araqe naurosMx tectos.
|s tar uasMsaenMx nu+uoctuo-qeteneuoctuMx tectos otnetun s ra+ectse ruouepcrux paspaotor qse netoquru
rpoertusuoro tura: tect setuMx +epuuneuMx rteu, paspaotauuMu lepnauon Popaaxon*, u tect tenatu+ecrou
arreperuu (TAT), astopanu rotoporo snktc l. Vkppeu u C.. Voprau**.
* Rorschah H. Psychodiagnostic. Bern; Leipzig, 1921.
** Murray H.A. and collaborators. Explorations in personality. New York, 1938; Murray H.A. Thematic Apperception Test. Mass., 1943.

8asepaa rpatruu osop u oeuusa cospeneuuoe coctouue sapyeuou tectonoruu cneqyet otnetute, +to r
uactoaeny speneuu oua uac+utMsaet s csoen apceuane uecronero cot pasnu+uMx netoqur: c oquou ctopouM,
cyryo uuctpyneutaneuMx, pacc+utauuMx ua usnepeuue ysrux creuaneuMx crocouocteu, a c qpyrou ctopouM,
pasnu+uMx ronrnercuMx tectos +ept xapartepa, oaux u auanutu+ecrux, uuqusuqyaneuMx u rpyrrosMx, naurosMx u
arrapatypuMx, canoorucateneuMx u qeteneuoctuMx (rocnequue, s csok o+epeqe, qentc ua cutyatusuMe u
rpoertusuMe).
ynurauu e, s rotopMx atu netoquru orucMsaktc u ronneutupyktc, uc+ucnktc tMc+anu. Ten ue neuee,
41
rar nM ysuqun qanee, cpequ atoro nop rynurauu paotM, s rotopMx qoctato+uo rnyoro auanusupyktc
teopetu+ecrue acrertM netoqa tectos, rpeqctasnkt coou rpoae+uMe octposru.

3.4. po6neus pais oeuecseuuo ncxoqaruock

Pyccra rcuxonoru ye s roue XIX s ua+ane XX ss. Mna +etro opueutuposaua ua auporoe rpartu+ecroe
rpunoeuue rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu, s ton +ucne u s onactu rcuxonoru+ecrux usnepeuuu uuqusuqyaneuMx
pasnu+uu nkqeu. 8necte c ten qn uee, rar u qn sceu nuposou rcuxoquaruocturu toro speneuu, Mno xapartepuo
roctpoeuue auporux sMsoqos ua ase +actuMx teopuu, neaaux s ocuose tectosMx ucrMtauuu.
pu uanu+uu rporpeccusuMx u qae orepeakaux yposeue nuposou uayru netoqonoru+ecrux qoctueuuu s
pyccrou rcuxonoruu, tar e, rar u s nuposou, artu+ecru rpoucxoquno otoqectsneuue rcuxuru u roseqeuu,
cosuauu u perynuu qeteneuoctu. la aton oue ocoeuuo xopoao suquo, rar opnuposanoce otuoaeuue
ote+ectseuuMx rcuxonoros r rpuneueuuk tectosMx netoqur u rarun opason ouo rpetepresano orpeqeneuuyk
asonkuk. 8 atou asonkuu ssrnqos nouo sMqenute tpu ocuosuMx repuoqa.
epsMu repuoq (c ua+ana 20-x qo cepequuM 30-x roqos) s cepe ote+ectseuuou rpartu+ecrou rcuxoquaruocturu
xapartepusosanc s enon uerputu+ecrun saunctsosauuen sapyeuMx tectosMx netoqur u rpeysenu+euuMnu
ouqauunu s otuoaeuuu ux rpartu+ecrou aertusuoctu. 8 atot repuoq uqe rcuxonoru+ecrux usnepeuuu
roqseprnace rpauueu synerapusauu s octauosre qoaeqaero qo uac c 8araqa tectosoro yna. 8 atux ycnosux
pasnu+uMe tectM (rar rpasuno, saunctsosauuMe sa pyeon) rpuneunuce qn nuunoro usnepeuu ynctseuuMx
saqatros, ua ocuose rotoporo roq+ac rpuuunanuce canMe paquraneuMe peaeuu, racakauec cyqeM
ocneqosauuMx aroneuuros. Vuorue us uux cosepaeuuo ueoocuosauuo osnnuce ynctseuuo otctanMnu u
uarpasnnuce s creuaneuMe aronM.
lnasuMnu sqoxuosutennu u qeuctsykaunu nuanu atoro yna s uaaeu ctpaue Mnu, oquaro, ue rcuxonoru, a
uerotopMe ueronreteutuMe paotuuru rpocseaeuu. +to e racaetc seqyaux cosetcrux rcuxonoros (K.l.
Kopuunos, .C. 8Mrotcruu, .. 6noucruu), to ux rosuu s qauuon sorpoce xapartepusosanace rpeqe scero
rposeqeuuen +etrou qenaprauouuou nuuuu neqy unesaunuc s to spen rourpetuMnu tectosMnu netoquranu u
netoqon tectos rar orpeqeneuuou netoqonoru+ecrou uqeeu, rotopa rora qonuMn opason ue peanusosaua, uo
noet ctate ocuosou qn cosqauu s yqyaen uay+uo oocuosauuMx, aertusuo paotakaux tectos.
8 paspaotry netoqa tectos ye s repsMe roqM cosetcrou snactu uapqy c suquMnu rpeqctasutennu
qopesonkuouuou rcuxonoruu u reqaroruru (.. 6noucruu, l.|. Pocconuno, A.. le+aes, A.. 6ontyuos, A.M.
Lyept) artusuo srnk+unuce rcuxonoru, +e uccneqosatenecra paota ua+anace s rocnepesonkuouuMu repuoq
(1.P. yuaescruu, .A. Lesapes, C.l. lennepateuu, 8.V. Korau, l.. esutos, V.C. 6epuateuu, A.A. Cnupuos, l.C.
Koctkr u qp.)*.
* Cn.: 3apodu+ |.V. Voqene nu+uoctu s rcuxoquaruocture. V., 1994.

pu scex pasnu+ux, rotopMnu xapartepusosanuce uay+uMe uutepecM u yctpenneuu, teopetu+ecrue rosuuu u
netoqonoru+ecrue roqxoqM uassauuMx y+euMx, ux qeteneuocte unena pq oaux rpusuaros. 8ce ouu Mnu
rpeucronueuM rop+ero, ucrpeuuero autysuasna s cssu c repcrertusanu, rotopMe, ro ux nueuuk, otrpMsanuce
repeq netoqon rcuxonoru+ecrux tectos s qene couanuctu+ecroro repeyctpouctsa oaectsa.
0rponuoe rpartu+ecroe sua+euue tectos, roq+eprusan s csoen sMctyrneuuu ua 8cecoksuou reqonoru+ecrou
rouepeuuu oquu us nuqepos cosetcrou tectonoruu .. 6noucruu, coctout s ton, +to ouu csoqt uac c ueec
ponautusna ua uaay sennk u qakt uan peaneuoe suauue aroneuura*.
* lauda 3.|., 3axapoe 3.. cuxonoru+ecroe tectuposauue. .: l/, 1982.

8 csoen otuoaeuuu r netoqy tectos, s oeure ero sosnouocteu ote+ectseuuMe tectonoru otukqe ue roxoqunu
ua uausuMx ne+tateneu. 3to Mnu rnyoro u scectopouue uuopnuposauuMe uccneqosatenu. C oquou ctopouM, ouu
orupanuce ua passutyk u opuruuaneuyk rcuxonetpu+ecryk tpaquuk, cnousaykc s qopesonkuouuou Poccuu u
rpeqctasneuuyk scenupuo ussectuMnu uay+uMnu aronanu l.|. Pocconuno u A.. le+aesa.
C qpyrou ctopouM, ote+ectseuuMe tectonoru Mnu xopoao ocseqonneuM o uoseuaux uccneqosauux u
paspaotrax csoux sapyeuMx ronner. 0uu otuocunuce r ux qoctueuun c ysaeuuen, uo snecte c ten u c
uaqneaaeu rputu+uoctek (rnyuua u rocneqosateneuocte rotopou, pasyneetc, ue nornu ue Mte orpauu+euM
uctopu+ecrunu ycnosunu).
8topou repuoq (c cepequuM 30-x qo roua 50-x roqos) rpoaen rpeqe scero roq suaron ronutusuposauuoro
otpessneuu, uactyrusaero rocne orynurosauu ussectuoro roctauosneuu K 8K() ot 4 ukn 1936 r. 0
reqonoru+ecrux usspaaeuux s cuctene uapronrpocos. K coaneuuk, s tex ycnosux ouo Mno sctpe+euo
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
42
rcuxonoranu ctpauM c yqosnetsopeuuen ato octauosneuue ctunynuposano ux r onee rnyorony auanusy
scero ronrnerca netoqonoru+ecrux u teopetu+ecrux rponen, cssauuMx c rpuneueuuen tectos ynctseuuMx
crocouocteu.
Cneqyet paqu crpaseqnusoctu roq+epruyte, +to cana uqe ynctseuuMx tectos rar netoqa ctauqaptusosauuoro
ucrMtauu u oeuru crocouocteu octauosneuuen K raptuu ue otsepranace. Ten ue neuee s atot repuoq
yrasauuoe octauosneuue +acto tpartosanoce auporo, ocoeuuo souuctsykaunu naprcuctanu, s qyxe
rateropu+ecroro otpuauu nkMx tectos u nkMx netoqos ronu+ectseuuou oeuru ynctseuuMx crocouocteu.
Paspaotra netoqa tectos, rar u passutue arcrepuneutaneuou u rpurnaquou rcuxonoruu, artu+ecru
rperpatunace, ocoeuuo naroqap oaeu uqeonorusuposauuou rosuuu. Kar ruaet ro socronuuauun toro
speneuu A.8. etposcruu, pesra u ro oneaeu +actu crpaseqnusa rputura reqonoruu, passepuysaac s re+atu,
otnu+anace snecte c ten orpeqeneuuou teuqeuuosuoctek u uepeqro corposoqanace otpuauuen scero
ronouteneuoro. Tarun opason, Poccu (to+uee, poccuucra uutennureuu) suose orepequna CLA u Aurnuk u
rar scerqa canMn paquraneuMn opason: snecte c rpsuou soqou synerapusatopctsa us sauuM orasanc
sMrnecuytMn u can peeuor.
0euusa nusruu r uan sapyeuMu orMt c atou to+ru speuu, uyuo otnetute sronue orpeqeneuuoe u secena
cyaectseuuoe pasnu+ue s passutuu rpartu+ecrou rcuxoquaruocturu s uaaeu ctpaue u s tar uasMsaenMx Msaux
ctpauax couanusna, a uMue ctpauax eutpaneuou u 8octo+uou EsporM. Tar, s onecrou lapoquou Pecrynure
rpartu+ecru es sanetuoro repepMsa senuce cuctenatu+ecrue uccneqosauu ro auanusy u oeure uauonee
ussectuMx sapyeuMx tectos uutennerta. lauonee aertusuMe tectosMe netoquru rpuneuktc s ra+ectse
scronorateneuoro cpeqctsa s rpoecce rpoopueutauouuou paotM, rotopa ye c 50-x roqos cuctenatu+ecru
rposoqutc rcuxonoranu, paotakaunu s roucynetauouuMx ryurtax Vuuuctepctsa rpocseaeuu. 0quospeneuuo s
onactu ynctseuuoro tectuposauu ocyaectsnetc u rnyora teopetu+ecra paota, csuqetenectson +ero
snetc orynurosauua s 8apaase s 1975 r. yuqaneutaneua paota V. losaroscrou Konu+ectseuua
rcuxonoru c aneneutanu uayronetpuu.
6oneaa teopetu+ecra u rpartu+ecra paota ro rcuxoquaruocture, s +actuoctu ro neutunetpuu, rposoqunace
rcuxonoranu u reqaroranu Msaeu lP. 8a 80-e roqM s atou onactu Mn orynurosau enMu pq
yuqaneutaneuMx uccneqosauuu. Cpequ uux cneqyet otnetute qse nouorpauu l. 8utnara 0cuosM
rcuxoquaruocturu (1977 r.) u peoqoneuue y+euou ueycresaenoctu (1982 r.), nouorpauk k. lytre K
quaruocture uutennertyaneuMx y+euMx crocouocteu (1976 r.), a tare paoty K. lytepa |snepeuue
rcuxu+ecrux csoucts (1980 r.) u ronnertusuMu tpyq 8seqeuue s quaruoctury y+euMx crocouocteu. 0aeu
ocoeuuoctek roqxoqa rcuxonoros lP r rponenan rcuxoquaruocturu snetc cocpeqoto+euue ocuosuMx ycunuu
ua paspaotre mecmoe +a,vaevocmu. pu aton rnasuMu areut qenaetc ua urcauu rpoeccyaneuMx acrertos
qeteneuoctu ucrMtyenMx.
8 +exocnosarou Pecrynure s ua+ane 60-x roqos Mn oprauusosau eutp ro usy+euuk u cosepaeuctsosauuk
netoqos rcuxonoru+ecrou u reqaroru+ecrou quaruocturu (6patucnasa). 8 1968 r. ua ase atoro eutpa Mno cosqauo
uauouaneuoe rpeqrputue cuxoquaruoctura. 8 atu e roqM rpu |uctutyte rcuxonoruu Al +CCP s pare
cosqaetc cuxonetpu+ecruu eutp. 1yurunu uauouaneuoro rpeqrputu cuxoquaruoctura snktc:
roopquuau u uuterpau qeteneuoctu ro rouctpyuposauuk, rposepre u ucronesosauuk rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux
netoqos; rpurnaquoe uccneqosauue atux netoqos, srnk+a s uero noquurauk u arpoauk sapyeuMx netoqur;
uuopnauouua paota*.
* ep+e 3. cuxoquaruoctura s couanuctu+ecrux ctpauax. 6patucnasa, 1983.

8anetuMn coMtuen ue tonero qn +exocnosarux creuanuctos, uo u qn rcuxonoros scex ctpau couanusna
sunc sMxoq s cset yuqaneutaneuou nouorpauu |osea LsauepM u ronnertusa uaruoctura rcuxu+ecroro
passutu (6patucnasa, 1978).
cuxoquaruoctu+ecra paota roctereuuo passopa+usanace s 8eurepcrou lapoquou Pecrynure, s lapoquou
Pecrynure 6onrapuu, s Pecrynure PynMuuu. VM ue pacronaraen rourpetuMnu cseqeuunu o coctouuu
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux uccneqosauuu ua Kye, oquaro tot art, +to uecronero net uasaq s lasaue Mno usqauo s
repesoqe ua ucraucruu sMr oenuctoe Pyrosoqctso ro rcuxonoru+ecrun ucrMtauun aroneuuros pauyscroro
rcuxonora Peue 8asso, rosoput o ton, +to u s atou ctpaue rposnetc usou uutepec r sorpocan rcuxoquaruocturu.
la aton oue o+esuquMn opason uactyraet tpetuu repuoq passutu rcuxoquaruocturu, xapartepusykauuc
cosuateneuMn rosopoton r yrnyneuuou paspaotre oaeu teopuu rpartu+ecrou paotM rcuxonoros, s ton +ucne
teopuu pasynuoro rpuneueuu ra+ectseuuMx u ronu+ectseuuMx netoqos s rcuxoquaruocture.
C oquou ctopouM, s pycne rpeuero autysuasna rpoqonaetc secena sMroqua qn oneauuctsa rputura
ypyasuou tectonoruu.
43
8necte c ten ua aton rorynpuon oue sMcrasMsanuce u sronue crpaseqnusMe coopaeuu: s +actuoctu,
yrasMsanoce ua conuuteneuMu xapartep usnepeuu tar uasMsaenoro spoqeuuoro uutennerta; ua
ueorpeqeneuuocte rcuxonoru+ecroro coqepauu nuorux tectosMx netoqur; ua ctatu+ecruu xapartep ucrMtauuu, ue
scrpMsakauu quuanury rpoecca, rpusoqaero r roue+uony pesynetaty; nosau+uocte, rournonepatuocte ux
coqepauu; cny+auuMu xapartep roqopa saqauuu u t.r.*
* Cn.: 5odanee /./., 0monu+ 3.3. 0aa rcuxoquaruoctura. V.: Vl/, 1987.

C qpyrou ctopouM, ote+ectseuua rcuxoquaruoctura s atot repuoq rocne qnuteneuoro qectpyrtusuoro sacto
suose opatunace r peaeuuk rouctpyrtusuMx rponen rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu. poauanusuposas rpoanMe
oauru u sanyqeuu, oua ctana roqxoqute r peaeuuk tarux saqa+ c oneaeu ocnotputeneuoctek, rMtanace
ucronesosate sospocauu teopetu+ecruu roteuuan rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru. la aton rytu, rar uan rpeqctasnetc,
ye qocturuytM repsMe, rpasqa, rora crponuMe ycrexu.
6oneauuctso seqyaux ote+ectseuuMx rcuxonoros scerqa pasqennu yeqeuue s ton, +to ueoxoqunMe uaaeny
oaectsy quaruoctu+ecrue netoquru ueuseuo qonuM onaqate cyaectseuuMnu xapartepucturanu
rcuxonoru+ecrux tectos. epsMn co sceu ueqsycnMcneuuoctek sMpasun ato yeqeuue 6.V. Ternos*. 8 ctatee,
orynurosauuou s 1960 r. s copuure cuxonoru+ecra uayra s CCCP, ou rucan (une s suqy otnu+uteneuMe
ocoeuuoctu netoqa tectos): let ocuosauuu rpuuuruaneuo sospaate uu rpotus ropotrux ucrMtauuu, uu rpotus
ctauqaptusauu ycnosuu ucrMtauu, uu rpotus ctpenneuu sMpasute pesynetatM ucrMtauu s ronu+ectseuuou
opne, uu rpotus ctatuctu+ecrou opaotru pesynetatos. 8ospaate uaqo rpotus qpyroro rpotus toro, +to
roqasnkaee oneauuctso tectos ue uneet roq coou rpo+uo oocuosauuou uay+uou asM.
* Tennoe 5.V. cuxonoru+ecrue tectM qn sspocnMx ro 3. Topuqaury. V., 1930; Tennoe 5.V. ponenM uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu. V.,
1961.

/rasMsa ua ueoxoqunocte paspaotru oertusuMx netoqur qn quaruoctu+ecroro uccneqosauu ynctseuuoro
passutu y+aauxc, A.l. eoutees otne+an: o cux rop eae ropou rpuxoqutc ctanrusatec c uerpasuneuMn, ro
cytu +ucto cuurpetu+ecrun cnueuuen uay+uMx, arcrepuneutaneuo oocuosauuMx, rcuxonoru+ecrux tectos,
qakaux sosnouocte ra+ectseuuou oeuru, c tar uasMsaenMnu tectanu ynctseuuou oqapeuuoctu, rpartura
rpuneueuu rotopMx ue tonero crpaseqnuso ocyqeua y uac, uo sMsMsaet ceu+ac sospaeuu so nuorux qpyrux
ctpauax nupa*.
* eo+meee /.l. eteneuocte, cosuauue, nu+uocte. V., 1977.

K.K. natouos oeuusaet netoq tectos cneqykaun opason: Canu tectM rpu ux rpasuneuon rpuneueuuu u ue
nexauu+ecron, opnaneuon, a ctpyrtypuon auanuse, coroctasneuuu u ooaeuuu noryt qasate secena euuMu
natepuan qn oeuru aneneutapuMx u onee cnouMx crocouocteu u qn ctpyrtypuoro rporuosa qeteneuoctu.
6onee toro, quepeuuaneua rcuxonoru s enon ue noet passusatec es tectos*.
* namo+oe |.|. ponenM crocouocteu. V., 1972.

A.l. Kosanes u 8.l. Vcuaes tare opatunu suunauue uccneqosateneu ua ueoxoqunocte
quepeuuposauuoro roqxoqa r netoqy tectos. Tarou roqxoq rpeqe scero rpeqronaraet y+et toro, rarue sMsoqM
qenaktc us rourpetuou netoquru. 8eqe tect noet rpocto ueaqersatuo rpuneutec. anee A.l. Kosanes u 8.l.
Vcuaes roq+eprusakt, +to ouu sMctyrakt nuae rpotus tex tectos, rotopMe rpeteuqykt ua usnepeuue
spoqeuuou oqapeuuoctu. laroue, ouu sMpaakt uecornacue c uerpasonepuMn, nexauuctu+ecrun tpeosauuen,
+toM ye ua cospeneuuon atare passutu rcuxoquaruocturu tectM Mnu csooquM ot rarux M to uu Mno
ueqoctatros*.
* |oeanee /.l., V+cu(ee 3.l. cuxonoru+ecrue ocoeuuoctu +enosera. ., 1960.

C raqMn roqon s uaaeu ctpaue ysenu+usaetc ronu+ectso uccneqosauuu, s ton +ucne oaercuxonoru+ecroro
xapartepa, s rotopMx tectM sMctyrakt rar oquo us rnasuMx netoqu+ecrux cpeqcts. 8ce onee uuteucusuMnu u
nuororpauuMnu ctauostc ycunu, uarpasneuuMe ua rouctpyuposauue unu noquuuposauue otqeneuMx tectosMx
netoqur, rpu+en s oneauuctse cny+aes ata paota ctpoutc ua conuquou teopetu+ecrou ase.
8qece cneqyet s repsyk o+epeqe otnetute tectosMe ronrnercM, paspaotauuMe K.V. lypesu+en, F.A.
ouonapesMn, .A. 8eurepon, l.|. leronuaeu, |. C. Frunaucrou u qp.
pasqa, qanero ue so scex ote+ectseuuMx rynuraux paspaatMsaenMe unu rpuneunMe tectosMe netoquru
uneuyktc tectanu. lepeqro snecto tepnuua tect yrotpenetc cnoso rpoa, netoqura unu
arcrepuneut, snecto cnosa tectosa yrotpenetc tepnuu quaruoctu+ecra. 0quaro peaneua
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qeuctsuteneuocte ot atoro ue usneuetc.
+to racaetc uassauu ucrMtauue, rpoa, tect, crpaseqnuso sane+akt A.l. Kosanes u 8.l. Vcuaes,
ato sua+euu ue uneet*. Ten ue neuee otras ot tepnuua tect rpu+uuun M, ro uaaeny nueuuk, orpeqeneuuMu
yaep ato norno M Mte uctonrosauo s ton cnMcne, +to uay+uo ueoocuosauuMnu, nanoaertusuMnu
snktc ue rpocto otqeneuMe tectosMe netoquru, uo u can netoq tectos s enon.
* Tan e.

oatony nM crnouuM rpucoequuutec r to+re speuu 8. A. Kpyteroro, rotopMu rucan:, | nM scneq sa 6.V.
TernosMn u pqon qpyrux cosetcrux rcuxonoros qenaen rorMtry sepuyte cnosy tect ero uactoaee
tepnuuonoru+ecroe sua+euue. Tot art, +to tepnuu tect Mn uspquo cronrponetuposau s uctopuu uayru, ue qaet
cronero-uuyqe secrux ocuosauuu otrasatec ot atoro ctporo uay+uoro tepnuua*.
* ut. ro: 3apodu+ |.V. Voqene nu+uoctu s rcuxoquaruocture. V., 1994.

Auanoru+uMn opason octout qeno u s rpuneueuuu qpyrux netoqos rcuxoquaruocturu. n uux tare nouo
ouapyute repuoqM rosMaeuu u cuueuu artusuoctu rpartu+ecroro rpuneueuu. 0uu csuqetenectsykt o ton,
+to uutepec r rpartu+ecrony rpuneueuuk rcuxoquaruocturu sasucut ot ee sosnouocteu ro rony+euuk
ueoxoqunMx s peaeuuu rourpetuMx saqa+ pesynetatos u ot aqersatuoctu otuoaeuu r atun pesynetatan tex, rto
ux s roue+uon utore ucronesyet. ocnequee uneet ocooe sua+euue, tar rar sasMaeuue sosnouocteu
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos u usnuau aconktusau rony+aenMx c ux ronoaek oeuor s roue+uon utore
rpusoqt r cuueuuk uutepeca s ux ucronesosauuu.
oatony rosMaeuue artusuoctu ucronesosauu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos +acto corposoqanoce sce neuee
oocuosauuMn u rsanuuuposauuMn rposeqeuuen ocneqosauuu, rorMtranu peaate c ronoaek
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux cpeqcts saqa+u, ua rotopMe atu cpeqctsa, ctporo rosop, ue pacc+utauM. 8 pesynetate
ysenu+usanoce +ucno oauor s rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux oeurax, +to u rpusoquno r cuueuuk rorynpuoctu
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos.
/rasauuMe ueqoctatru teopetu+ecrou rcuxoquaruocturu u roqxoqos r ee rpartu+ecrony ucronesosauuk so
nuoron snktc pesynetaton otcytctsu equuMx roueruu, orpeqenkaux coqepauue rourpetuMx netoqur u
oprauusauk ux rpuneueuu. Tarue roueruu ueoquorpatuo rpeqnaranuce qn passutu teopuu rcuxoquaruocturu u
oprauusauu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux ocneqosauuu. Pasnu+ue tarux roueruu qoctato+uo qetaneuo
rpoauanusuposauo s paotax seqyaux creuanuctos s qauuou onactu*. 0uo csuqetenectsyet o ton, +to, uecnotp
ua uuteucusuoe passutue rcuxoquaruocturu rar uayru o +enosere, rora ue copnuposanuce equuMe roqxoqM r
peaeuuk ee rpartu+ecrux saqa+. oatony eae coxpauetc usnuauee pasuoopasue s rouunauuu
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux saqa+, s roqxoqax r orpeqeneuuk asosMx noqeneu nu+uoctu, peaeuuk sorpocos
oprauusauu ocneqosauuu.
* 0v.: ,poeu+a n.3. Pao+a ruura aroneuoro rcuxonora. V., 1991.

8necte c ten rpartu+ecra rcuxoquaruoctura tar unu uua+e passusaetc, uecnotp ua otpuateneuoe snuuue
otne+euuoro pasuoopasu. 3tony crococtsykt teopetu+ecrue uccneqosauu, uarpasneuuMe ua opnuposauue
netoqonoruu rcuxoquaruocturu, a tare rsanuurau rpartu+ecrux creuanuctos, rotopa rossonet
ronreucuposate taroe pasuoopasue rpartu+ecrun orMton u creuanusaueu s rourpetuMx onactx rpartu+ecroro
rpuneueuu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos. 0quaro qaneueuaee passutue rcuxoquaruocturu, tpeykaeec qn
yqosnetsopeuu sce onee sospactakaux sarpocos rparturu, rpusoqut r ueoxoqunoctu repuoqu+ecroro
repeocnMcneuu u repepaotru teopetu+ecrux roueruu, y+eta uarorneuuoro anrupu+ecroro orMta u paspaotru
onee cosepaeuuMx cpeqcts rcuxoquaruocturu.
oqouMe rorMtru rpeqrpuuunanuce ueoquorpatuo. |x nouo c+utate onee unu neuee yqa+uMnu. 0uu, oquaro,
ue peaanu rponeny ronuoctek, uo raqa us uux orasMsana csoe rosutusuoe snuuue ua rpartury
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux ocneqosauuu. 0aun qn scex us uux Mno to, +to ux astopM yqennu nuoro suunauu
rourpetuMn netoqan u rpoeqypan opaotru pesynetatos. pu aton +aae scero ue paccnatpusanuce rponenM,
sosuurakaue rpu coroctasneuuu u cpasueuuu rony+euuMx c ronoaek pasnu+uMx netoqos qauuMx u rpu
uuteprpetauu tarux qauuMx c to+ru speuu roue+uou enu ux ucronesosauu.
la uaa ssrnq, taroe ronoeuue cnounoce s pesynetate uerotopou aconktusauu rponen rcuxoquaruocturu s
yaep passutuk paot s onactu rourpetuou netoqonoruu oaeu rcuxonoruu. 8 +actuoctu, ue paccnatpusanace
sosnouocte rpartu+ecroro ucronesosauu npu+(una cucmev+ocmu, xot us-sa nuoroacrertuoctu nkoro
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecroro ocneqosauu enecoopasuocte taroro paccnotpeuu qoctato+uo o+esuqua. Auanoru+uMu
sMsoq nouo cqenate ro rosoqy y+eta npu+(una |ovnne|c+ocmu ue tonero rpu rpartu+ecron ucronesosauuu
45
netoqos rcuxoquaruocturu, uo u ronrnercuoctu paspaotru ux netoqonoru+ecrou ocuosM.

|nasa 4. oue nuuoc uoqen nuuoc s npakuecko ncxonor

4.1. Yposu auania cy6Lekusx qeuoueuos

|ctopu+ecruu ssrnq ua ctauosneuue rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru u passutue +enoserosuauu otrpMsaet
ueoxoqunocte enoctuoro paccnotpeuu qsueuu pasynuou usuu u rouunauu sarouonepuocteu oprauusauu
pasynuoro roseqeuu sue sasucunoctu ot rourpetuoro cyerta ee uocuten. 3to osua+aet, +to rnasuMn oerton
uay+uoro uccneqosauu ctauosutc cyert u ero roseqeuue, ero ssaunoqeuctsue c orpyakaun nupon. pu aton,
rar yqet rorasauo qanee, teopetu+ecru sauo orpeqenute nuoectso cyertos sua+uteneuo aupe, srnk+a s uero
ue tonero +enosera, +enoseroroqouMx rpunatos u sMcaux nnerorutakaux. Tara roctauosra sorpoca ue
cosraqaet c yctauosusaunc nueuuen, otoqectsnkaun (routue) cyerta u (routue) +enosera u rpno
cssMsakaun uqek cyerta c rouerueu nu+uoctu. 8 rpotusoronouocte atony nueuuk, s xoqe auanusa nM
yqen tare paccnatpusate cny+au, rotopMe unekt pasuoe otuoaeuue rar r +enosery, tar u r usotuony.
Ectectseuuo, +to s taron cny+ae ueoxoquno yqet creuaneuo pasopatec s tarux yuqaneutaneuMx routux
cospeneuuou rcuxonoruu, rar +enoser, uuqusuq, nu+uocte, s +en coctout ux coqepateneua creuura. 3to
ten onee sauo, +to roueru nu+uoctu tar e, rar u roueru cyerta, snetc asosou rateropueu
rcuxonoruu +enosera*.
* /+a+eee 5.l. +enoser rar rpeqnet rosuauu. ., 1969.

|ctopu+ecruu ssrnq rossonet sMqenute s oaen naccuse +enoserosuauu tpu rnasuMx pasqena, tpu ocuosuMe
otpacnu rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu, rotopMe cssauM c usy+euuen tar uasMsaenMx c,se|m+ex e+ove+oe*, c
uccneqosauuen oprauusauu roseqeuu cyerta, ero rcuxu+ecrou usuu, qyaesuMx sneuuu.
* 3apodu+ |.V. Passutue +enosera s usneukaeuc couaneuou cutyauu // poeccuouaneuoe oy+euue u rosMaeuue
rsanuurauu s ycnosux arouonu+ecrou tpaucopnauu oaectsa u opnuposauu uosou couaneuou ronuturu. V., 1995.

8aqa+a repsoro pasqena, rotopMu rpeqctasnet coou ro orpeqeneuuk oayk rcuxonoruk, coctout s ton, +toM
rony+ute qoctato+uo apryneutuposauuMe u rouctpyrtusuMe otsetM ua cneqykaue, s orpeqeneuuon cnMcne
arsusaneutuMe, sorpocM:
+en cyert otnu+aetc ot uecyerta;
+to otnu+aet cyaects, onaqakaux rcuxurou, ot tex, rotopMe ek ue onaqakt.
3tu sorpocM orasMsaktc qoctato+uo sauMnu ue tonero s teopetu+ecron, uo u s rpartu+ecron otuoaeuuu. 8
roqtsepqeuue sMcrasauuoro ytsepqeuu rpuseqen uecronero rpunepos us peaneuou usuu.
la+uen, rasanoce M, c o+esuquoro rpunepa cutyauu c tpaucrnautaueu yuutapuMx usueuuo sauMx
oprauos. pu aton scerqa cyaectsyet rputu+ecruu sorpoc: ua+uua c raroro noneuta nouo osute teno
ynupakaero +enosera qouopcrun, qn toro +toM uste tot unu uuou usueuuo sauMu oprau (cepqe, re+eue u
t.q.) c enek rocneqykaeu repecaqru qpyrony +enosery.
pyrou rpunep seqet rpoucxoqeuue us rparturu cosepaeuuo uuoro csouctsa, oquaro ou tare cssau c
roctasneuuMn sMae sorpocon o otnu+uu cyerta ot uecyerta. 8orpoc opnynupyetc cneqykaun opason:
rpu rarux ycnosux u octotenectsax +enoser qoneu Mte otsetctseueu sa yuuctso qpyroro +enosera? Tar,
otsetctseu nu repnaucruu conqat speneu stopou nuposou souuM sa yuuctso rpeqctasuten uusaeu pacM?
0tse+akt nu conqatM ronouuaneuMx soucr, seqyaue cospeneuuMe ronouuaneuMe souuM, sa yuuctso conqata
rpotusuou ctopouM unu sa ruene nupuMx uteneu? euctsuteneuo, ecnu oaectseuua uopna paccnatpusaet
rpeqctasuteneu uusaeu pacM unu rpunutusuMx uapoqos s ra+ectse ue cyertos, ue nkqeu, torqa sorpoc o nu+uou
otsetctseuuoctu ue noet Mte qae roctasneu. 8 rpotusuon cny+ae sosuuraet cutyau otsetctseuuoctu sa
uapyaeuu rpas nu+uoctu, rpas +enosera, u s qauuou cutyauu sctyraet s qeuctsue rpartura neqyuapoquoro
rpasa, rotopa paccnatpusaet ue art, a uopnM otsetctseuuoctu sa taroro poqa qeuctsu.
Tarun opason, sorpoc o uqeutuurauu cyerta rar cyerta, u qanee rar +enose+ecroro unu
+enoseroroqouoro cyerta, uaroue, rar nu+uoctu ato sorpoc ucrnk+uteneuou rpartu+ecrou sauoctu.
Tpetuu rpunep uaxoqutc s onactu uonoru+ecrou uayru, to+uee, teopuu sosuuruoseuu pasynuou usuu, u ou
orasMsaetc tare cssauuMn c rponenou uqeutuurauu cyerta. laronuun, +to s uctopuu 8ennu usue
passusanace qosoneuo creuu+ecrun opason, uo teopetu+ecra uonoru sMqenuna (a raneouonoru+ecrue
uccneqosauu anrupu+ecru roqtsepqunu atot pesynetat) tpu yuqaneutaneuMx setsu uonoru+ecroro qepesa,
rotopMe neqy coou reuetu+ecru (uneetc s suqy sosnouocte rosneuu oaero rotonctsa) pasoanuce cotuu
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46
nunnuouos net uasaq.
3tu tpu setsu s rocneqykaeu uctopuu usuu uurorqa ue repeceranuce u s uactoaee spen rpeqctasneuM
nuoectson usMx oprauusnos pasnu+uou ctereuu cnouoctu. 8necte c ten ueqasuue atonoru+ecrue u
soorcuxonoru+ecrue uccneqosauu rorasMsakt, +to sce tpu setsu qenouctpupykt rpunepuo oquuarosMu yposeue
oprauusauu roseqeuu: sMcaue rpeqctasutenu raqou us yrasauuMx setseu unekt rpunepuo oquuarosMu
uutennertyaneuMu yposeue, ouapyusakt secena sMcoryk ctereue passutoctu couaneuoro roseqeuu u roxoue
opnM necyertuMx otuoaeuuu.
8 atou cssu sosuuraet ectectseuuMu sorpoc, +to taroe cyert, s +en creuura ero roseqeuu u +to coou
rpeqctasnet rcuxura. 0tryqa sosuuraet pasynua usue, ecnu s tpex pasuMx, cotuu nunnuouos net reuetu+ecru ue
repecerasauxc setsx oaero qepesa senuou usuu copnuposanuce rpunepuo oquuarosMe opnM roseqeuu u
yrpasneuu roseqeuuen.
3to osua+aet, +to nuo sosnouocte passutu uassauuMx nexauusnos oprauusauu roseqeuu Mna sanoeua
eae s canon ua+ane sosuuruoseuu senuou usuu s ctpyrtype rpocteuaux oprauusnos eae cotuu nunnuouos net
uasaq, nuo ato csouctso rpoussoqutc u socrpoussoqutc s pesynetate canooprauusauu ssaunoqeuctsu
uuqusuqa c orpyakaun nupon, u torqa uyua rara-to creuaneua yuruouaneua ctpyrtypa, rotopa M ato
csouctso roqqepusana u uecna s cee. Vouo rpeqctasute, +to s ussectuon cnMcne crasauuoe osua+aet
rpusuauue artu+ecroro snuuu cpeqM ua oprauusauk roseqeuu, uo sorpoc atot sua+uteneuo rnye: ou coctout
s usy+euuu oprauusauu creuu+ecroro ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c ero orpyeuuen, s uccneqosauuu nexauusnos u
rocneqctsuu atou oprauusauu, rotopa, ro uaaeny rpeqronoeuuk, snetc ectectseuuMn (atpuytusuMn)
csouctson pasyna u natepuu, u uyuM tonero roqxoqaue ycnosu, +toM ouo rposunoce s tou unu uuou opne.
|snoeuua roueru ue ucrnk+aet sosnouocte toro, +to pasynua usue Mna saueceua ua 8ennk s canMx
repsu+uMx opnax, sarperunace s rpocteuaux usMx oprauusnax u saten uesasucuno passusanace s yronuytMx
sMae tpex setsx uonoru+ecroro qepesa.
puseqeuuMe rpunepM u coopaeuu nuauuu pas qorasMsakt rpuuuruaneuyk sauocte sorpoca o
uqeutuurauu cyerta u ocoeuuocteu ero roseqeuu, u otset ua atot sorpoc nuoro sua+ut qn +enose+ectsa. 8
+actuoctu, roqtsepqeuue toro, +to sMcorooprauusosauuMe opnM pasynuou usuu noryt passusatec uesasucuno
ot rourpetuoro ee uocuten, ctasut cosepaeuuo uua+e sorpoc o repcrertusax +enose+ectsa.
8 uactoaee spen ato sorpoc o+eue octpo ocyqaetc s routercte rponen roue+uoctu unu ecroue+uoctu
+enose+ecroro poqa, oeuru repcrertus yctou+usoro passutu +enose+ectsa ua 8enne. 0qua us uqeu coctout s ton,
+toM crpoertuposate u peanusosate opasosauue, qoctato+uo sMcoroe ro yposuk u uuterpuposauuoe ro sceny
nuoectsy uayr. peqronaraetc, +to suauue uctopuu passutu 8ennu, ctauosneuu ee uo- u uoocepM, rpuuuros
oprauusauu pasynuou usuu (8.|. 8epuaqcruu) rossonut rpeqoxpauute +enose+ectso ot canoyuu+toeuu. 8 csete
rpuseqeuuMx sMae paccyqeuuu nouo route, +to nponeva cavocoxpa+e+u+, |a| u nponeva ,cmouvueoco
paseumu+, +en+emc+ cocmee++ou nponevou venoeevec|oco c,se|ma, u no |pau+eu vepe +e npe|pa(aem
deue+ue pas,v+ou us+u.
8topa otpacne u stopou yuqaneutaneuMu pasqen rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu sauunaetc uccneqosauuen
pasnu+uu neqy cyertanu. 8orpoc coctout s ton, +toM rorasate, rar u +en otnu+aktc pasuMe cyertM qpyr ot
qpyra.
8 cospeneuuou nuposou u ote+ectseuuou rcuxonoruu atu rponenM uaxoqtc s ronreteuuu tar uasMsaenou
cpae+umene+ou unu duepe+(uane+ou ncuxonocuu. | xot atu pasqenM otuocuteneuo cnao rpeqctasneuM s
cospeneuuou ote+ectseuuou rcuxonoruu, s uctopuu Poccuu nouo uautu ocuosateneuMe paspaotru yrasauuMx
rponen, rpeqctasneuuMe sMqakaunuc qoctueuunu senu+auaux poccuucrux y+euMx: rcuxonoros, usuonoros
(6.l. AuaueesMn, l. 8aruepon, B.C. Vepnuuon, |.. asnosMn, k.A. Poruucrun, l.A. Tux, ux rocneqosatennu u
y+euuranu).
0cuosuou sorpoc quepeuuaneuou rcuxonoruu ato sorpoc o uuqusuqyaneuoctu u canouqeutu+uoctu
cyerta. 0tset ua atot sorpoc rpeqronaraet uccneqosauue rponen cneqykaero ropqra:
+en u ro+eny otnu+aetc qauuMu cyert ot qpyrux;
rar u ro rarun rputepun nouo cpasuusate neqy coou pasuMx cyertos;
rar rpeqctasute sMsneuuMe pasnu+u s onee unu neuee oospunou u yropqo+euuou opne (rnaccuurauu,
turonoruu, rpusuaros, rapanetpos u t.r.).
|ctoru peaeuu atux rponen nM uaxoqun eae s autu+uou uayre: auporo ussectuM rnaccu+ecrue turM
+enose+ecrux xapartepos. |ssectuMe c qasuux speneu +etMpe tura (xonepur, caursuuur, nenauxonur u nernatur),
sepotuo, rpeqctasnkt coou repsyk rorMtry rnaccuuuposate nuoectso +enose+ecrux cyertos. 3ta
rorMtra rossonet ysuqete, ro rarun xapartepucturan, ro rarun rpusuaran pasnu+uMx uuqusuqos nouo
cpasuusate neqy coou u s +en coctout rpoeqypa coroctasneuu uuqusuqyaneuMx pasnu+uu (roqpouee cn.
47
uue).
Tpetuu pasqen rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu u tpete otpacne rcuxonoruu s cootsetctsuu c norurou rpeqnoeuuoro
roqxoqa qonuM unete qeno c cyertuMnu pasnu+unu so speneuu usuu cyerta. CreuaneuMu auanus
usueuuoro rytu, nuuuu usuu cyerta, ero cyqeM qoneu rorasate, rar u ro+eny, ro rarun sarouan passusaetc
raqMu otqeneuMu cyert. 8orpoc sqece ue s ton, rar cyert cyaectsyet unu +en otnu+aetc ot qpyrux
cyertos, a s ton, rar ou can uset u passusaetc, rarue artopM snukt ua ero passutue, rarue aertM
rpoussoqt atu artopM, +to qeuctsyet ua +enosera, ro+eny uneuuo tar, a ue uua+e ctpoutc ero uuqusuqyaneuoe
roseqeuue.
3ty otpacne rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu nM s qaneueuaen yqen uasMsate |a,sane+ou unu npuvu++ou
ncuxonocueu, rnasua ene rotopou uccneqosate te artopM u te nexauusnM, c ronoaek rotopMx
ocyaectsnetc yrpasneuue uuqusuqyaneuMn roseqeuuen so scen nuoectse cyertuMx ssaunoqeuctsuu qn
qauuoro cyerta s ero qsueuuu ro usueuuony rytu.
Tarun opason, ecnu paccnatpusate uctopuk u pesynetatM uccneqosauu rcuxu+ecrux sneuuu u rcuxonoruu
nu+uoctu s enon rar sneuu u coMtu, rpuuaqneaaue cyerty, rar cyertuMe sneuu u coMtu, nouo
ysuqete, +to sc euoneuonoru rcuxuru s roue+uon utore csoqutc r qsyn otuocuteneuo uesasucunMn rnaccan.
1. 1euoneuM roseqeuu, uerocpeqctseuuo socrpuuunaenMe roctopouuun uankqatenen (aertM u
rapanetpM ssaunoqeuctsu c orpyakaun nupon, uankqaenMe coctouu cyerta u orpyakaero nupa snecte
c ux usneueuuen u t.q.).
2. 1euoneuM u nexauusnM yrpasneuu roseqeuuen, ue socrpuuunaenMe roctopouuun uankqatenen (uo
+actu+uo qoctyruMe suytpeuueny canouankqeuuk, rpeqctasneuuMe s cosuauuu cyerta).
Crasauuoe osua+aet, +to s pycne rpuutoro roqxoqa sce paccnatpusaenMe cyertuMe sneuu u coMtu,
otuocauec r sMqeneuuMn sMae qsyn rnaccan, ueoxoquno qoctato+uo arrypatuo pasnu+ate rar noru+ecru u
ra+ectseuuo uecoroctasunMe yposuu cyertuou peaneuoctu, uecnotp ua to, +to atu qsa rnacca qo cux rop secena
cnao pasnu+aktc ue tonero s ote+ectseuuou, uo u s sapyeuou cospeneuuou rcuxonoruu.
laronuun eae pas, +to rorqa pe+e uqet o roseqeu+ecrux euoneuax, s ato nuoectso srnk+aktc te coMtu u
sneuu, rotopMe nouo uankqate uerocpeqctseuuo u urcuposate oertusuo, s ton +ucne c ronoaek
cootsetctsykaux usu+ecrux uuctpyneutos unu uocuteneu, rotopMe rossonkt ato qenate: otorneura,
suqeoracceta, naruutua saruce, ynauMu uocutene, uposou roq u t.q. /rasauuMe euoneuM nouo u
uankqate, u sarucate rar peaneuMe usu+ecrue coMtu. |, cneqosateneuo, ux cyaectsosauue usu+ecru
qorasyeno, rocronery +epes uux cyert ocyaectsnet csou routart c orpyakaun ero (usu+ecru cyaectsykaun)
nupon.
Vouo crasate, +to qauuMu rnacc euoneuos, rotopMu qanee nM yqen uneuosate noeede+vec|uv, a tare
creuu+ecrue tpeosauu r rpoeqypan auanusa atoro rnacca sneuuu rar pas u roctasunu sorpoc o rytx
passutu uay+uou rcuxonoruu, o uccneqosauuu ocoeuuocteu rcuxuru eae nuoro tMc+enetuu uasaq.
lankqa nup, autu+uMe uccneqosatenu ouapyunu, +to so nuoectse qsueuuu u ssaunoqeuctsuu
coctasnkaux ero oertos cyaectsyet ro rpauueu nepe oquu, qosoneuo creuu+ecruu rnacc, cssauuMu c
qsueuuen uerotopMx us cyaectsykaux oertos.
8Mupa pasnu+uMe oertM uankqeuu u paccnatpusa nuoectso ux ssaunoqeuctsuu c orpyakaun nupon
s pasuMe noneutM speneuu u s pasuMx cutyaux, atu uccneqosatenu ouapyunu, +to so nuoectse oertos
sMqenetc uerotopMu ocoMu rnacc, rpeqctasutenu rotoporo seqyt ce csooquo, qo orpeqeneuuou ctereuu ue
roq+uuce ussectuMn ectectseuuouay+uMn sarouan (sarouan rpu+uuuoctu, sarouan qeuctsu, sarouan
arsusaneutuoro ssaunoqeuctsu u t.q.). 0ertM us atoro rnacca yctou+uso qenouctpuposanu ueoM+uMe qn
octaneuoro nupa ssaunoqeuctsu, rotopMe rony+unu srocneqctsuu uauneuosauue noeede+u+ uneuuo s cuny
csoeu ueoM+uoctu. Cootsetctseuuo rpeqctasutenu yrasauuoro sMae ocooro rnacca oertos, uaxoqauec s
o+esuquon rpotusope+uu c usu+ecrunu sarouanu, ctanu uasMsatec cyertanu.
|tar, us nuoroopasu pasnu+uMx cyaectsykaux s nupe oertos u ux qsueuuu (ssaunoqeuctsuu) sMqenunc
ocoMu rnacc uankqaenMx c,se|moe, ocoeuuMn opason seqyaux ce s orpyakaen nupe. oseqeuue
cyerta rar uankqaenoe ssaunoqeuctsue ocooro rnacca oertos ra+ectseuuo otnu+aetc ot qpyrux suqos
qsueuuu u ssaunoqeuctsuu, uankqakauxc s tar uasMsaenou +eueou, unu +eod,aeene++ou npupode. Ctporo
rosop, us taroro orpeqeneuu noru+ecru sMteraet sosnouocte otuectu rnacc cyertos u ux roseqeuue r
oertan u ssaunoqeuctsun usou, unu oqyaesneuuou rpupoqM.
|utyutusuoe +ysctso orpeqeneuuoctu nupa tpeosano ocueuu u roucra rpu+uu, ro rotopMn uankqaenoe
roseqeuue cyerta ra+ectseuuo, cyaectseuuo u yctou+uso otnu+aetc ot qpyrux uankqaenMx nuposMx
ssaunoqeuctsuu, ot qsueuu ueusMx oertos, rotopoe, ro-suqunony, ronuoctek orpeqennoce qeuctsuen
sueauux rpu+uu.
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lankqaenMe +enoemop+evocme noeede+u+ e odu+a|oeex noemop+s(uxc+ cum,a(u+x u +eusve++ocme
noeede+u+ eo v+oecmee pasnuv+ex cum,a(uu tpeosanu rpeqronoeuu, +to +e ece e noeede+uu c,se|ma
onpeden+emc+ e+ea+uvu ,cnoeu+vu u ocmo+menecmeavu.
PesynetatM uankqeuu roctouuo qorasMsanu ato ue sce s roseqeuuu cyertos ocuetc qeuctsuen
tonero sueauux artopos. 8 ycnosux, rorqa cyaectsosan oquu u tot e artop qeuctsu, s oquou u tou e (c to+ru
speuu uankqaten) cutyauu, s pasnu+uMe noneutM speneuu cyert qenouctpuposan nuoectso pasnu+uMx
rpoqoneuuu. pu aton sane+ateneuMn Mno to, +to s rostopkauxc cutyaux ue tonero pasuMe cyertM, uo
qae oquu u tot e cyert noet sectu ce ro-pasuony. 3tu pesynetatM osua+anu, +to eedene++ee u
+ansdaevee a|mope cum,a(uu, es+mee omdene+o om c,se|ma, +e onpeden+sm od+os+av+o eosvo+ee
eapua+me dane+euaeco paseumu+ coemuu.
8qece o+esuquMn opason uapyaanc saueuauu rpuuur cssu rpu+uua qeuctsue, teprena rpax uqe
rpeqcrasyenoctu u oprauusosauuoctu nupa. osquee yrasauuMu rpuuur qetepnuuusna rony+un uassauue
de|apmoec|oco, unu |apmesua+c|oco npu+(una npuvu++ocmu. Ero rpnoe uapyaeuue s uankqaenon roseqeuuu
+enosera, ro uaaeny nueuuk, u sunoce ocuosauuen qn toro, +toM s ra+ectse yuqaneutaneuoro rpusuara
qsueuu +enosera s nupe Mna sMqeneua ceooda eonu.
le yqen sqasatec s qetanu unococrux y+euuu o csooqe, otnetun tonero, +to rar M uu rouunanu s
qaneueuaen rpuuur csooqM sonu u rarue M qucryccuu uu corposoqanu sosnouMe ero tpartosru, sa atun
routuen neut ueocropunMu anrupu+ecruu art, rotopMu rcuxonoran saMsate uurar uenes: s oquux u tex e
cutyaux ue tonero pasuMe nkqu, uo qae oquu u tot e +enoser noet sectu ce ro-pasuony.
C qpyrou ctopouM, s tex e canMx uankqeuux ue neuee yctou+uso socrpoussoqunc eae oquu ue neuee
sane+ateneuMu pesynetat. Ecnu qoctato+uo qonro uankqate sa oquun u ten e cyerton s cutyaux ero
peaneuou usuu, nouo saurcuposate ero roseqeuue so nuoectse canMx pasuoopasuMx cutyauu. pu aton,
uecnotp ua o+esuquoe pasnu+ue cutyauu u octotenects, cyert noet qenouctpuposate oquo u to e
roseqeuue. lan nerro rpeqctasute cee cny+au yrpnoro y+euura s rarue M pasuoopasuMe cutyauu
(rooapeuu unu uarasauu) sM ero uu ctasunu, ou sce pasuo rpoqonaet qenate to e canoe.
3tot pesynetat rpeqctasnet coou stopou sauMu roseqeu+ecruu euoneu, rotopMu tare ue yneaaetc s
panru raptesuaucroro rpuuura u rotopMu tare rcuxonoru+ecru osua+aet csooqy, otuocuteneuyk uesasucunocte
cyerta ot coctouuu u coMtuu orpyakaero nupa.
Tara, xot u otuocuteneua uesasucunocte roseqeuu cyerta ot uankqaenMx sueauux rpu+uu osua+ana
otcytctsue oquosua+uMx csseu neqy pasnu+uMnu noneutanu usuu cyerta, qorasMsana rpuuuruaneuyk
ueoquosua+uocte, u, ten ue neuee, qoctato+uyk yctou+usocte roseqeuu cyerta rar s neukaenc, tar u s
ueusneuuon nupe.
3tu qsa euoneuonoru+ecrux octotenectsa, ro-pasuony otpaeuuMe u ro-pasuony uuteprpetupyenMe s
rcuxonoru+ecrou uayre, paquraneuMn opason orpeqenkt ra+ectseuuyk creuury cyertuoro roseqeuu u
oquospeneuuo cosqakt oneaue tpyquoctu s teopetu+ecron rcuxonoru+ecron auanuse. orMtru rpuneuute
uopnaneuyk (rnaccu+ecryk) norury u rnaccu+ecryk natenatury r auanusy roseqeuu u ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta uu
r +eny orpeqeneuuony ue rpusenu. 6onee toro, yrasauuoe octotenectso ueoquorpatuo ucronesosanoce s ra+ectse
qorasatenectsa anoru+uoctu (s rnaccu+ecron cnMcne) rcuxu+ecrux sneuuu u rpoeccos.
Cyauocte u ueoMruoseuua cnouocte atou rponenM Mnu xopoao routuM scen ten, rto pasqenn tar
uasMsaenyk rynauuctu+ecryk rosuuk s rcuxonoruu.

4.2. 0 ncxonorueckx iakouax

Ctano cosepaeuuo cuMn, +to qn orucauu u ocueuu paccnotpeuuoro sMae rnacca cyertuMx
euoneuos, rotopMu nM uasMsaen roseqeu+ecrun, tpeyktc rarue-to ocoMe rpasuna u noqenu. pyrunu
cnosanu, uankqaena euoneuonoru roseqeuu roq+uuetc csoun coctseuuMn ocoMn sarouan, rotopMe
nouo uuteprpetuposate rar coctseuuo rcuxonoru+ecrue sarouM, rar sarouM roseqeuu cyerta u yrpasneuu
atun roseqeuuen.
8 rpuseqeuuon pauee rpunepe c autu+uou turonorueu xapartepos nouo rpocnequte ra+ectseuuyk creuury
rcuxonoru+ecrux sarouonepuocteu. peqronoun, +to ten unu uuMn crocoon yctauosneuo, +to uankqaenMu
uanu cyert nernatur. 0tckqa uerocpeqctseuuo cneqyet ouqauue (repeuoc ua qauuoro cyerta) tex
opasos roseqeuu, rotopMe noet qenouctpuposate nernatur s tex cutyaux, rotopMe sM noete cee
rpeqctasute.
0tsnerace ua spen ot crocoos uqeutuurauu qauuoro cyerta s tepnuuax rcuxonoru+ecrux
rnaccuurauu, otnetun sqece, +to s qauuon cny+ae nM uneen qeno c cosepaeuuo rporuosupyenou cutyaueu, a
49
sua+ut, sqece rposnet ce ueruu rcuxonoru+ecruu sarou, rotopMu onpedene++ev opasov ce+seeaem
munonocuvec|,s xapa|mepucmu|, c,se|ma c onpedene++ev munov eco noeede+u+ e onpedene++ou cum,a(uu
c,se|m+oco esauvodeucmeu+.
Cosepaeuuo auanoru+uo usu+ecruu sarou lektoua cssMsaet roseqeuue aapos s cutyauu yrpyroro yqapa c
xapartepucturanu canux aapos u rapanetpanu cutyauu yqapa.
8 rpuseqeuuon rpunepe rcuxonoru+ecruu sarou qoctato+uo ctporo orpeqenet csse cootsetctsykaero tura
tenrepaneuta c cootsetctsykaun turon roseqeuu. 3tot rpunep rorasMsaet, +to roseqeuue cyerta ato ue
rpocto ue+to uankqaenoe u rnoxo roqqakaeec ocueuuk, ato ra+ectseuuo creuu+uMu rnacc
ssaunoqeuctsuu unu qsueuuu cyertos, roq+uukauuc csoun ocoMn rcuxonoru+ecrun sarouan, rotopMe
rpocto uaqo suate.
0tckqa cneqyet sauoe ytsepqeuue: dn+ moco, vmoe ae|mue+o npuve++me ncuxonocuvec|ue sa|o+e,
+eoxoduvo docmamov+o mov+o ude+muu(upoeame napavempe cum,a(uu, xapa|mepucmu|u c,se|ma u
ocoe++ocmu cavoco esauvodeucmeu+.
0paaace r tony e rpunepy, yraen, +to qn orpeqeneuuoctu rcuxonoru+ecroro rporuosa ueoxoqun ueruu
usneputeneuMu uuctpyneut, uarpunep croco orpeqeneuu tura tenrepaneuta. 0rMt rcuxonoruu rorasMsaet, +to
tarou uuctpyneut cyaectsyet ato rpoeqypM rcuxonoru+ecrou quaruocturu (uankqeuu, eceqM, orpocuuru,
tectM u t.r.), rotopMe creuaneuo rpequasua+euM qn roqouoro usnepeuu (uqeutuurauu rapanetpos)
cyerta*.
* 3apodu+ |.V. Passutue rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu s CCCP // ArtyaneuMe rponenM cospeneuuou rcuxonoruu. V., 1989.

Paccnotpun roqpouee norury roctpoeuu anrupu+ecrux sarouos u norury uuteprpetauu euoneuonoru+ecrux
sarouonepuocteu. Eae pas opatunc r rpuseqeuuony sMae rpunepy. |s nuoro+ucneuuMx +actuMx uankqeuuu u
ctatuctu+ecroro ooaeuu pesynetatos, rony+euuMx s xoqe uankqeuuu, ctauosutc onee unu neuee cuMn, rar
cssau orpeqeneuuMu tur tenrepaneuta c orpeqeneuuMn turon roseqeuu +enosera, t.e. sMsnetc uera
uusapuautua anrupu+ecra sarouonepuocte. 0quaro sqece uneet cnMcn opatute suunauue ua cneqykauu
nanosanetuMu noru+ecruu ukauc. la canon qene pesynetatM uankqeuuu rpeqoctasunu uan nuae artu+ecryk
ctpyrtypy nuoectsa uankqaenMx opasos roseqeuu, rorasauuMx pasnu+uMnu cyertanu so nuoectse
coroctasunMx cutyauu. pu aton rosunace rpuuuruaneua sosnouocte turonoru+ecru pasqenute ato
nuoectso opasos roseqeuu c ronoaek qsyx ronpuMx rputepues pearuposauu s tou unu uuou cutyauu
(cuneuMu cnaMu, neqneuuMu MctpMu). Tara rpyrruposra nuoectsa opasos roseqeuu s +etMpe
uerepecerakauxc rnacca rossonuna pasqenute ua +etMpe rnacca nuoectso cyertos (s cootsetctsuu c
uankqaenMnu opnanu ux roseqeuu), t.e. rnaccuuuposate uankqaenMe cyertM ro turan tenrepaneuta.
Tarun opason, ua nuoectso anrupu+ecrux qauuMx orasanuce uanoeuuMnu cuneuMe teopetu+ecrue
qoryaeuu o otuocuteneuon roctouctse qauuoro tura pearuposauu qn qauuoro cyerta, t.e. o uanu+uu y
cyerta uerotopou sMpaeuuou uusapuautuou uuqusuqyaneuou ocoeuuoctu, rposnkaeuc s ero roseqeuuu
ctauneuo u otuocuteneuo uesasucuno ot rourpetuou usueuuou cutyauu.
Tar rosunace, ro-suqunony, repsa teopetu+ecra actparu quepeuuaneuou rcuxonoruu, ytsepqakaa,
+to pasnu+uMe cyertM pasnu+aktc neqy coou ro orpeqeneuuMn rapanetpan roseqeuu, yctou+usMn r
coMtun neukaeroc nupa, u ata yctou+usocte roseqeuu otpaaet uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu canoro
cyerta. 3to noru+ecroe rpeqronoeuue crpMto rpoqonano uqek suytpeuueu, a ue sueaueu qetepnuuauu
cyertuoro roseqeuu s rpeqeneuou opne: rpeqronaranoce, +to qauuMu tur roseqeuu unnaueutuo cssau c
qauuMn cyerton u rposnetc scerqa u s nkMx cutyaux ero ssaunoqeuctsu c orpyakaun nupon u,
cneqosateneuo, rossonet yctou+uso rnaccuuuposate nkqeu, s qauuon cny+ae ro turan tenrepaneuta.
Tar teopetu+ecra roueru uuqusuqyaneuoctu soana s noru+ecroe rpotusope+ue c qauuMnu uankqeuuu,
ocsooqus uerotopMe xapartepucturu roseqeuu ot snuuu orpyakaero nupa u, cneqosateneuo, rpurucas ato
snuuue tonero suytpeuuun ocoeuuoctn cyerta. oatony ye repsa anrupu+ecra xapartepuctura cyerta
rar yuuraneuoro uuqusuqa orasanace cssauuou c rnyo+auaeu teopetu+ecrou actparueu. 0tnetun, +to s
rocneqykaen s uctopuu quepeuuaneuou rcuxonoruu u ocoeuuo rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu atot rpuen
ucronesosanc ueoquorpatuo. 8 pesynetate yrasauuou actparuu ua ase ctpyrtypuposauuoro nuoectsa opasos
roseqeuu cyerta rosunace rcesqoanrupu+ecra xapartepuctura uuqusuqyaneuoctu canoro cyerta tur ero
tenrepaneuta.
0quaro qeno Mno cqenauo, rnaccuurauouua cetra Mna roctpoeua u ctana artusuo ucronesosatec qn
cuctenatusauu pesynetatos rcuxonoru+ecrux uankqeuuu: orpeqeneuuMu tarun opason tur tenrepaneuta
orasanc uonuuatusuo cssauuMn c orpeqeneuuMn turon roseqeuu, u, uaoopot, orpeqeneuuMu tur roseqeuu rar
pas u rossonun crpyrruposate cyertos ro orpeqeneuuMn turan tenrepaneuta. 3to nuae roqtsepqaet uaae
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oaee coopaeuue o netaopu+ecron xapartepe taroro poqa orpeqeneuuu.
aneae oneae, u s rpeqctasneuuu creuanuctos ueocosuauuo cnounc orpeqeneuuMu orucateneuMu opas
+uctoro tura tenrepaneuta, nectae socrpousseqeuuMu s xyqoectseuuou opne aseqcrun xyqouuron X.
6uqctpyron.
4neruak s oMqeuuon rpeqctasneuuu ato tur, rotopMu onaqaet cuneuou u neqneuuou roseqeu+ecrou (s
ton +ucne anououaneuou) pearueu ua coMtu sueauero nupa. +to ato osua+aet c to+ru speuu sueauero
uankqaten? pu nkMx octotenectsax nkqu taroro tura sce pasuo ue yqyt sspMsatec. 0uu crorouuo
pearupykt ua sosnyaakaue sueauue octotenectsa qae s ton cny+ae, ecnu atu octotenectsa un ue
espasnu+uM. 8 cny+ae ueoxoqunoctu ouu crorouuo aty cutyauk paspeaat, rpasqa, yqyt qenate ato uecronero
neqneuuee, +en rpeqctasutenu qpyroro +uctoro tura caursuuuru.
6aursuk rpeqctasnet coou cuneuMu u MctpMu tur, rotopMu s orpeqeneuuMx cny+ax noet
qenouctpuposate unrynecusuMe, sspMsuMe pearuu, oquaro s ocuosuou nacce cutyauu ou xopoao u aertusuo
perynupyet u csou anouu, u csoe roseqeuue.
Henauxonk cnaMu u neqneuuMu tur roxo ua nernatura ten, +to ou neqneuuo unu sosce ue pearupyet ua
sosnyaakaue (usneukauec) sueauue octotenectsa. Cyaectseuuoe otnu+ue ero ot nernatura coctout s ton,
+to croco ero pearuu ua te unu uuMe coMtu orasMsaetc orpaaeuuMn s rpyctuMe toua.
laroue, xonepk tur cnaMu u MctpMu. Xonepur unrynecusuMu, sspMsuou, c Mctpou repeneuou uactpoeuu
roq snuuuen cutyauu, ero pearuu +acto roqasnktc sueauunu coMtunu, u ou ue noet qonro corpotusntec
qasneuuk sueauux octotenects.
PaccnotpeuuMu rpunep rossonet pacrpMte orpeqeneuuyk texuonoruk cpasuuteneuoro uccneqosauu. 8o scex
cny+ax, rorqa ocyaectsnetc uankqeuue cyertuoro roseqeuu, s rone speuu e+ea+eco +ansdamen+
coqeputc +ansdaeva+ cum,a(u+ u +ansdaeveu c,se|m. 8ueauuu uankqatene uesasucun u ue sneausaetc
s te+euue uankqaenMx coMtuu ro orpeqeneuuk, ato uccneqosatene, quaruoct. Ero saqa+a rpu nuuunaneuon
sneaatenectse narcunaneuo to+uo saurcuposate uankqaenMe ronroueutM ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c
orpyakaun nupon. |tar, roseqeuue uankqaeno s yrasauuMx sMae ronroueutax, s ux teryaen coctouuu; cneua
atux coctouuu rossonet saurcuposate quuanury ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta, ero qsueuue so ssaunoqeuctsuu c
nupon (puc. 4.1).
Vuoro+ucneuuMe rcuxonoru+ecrue rnaccuurauu turos nu+uoctu, turos uuqusuqyaneuoctu sa peqrun
ucrnk+euuen sMpactakt ua ocuose pesynetatos nuoro+ucneuuMx, cuctenatusuposauuMx uankqeuuu, ctasaux
+a,v+evu da++evu. 0oaeuuMe anrupu+ecrue qauuMe, qoronueuuMe uerou teopetu+ecrou rurotesou, noqenek
usy+aenoro sneuu, rossonkt srocneqctsuu rpuneute rpeqnoeuuMe rnaccuurauu qn rpeqcrasauu
sepotuMx opn roseqeuu cyerta s qpyrou noneut speneuu u s qpyrux cutyaux ssaunoqeuctsu*.
* 3apodu+ |.V. Voqene nu+uoctu s rcuxoquaruocture. V., 1994.

8 aton routercte ocooe sua+euue rpuopetakt vemode copa avnupuvec|ux da++ex u vemode ux
meopemuvec|ou u+mepnpema(uu.
VetoqM copa rcuxonoru+ecrux qauuMx, tar e rar u netoqM ux uuteprpetauu, rpeqronarakt rouctpyuposauue
creuaneuMx npo(ed,p +ansde+u+ sa roseqeuuen (u coctouunu) cyerta u nupa*. 3tu mex+onocuu
ncuxonocuvec|oco +ansde+u+, unu ncuxomex+onocuu +ansde+u+, coqepat, ro neueaeu nepe, qsa ueoxoqunMx
ronroueuta: rcuxonoru+ecrue suauu u rcuxotexuu+ecruu uuctpyneutapuu. |uctpyneutapuu, s csok o+epeqe,
roqpasqenetc ua qse +actu. 0quy us uux coctasnkt mex+u|a u vemode copa ncuxonocuvec|ux da++ex,
rpeqronarakaue onee unu neuee sanetuMu routart uankqaten c uankqaenMn cyerton. pyryk mex+u|a u
vemode u|ca(uu da++ex +ansde+u+, qorycrakaue rocneqykaue xpaueuue, tpaucroptuposry u cuctenatusauk
copauuMx qauuMx.
* Meister D. Measurement of Behavior. 1985.

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Pc. 4.1.Cxena ssaunoqeuctsuu cyerta c nupon ua ero usueuuon rytu

n cssu qauuMx uankqeuu u rcuxonoru+ecrux suauuu opnupyktc mex+u|a u vemode u+mepnpema(uu
pes,nemamoe +ansde+u+.
K rpunepy, s cny+ae rourpetuoro uankqeuu sa rourpetuMn +enoseron s ra+ectse ueoxoqunou uuopnauu
sMctyrakt spen, necto, ycnosu u uqeutuuratop uankqaenoro cyerta, xapartepucturu cutyauu uankqeuu,
coctouu cyerta u ero roseqeuue, coctouu orpyeuu cyerta. auuMe uankqeuu sauoctc s creuaneuMu
quesuur unu s nkoe qpyroe xpauunuae repsu+uou (cMpou, ueopaotauuou) uuopnauu o rposeqeuuon
uankqeuuu, ucronesykaue, uarpunep oto-, ruuo-, ayquo- u qpyryk uuopnauouuyk texuury. osusauec s
rocnequue roqM uosMe uuopnauouuMe texuonoruu rossonkt cyaectseuuo rosMcute aertusuocte
uuctpyneutapu uankqeuu u netoqos urcauu pesynetatos uankqeuu. Crasauuoe, rar nerro ysuqete,
otuocutc r qsyn repsMn rpyrran rcuxotexuonoruu, t.e. r rpyrre cpeqcts, rotopMe rossonkt ycunute sosnouoctu
u aertusuocte paotM uankqaten. C oquou ctopouM, ouu cyaectseuuo oner+akt rpoecc uankqeuu, a c
qpyrou rossonkt ocyaectsute onee to+uyk u uaqeuyk urcauk pesynetatos uankqeuu.
Tex+u|a u vemode u+mepnpema(uu anrupu+ecrux qauuMx tare noryt Mte roqeneuM ua rpyrrM. 0qua us uux
srnk+aet s ce netoqM opaotru repsu+uMx qauuMx, qpyra netoqM teopetu+ecrou uuteprpetauu
pesynetatos.
+to M uu snnoce oerton rcuxonoru+ecroro uankqeuu rapanetpM cutyauu, qeuctsu cyerta, ux
rocneqctsu, coctouu nupa u cyerta, sce ato ctauosutc usu+ecru uankqaenMn (c rosuuu sueauero
uankqaten) artu+ecrun natepuanon, rotopMu coctasnet euoneuonoruk roseqeuu. 8 te+euue onee +en cta
net passutu uay+uo-arcrepuneutaneuou rcuxonoruu oquou us rnasuMx rponen Mno peaeuue sorpoca o ton,
otuocute nu repsu+uMe qauuMe uankqeuu (srnk+a s uux opasM roseqeuu cyerta) r onactu rcuxu+ecrux
sneuuu unu r onactu sneuuu usu+ecrux.
8 atou cssu sosuuraet ectectseuuMu sorpoc: s +en e pasuua neqy arcrepuneutaneuMn rcuxonoron u
usuron-arcrepuneutatopon?
n rpocueuu atoro ueoxoquno sepuytec r ua+any usnoeuu u uaronuute, +to so scen nuoroopasuu
cyertuMx euoneuos nM sMqenen qsa ra+ectseuuo pasnu+uMx u noru+ecru uecosnectunMx rnacca: cocmee++o
noeede+vec|ue e+ove+e, c oquou ctopouM, u e+ove+e ,npaene+u+ noeede+uev c qpyrou.
ocneqykaee usnoeuue roctouuo orupaetc ua yronuytoe ronoeuue, rpeqctasnkaee oquu us rnk+esMx
noneutos paspaotauuoro uanu roqxoqa: so scen nuoroopasuu sneuuu, Msaux u ctauosusauxc oertanu
rcuxonoru+ecroro usy+euu, cneqyet sMqente dea |avecmee++o pasnuv+ex euda e+ove+oe u dea ,poe++
e+ove+onocuu, c rotopMnu nM uneen qeno rar s onactu uay+uou, tar u s onactu rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu: c
oquou ctopouM, sneuu u coMtu u+mepc,se|m+ee, otuocauec r canony roseqeuuk, a c qpyrou ctopouM
sneuu u coMtu u+mpac,se|m+ee, otuocauec r yrpasneuuk roseqeuuen.
To, +to cssMsaet passutue cutyauu c roseqeuuen cyerta, rony+aet s uaaen sapuaute uassauue
ncuxonocuvec|ux vexa+usvoe, rotopMe ua canon qene sronue sarouonepuMn opason cssMsakt pasnu+uMe
noneutM qsueuu cyerta s usneukaenc nupe ryten roctpoeuu orpeqeneuuMx noqeneu cssu qsueuu
nupa u qsueuu cyerta, t.e. saqasa rurotetu+ecrue cssu neqy yposuen uankqaenMx uutepcyertusuMx
euoneuos roseqeuu u uutpacyertusuMx sneuuu u coMtuu euoneuonoruu rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnos.

4.3. Hoqen nuuoc s ncxoqaruocueckx npnoeux

outue noqene ucronesyetc s canMx pasnu+uMx onactx uayru. 0uo otpaaet rpeqctasneuu,
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52
opnupykauec s rpoecce usy+euu oertusuou peaneuoctu u oequueuuMe s suqe roueruu ee orucauu
noqenu atou peaneuoctu. Tarue noqenu roctouuo cosepaeuctsyktc s uarpasneuuu oecre+euu sce onee
ronuou ux aqersatuoctu tou peaneuoctu, rotopyk ouu orucMsakt. 8 aton coctout rosuauue u uarorneuue uay+uMx
suauuu, rossonkaux ocute oertusuMe artM, coMtu, sneuu, sMsnte teuqeuuu s ux quuanure u
rporuosuposate passutue roqouMx teuqeuuu s rourpetuMx ycnosux. C oquou ctopouM, noqene, otpaakaa
oertusuyk peaneuocte, rossonet peaate saqa+u uay+uoro auanusa; c qpyrou atu noqenu ucronesyktc qn
rporuosuposauu tex unu qpyrux teuqeuuu s quuanure atou peaneuoctu (oquu us cyaectseuuMx acrertos saqa+u
cuutesa).
Auanoru+uMn opason ocyaectsnetc passutue rcuxoquaruocturu. osneuue uosMx noqeneu unu roueruu
nu+uoctu ctunynupyet paspaotry uosMx rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux cpeqcts, a cosqauue rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqur,
asupykauxc ua oaux unu +actuMx rouerux nu+uoctu, sMsMsaet repecnotp unekauxc s teopuu oaeu
rcuxonoruu roueruu nu+uoctu. oatony ueoxoqunocte cssu teopuu rcuxoquaruocturu c teopueu nu+uoctu,
rotopa ueoquorpatuo roq+eprusanace s pasnu+uMx uccneqosauux [32; 75; 98], noet Mte oecre+eua
aqersatuoctek noqeneu nu+uoctu, ucronesyenMx rcuxoquaruocturou, ocuosuMn ronoeuun teopuu nu+uoctu.
Kpone toro, noqene nu+uoctu noet Mte ocuosauuen qn paspaotru rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqur u oprauusauu
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux ocneqosauuu, tar rar ux enek s roue+uon utore snetc orpeqeneuue creuu+uoctu
rapanetpos u xapartepuctur nu+uoctu ocneqyenoro, paccnatpusaenou c rosuuu rpuutou noqenu.
0tcytctsue +etro paspaotauuMx noqeneu nu+uoctu s rcuxoquaruocture so nuoron u snetc rpu+uuou
otne+euuMx s rpeqMqyaux rnasax ruuru rpotusope+uu otqeneuMx ronoeuuu teopuu rcuxoquaruocturu u
ueqoctato+uou ee rpartu+ecrou ronesuoctu qn rposeqeuu ocneqosauuu. 3to, suquno, ocuetc ten, +to
paspaotra noqenu nu+uoctu snetc oquou us uauonee cnouMx rponen oaeu rcuxonoruu, a s teopuu
rcuxoquaruocturu tarue noqenu paspaotauM nuo suo ueqoctato+uo, nuo ue paccnatpusaktc sooae,
roqneuce rpeqneton quaruoctuposauu, rcuxu+ecrunu csouctsanu unu otqeneuMnu ra+ectsanu. 0quaro
ronouteneuMu orMt paspaotru u rpartu+ecroro ucronesosauu noqeneu s panrax oquoro us pasqenos rcuxonoruu
rcuxousuru [52] csuqetenectsyet o ton, +to peaeuue rponenM noqenu nu+uoctu s rcuxoquaruocture noet
sua+uteneuo rpoqsuuyte rar teopetu+ecrue uccneqosauu, tar u pacaupute onacte rpartu+ecroro rpuneueuu
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos. 0cuosua cnouocte, ua rotopyk nM ueoquorpatuo yrasMsanu rpu oeure
pasnu+uMx noqeneu nu+uoctu s rcuxonoruu, sarnk+aetc s ton, +to rcuxura, snce uqeaneuMn oerton, ue
noet uankqatec uerocpeqctseuuo. oatony nu+uocte usy+aetc +epes oertusuo uankqaenMe qeuctsu,
roctyrru, qsueuu, sMcrasMsauu, qeteneuocte u roseqeuue s orpeqeneuuMx ycnosux u t.r.
pu aton +aae scero yrycraetc us suqy to, +to rpeqctasneuu rcuxonora o rpu+uuax, sMsMsakaux ty unu
qpyryk pearuk cyerta ua oertusuMe octotenectsa, sasuct ue tonero u ue ctonero ot roueruu
rcuxu+ecrou perynuu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu, a ot aqersatuoctu otpaeuu canun rcuxonoron tex
oertusuMx octotenects, s rotopMx uaxoqutc usy+aenMu cyert, a tare ot sosnouocteu cpeqcts
peructpauu, rotopMe rpuneuktc qn usnepeuu u oeuru oertusuo rposnkauxc pearuu ua tarue
octotenectsa.
8 uaaux paotax Mno rorasauo, +to rcuxonor, usy+akauu nu+uocte, ucronesyet ro rpauueu nepe tpu tura
noqeneu:
vodene ncuxuvec|ou pec,n+(uu de+mene+ocmu u noeede+u+, c ronoaek rotopou ou qenaet sarnk+euu o
sua+unoctu u rpu+uuax oertusuo uankqaenMx pearuu ocneqyenoro u s cootsetctsuu c rotopou
uuteprpetupyet rony+aenMe qauuMe rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqur. auua noqene xapartepusyet peaaenyk
rcuxonoron rcuxoquaruoctu+ecryk saqa+y u ero rpeqctasneuu o ton, rar u rarue ocoeuuoctu nu+uoctu snukt ua
uuqusuqyaneuMe pearuu ocneqyenoro;
vodene ose|mue+ou peane+ocmu, unu vodene peane+ou sadavu, s rotopou uaxoqutc usy+aena nu+uocte u
rotopa orpeqenet nueuue rcuxonora o xapartepucturax sosqeuctsu ua aty nu+uocte, enx ee ocneqosauu u
uuopnatusuoctu pesynetatos. o cyaectsy, ato noqene peaneuou cutyauu ocneqosauu, srnk+akaa s ce
ropqor ucronesosauu ero pesynetatos u ctereue ux snuuu ua peaeuu, rpuuunaenMe s otuoaeuuu
ocneqyenoro;
vodene cpedcme us,ve+u+ nuv+ocmu, rotopa xapartepusyet rpeqctasneuu rcuxonora o sosnouoctx
yrasauuMx cpeqcts peructpauu oertusuou peaneuoctu. Pe+e uqet, s +actuoctu, o creuu+ecrux ocoeuuoctx
sosqeuctsu atux cpeqcts ua ocneqyenoro, o sepotuMx sasucunoctx rony+aenMx qauuMx ot pasnu+uMx artopos
orpyakaeu cpeqM (u ot ocoeuuocteu canoro cyerta ocneqosauu). Tara noqene otpaaet sanuquocte u
uaqeuocte ucronesyenMx rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqur.
Ecnu sce tpu tura noqeneu ssaunuo cootsetctsykt qpyr qpyry, a tare aqersatuM u to+uM ro otuoaeuuk r tou
peaneuoctu, rotopyk ouu otpaakt, to usy+euue nu+uoctu noet Mte qoctato+uo ycreauMn. pu uapyaeuuu
53
oquoro us atux ycnosuu rosnktc rpeqrocMnru qn cepeesuMx oauor u snuuu cyertususna rcuxonora ua
pesynetatM rcuxoquaruoctu+ecroro ocneqosauu. larpunep, uecootsetctsue repsou noqenu rpoeccan
rcuxu+ecrou perynuu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu noet rpusoqute r ucraeuun s uuteprpetauu pesynetatos
rpuneueuu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqur. 8 +actuoctu, tarun uecootsetctsuen +aae scero ocuetc
cnouocte peaeuu rponenM sMqeneuu rpoeccuouaneuo sauMx ra+ects, rorqa rpoeccuouaneua rpuroquocte
oeuusaetc ue anrupu+ecru ro pesynetatan qeteneuoctu, a ucxoq us rpeqctasneuuu rcuxonoros o ee
creuu+ecrux ocoeuuoctx.
8MqeneuuMe tpu tura noqeneu u ux cootuoaeuue rossonkt ocuute nuorue rpotusope+u s teopuu
rcuxoquaruocturu u rponenM, sosuurakaue rpu rposeqeuuu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux ocneqosauuu. 8 +actuoctu,
ueoquorpatuo otne+aenMu pasnu+uMnu astopanu paspMs neqy teopueu u rparturou rcuxoquaruocturu [31; 55; 230]
sMssau rpeqe scero ten, +to otcytctsykt equuMe roqxoqM r paspaotre yrasauuMx noqeneu; usneueuue
rorynpuoctu tectos u cuueuue rpartu+ecrou ronesuoctu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos nouo ocuute
pacaupeuuen onactu rpartu+ecroro rpuneueuu rcuxoquaruocturu es cootsetctsykaeu ropperuu yrasauuMx
sMae noqeneu. Auanoru+uo, cyaectseuuMe pasnu+u s opnynuposrax rpeqneta rcuxoquaruocturu u orpeqeneuuu
coqepauu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux saqa+ sMssauM suMnu unu rocseuuMnu pacxoqeuunu nueuuu paspaot+uros
o coqepauuu u cootuoaeuuu uassauuMx sMae noqeneu.
C to+ru speuu eneu qauuou paotM sauo to, +to nuoroopasue tpartosor ocuosuMx roueruu teopuu
rcuxoquaruocturu, ro cyaectsy, otpaaet pasnu+uMe acrertM rpeqctasneuuu ux astopos o noqenu nu+uoctu.
euctsuteneuo, ecnu paccnatpusate nu+uocte rar cuctenuoe opasosauue cyerta, rotopMu ssaunoqeuctsyet c
qpyrunu cyertanu u oertanu s orpyakaeu ero peaneuoctu, to noqene nu+uoctu qonua srnk+ate s ce
orucauue scex ocuosuMx sarouonepuocteu suytpeuueu oprauusauu tarou cuctenM u opnuposauu ee pearuu ua
sueauue sosqeuctsu (srnk+a s uux sosqeuctsue cpeqcts usy+euu).
Taroe rouunauue noqenu nu+uoctu rpeqronaraet, +to oua qonua orucMsate uutepuuqusuqyaneuMe cssu u
aneneutM, coctasnkaue ctpyrtypy nu+uoctu, sarouonepuoctu rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu oertusuou peaneuoctu,
oprauusauk eneuarpasneuuou qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu s pasnu+uMx oertusuMx octotenectsax, sMqente
rapanetpM u xapartepucturu, rossonkaue oeuusate uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu qauuoro cyerta.
8qece cneqyet otnetute, +to paspaotra noqeneu nu+uoctu rpeqctasnet coou uosoe uarpasneuue s teopuu
rcuxoquaruocturu. C oquou ctopouM, ouo cssMsaet rcuxoquaruoctury c ocuosuMnu ronoeuunu teopetu+ecrou
repcouonoruu; c qpyrou rpeqronaraet cosqauue tarux noquurauu oaeu noqenu nu+uoctu, rotopMe
rapautupykt aqersatuocte u oocuosauuocte rpartu+ecroro rpuneueuu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos. oq oaeu
noqenek nu+uoctu roqpasynesaetc ee orucauue, ocuosauuoe ua teopetu+ecrux u anrupu+ecrux uccneqosauux s
onactu pasnu+uMx pasqenos rcuxonoruu u cootsetctsykaee ronoeuun netoqonoruu oaeu rcuxonoruu u
rouerun teopuu nu+uoctu. Tara oaa noqene nu+uoctu ctauosutc oquou us asosMx coctasnkaux teopuu
rcuxoquaruocturu.
Passutue u rourpetusau oaeu noqenu nu+uoctu noryt rposoqutec s uarpasneuuu cosqauu tarux ee
noquurauu, rotopMe cssauM c ennu u cpeqctsanu peaeuu rourpetuMx saqa+. Tar, rpoctMn rpunepon
sosnouou noquurauu oaeu noqenu nu+uoctu snetc cuctena rpoeccuouaneuo sauMx ra+ects,
otpaakaa tpeosauu creuuru rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu r uuqusuqyaneuMn ocoeuuoctn
ocyaectsnkaero ee cyerta u rossonkaa rporuosuposate ycreauocte atou qeteneuoctu.
oqouMe noquurauu oaeu noqenu nu+uoctu noryt Mte secena nuoroopasuM, tar rar ouu qonuM
y+utMsate creuu+ecrue ocoeuuoctu rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu. KourpetuMnu rpunepanu ux pasnu+uu
noryt Mte sMqeneuue cssu opnM qeteneuoctu u rnaccuurauu xapartepos [74], sapuautM rpoeccuorpann u
tpeosauuu r opnuposauuk tar uasMsaenoro rpoeccuouaneuoro tura [38], orpeqeneuue uuqusuqyaneuMx
ocoeuuocteu, rpertctsykaux ycreauou qeteneuoctu [17].
puseqeuuMe rpunepM xapartepusykt noquurauu oaeu noqenu nu+uoctu, rotopMe paspaatMsanuce qn
ucronesosauu pesynetatos rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux ocneqosauuu s ra+ectse oquoro us ocuosauuu s rpuutuu
oprauusauouuMx, aqnuuuctpatusuMx unu rarux-to qpyrux peaeuuu. Paspaotra noquurauu noqenu nu+uoctu ua
ase oaeu repcouonoru+ecrou teopuu snetc, ro uaaeny nueuuk, oquun us secena repcrertusuMx uarpasneuuu
passutu rpurnaquou rcuxoquaruocturu.
Ecnu yrasauuMe noquurauu cosqaktc ucxoq us oaux teopetu+ecrux rpuuuros, u ecnu ouu otpaakt
sua+unMe acrertM oertusuou peaneuoctu, rotopMe srnk+aktc s oayk noqene, torqa cyaectseuuo oner+aetc
peaeuue rponen sanuquoctu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos u uuteprpetauu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux qauuMx.
0eura sanuquoctu u rpqor uuteprpetauu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux qauuMx s sua+uteneuou nepe orpeqenkt
aertusuocte rpuneueuu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos u netoqur, tar rar rossonkt oeuute, uacronero ronua,
to+ua u uaqeua rony+aena c ux ronoaek uuopnau, uacronero oua xapartepusyet uuqusuqyaneuMe
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54
ocoeuuoctu qauuoro cyerta u roqqaetc uay+uony tonrosauuk.
pu aton cneqyet y+utMsate, +to uuteprpetau ocyaectsnetc ua ocuose +actuMx noquurauu oaeu
noqenu nu+uoctu, rapanetpM rotopou tar unu uua+e uuterpupyktc s panrax teopetu+ecrou noqenu peaaenou
saqa+u. 0tckqa cosepaeuuo routuo, +to (+acto ue otpaaenoe s pauouaneuMx routux) cootueceuue
yronuytMx noqeneu, es rotoporo sooae uesosnoua aqersatua uuteprpetau rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux qauuMx, s
qeuctsuteneuoctu ctpoutc tonero qsyn sosnouMnu rytnu:
nuo uutyutusuo s sasucunoctu ot nu+uoro orMta u rsanuurauu rpartu+ecroro rcuxonora;
nuo c oropou ua qoctato+uo aqersatuoe peaneuoctu teopetu+ecroe orucauue cootsetctsykayk noqene
nu+uoctu.
8 csok o+epeqe, aqersatuocte teopetu+ecroro orucauu s roue+uon utore snuet ua sanuquocte ocuosauuMx ua
uen netoqos. Tarun opason, rpuuuruaneuo yqaetc pacrpMte coqepauue sanuquoctu +epes routue
meopemuvec|ou ade|eam+ocmu cootsetctsu (noqenu) netoqa quaruocturu teopetu+ecrou noqenu nu+uoctu.
euctsuteneuo, s cospeneuuou nutepatype ro rcuxoquaruocture +acto yrasMsaetc, +to rcuxoquaruoctu+ecruu
netoq snetc sanuquMn s ton cny+ae, ecnu ou aqersatuo usnepet ty rcuxonoru+ecryk xapartepuctury (csouctso,
crocouocte, yneuue, coctouue u t.q.), qn oeuru rotopou ou Mn paspaotau [31]. 8necte c ten roq sanuquoctek
tare rouunakt ctereue cootsetctsu pesynetatos, rony+euuMx s xoqe ocneqosauu, oertusuMn rorasatenn
uutepecykaeu rcuxoquaruocta rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, qn oeuru ocoeuuocteu unu aertusuoctu
rotopou ato ocneqosauue rpequasua+euo [113]. pu aton sanuquocte paccnatpusaetc rar oocuosauua
rpuroquocte rcuxoquaruoctu+ecroro netoqa qn oeuru tex unu uuMx uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu cyerta [37;
113; 152; 162; 175; 183; 196; 219; 229].
8anuquocte ctauosutc rpeqneton ocooro paccnotpeuu s tex cny+ax, rorqa rpeqctasneuu o oeuusaenMx
rcuxu+ecrux euoneuax u ocoeuuoctx ue noryt Mte copnuposauM ua ocuosauuu rpnoro uankqeuu
oertusuou peaneuoctu. K +ucny roqouMx euoneuos u ocoeuuocteu otuoctc nuorue us tex, rotopMe
tpaquuouuo usy+aktc rcuxonorueu: xapartep, tenrepaneut, crocouoctu, uutennert u nuorue qpyrue. pu ux
usy+euuu u oeure sosnouo nuae roctpoeuue rurotes o creuure toro unu uuoro rcuxu+ecroro sneuu, o opnax
u quuanure ero rposneuu. ocronery rposneuu uassauuMx euoneuos s roseqeuuu, qeteneuoctu +enosera
nuoroopasuM u ueoquosua+uo yrasMsakt ua tot unu uuou rcuxonoru+ecruu rouctpyrt, oeura sanuquoctu
ocnouetc ten, +to ue noet ocyaectsntec ua ocuosauuu coroctasneuu oertusuo uankqaenMx artos u
coMtuu. 0ua rposoqutc ryten cootueceuu oertusuo saurcuposauuMx ocoeuuocteu qeteneuoctu u
roseqeuu c yronuytou rurotesou.
Kar ye otne+anoce sMae, rponena sanuquoctu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux netoqos tecueuaun opason cssaua c
rponenou uuteprpetauu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux qauuMx. pu qetaneuon paccnotpeuuu rponenM uuteprpetauu
ouapyusaetc cyaectseuuoe uecootsetctsue: c oquou ctopouM, paspaotauM u rpoqonakt passusatec ctporue
ctatuctu+ecrue rpoeqypM opaotru qauuMx, ytsepqaktc s qeuctsykaeu rparture ronu+ectseuuMe rputepuu
usnepeuu rcuxu+ecrux rpoeccos yuruu u coctouuu, a c qpyrou uanuo sua uectporocte s rpasunax
oocuosauu sanuquoctu rpoeqyp, t.e. cootsetctsu netoqa usy+aenony sneuuk. 3to +pessM+auuo satpyquet ua
rparture rourpetuyk u to+uyk uuteprpetauk rony+euuMx pesynetatos s tepnuuax teopetu+ecrou repcouonoruu u s
routux, otpaakaux enu rcuxoquaruoctu+ecroro ocneqosauu.
euctsuteneuo, cospeneuuMe creuanuctM (A. Auactasu [8; 134], l. lynnurceu [161], A. Xekcou [174] u qp.) +aae
scero orpauu+usaktc nuae repsMn yposuen uuteprpetauu, roctpoeuuMn ucrnk+uteneuo ua rpusne+euuu
ronu+ectseuuMx rputepues. Tar, l. uuept s ruure octpoeuue u auanus tectos (6epnuu, 1969 r.) s rn. XVI K
uuteprpetauu oertusuMx pesynetatos tectos paccnatpusaet nuae sorpocM ssaunocssu ctauqaptuou oauru
usnepeuu c uaqeuoctek uuqusuqyaneuMx tectos. pu aton, yqenus orponuoe suunauue uqee ucronesosauu
ypasueuuu rpoctou perpeccuu rpu uuteprpetauu pesynetatos tectuposauu, ou, r coaneuuk, uurar ue satparusaet
sorpocM cootsetctsu rony+euuMx ronu+ectseuuMx xapartepuctur (opaotauuMx rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux qauuMx)
tou oertusuou peaneuoctu, rotopyk ouu, ro-suqunony, otpaakt.
Koue+uo, uanu+ue ctatuctu+ecru oocuosauuMx uopn snetc oquou us sauMx coctasnkaux oocuosauuou
uuteprpetauu pesynetatos rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux ocneqosauuu, oquaro usnuau aconktusau atux uopn
otsoqut ua stopou rnau coqepateneuyk uuteprpetauk rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrux qauuMx, rotopa (s ra+ectse
qeuctsuteneuMx uopn) qonua orupatec ua rapanetpM teopetu+ecrou noqenu nu+uoctu. 8 pesynetate, s
coqepateneuou uuteprpetauu qonuuupykt ue ctonero oocuosauuMe uay+uMe suauu, cronero uutyuu u
uuqusuqyaneuMu orMt rcuxonora.

4.4. Kouen uoqen nuuoc s cospeueuuo nepcouonor

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puseqen rpatrue xapartepucturu ocuosuMx roueruu u teopetu+ecrux rouctpyruu, rotopMe saqasanu rnasuMe
uarpasneuu passutu teopetu+ecrou repcouonoruu s qsaqaton ctonetuu. pu aton ropqor uaaero paccnotpeuu
ue orpeqenetc sauoctek unu rpuoputetuoctek auanusupyenMx roqxoqos.
cxoquauueckoe uanpasneue s ncxonor nuuoc. Xapakepcka, ocuosuse nou, cpykypa
nuuoc (3. 4peq). cuxoquuanu+ecroe uarpasneuue s uccneqosauuu nu+uoctu passusanoce s rpotusosec
cmp,|m,p+ov, +anpaene+us repnaucrou rcuxonoru+ecrou aronM. 3to uarpasneuue otsoqut seqyayk pone
cnouony ssaunoqeuctsuk +enose+ecrux u+me+(uu (uuctuurtos, notusos, sne+euuu) s ctpyrtype rcuxu+ecrou
perynuu roseqeuu nu+uoctu.
0quun us sauMx rpeqctasuteneu rcuxoquuanu+ecroro uarpasneuu snetc ncuxoa+anus 3. 4peqa (1856-
1939), asctpuucroro spa+a u rcuxonora, rotopMu paspaotan teopetu+ecrue, rouertyaneuMe u netoqu+ecrue
ocuosM rcuxoauanusa, cyte rotopMx rpatro csoqutc r tony, +to cosuauue coctasnet nuae nanyk +acte s
oprauusauu roseqeuu, u s roseqeuuu +enosera peanusyktc roctouuMe |o+nu|me, uctoru rotopMx neat s
+eocos+aeaevex ce|c,ane+ex, sa(um+ex u acpeccue+ex no,de+u+x.
8a spen csoeu paotM 8. 1peuq cosqan:
repsyk passepuytyk teopuk nu+uoctu;
netoq uccneqosauu rcuxu+ecrux rpoeccos, neaaux ua rpauu u sa rpauuanu ocosuasaenoro;
opuruuaneuMe netoqM rcuxoteparuu uesposos.
8 teopuu nu+uoctu 8. 1peuqa rnasuoe necto sauunaet monocpauvec|a+ vodene nuv+ocm+ou opca+usa(uu,
coctoaa us tpex yposueu: cos+a+ue (ocosuasaenoe sqece u terepe); npedcos+amene+oe (repcouaneuMu orMt,
rotopMu nerro noet Mte sosspaaeu s cosuauue); eccos+amene+oe.
8. 1peuq rpeqnoun |o+(enm,ane+,s vodene cmp,|m,pe nu+uoctu:
nepea+ nodcmp,|m,pa uocut uassauue 0uo; ata roqctpyrtypa srnk+aet s ce rpunutusuMe, uuctuurtusuMe
(uuctuurtM usuu) u spoqeuuMe acrertM nu+uoctu. 6yqy+u uonoru+ecru saqauuMn, 0uo csooquo ot
orpauu+euuu u qeuctsyet ro npu+(un, +evedne++ou pasp+d|u (uua+e npu+(un ,doeonecmeu+) rcuxu+ecrou auepruu,
reuepupyenou asosMnu royqeuunu u uarpasnenou penercanu u repsu+uMnu rcuxu+ecrunu rpoeccanu
(uppauouaneuMnu u autasuuuMnu opnanu +enose+ecrux rpeqctasneuuu);
sMqeneuue s rcuxure cyerta ce us sueauero nupa saqaet emop,s nodcmp,|m,p, nu+uoctu F, unu
3ro. 8aqa+a 3ro nodvu+ume noeede+ue npu+(un, peane+ocmu (s otnu+ue ot rpuuura yqosonectsu y 0uo),
u qn atoro opnupyktc stopu+uMe rpoeccM s +actuoctu, noru+ecroro, pauouaneuoro nManeuu;
mpeme+ nodcmp,|m,pa Cyrep-3ro, unu Csepx-F, coqeput opnupykaykc cucteny euuocteu, a tare
roseqeu+ecrux, nopaneuMx u atu+ecrux uopn, cosnectunMx c couaneuMn orpyeuuen cyerta. 8 ctpyrtype
Cyrep-3ro qeuctsykt qse roqcuctenM: coeecme u aco-udean.
laroue, 8. 1peuq copnuposan cmaduu+,s vodene paseumu+ nuv+ocmu (ot opaneuou qo reuutaneuou) co
creuaneuMnu nexauusnanu u|ca(uu (sarperneuuMe ua qauuou ctaquu) u pecpeccuu (sosspata ua rpeqMqyaue).
Peaneuoe roseqeuue nu+uoctu u ero otrnoueuu cssauM c ueaqersatuou paspqrou rcuxocercyaneuou auepruu u
sosuuruoseuuen tpesoru (peanuctu+ecrou ot sueaueu cpeqM; uespotu+ecrou ot suytpeuueu cpeqM, ot 0uo;
nopaneuou ot Cyrep-3ro).
8 otset ua tpesory y +enosera sMpaatMsaktc creuaneuMe saautuMe nexauusnM: sMtecueuue; rpoeru;
saneaeuue; pauouanusau; peartusuoe opasosauue; perpeccu; cynunau; otpuauue.
PaccnotpeuuMe asosMe roueruu rcuxoauanusa rony+unu qaneueuaee passutue (u rputury) s rocneqykaux
rcuxoauanutu+ecrux teopux u rouerux.
Paise ncxoauanueckx kouen nuuoc s pa6oax A. Aqnepa K. Kura. 3tu qsa rcuxonora
ctanu cosqatennu coctseuuMx rcuxoauanutu+ecrux cucten, s rotopMx ro-pasuony otsepraetc peuqoscruu
rpunat cercyaneuoctu u arpeccuu. A. Aqnep (1870-1937) c+utan, +to cyert (uuqusuq) rpuuuruaneuo ue noet
Mte otqeneu ot oaectsa (couyna), u roatony ou sMqenet s ra+ectse saueuaux artopos co(uane+ee
demepvu+a+me nuv+ocmu. o ero nueuuk, nkqu crocouM:
canu tsopute csok cyqey (canoartyanusau);
rpeoqonesate rpunutusuMe royqeuu (s sMcaeu opne canoroutpone);
cosepaeuctsosatec +epes canorosuauue.
Aqnep paccnatpusaet equuctso nu+uoctu s routercte cmun+ us+u, uuqusuqyaneuo-uerostopunoro usueuuoro
rytu cyerta. peqnoeuua un quuanu+ecra teopu nu+uoctu asupyetc ua cenu rnk+esMx ronoeuux.
1. ,ecmeo +enon+o(e++ocmu u |ovne+ca(uu, xapartepusykaeec ronrnercon ueronuoeuuoctu.
2. 0mpevne+ue | npeeocxodcme,, r yny+aeuuk ce u octotenects csoeu usuu.
3. 0mune us+u rar usueuuMu rnau u crocouoctu ero peanusauu.
4. 0o(uane+eu u+mepec.
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5. oeede+vec|oe F.
6. op+do| pode+u+ (repseue, canMu nnaqauu peeuor).
7. 1pu|(uo++eu u+anusv, t.e. roq+uueuuocte roseqeuu u ctun usuu cyerta un canun uane+euuMn enn.
Ctune usuu orpeqenet aqneposcryk turonoruk nu+uoctu, coctoayk us +etMpex turos: ,npaen+s(uu,
ep,(uu, usecas(uu, co(uane+o nones+eu.
8 otnu+ue ot A. Aqnepa, K. Kur (1875-1961) c+utan, +to uuqusuqyynM notusupyktc cropee ue couaneuMnu, a
u+mponcuxuvec|uvu cunavu u opasavu (apxemunavu), rpoucxoqeuue rotopMx yxoqut s rnye uctopuu. 8 otnu+ue
ot 8. 1peuqa, K. kur tpartosan nuudo (ncuxuvec|,s a+epcus) cyaectseuuo onee auporo: ronuno ce|c,ane+ou
a+epcuu (ctpenneuue r +enosery), oua noet rposntec e penucuu (ctpenneuuu r 6ory) unu e cmpevne+uu |
enacmu.
Cootsetctseuuo uua ctpyrtypa nu+uoctu y K. kura. 0ua srnk+aet s ce: aco, nuv+oe eccos+amene+oe
{onem u |ovnne|ce), |onne|mue+oe eccos+amene+oe (apxemune).
Cpequ uauonee sauMx apxeturos K. kur sMqenet cene: /+uva, /+uv,c, epco+a, Te+e, 0avocme, V,dpe(,
5oc.
/ K. kura uua+e ctpoutc u turonoru nu+uoctu. 8 atou turonoruu, paspaotra rotopou otuocutc r 1920 r., K.
kur rnaqet s ocuosauue rnaccuurauu asosMe rpusuaru u artopM nu+uoctu, cssauuMe c suytpeuuun nupon,
rcuxu+ecrou oprauusaueu cyerta. 3to +anpaene++ocme aco u asoeee ncuxuvec|ue ,+|(uu. 8 uarpasneuuoctu
aro, unu s ocuosuMx usueuuMx yctauosrax nu+uoctu, K. kur sMqenet: a|cmpaeepcus, unu uarpasneuuocte ua
sueauuu nup, ua qpyrux nkqeu, ua oertM; u+mpoeepcus, unu uarpasneuuocte ua suytpeuuuu nup, ua ce, ua
cyerta.
6asosMnu rcuxu+ecrunu yurunu K. kur uasMsaet:
veane+ue (pauouaneuoe rosuauue);
o(,(e+ue (uerocpeqctseuuoe socrputue);
v,ecmeo (anouu);
u+m,u(us (uppauouaneuoe rosuauue).
pu aton nManeuue s orpeqeneuuon cnMcne rpotusoroctasnetc +ysctsy, a oayaeuue uutyuuu. 8 aton
sMpauuon asuce opnupyktc socene (s otnu+ue ot +etMpex y A. Aqnepa) turos nu+uoctu, rotopMe ctauostc
rnaccu+ecrou asou qn rcuxoquaruocturu nu+uoctu:
arctpaseptuposauuMu nMcnuteneuMu;
arctpaseptuposauuMu oayaakauu;
arctpaseptuposauuMu +ysctsykauu;
arctpaseptuposauuMu uutyutusuMu;
uutposeptuposauuMu nMcnuteneuMu;
uutposeptuposauuMu oayaakauu;
uutposeptuposauuMu +ysctsykauu;
uutposeptuposauuMu uutyutusuMu.
K. kur s csoeu paote cuxonoru+ecrue turM (1921 r.) qan roqpouyk xapartepuctury s tepnuuax raqoro tura
uankqaenoro roseqeuu u nu+uoctuMx ocoeuuocteu, tar +to rpeqnoeuua un rnaccuurau qo cux rop
ycreauo paotaet u auporo rpuneuetc s coepeve++ou ncuxoduac+ocmu|e nuv+ocmu.
3ro-ncxonorueckoe uanpasneue s eop nuuoc. 0cuosuse oco6euuoc kouen 3. 3pkcoua, 3.
4pouua, K. Xopu. 3co-ncuxonocuvec|oe +anpaene+ue sunoce qaneueuaun passutuen rcuxoauanusa u
oquospeneuuo ua+anon c,va+ucmuvec|ou ncuxonocuu, cyte rotopou, sMpaeuua oquun us ocuosoronouuros atoro
uarpasneuu 3. 3pkcouou (1902-1994), coctout s ton, +to s passutuu nu+uoctu nkou rcuxonoru+ecruu euoneu
noet Mte rout nuae so esauvodeucmeuu uonocuvec|ux, noeede+vec|ux, avnupuvec|ux (nuv+oco onema) u
co(uane+ex a|mopoe.
Koueru 3. 3purcoua rpeqronaraet:
areut ua passutue uuqusuqa s te+euue sceu ero usuu;
yrop ua sqoposoro uuqusuqa, a ue ua ratonoruk nu+uoctu;
oropy rpoecca ctauosneuu nu+uoctu ua euoneu uqeutu+uoctu;
srnk+euue rynetypuo-uctopu+ecrux artopos s ocueuue ctpyrtypM nu+uoctu.
0tckqa ctauostc cuee rnasuMe uqeu anuce+emuvec|oco npu+(una 3. 3purcoua: ctaquaneuocte nu+uoctuoro
passutu, couaneua roqqepra passutu nu+uoctu. 3. 3purcou (1964 r.) sMqenet socene ctaquu passutu
nu+uoctu, rotopMe paquraneuo otnu+aktc ot peuqoscrux: opane+o-ce+cop+a+, veaev+o-a+ane+a+, no|ovomop+o-
ce+umane+a+, name+m+a+, nodpocm|oea+, pa++++ spenocme, cped+++ spenocme, nosd+++ spenocme, u pacrpMsaet
ocoeuuoctu atux ctaquu rcuxocercyaneuoro passutu +epes cucteny asosMx +yscts: doeepue, aemo+ovu+,
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u+u(uamue+ocme, mp,donsue, aco-ude+muv+ocme, u+muv+ocme, npod,|mue+ocme, aco-u+mecpa(u+ u un
rpotusoronouMe: +edoeepue, cmed, eu+a, +enon+o(e++ocme, poneeoe cve(e+ue, uson+(u+, u+epm+ocme u
omva++ue.
|crnk+uteneuo sauMnu ctanu qaneueuaue anrupu+ecrue uccneqosauu aco-ude+muv+ocmu, ropoqusaue pq
uosMx uarpasneuuu s usy+euuu nu+uoctu, s ton +ucne s roueruu 3. 4pouua (1900-1980), rotopMu
copnynuposan teopuk turos xapartepa, ocuosauuyk ua couonoru+ecron auanuse toro, rar nkqu opnupykt
couaneuMu rpoecc u cany rynetypy oaectsa.
Knk+esMnu s atou roueruu ctanu routu rporactu ved, ceoodou u esonac+ocmes nuv+ocmu.
peoqoneuue oquuo+ectsa u +ysctsa oracuoctu, ro 3. 1ponny, rpoucxoqut +epes nexauusn erctsa ot csooqM,
rotopMu peanusyetc c ronoaek uecronerux roseqeu+ecrux ctpateruu: aemopumapusva (dovu+upoea+u+),
decmp,|mue+ocmu (pasp,ae+u+), nodvu+e+u+ (|o+opvusva).
|qeaneuMn sMxoqon us suytpeuuero rounurta nu+uoctu 3. 1ponn c+utaet nosumue+,s ceood,. PacrpMsa
uuteuuouuyk ctopouy nu+uoctu, 3. 1ponn sMqenet n+me oc+oe+ex a|sucme+(uane+ex nompe+ocmeu +enosera s
uarpasneuuu qoctueuu rosutusuou csooqM. 3to rotpeuoctu: e ,cma+oene+uu ce+seu (u+mepc,se|m+ex), e
npeodone+uu (ceoeu ueom+ou npupode), e |op++x (npu+adne+ocmu | vup, u venoeevecme,), e ude+muv+ocmu
{cavomodecmee++ocmu), e cucmeve escn+doe (vupoeosspe+uu).
3. 1ponn orpeqenet tare rte couaneuMx turos xapartepa nu+uoctu, s rarou-to nepe repernurakauxc c A.
Aqnepon: pe(enmue+eu (ucto+uuru nara qn uux sue ux canux), a|cnn,amup,s(uu (roxo ua epyauu y Aqnepa),
+a|annueas(uu (coupakauu rarutan), pe+ov+eu (cyert toprosnu u unuqa), npod,|mue+eu.
3ta turonoru sarnaqMsaet ocuosy qn nu+uoctuoro auanusa co(uane+oco noeede+u+.
K. Xopu (1885-1952) rar rpeqctasuteneuua couorynetypuoro uarpasneuu copnynuposana csok roueruk
nu+uoctu, s rotopou asosMnu rateropunu ctanu routu yqosnetsopeuu u esoracuoctu, u scneq sa 8. 1peuqon
c+utana, +to ocuosuMe uapyaeuu nu+uoctuoro passutu cssauM c +ysctson asaneuou spaqeuoctu (co ctopouM
qpyrux) u asaneuou tpesoru. pu aton oua sMqenet cootsetctseuuo qecte asosMx rotpeuocteu: e nseu u
odope+uu, e p,|oeod+(ev napm+epe, e vem|ux ocpa+uve+u+x, eo enacmu, e a|cnn,amupoea+uu dp,cux, e
o(ecmee++ov npus+a+uu, e eocxu(e+uu coou, e vecmonsuu, e cavodocmamov+ocmu, e es,npev+ocmu.
Cootsetctseuuo atun rpusuaran sMqenktc mpu opue+ma(uu co(uane+oco noeede+u+ (ctun roseqeuu):
ua nkqeu (yctyr+usMu tur);
ot nkqeu (ooconeuuMu tur);
rpotus nkqeu (spaqeuMu tur).
Tarun opason, aro-rcuxonoru+ecroe uarpasneuue nu+uoctu ocooe suunauue yqenet suytpeuuun
rcuxonoru+ecrun rpu+uuan nu+uoctuoro roseqeuu u paccnatpusaet snuuue ua atu rpu+uuM couaneuMx
artopos, rotopoe rposnetc s pasnu+uou turonoruu couaneuoro (uutepcyertuoro) roseqeuu.
|yuaucueckoe uanpasneue s eop nuuoc. 0cuosuse xapakepck noqxoqos A. Hacnoy K.
Poqepca. lynauuctu+ecra rcuxonoru rpeqctasnet coou uosoe uarpasneuue s teopuu nu+uoctu, ronarakaee,
+to +enoser ot rpupoqM xopoa, uopnaneu u crocoeu r canocosepaeuctsosauuk. Kpyrueuauu rpeqctasutene
rynauuctu+ecroro uarpasneuu A. Vacnoy (1908-1970) ussecteu meopueu cavoa|m,anusa(uu, c+utakaeu
sauMnu tarue routu, rar poct, canoartyanusau, ctpenneuue r sqoposek, roucru uuteutu+uoctu u
astouonuoctu, aqa rperpacuoro u qp.
1yuqaneutaneuMn pesynetaton A. Vacnoy snetc ero meopu+ vomuea(uu, saqakaa uuteuuu nu+uoctu rar
uepapxuk asosMx rotpeuocteu: usuonoru+ecrux, s esoracuoctu u saaute, s rpuuaqneuoctu u nksu, s
canoysaeuuu, s canoartyanusauu (nu+uoctuon cosepaeuctsosauuu). pu aton ocuosuMe notusauu qentc ua
qse rpyrrM: vomuee deu(uma (denpuea(uo++ee, unu -vomuee), vomuee pocma (emuu+ee, unu 5-vomuee).
n -rotpeuocteu xapartepuo to, +to ux ueyqosnetsopeuue sMsMsaet onesue (ronoq, xonoq, oracuocte), ux
yqosnetsopeuue yrasMsaet onesue, ux socctauosneuue usne+usaet onesue, rpu orpeqeneuuMx arctpenaneuMx
ycnosux +enoser rpeqro+utaet ux yqosnetsopeuue, ouu ueartusuM unu ue yuruouupykt y sqoposoro +enosera s
ronoptuon coctouuu.
6-rotpeuoctu otuoctc r ctpenneuuk peanusosate roteuuan nu+uoctu. |x rpunepM: enoctuocte,
cosepaeuctso, sasepaeuue, crpaseqnusocte, artusuocte, oratctso, rpoctota, rpacota, yuuraneuocte, otcytctsue
ctpecca, uctuua, peaneuocte, urpa, canocte, uesasucunocte.
n oeuru canoartyanusauu nu+uoctu s 1964 r. Mn paspaotau creuaneuMu 0rpocuur nu+uoctuou
opueutauu (00 P0I), +to qano sosnouocte sMqente pasnuv+ee mune opue+ma(uu:
uarpasneuuocte ua ce;
ronreteutuocte so speneuu.
C ronoaek orpocuura tare yqanoce sMqenute tarue pasvep+ocmu cavoa|m,anusa(uu, rar: euuoctu
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canoartyanusauu, arsucteuuaneuocte, anououaneua peartusuocte, croutauuocte, saota o csoux uutepecax,
canorpuutue, routue rpupoqM +enosera, rpuutue arpeccuu, crocouocte r nusrun otuoaeuun.
|sneueuue canoartyanusauu ronouno ocuosy texuure rynauuctu+ecrou rcuxoteparuu, ropperuu nu+uoctuoro
passutu u rossonuno roctpoute xapartepucturu canoartyanusupykauxc nkqeu.
8 aton routercte tare saua e+ove+onocuvec|a+ (aro-rcuxonoru+ecra) eemee rynauuctu+ecrou rcuxonoruu,
rpyrueuauu rpeqctasutene rotopou K. Poqepc (1902-1987) tare ronaran, +to uneuuo suytpeuu cuctena otc+eta
+enosera (ero crocouocte rocturate qpyrux u canoro ce) urpaet rnk+esyk pone s oprauusauu roseqeuu
nu+uoctu.
0u scneq sa A. Vacnoy ronaran, +to teuqeuu r artyanusauu ecte pyrosoqauu notus s usuu +enosera, u ero
rpeqctasneuu o xopoaeu usuu sronue orpeqeneuuo snukt ua nu+uoctuMe xapartepucturu.
Cosqas teparestu+ecru rpauue rouctpyrtusuyk roueruk non+o(e++o ,+|(uo+up,s(eco +enosera, K.
Poqepc yctauosun n+me oc+oe+ex xapa|mepucmu| nuv+ocmu taroro +enosera:
otrpMtocte repeusauuk (rar rpotusoronouocte essaautuoctu);
arsucteuuaneuMu opas usuu (teuqeuu ute ronuo u uacMaeuuo s raqMu noneut cyaectsosauu);
oprauusnu+ecroe qosepue (rpuutue peaeuu c oropou ua coctseuuoe +ytee);
anrupu+ecra csooqa (+enoser noet csooquo ute tar, rar ou xo+et, t.e. ero csooqa sMopa cootueceua c
ero enauunu u sosnouoctnu);
rpeatusuocte (tsop+ecroe ua+ano).
3tu +eptM nu+uoctu ctanu y K. Poqepca u ero y+euuros rpuuuranu nu+uoctuou passusakaeu teparuu, +to
rossonuno npeepamume c,va+ucmuvec|,s ncuxonocus us meopuu (y A. Vacnoy) s npa|muvec|,s paom,.
0rucauuMe sMae ocuosuMe roueruu u teopuu nu+uoctu qakt uan rpunep toro, s raron coctouuu uaxoqutc
cospeneuua teopetu+ecra repcouonoru. 0tnetun tare, +to uneuuo atu teopuu u roueruu nu+uoctu urpakt
seqyayk pone s rpunoeuux repcouonoruu r peaeuuk rpartu+ecrux saqa+ quaruocturu nu+uoctu, orpeqeneuuk
repcrertus u tpyquocteu ee passutu, roqqepre u ropperuu peanusauu rpaqaucrou u rpoeccuouaneuou
rapeepM +enosera.

PA3E II. 06h0hbE 0P06b h+h06ThbX h66E0Ahhh: TE0PETh+E6KAP h
PhKAhAP EP60h00|hP

|nasa 5. cxonorueck auani noseqeu nuuoc s npo6neuuo cya. 0cuoss
cy6Lekuoro auania

5.1. oue npo6neuuo cya

Auanus pqa paot ote+ectseuuMx rcuxonoros, rocsaeuuMx uccneqosauun teopetu+ecrux acrertos
rponenuMx cutyauu*, rossonet rpeqctasute ux rcuxonoru+ecroe coqepauue s ooaeuuon suqe cneqykaun
opason. 8 oaen cny+ae nponev+a+ cum,a(u+ eos+u|aem e cmp,|m,pe (ene+anpaene++ou de+mene+ocmu |a|
cum,a(u+ e+esan+oco u +eouda++oco npen+mcmeu+ +a n,mu | docmue+us ee (enu.
* auuMu natepuan ooaaet pq uccneqosauuu, sMronueuuMx uanu cosnectuo c l.6. Vopososou. {puvev. aem.)

0ertusuMe xapartepucturu rponenuou cutyauu ene, cpeqctsa qoctueuu, rporpannM qeuctsuu
(suytpeuuux u sueauux) coctasnkt ussectuMe ycnosu, rotopMe nouo paccnatpusate rar saqauuMe r noneuty
sosuuruoseuu rpertctsu, sMctyrakaero s suqe oertusuo cnousaeroc rpotusope+u neqy ueoxoqunoctek
qoctueuu enu u otcytctsykaeu s qauuMu noneut sosnouoctek ee qoctueuu.
|cxoquoe coctouue cyerta xapartepusyetc uarpasneuuou artusuoctek (ctpenneuuen r qoctueuuk
ocosuauuou enu), +to repeusaetc un rar uanepeuue osnaqete rpeqneton qeteneuoctu, ysepeuuocte s tarou
sosnouoctu. 8 pesynetate ouapyeuu rpertctsu ua rytu r qoctueuuk enu (ueo+esuquoctu qoctueuu)
rpoucxoqut rpeopasosauue ra+ects cyertusuMx repeusauuu sosuuraet ueysepeuuocte rar cneqctsue
cyertusuou ueorpeqeneuuoctu s ycrexe.
epeusauue ueorpeqeneuuoctu u qpyroe ero cneqctsue rouunauue ero sosnouoro ueycrexa coctasnkt
cyertusuMe ycnosu rponenuou cutyauu u coqepauue rpotusope+u: |o+nu|ma, opas,s(eco ncuxuvec|oe
+anp+e+ue.
epeusauue ueo+esuquoctu qoctueuu enu qeteneuoctu ua raron-to atare ee ocyaectsneuu rpusoqut r
rouunauuk toro, +to, ucronesy unekauec suauu u cpeqctsa, qocturuyte enu uesosnouo. C atoro, coctseuuo, u
ua+uuaetc qn +enosera rponenua cutyau.
59
Tarun opason, ua+aneua asa ssaunoqeuctsu +enosera c rponenuou cutyaueu xapartepusyetc
ouapyeuuen rponenM, rotopoe oM+uo uocut uerpoussoneuMu xapartep, a s cny+ae uuopnauouuoro roucra
snetc rpoussoneuMn rpoeccon peaeuu saqa+ ouapyeuu rponen. la+aneua asa ssaunoqeuctsu c
rponenuou cutyaueu sasepaaetc rouunauuen ueorpeqeneuuoctu u royqeuuen r rpeoqoneuuk rpertctsu.
pu aton royquteneuo uarpasnkaa cuna notusa qeteneuoctu coxpauetc, uo noet u rotepte csok cuny s
pesynetate repenotusauu (notusau userauu).
Cneua notusauu (repenotusau, repeopueutau) rar pesynetat oeuru cutyauu coctasnet cneqykayk
asy ssaunoqeuctsu +enosera c rponenuou cutyaueu, rotopa rpeqaectsyet ase peaeuu-sMpaotru
rourpetuMx crocoos u cpeqcts sMxoqa us uee. oyqeuue r rpeoqoneuuk rpertctsu ctunynupyet
nMcnuteneuMu roucr. ponenua cutyau s atou ase ctauosutc ucto+uuron rpoqyrtusuou nMcnuteneuou
qeteneuoctu.
Auanus cutyauu rpeqronaraet roucr u sMsneuue ueussectuoro, ero otrpMtue. 3to ueussectuoe sMctyraet s
ra+ectse ucronoro toro, +to uyuo sMsute u ycsoute qn sMxoqa us rponenuou cutyauu. 0uo sMsnetc rar
uocutene orpeqeneuuMx otuoaeuuu neqy acrertanu rponenuou cutyauu, unekaunu cyaectseuuoe sua+euue
qn ee peaeuu. 8 xoqe auanusa tarue otuoaeuu ctauostc sce onee u onee orpeqeneuuMnu, crococtsy s
roue+ucn c+ete opnuposauuk ucronoro s rourpetuMx routux.
Passutue nMcnuteneuoro rpoecca, ocuosauuoro ua rony+euuon s uccneqosatenecrou ctaquu uoson suauuu,
rpoqonaetc s ctopouy opasosauu u ocosuauu (rouunauu) rourpetuMx saqa+, peaeuue rotopMx ueoxoquno
qn qoctueuu enu qeteneuoctu, ecnu ue rpousoana repenotusau. 3tot rpoecc ocuosMsaetc ua auanuse
uosMx aneneutos cutyauu s ux cssu c ucxoquMnu aneneutanu u oeure sua+unoctu rpertctsu c to+ru speuu
sosnouoctu unu uesosnouoctu qoctueuu enu. Cneqosateneuo, oertusuo cyaectsykaa rponena
rpespaaaetc qn cyerta s saqa+y, rpoucxoqut opasosauue rcuxu+ecrou cuctenM, aqersatuou saqa+an,
peaeuue rotopMx rossonut sMutu sa rpeqenM rponenuou cutyauu.
Cyaectsykt pasnu+uMe orpeqeneuu ncuxonocuvec|oco codepa+u+ no++mu+ sadavu. larpunep, taroe, rotopoe
paccnatpusaet ee rar nMcnuteneuoe rpeopasosauue rponenuou cutyauu s sepaneuyk opny: saqa+a ato
scerqa cnosecua, pe+esa opnynuposra rponenM, oua - usoe csuqetenectso equuctsa nManeuu u pe+u.
lesasucunocte saqa+u ot rponenM, ee stopu+uocte, srnk+euuocte s rponeny rar ocuosM roteuuaneuo
sosnouoro crocoa rpeoqoneuu rpertctsu rossonet s ra+ectse rourpetuoro coqepauu saqa+u
paccnatpusate to uosoe, +to sM+neuetc u sepanusyetc rar ueussectuoe s rpoecce ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c
rponenuou cutyaueu ua atare auanusa u rony+euu uosoro suauu o cutyauu s usneuusauxc ycnosux.
oucr ueussectuoro ro cyaectsy coctasnet codepa+ue npo(ecca eepaom|u peae+u+ sadavu, rotopMu
ocyaectsnetc rar rpoecc rpeopasosauu ucxoquMx qauuMx, rpu rotopon otceusaetc usnuau uuopnau,
yrpyruktc repeneuuMe saqa+u. 8 roue+uon c+ete, rpoqyupyetc ancopumv peae+u+ rocneqosateneuocte
ooaeuuMx qeuctsuu, rpusoqaux r rpeqronaraenony pesynetaty.
8auMn s roucre peaeuu snetc npo(ecc paseumu+ cunomes, ux opasosauu u oeuru rocneqosateneuMe
rpunueuu r orou+ateneuony peaeuuk. Pone rurotesM sarnk+aetc s ton, +to oua qaet sosnouocte
copnynuposate uqek, ocuosuMe rpuuurM u crocoM peaeuu, t.e. orpeqenute ctpateruk u tartury.
cuxonoru+ecroe coqepauue rurotesM rporuosupyenMu sepotuoctuMu rpeqopas, uerotopa noqene
peaeuu. octpoeuua rurotesa ctauosutc qetepnuuupykaeu teuqeuueu, yctauosrou, rotopa roqrpernetc unu
otsepraetc s sasucunoctu ot uuopnauu, ucronesyenou s atux enx. Kaqa us sMqsuraenMx rurotes noet
paccnatpusatec rar sapuaut peaeuu rpasuneuoro unu uerpasuneuoro, t.e. oquo us rpunueuuu r
orou+ateneuony peaeuuk ato noqene yqyaero pesynetata.
/to+ueuue rurotesM, ee roppertuposra u passutue rpoucxoqt naroqap paote ocoou rcuxu+ecrou yuruu
,+|(uu o(e+uea+u+*. 0eura noet Mte yrpeqakaeu, sMronuenou s opne nMcneuuoro arcrepuneuta, u
pesynetupykaeu, opasosauuou ua ocuose arpoauu rurotesM s rpartu+ecrux qeuctsux.
* Cn.: 3apodu+ |. cuxonoru+ecra yuru oeuusauu u perynu +enose+ecrou qeteneuoctu // Cyertusua oeura s ctpyrtype
qeteneuoctu. Capatos, 1987.

0euusauue ocyaectsnetc roq sosqeuctsuen sMuyqakaero cyertusuoro artopa ctpenneuu r
orpeqeneuuony cyertusuony repeusauuk, a uneuuo: ctpenneuue cyerta ,eenuvume ,eepe++ocme e
ucmu++ocmu cunomese. |o ysepeuuocte, rar oquu us pesynetatos oeuusauu, suquno, crococtsyet nounusauu
sonesoro ycunu, repesoqaero coqepauue rurotesM s ee peanusauk.
Tarun opason, o+esuquo, +to uneuuo ocyaectsneuue sonesoro arta oecre+usaet rpeoqoneuue
ueorpeqeneuuoctu, coqepaaeuc s rponenuou cutyauu, sMop uauonee rpasqoroqouou qn cyerta
rurotesM, rpuutue ua ce tou unu uuou otsetctseuuoctu. Tar, roctpoeuue peaeuu ctauosutc rpoeccon
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60
rpuutu peaeuu, ero sonesou urcaueu u rpeopasosauuen s rpartu+ecrue qeuctsu.
pu aton cyaectseuuoe sua+euue s roctpoeuuu peaeuu unekt nu+uoctuMe ocoeuuoctu cyertos,
qetepnuuupykaue u coqepauue rpoeccos, u ero quuanury, u ycreauocte sMxoqa us rponenuou cutyauu.
cuxonoru+ecru sauo, +to ua pasuMx atarax ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c rponenuou cutyaueu rpoucxoqt
rocneqosateneuMe repexoqM ot ueocosuauuoro yposu auanusa ua yposeue rpoussoneuoro (cosuateneuoro)
perynuposauu. pu aton tarou repexoq noet ocyaectsntec rar ua onee pauuux, tar u ua onee rosquux
ctaqux paotM c rponenuou cutyaueu srnote qo peanusauu peaeuu saqa+, sMterakaux us qauuou
rponenM. 3to tare rosoput o ton, +to quarasou ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c rponenuou cutyaueu qorycraet
sua+uteneuMe uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u. Tarun opason, rpoecc ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c rponenuou
cutyaueu noet Mte rpeqctasneu cneqykaun opason.
1. 0uapyeuue rponenM, ocosuauue uanu+u rpertctsu.
2. epenotusau rar pesynetat oeuru cutyauu.
3. 1opnynuposra saqa+u ua ocuose auanusa cutyauu.
4. 0pueutau s ycnosux saqa+u ee uccneqosauue.
5. Cyertusuoe rpuutue saqa+u ee uccneqosauue (rouunauue toro, +to qauo u +to ueussectuo).
6. 8Mqsueuue rurotesM o rpeqronaraenon pesynetate.
7. 0eura (routpone) sMqsuuytou rurotesM.
8. 0rpeqeneuue cyertusuou ysepeuuoctu nu+uoctu s uctuuuoctu sMqsuuytou rurotesM.
9. 8Mop rnaua peanusauu peaeuu.
Xopoao ussectua usupateneuocte +enose+ecroro socrputu. Veuee ussectuo, oquaro routuo, +to nkoe
ssaunoqeuctsue +enosera c orpyakaun nupon orpauu+euuo: cenertusuo u usupateneuo +enoser rpocto ue s
coctouuu sane+ate sce, +to ero orpyaet. Vuoroe us toro, +to ecte s uanu+uu, uruopupyetc. 8necte c ten
ncuxonocuvec|oe onpedene+ue cum,a(uu srnk+aet s ce nuoro taroro, +to s orpyakaen nupe usu+ecru ue
rpucytctsyet. Kar ruaet T. Luytauu, ...+enose+ecroe rpeqctasneuue o peaneuoctu ecte s ocuosuon couaneuMu
rpoecc. 3to ue osua+aet, yqto uet peaneuoro nupa sue uac, uo to, +to suakt o uen nkqu, ecte rpoqyrt y+actu s
rpyrre. Xot rateropuu spen ot speneuu repecnatpusaktc u ueto+uMe rpeqctasneuu ycreauo roppertupyktc, s
nkoe qauuoe spen oneauuctso sua+euuu, ro cyaectsy, tarosM, rarunu nkqu cornacunuce ux c+utate. To, +to
nkqu oM+uo uasMsakt peaneuoctek, ecte pao+a opueutau, otuocuteneuo rotopou cyaectsyet sMcora
ctereue cornacu [247; c. 103].
Vup, s rotopon nkqu usyt u qeuctsykt, srnk+aet s ce uactoaee, rpoanoe u yqyaee; s uero sxoqt
socronuuauu u ouqauu, rar sosnouMe, tar u qeuctsuteneuMe. Dnpedene+ue cum,a(uu ato perouctpyru
+ysctseuuoro orMta; ouo sosuuraet ryten otopa us toro, +to cyaectsyet s uactoaee spen, u toro, +to
ussneraetc us socronuuauuu u qpyrux cootsetctsykaux coMtuu.
oqxoq +enosera r orpeqeneuuk cutyauu sasucut ot toro, rarosa ero raptuua nupa. |apmu+a vupa (perspective)
ato yropqo+euuMu ssrnq ua orpyakauu nup; ato to, +to rpuuunaetc rar cano coou pasynekaeec s
pasnu+uMx usu+ecrux oertax, s coMtux u s +enose+ecrou rpupoqe. 0rpyeuue, s rotopon usyt nkqu, ato
ue xaotu+ecroe uarponoqeuue seaeu, a yropqo+euuoe equuoe enoe. CyctutyuouaneuMu nup coctout us
cuctenM sua+euuu, u roseqeuue ocuosMsaetc ua cosoryruoctu rpeqctasneuuu o csouctsax pasnu+uMx rateropuu
oertos. +ysctseuuMe curuanM sMsMsakt r usuu rurotesM otuocuteneuo csoucts oerta, nuorue us rotopMx s
qeuctsuteneuoctu socrpuutM Mte ue noryt. Vup oprauusosau c to+ru speuu rpeqronoeuuu, rotopMe qenakt
nkqu o pasnu+uMx oertax u rnaccax oertos, rpu+en ata oprauusau cropee uassMsaetc +ysctseuuMnu
qauuMnu, +en ussneraetc us uux [tan e; c. 104].
+ysctseuuMe qauuMe oprauusyktc s cuctenM sua+euuu, otuocauec ue tonero r seaan u ux ra+ectsan, uo
tare u r ropqry cocyaectsosauu seaeu s rpoctpauctse u so speneuu*. Kaptuua nupa, cneqosateneuo, coctout us
coMtuu, rpeqrocMnor otuocuteneuo toro, +to rpoucxoquno, +to rpoucxoqut, +to rpasqoroqouo u +to sosnouo.
8uauue ato opueutau ro otuoaeuuk r peaneuony unu soopaaenony ropqry sosnouoro, cxena rpoctpauctsa
u speneuu, otuoaeuuu neqy oertanu, ropqra, yrpasnenoro rpasunanu.
* Cassirer E. The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms. New Haven, 1957. Vol. 3. P. 107-190.

kqu qeuctsykt uneuuo ua ocuose atoro ropqra u ero rpasun. 6es atoro usue Mna M xaocon; qae conueuu
u sorpocM sosnouM tonero suytpu ueconueuuou cuctenM cootueceuu. Kar crasan Punep, +enose+ecra raptuua
nupa ato routypua cxena, rotopa onepeaem onem, onpeden+em eco u ,npaen+em uv*. Kouctpyuposauue
raptuuM nupa sua+uteneuo oner+aetc naroqap crocouoctu nkqeu ronesosatec cunsonanu, ocoeuuo
nuursuctu+ecrunu. Konuuauu apturynuposauuMx ssyros unu ruceneuuMx suaros, ucronesyenMx qn atou enu,
noryt rpeqctasnte coou ro+tu nkMe sua+euu [247; c. 105].
61
* Riezler K. Man: Mutable and Immutable. Chicago, 1951. P. 62-72.

C oaerpuutou to+ru speuu sua+euue orpeqenetc s cssu c ten, +to nkqu qenakt c oerton. Kar
roq+eprusaet T. Luytauu, ...sua+euu ecte, so-repsMx, csouctsa roseqeuu u, tonero so-stopMx, csouctsa
oertos [247; c. 87].
Ecnu ato tar, to uet uu+ero ctpauuoro s ton, +to rar oquu u tot e oert noet osua+ate pasnu+uMe seau qn
pasuMx nkqeu, tar u oqua u ta e cutyau socrpuuunaetc pasuMnu nkqenu ro-pasuony, oua noet unete qn
pasuMx nkqeu pasuMe otteuru sua+euuu. 3+ave+u+ ato ooaeuuMe opueutauu, rotopMe uesosnouo orpeqenute
ten, +to qenaet +enoser s orpeqeneuuon necte s orpeqeneuuoe spen, rocronery s pasuMx cutyaux pearuu
Msakt pasnu+uM [247; c. 88].
8 routercte rpuutoro uanu rpeqneta ocyqeuu sauo to, +to csse neqy cunsonon u sua+euuen s
oneauuctse cny+aes rpeqctasnetc ycnosuou; cneqosateneuo, s+ave+ue cuveona +e voem eme eeeede+o us
us,ve+u+ cavoco amoco cuveona. 8syru, ucronesyenMe s +enose+ecrou pe+u, canu ro cee ue onee +en roneauu
sosqyxa, ro+tu raqMu noet ux nerro socrpoussectu. 0quaro s uerotopMx octotenectsax atu cunsonM noryt
sactasute nkqeu sctyrute s csaeuuyk souuy, rpeqrpuute oracuoe ranonuu+ectso, y+actsosate s otspatuteneuon
nuu+esauuu unu roruuyte, repou+ecru saauaa esuaqeuoe qeno. 8 taron roseqeuuu rosnetc
qoronuuteneuoe sua+euue, rotopoe so nuoro pas rpesocxoqut to, +to rpucyae canony cunsony rar tarosony.
Tarun opason, +enose+ecrue cyaectsa usyt od+oepeve++o e de,x cpedax* s ectectseuuon orpyeuuu,
coctoaen us peaneuo cyaectsykaux seaeu, u s orpyeuuu rynetypuon, cunsonu+ecron. 6naroqap crocouoctu
ronesosatec cunsonanu nkqu s coctouuu suqousneute csoe orpyeuue. 3ertusuoe orpyeuue, aronoru+ecra
uuaa, s rotopou usyt nkqu, c roseqeu+ecrou to+ru speuu noet paccnatpusatec s qauuon routercte rar cuctena
sua+euuu, yropqo+usakaux crocoM qeuctsuu; ata cuctena sMpaotanace s rpoanon orMte u roctouuo
roqtsepqaetc uosMn.
* Cn.: 3apodu+ |.V. 0+epru teopuu rcuxonoru+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu. V., 1997.

Xot nM oM+uo qynaen o sua+euux rar o csouctsax pasnu+uMx oertos, c rotopMnu sctyraen s routart, ua
canon qene ato tonero xapartepucturu crocoos roqxoqa r pasnu+uMn acrertan orpyeuu. 3+ave+ue ose|ma
ato oprauusosauua opueutau cyerta, rotopyk nouo orpeqenute rar cosoryruocte teuqeuuu roseqeuu,
ocuosauuMx ua rpeqronoeuuu o orpeqeneuuMx xapartepucturax oerta.
8uaronMe oertM socrpuuunaktc s cssu c ouqauunu uuqusuqa, u raqoe ero rpeqctasneuue o atux
oertax roqrpernetc, ecnu qauuMe rurotesM roqtsepqaktc. VunonetuMe oayaeuu, rotopMe ro+tu
uesanetuo repexoqt qpyr s qpyra, pacrpeqenktc ro rateropun u cuaaktc pnMranu, tar +to rpu
ueoxoqunoctu ouu ussneraktc us rantu u suose ucronesyktc. Xot uu+to ue cny+aetc qsaqM cosepaeuuo
oquuaroso, raqMu +enoser s coctouuu copnuposate yropqo+euuMu ssrnq ua nup, u y tex, rto ronesyetc
oquunu u tenu e cunsonanu, passusaetc oaa opueutau. | rocronery nkqu roqxoqt r nupy co cxoquMnu
yctauosranu, ouu noryt rouunate u roqqepusate qpyr qpyra.

5.2. 3aqaua s npoeccax paipemeu npo6neuuo cya. 6pykypposaue iaqau

0quu us sapuautos cuctenuoro auanusa rcuxu+ecrux sneuuu oosua+eu uanu rar cyertuMu roqxoq*. CnMcn
atoro roqxoqa coctout s ypasuoseausauuu (s panrax teopetu+ecroro auanusa) sueauux u suytpeuuux coMtuu,
pacrpMsakaux ocoeuuoctu ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c orpyakaun ero nupon, s rpusuauuu oquuaroso sauou
ponu ncuxonocuvec|oco a+anusa de+mene+ocmu c,se|ma u ncuxonocuvec|oco a+anusa c,se|ma de+mene+ocmu. 8
csoeu rouctpyrtusuou sepcuu ou qaet qoronuuteneuMe ocuosauu qn sMqeneuu tarou rcuxonoru+ecrou rateropuu,
rar saqa+a, rotopa paccnatpusaetc uanu s ra+ectse aneneutapuou equuuM rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa
qeteneuoctu cyerta u rar rcuxonoru+ecroe rone, s rotopoe rorpyeu cyert s ero peaneuMx otuoaeuux c
orpyakaun nupon. 8 panrax cyertuoro auanusa yqaetc uautu peaeuue pqa teopetu+ecrux rponen, s ton
+ucne sa c+et cootueceuu (enocm+ex aneve+moe us+ede+mene+ocmu c,se|ma c ocoeuuoctnu ux
ncuxuvec|oco ompae+u+ u vexa+usvavu ncuxuvec|ou pec,n+(uu de+mene+ocmu u noeede+u+ cyerta s xoqe
peaeuu un ctoaux repeq uun peaneuMx saqa+ [33; 36; 41].
* Cn.: 3apodu+ |.V. 0+epru teopuu rcuxonoru+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu. V., 1997.

VM rosopunu sMae, +to cpasuuteneuMu auanus pasnu+uMx roqxoqos r uccneqosauuk nu+uoctu s rcuxonoruu
rossonet cqenate sMsoq o ton, +to rpuuuruaneuMe pasnu+u neqy +enose+ecrunu cyertanu sarnk+aktc s
crocoax rouertyanusauu cssu coMtuu oertusuou peaneuoctu u sarouonepuocteu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu
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roseqeuu cyerta. Vouo ytsepqate, +to ro cytu qena pe+e uqet o qsyx seaax:
rpu+uuuou oycnosneuuoctu u uerpepMsuoctu roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu cyerta, rorqa uankqaenMe
coMtu peaneuou usuu cyerta noryt Mte ue tonero saurcuposauM, uo u ocueuM perynpuMn qeuctsuen
ocoMx (rcuxonoru+ecrux) sarouos;
sosnouoctu usy+euu uassauuMx sMae sarouos rar sarouos rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu
cyerta c ronoaek uay+uMx netoqos u, sua+ut, o oertusuon xapartepe qeuctsu rcuxonoru+ecrux sarouos u
oertusuon xapartepe cyertuMx sneuuu.
VM xotenu M roq+epruyte, +to uauonee rpoqyrtusuMnu s uay+uon u rpartu+ecron rnauax nM c+utaen
roqxoqM, s rotopMx cyert paccnatpusaetc s uerpepMsuon ssaunoqeuctsuu c orpyakaeu ero peaneuoctek,
rotopa srnk+aet s ce canoro cyerta, oertM, qpyrux cyertos, pasnu+uMe opnM ssaunoqeuctsu c uunu
(pasnu+uMe suqM qeteneuoctu, oaeuu u qp.), t.e. coqeput aneneutM, ueoxoqunMe qn eneu cyertuoro
auanusa. Cyte atoro roqxoqa sarnk+aetc s ton, +to auanus u orucauue rcuxu+ecrou perynuu qeteneuoctu u
roseqeuu qonuM ocyaectsntec ro rpauueu nepe ua qsyx yposux:
yuruouaneuon, oxsatMsakaen rcuxonoru+ecroe orucauue cutyauu cyertuoro ssaunoqeuctsu, sueauue
artopM ux rposneuu u sosqeuctsu;
rcuxonoru+ecron, rotopMu rpeqronaraet pacrpMtue rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnos otpaeuu sueauux coMtuu
u perynuu roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu cyerta.
8 rocnequee spen tarou qsyxyposuesMu auanus rony+un orpeqeneuuoe pacrpoctpaueuue s pqe rpurnaquMx
uccneqosauuu u rpartu+ecrux paspaotor roq ycnosuMn uassauuen yuruouaneuoro auanusa, rotopMu snetc
passutuen u rourpetusaueu cyertuoro roqxoqa (k.V. 8apoquu, 1980-1997). 3tot roqxoq rpeqronaraet
pasqeneuMu, uo cornacosauuMu rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus, c oquou ctopouM, cutyauu cyertuoro ssaunoqeuctsu s
ycnosux sMronueuu rourpetuou rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, a c qpyrou paccnotpeuue nexauusnos
rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu u rcuxu+ecrou perynuu rpu peaeuuu peaneuMx saqa+ atou rpoeccuouaneuou
qeteneuoctu.
0cuosuoe otnu+ue yuruouaneuoro roqxoqa ot qpyrux ussectuMx pauee netoqonoru+ecrux roqxoqos,
rpuneuenMx s rcuxonoruu, sarnk+aetc s ton, +to nM paccnatpusaen rcuxonoru+ecryk ctpyrtypy nu+uoctu u
rpoeccM rcuxu+ecrou perynuu s ueu rar enoctuMe roqcuctenM rcuxuru, rossonkaeu +enosery:
otpaate u oeuusate coMtu sueauero nupa;
opnuposate rocneqosateneuocte eneuarpasneuuMx qeuctsuu cootsetctseuuo ten unu uuMn sueauun
ycnosun;
sMupate croco peanusauu copnuposauuou rocneqosateneuoctu qeuctsuu;
ocyaectsnte ero s rpartu+ecron roseqeuuu.
peqctasnetc ectectseuuMn, +toM s panrax rpeqnaraenoro roqxoqa rcuxonoru+ecroe orucauue nu+uoctu
ocyaectsnnoce ua qsyx yuruouaneuMx yposux: noeede+vec|ov u coctseuuo ncuxonocuvec|ov. epsMu
roseqeu+ecruu yuruouaneuMu yposeue otpaaet ocoeuuoctu sueauux rposneuuu nu+uoctu, s rotopMe
srnk+aktc uankqaenMe ocoeuuoctu qeteneuoctu, roseqeuu u otuoaeuuu cyerta.
8topou rcuxonoru+ecruu yuruouaneuMu yposeue paccnatpusaet coctseuuo rcuxonoru+ecrue nexauusnM
perynuu uankqaenoro roseqeuu, srnk+a s uux yronuytMe sMae rpoeccM u pesynetatM rcuxu+ecroro
otpaeuu oertusuou peaneuoctu, nu+uMu orMt, enu, euuoctu, oeuru, rpoeccM rnauuposauu qeuctsuu,
rpuutu peaeuu u t.r.
0a yuruouaneuMx yposu cssMsaktc qpyr c qpyron +epes ssoqunyk uanu uosyk rcuxonoru+ecryk
rateropuk saqa+a, rotopa s csok o+epeqe tare paccnatpusaetc s qsouuon rnaue.
1. 8aqa+a, ssta so sueauen csoen rposneuuu, paccnatpusaetc uanu rar aneneutapua equuua
roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu cyerta, uepasnouna es rotepu enoctuoro rcuxonoru+ecroro coqepauu
peaneuoro roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu rourpetuoro cyerta.
2. 8aqa+a, ssta so suytpeuuen rcuxonoru+ecron rposneuuu, sMctyraet rar croco cyaectsosauu, rar
cuctenoopasykauu artop, rar rpuuur oprauusauu usuu cyerta: nuuu usuu cyerta ctpoutc rar
rocneqosateneuocte paspeaeuu usueuuMx rponen, oopnnkauxc qn cyerta s suqe rocneqosateneuoctu
peaneuo peaaenMx saqa+.
Cneqyet sce e onee roqpouo paccnotpete cano routue saqa+a u yto+uute te coctasnkaue, rotopMe
qonuM sxoqute s ee orpeqeneuue. Tepnuu saqa+a qasuo u auporo ussecteu s rcuxonoruu, ou ucronesyetc so
nuorux rcuxonoru+ecrux uccneqosauux, ua+uua c cepequuM XIX s. 0quaro srepsMe ato routue Mno paccnotpeuo
rar rcuxonoru+ecra rateropu tonero s 1982 r. [73], rqe sMqeneuM cneqykaue ee ocoeuuoctu.
3adava sav|+,ma e npocmpa+cmee de+mene+ocmu s ton cnMcne, +to s ueu qonuM Mte orpeqeneuM ucxoquMe
(ua+aneuMe) u rpauu+uMe ycnosu, saqauM ene u roue+uMu pesynetat. Kpone toro, oua orpauu+eua so speneuu
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ua+aneuMn noneuton roctauosru u sasepaakaun rony+euuen ueoxoqunoro pesynetata.
8necte c ten sadava om|pema dn+ c,se|ma, rotopMu noet rpuuunate unu ue rpuuunate ee, ctpoute
coctseuuyk cyertusuyk uepapxuk eneu peaeuu, sMupate coctseuuyk ctpateruk ux qoctueuu, opnupy
cyertusuyk noqene peaaenou saqa+u.
0tne+euuMe ocoeuuoctu rateropuu saqa+a oycnosneuM creuu+uoctek cootuoaeuu cyertusuMx u
oertusuMx rputepues, ucronesyenMx s rpoecce ee peaeuu, +to rossonet roctpoute u oeuute opas saqa+u,
repesoqauu rpoecc peaeuu us sueauero nupa s cyertusuMu nup +enosera, roctpoute u oeuute opas
sepotuMx qeuctsuu u sepotuMe rocneqctsu atux, eae ue cosepaeuuMx qeuctsuu [19; 73, 119].
8 quuanu+ecron ronrnerce rpeqctasneuuu rpoanoro orMta, otpaeuuu uanu+uou cutyauu u ocooro,
uuqusuqyaneuoro rouunauu saqa+u, ctoaeu repeq cyerton, pacrpMsaetc qpo u uarpasneuue yqyaux ero
qeuctsuu. Voet Mte, uneuuo s aton ronrnerce u pacrpMsaetc ta nu+uoctua yctauosra, rotopyk sMqenkt
ote+ectseuuMe rcuxonoru (s otnu+ue ot aurnoanepuraucrux set u attitude). oxoe, +to uneuuo s yctauosre (rar ye
Mno qorasauo qn repertusuMx saqa+ teopetu+ecrunu paotanu .l. /suaqse (1966 r.) u roqtsepqeuo
nuoro+ucneuuMnu arcrepuneutaneuMnu uccneqosauunu ero y+euuros) rar M s suqe acrusa qauo roseqeuue,
rotopoe s qaneueuaen qonuo ocyaectsutec.
Tarun opason, cuo, +to roseqeuue +enosera ua+uuaetc ue c ryctoro necta eny rpeqaectsyet u
orpeqeneuuoe coctouue +enosera, u noneut ero suytpeuuero qsueuu, sosuurakauu ua ocuose uuterpauu un
otpaeuu teryaeu cutyauu, saqa+u u rotpeuoctu, srnk+akaeu s ce ero uuqusuqyaneuMu orMt, ocoeuuoctu
nupososspeuu, cyertusuMe otuoaeuu (rpeqro+teuu, oeuru) u t.q. Vouo crasate, +to nka qeteneuocte,
ecnu ee paccnatpusate rar rpoecc peaeuu saqa+, scerqa ecte enecoopasua u eneuarpasneuua artusuocte
rourpetuoro cyerta. pu aton s suqe onee unu neuee cuoro opasa cyert uneet s csoen cosuauuu ueryk
rourpetuyk ene cosepaaenou qeteneuoctu. 3tot opas qetepnuuupyet oprauusauk u perynuk scero
roseqeuu rar ocooro qsueuu cyerta, roq+uueuuoro qoctueuuk (unu rpunueuuk) r enu*.
* 3aeanoea l. ., ovoe 5.1., o+ovape+|o 3. /. 0pas s cuctene rcuxu+ecrou perynuu qeteneuoctu. V., 1986.

8 canon oaen suqe peaeuue saqa+u rpeqctasnet coou opnuposauue rnaua, anroputna,
rocneqosateneuoctu qeuctsuu qn qoctueuu orpeqeneuuou enu ua ocuose rpeopasosauu uuopnauu o
ucxoquou cutyauu u ua ase cyertusuMx oeuor rar atou uuopnauu, tar u coctouu canoro cyerta.
Cneqosateneuo, scruu rpoecc peaeuu ctpoutc ua ase uerotopou ucxoquou uuopnauu, xapartepusykaeu
ucxoquyk cutyauk peaeuu. ene e, s taron cny+ae, nouo paccnatpusate rar enaenyk yqyayk roue+uyk
cutyauk, acanu rponenM peaeuu s cnMcne sosnouoctu qsueuu r enu qoctueuu enaenoro
pesynetata us uanu+uou cutyauu c saqauuMnu (rpuutMnu) rputepunu ra+ectsa.
outuo, +to qn toro, +toM cosepaute ato qsueuue r enu, cyert qoneu ot+etnuso rpeqctasnte cee, rqe
ou uaxoqutc ceu+ac u rar socronesosatec atun ua+aneuMn ronoeuuen, +toM nouo Mno qoctu+e ty canyk
ene. Cneqosateneuo, rasanoce M, rpoctou opas uanu+uou cutyauu rcuxonoru+ecru pasqenetc ua qsa
ronroueuta:
otpaeuue toro, +to uaxoqutc repeq cyerton s qauuMu noneut speneuu;
otpaeuue toro, +to uneuuo s canou cutyauu passusaetc, rarou oua noet ctate s nuauaen yqyaen.
C atou to+ru speuu cuo, +to s cyerte, s ero rcuxure qonuo uankqatec ussectuoe paccornacosauue neqy
uanu+uMn u rotpeuMn coctouuen nupa*.
* 3ta uqe socxoqut eae r XIX s., a rpuneuuteneuo r usMn cyaectsan oua uaana cuoe, xot u uecronero pasnu+akaeec
rpeqctasneuue s rouerux roneesou perynuu, rpeqe scero s paotax .K. Auoxuua (1946-1955 rr.) u l.A. 6epuateuu (1946-1963
rr.).

poqona aty ere noru+ecrux paccyqeuuu, nM suqun, +to ene rar opas perynupyet roseqeuue +enosera ue
tonero rar yqyauu pesynetat. 0ua ouapyusaet ce rar ocooe, eae ue cyaectsykaee s peaneuon nupe,
rpeqctasneuue, opas, rotopMu otnu+aetc ot opasa toro coctouu nupa, s rotopon cyert uaxoqutc ceu+ac.
A ato, s csok o+epeqe, sua+ut, +to opas (enu (uneuuo opas) otnu+aetc ot opasa uanu+uou cutyauu qn
qauuoro cyerta. /rasauuoe pasnu+ue opasos saqaet suytpeuuuu noneut passutu rpoecca peaeuu saqa+u.
Cneqosateneuo, ec+|a+ de+mene+ocme peanus,emc+ e +e|omopov u+mepeane pasnuvuu opasoe +anuv+ou
cum,a(uu u enaevou (enu (|o+ev+ou cum,a(uu).
Kpone toro, ye otne+anoce (k.V. 8apoquu, A.A. ouyranuu), +to +enoser rar cyert qeteneuoctu ue tonero
scerqa cootuocut ty ene, rotopa repeq uun ctout, c tou cutyaueu, s rotopou ou uaxoqutc, uo scerqa ctasut ato
pasnu+ue s csse co csounu sosnouoctnu ro qoctueuuk roctasneuuou enu us qauuou cutyauu. Tarun opason,
s rcuxonoru+ecron auanuse enecoopasuou qeteneuoctu nouo sMqenute tpu saueuaux ronroueuta
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ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c nupon:
ucxoquoe coctouue ssaunoqeuctsu, unu ucxoqua cutyau;
ene, unu roue+uoe enaenoe coctouue ssaunoqeuctsu*;
sosnouocte (xot M roteuuaneua) qoctueuu qauuou enu us saqauuou ucxoquou cutyauu.
* 0tnetun, +to pe+e uqet o coctouuu ssaunoqeuctsu cyerta c nupon, a ue o coctouuu nupa, rpotusoctoaero cyerty rar
sueau cpeqa ero usueqeteneuoctu. {puvev. aem.)

pu aton uyuo unete s suqy, +to pesynetatM peaeuu rpoussoneuou saqa+u s qauuou cutyauu u rpu saqauuou
(copnuposauuou) enu scerqa ueoquosua+uM. |s raqoro teryaero uanu+uoro coctouu cyert noet tMc+ek
pasnu+uMx crocoos qoctu+e enaenoro roue+uoro coctouu, uo cyaectsyet orponuoe nuoectso ctpateruu,
rotopMnu ronesyetc +enoser, peanusy s raqou us uux nuoectso uuqusuqyaneuMx crocoos qeuctsuu*. To, rar
yqet qeuctsosate s qauuou cutyauu qauuMu +enoser, cyaectseuuo sasucut ue tonero ot toro, rar opas uanu+uou
cutyauu cootuocutc c rpoanMn orMton cyerta, uo u ot toro, rar ou cootuocutc c otpaeuuou ero
rotpeuoctek. pu aton (s otnu+ue ot rpeqctasneuuu, passutMx s pycne usuonoruu artusuoctu l.A.
6epuateuua) rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus ouapyusaet pacaerneuue peaneuou rotpeuoctu ua uanu+uoe rotpeuoe
u yqyaee rotpeuoe: s +enose+ecrux routux ato osua+aet, +to rotpeuocte cyerta yctpenneua rar ua to, +to
cyaectsyet ceu+ac, tar u ua to, +to noet ctate rpeqneton ee yqosnetsopeuu s yqyaen.
* 3apodu+ |.V. poeccM rpuutu peaeuu ua ceucopuo-repertusuon yposue // cuxonoru+ecrue rponenM rpuutu peaeuu. V.,
1976.

oq+epruen eae pas, +to us cospeneuuoro coctouu nupa cyert noet nuoectson crocoos qoctu+e pasuMx
coctouuu nupa, rotopMe yqyt rasatec (a uuorqa u peaneuo Mte) uyuMnu eny coctouunu. pu aton can
cyert noet c+utate, +to ou qoctur csoeu enu, uo raqMu pas ata qocturuyta ene artu+ecru yqet
rpeqctasnte coou pasuMe oertusuMe coctouu nupa.
Taroe uecosraqeuue eneu, to+uee, peaneuMx pesynetatos qeteneuoctu, nouo uankqate u s arcrepuneutax, u
ua rparture, u ue tonero rpu rostopuMx qeuctsux oquoro u toro e cyerta, uo u rpu qeuctsux pasuMx cyertos
ro qoctueuuk oquou u tou e, rar un raetc, enu*. 0quaro qae s ton cny+ae, rorqa raetc, +to ene
qocturuyta (t.e. rorqa opas rony+euuoro pesynetata qoctato+uo roxo ua opas enu), sosuuraet eae oqua
rcuxonoru+ecra rponena: rorqa cneqyet octauosutec s aton qsueuuu r enu, t.e. rorqa, rar u ro+eny
sasepaaetc qeteneuocte u rpoecc peaeuu qauuou rpartu+ecrou saqa+u. outuo, +to ot otseta ua atot sorpoc
sasucut pesynetatusua xapartepuctura u ra+ectso qeteneuoctu, a cootsetctseuuo, u aertusuocte canou
qeteneuoctu. 0rMt, tar e rar u uctopu, yeqaet uac s ton, +to nkqu ro-pasuony qonuM rouunate (u
oeuusate) otuoaeuue roue+uoro pesynetata csoeu qeteneuoctu r repsoua+aneuony opasy enu.
* Tan e.

|snoeuuoe sMae sactasnet uac secena octopouo otuocutec r sasneuun o tex pesynetatax, rotopMe uaqo
qoctu+e. cuxonoru+ecruu auanus tpeyet, +toM rpu aton Mno sMsneuo ue tonero to, rar raqMu cyert
rpeqctasnet cee roue+uyk ene, uo u to, uacronero ot+etnusM y qauuoro +enosera npedcmaene+u+ o mov, vmo
uve++o vo+o cvumame peae+uev nponeve. 0tckqa routuo, +to uanu+ue ueoquosua+uMx pesynetatos u
ueoquosua+uMx crocoos ux qoctueuu rpeqronaraet ue tonero sMop (unu roctpoeuue) cyerton orpeqeneuuoro
pesynetata, uo tare eeop onpedene++oco cnocoa eco docmue+u+ snecte c |pumepuev docmuc+,mocmu (enu
unu oeurou paspeaeuuoctu rponenM. | nuae peanusau sceu cosoryruoctu pasnu+uMx crocoos qoctueuu
pasnu+uMx pesynetatos (t.e. cuctenM pasnu+uMx sMopos) opas,em cmpamecus peae+u+ nponeve (k.V.
8apoquu, 1976-1988).
|ccneqosauue peaneuMx rpoeccos peaeuu saqa+, s ton +ucne s rounurtuMx cutyaux, rorasMsaet, +to
ueoxoquno qetaneuo usy+ute, rar nuuunyn, cneqykaue sorpocM.
1. ponenM otpaeuu uanu+uou cutyauu u rouunauu toro, +to uneuuo uac ue yqosnetsopet s ueu.
2. ponenM enu, t.e. sMcueuu toro, rar saqaetc unu rar opnupyetc ene (opas enu).
3. ponenM pesynetata, t.e. usy+euue toro, rar opnupyktc pesynetatM u rar ouu (to+uee, ux opasM)
oeuusaktc ro otuoaeuuk r enu.
4. ponenM crocoos qoctueuu pesynetatos unu netoqa peaeuu saqa+u.
Auanusupy rpoecc peaeuu saqa+u s rcuxonoru+ecron rnaue, nM roq+eprusanu, +to cyerty qaua ue ene rar
coctouue nupa, a opas (enu, rotopMu s pqe cny+aes opnupyetc us opasa ucxoquou cutyauu u ctasutc r
ueny s orpeqeneuuoe cootsetctsue. Tar cyertusuo opnynupyetc saqa+a.
Cootsetctseuuo, roueru vove+ma deue+u+ c,se|ma rpeqronaraet sosnouocte pacaerneuu saqa+u ua
65
oertusuo saqauuyk u cyertusuo otpaeuuyk cyerton. 0tckqa routuo, +to rcuxonoru+ecru secena sua+unou
ctauosutc rponena otpaeuu saqa+u s ronose rourpetuoro cyerta ee cyertususau, rotopa srnk+aet s
ce rouunauue u rpuutue saqa+u qauuMn cyerton, u nuae saten, s pasnu+uMx sapuautax peaneuou
cosnectuou qeteneuoctu noet ocyaectsntec npoe|(u+ sadavu, sMueceuue ee sosue, rorqa s rpoecce
ocyqeuu rpoucxoqut rar M sueqpeuue ee s ronosy qpyrux cyertos, ee emopuv+a+ ose|mueusa(u+. Tar, s
panrax rpeqnoeuuoro roqxoqa rosnetc sosnouocte onee rourpetuo, +en ato Mno pauee, rpocnequte
ctpyrtypy u reuesuc rcuxu+ecrou perynuu cosnectuou qeteneuoctu rpu peaeuuu rpoussoneuoro nuoectsa
saqa+, rorqa us uaopa peaneuMx rponenuMx cutyauu raqMu rourpetuMu cyert ynasnusaet, otupaet u
rpuuunaet nuae uerotopMe rponenM c y+eton csoux rotpeuocteu, orMta, cyertusuoro otuoaeuu (oeuor) u
t.r.* pu aton, sMpas us peaneuoro nuoectsa csok rponeny, raqMu cyert (+acto uesasucuno ot ero peaneuou
rosuuu, sauunaenou ponu u rpuuaqneuoctu r tou unu uuou rpyrre) opnupyet u opnynupyet csok saqa+y,
sMctpausaet csou uuqusuqyaneuMu opas enu, orpeqenet rputepuu ra+ectsa toro, +to ou xoten M rony+ute,
sMupaet te unu uuMe cpeqctsa u netoqM qoctueuu enu u t.q.
* 8auMn sqece snetc +ysctsuteneuocte cyerta r rponenuou cutyauu, tar rar oua ueoquuarosa y pasuMx nkqeu. {puvev. aem.)

oq+epruen eae pas, +to, tarun opason, qn repexoqa ot +avepe+u+ | deucmeus cyert qoneu
rpeqctasnte:
enaenoe yqyaee coctouue cutyauu, s rotopou ou xoten M uaxoqutec (unu sosnouMe enu);
teryaee coctouue cutyauu (srnk+a s uero oeury enecoopasuoctu ee coxpaueuu unu usneueuu);
pasnu+ue neqy opasanu teryaeu u enaenou cutyauu;
qeuctsu ro sosnouony rpeoqoneuuk atoro pasnu+u;
sosnouMe rocneqctsu qn raqoro sapuauta oprauusauu tarux qeuctsuu (srnk+a usneueuue sueauux
octotenects u coctseuuoro coctouu cyerta) [30; 37; 40; 42; 126].
Tarun opason, paccnotpeuuMu nexauusn paspeaeuu uuqusuqyaneuou rponenM, c y+eton scero usnoeuuoro
sMae, rpeqronaraet paccnotpeuue cneqykaux sorpocos:
otpaeuue cyerton peaneuMx rponen;
oopnneuue u ctpyrtypuposauue saqa+u, ctoaeu repeq cyerton;
rpuutue unu otsepeuue saqa+u;
peaeuue saqa+u rpeqe scero s tar uasMsaenon rcuxonoru+ecron rnaue;
peanusau atoro peaeuu s roseqeuuu: roctyrrax, qeuctsux u qeteneuoctu qauuoro cyerta u t.q.
peqnoeuuMu croco auanusa rossonet usy+ate qeuctsuteneuMe nexauusnM rcuxu+ecrou perynuu,
uccneqosate, rar pacrpMsaktc pasnu+uMe yuruu rcuxuru s oprauusauu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu rourpetuoro
cyerta [76; 77; 78; 81]. pu aton so suunauue epytc rpeqe scero cneqykaue ocuosuMe unu, ro uaaeny
orpeqeneuuk, asosMe yuruu rcuxuru:
|oc+umue+a+, rotopa ocyaectsnet artusuoe u cenertusuoe otpaeuue orpyakaeu peaneuoctu,
rpuopeteuue, rpeopasosauue u sarperneuue suauuu, orMta u rpartu+ecrux uasMros;
o(e+ov+a+, otsetctseuua sa opnuposauue, orpeqeneuue u ucronesosauue cyertusuMx euuocteu,
rpeqro+teuuu u rputepues ra+ectsa roseqeuu;
pec,n+mue+a+ s ysron cnMcne, peanusykaa crocouocte cyerta r rpoussoneuou qeteneuoctu u
rpoussoneuony roseqeuuk;
|ovv,+u|amue+a+, c ronoaek rotopou ocyaectsnetc oneu cooaeuunu suauunu, uqenu, cseqeuunu
u t.r., t.e. ssaunoqeuctsue c qpyrunu cyertanu.
8Mqeneuue qsyx yposueu orucauu roseqeu+ecroro u coctseuuo rcuxonoru+ecroro rossonet coxpauute
uerotopyk rpeenctseuuocte qauuoro roqxoqa ro otuoaeuuk r ote+ectseuuMn sapuautan cuctenuoro uccneqosauu
u orucauu nu+uoctu (6.l. Auauees, B.C. Vepnuu, 6.1. onos u qp.). 8necte c ten yuqaneutaneuoe otnu+ue
uaaero roqxoqa coctout s ton, +to ou qenaet ueoxoqunMn orucauue rar ncuxonocuvec|ou cmp,|m,pe nuv+ocmu
qauuoro cyerta, tar u du+avu|u npo(eccoe ncuxuvec|ou pec,n+(uu noeede+u+ qauuoro cyerta. pyrunu
cnosanu, oquospeneuuo c rcuxonoru+ecrun rnauon nu+uoctu rpeqnaraetc rposoqute cpasuuteneuoe usy+euue
qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu atoro e canoro cyerta. pu aton uerocpeqctseuuMn oerton auanusa ctauostc
oaue u uuqusuqyaneuMe sarouonepuoctu sMopa crocoos ocyaectsneuu rourpetuMx qeuctsuu s pasnu+uMx
ycnosux, srnk+akaux s ce creuury oertusuMx octotenects, rpupoquoe u couaneuoe orpyeuue
usy+aenoro cyerta. 3to osua+aet, +to eece ncuxonocuvec|uu a+anus cocpedomavueaemc+ +a uccnedoea+uu mex
peane+ex sadav, |omopee peaaem unu xovem peaume da++eu c,se|m.
VM ye otne+anu, +to uerotopMe aneneutM cxoquoro rouunauu rar cyerta qeteneuoctu (roseqeuu), tar u
ocoeuuocteu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu rpucytctsykt s opuruuaneuMx u ctasaux ye
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rnaccu+ecrunu uccneqosauux .K. Auoxuua [10; 11], 6.l. Auaueesa [6; 7] u B.C. Vepnuua [146; 147]. C uaaeu to+ru
speuu uauonee sauou rpeqctasnetc uqe enoctuoctu cyerta, uepactopunoctu uonoru+ecrux,
rcuxousuonoru+ecrux u couaneuMx ocuosauuu s oaeu cuctenuou oprauusauu nu+uoctu.
0rocpeqosauuocte rcuxuru qeteneuoctek y+utMsaetc +epes orpeqeneuue u usy+euue rcuxu+ecrou perynuu
rar yuruu ,npaene+u+ npo(eccavu esauvodeucmeu+ c,se|ma c o|p,as(eu cpedou: snuuue sueaueu cpeqM ua
rcuxu+ecryk perynuk otpaaetc rpeqe scero s suqe opasos ouqaenMx u peaneuMx pesynetatos qeuctsu.
0patuoe cssauo c saueuaun rpuuuron cuctenuoro auanusa nM paccnatpusaen yrasauuMe sMae rpoeccM s
enoctuou cuctene: npo(ecc ,npaene+u+ esauvodeucmeuev cosnectuo c ocoe++ocm+vu peanus,s(eu eco
cmp,|m,pe (ctpyrtypM nu+uoctu).

5.3. cxonoruecke uexauius pemeu iaqau

8 cootsetctsuu c rpeqctasneuuMnu sMae uqenu nM paspaatMsanu oaue rpuuurM u rpasuna
rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa u rcuxonoru+ecroro rpoertuposauu (cuutesa) qeteneuoctu cyerta [73; 74; 79].
Cornacuo atun rpuuuran ,cnea+ocme, pes,nemamue+ocme unu ae|mue+ocme qeteneuoctu (u roseqeuu s
enon) orpeqenktc ten, rarue crocoM rpeopasosauu ucxoquou cutyauu s roue+uyk unu enaenyk sMupaet
cyert. 8Mop us nuoectsa sosnouMx crocoos qeuctsu orpeqenet u can orpeqenetc ctpaterueu
sMronueuu qeteneuoctu: oua saqaet ty unu uuyk nuuuk roseqeuu, rpeqctasnkayk coou uerotopyk
rocneqosateneuocte ssaunocssauuMx qeuctsuu u roctyrros [81].
Peaneua qeteneuocte (rar u roseqeuue) cyerta paccnatpusaetc ue usonuposauuo, a s cuctene tar
uasMsaenMx us+e++ex cum,a(uu, coqepaaux nuoectso qpyrux suqos qeteneuoctu, c rotopMnu
paccnatpusaenMe s qauuon cny+ae suqM noryt Mte cssauM rpno unu rocseuuo. 3to nuoectso nM oosua+aen
rar npocmpa+cmeo noeede+u+, us+e++,s cped, c,se|ma: s ueu orpeqenktc ta peaneua rpeqnetua u
couaneua cpeqM, s rotopMx cyert opnupyetc rar nu+uocte.
pu aton sMop ctpateruu roseqeuu uneet ot+etnusyk deou+,s demepvu+a(us: atot sMop orpeqenetc ue
tonero uanu+uMnu, cuknuuytuMnu, sueauunu ro otuoaeuuk r cyerty octotenectsanu, uo u cyaectseuuo
sasucut ot uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu u oaux sarouonepuocteu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu, peanusyenMx
cuctenou rcuxu+ecrux rpoeccos. laau uccneqosauu roqtsepqakt, +to sMop ctpateruu sasucut ot tarux
rcuxonoru+ecrux opasosauuu, rar rotpeuoctu, euuoctu, nu+uMu orMt, notusM u ocoeuuoctu eneronarauu,
srnote qo rcuxousuonoru+ecrux u rcuxousu+ecrux rapanetpos cyerta. Ectectseuuo, +to s taron cny+ae
uccneqosauue sarouonepuocteu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu, tar e rar u sarouonepuocteu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu,
qonuo rposoqutec oquospeneuuo ua qsyx yposux.
8 canon oaen suqe, ucronesy uerotopMe aneneutM opnanusauu, ato nouo rpeqctasute cneqykaun
opason:
Aktv. par = F1(Sbj. task; Ind. Str; Ext. cond; Soc. cond);
Ind. str = F2 (Psh. reg; Sbj. task; Sbj. aim), rqe Aktv. par rapanetpM qeteneuoctu, roseqeuu unu artusuoctu
cyerta s enon;
F1 u F2 yuruouaneuMe orepatopM unu yuruu;
Ind. str uuqusuqyaneua ctpateru qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu, coctasnkaux oayk artusuocte cyerta;
Ext. cond sueauue ro otuoaeuuk r cyerty oertusuMe ycnosu, s rotopMx ocyaectsnetc ero
qeteneuocte u roseqeuue;
Soc. cond couaneuMe ycnosu, s rotopMx ocyaectsnetc qeteneuocte, roseqeuue, ctauosneuue u passutue
nu+uoctu;
Psh. reg oaue u uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu nexauusnos rcuxu+ecrou perynuu (rcuxonoru+ecrue
nexauusnM roseqeuu);
Sbj. task cyertusuoe rpeqctasneuue o peaaenou saqa+e s qeteneuoctu unu eneuarpasneuuon roseqeuuu
(uuqusuqyaneua noqene peaaenou saqa+u);
Sbj. aim notusM, otuoaeuu, euuoctu, enu u qpyrue uuteuuouuMe xapartepucturu cyerta (s +actuoctu,
uarpasneuuocte nu+uoctu).
Paccnotpun yrasauuMe yposuu onee roqpouo.
oseqeuueck yposeus (yuru F1) xapartepusyet sueaukk, oertuyk creuury qeteneuoctu, crocoM
ee ocyaectsneuu u ycnosu, s rotopMx oua rposoqutc. 8qece rpeqctasneuo nuoectso xapartepuctur sosnouMx
ucxoquMx cutyauu, enaenMx unu uopnatusuo tpeyenMx pesynetatos (enaenMx cutyauu), crocoos ux
rony+euu s pasnu+uMx ycnosux, orpauu+euuu ua sepotuMe crocoM roseqeuu u t.r. 8 pqe cny+aes pasqeneuue
ucxoquMx, rpauu+uMx u enaenMx cutyauu noet uocute ycnosuMu xapartep. e+mene+ocme u noeede+ue (ua
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yuruouaneuo-roseqeu+ecron yposue) paccnatpusaktc s suqe cepuu rocneqosateneuMx repexoqos ot oquou
teryaeu usueuuou cutyauu r qpyrou, t.e. rar rpoecc rocneqosateneuoro usneueuu ucxoquou cutyauu qo
rony+euu enaenoro pesynetata. oatony enaena (qn teryaero atara qeteneuoctu) cutyau noet Mte
rpeqctasneua s ra+ectse ucxoquou qn rocneqykaero, a ctpateru qeteneuoctu unu roseqeuu saqaet suytpeuuue
orpauu+euu ua rourpetuyk peanusauk oquou us sepotuMx nuuuu repexoqa ot ucxoquou cutyauu r enaenou
+epes uerotopMe rponeyto+uMe coctasnkaue.
laop sosnouMx ctpateruu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu cyerta snecte c orpauu+euunu crocoos ux
ocyaectsneuu orpeqenet tar uasMsaenMu u+dueud,ane+eu cmune de+mene+ocmu. Cyert sMupaet us atoro
uaopa oquu us crocoos, rotopMu c+utaet uauonee rpuennenMn, enecoopasuMn, aertusuMn (ortunaneuMn
c ero cyertusuou to+ru speuu), u peanusyet ero s rourpetuMx qeuctsux u roctyrrax [42]. Ctpateru qeteneuoctu
u roseqeuu cyerta noet Mte ,cnea+ou e |a|ov-mo enon+e onpedene++ov dn+ +eco cavoco cvecne:
rpuennenou, rpoqyrtusuou, pauouaneuou, aertusuou unu uauny+aeu. Tara ctpateru rossonet qocturate
rourpetuMx rponeyto+uMx eneu, rotopMe sasuct ot eneu qeteneuoctu s enon u ue sxoqt s rpotusope+ue c
sueauunu (ro otuoaeuuk r cyerty) octotenectsanu, s rotopMx ata qeteneuocte ocyaectsnetc.
Cootsetctsue unu uecootsetctsue sMpauuou cyerton ctpateruu yrasauuMn octotenectsan secena cuneuo
snuet ua pesynetatM qeteneuoctu, rocronery ucxoqua u enaena cutyauu cyaectsykt u ocyaectsnktc s
oertusuon nupe s ycnosux peaneuou usuu. 3to sua+ut, +to rpoqyrtM qeteneuoctu orpeqenktc ycnosunu
peaneuou usuu sue sasucunoctu ot otuoaeuu r uun canoro cyerta. Tar, uarpunep, ctpateru qeteneuoctu,
rpuennena, u qae uauny+aa, s oM+uMx octotenectsax, noet orasatec ueaertusuou s asapuuuou
cutyauu. Cyaectsyet nuoectso anrupu+ecrux roqtsepqeuuu atony. lerotopMe us roqouMx rpunepos Mnu
paccnotpeuM s uccneqosauux, creuaneuo rocsaeuuMx usy+euuk qeteneuoctu +enosera s tar uasMsaenMx
ocoMx ycnosux [73]. Auanoru+uMn opason nouo rpounnkctpuposate snuuue rpeqnetuMx u couaneuMx
octotenects ua pesynetatM cosnectuou qeteneuoctu [35; 59], ocoeuuo ecnu unete s suqy, +to tarue
octotenectsa srnk+akt s ce nu+uoctuMe ocoeuuoctu, qenosMe u qpyrue ra+ectsa tex, c ren ocyaectsnet
cosnectuyk qeteneuocte usy+aenMu cyert. Ectectseuuo, +to s taron cny+ae pesynetatM qeteneuoctu rony+akt
qsyctopouukk oeury: ouu oeuusaktc rar co ctopouM canoro cyerta qeteneuoctu, tar u co ctopouM qpyrux
cyertos, u rony+euuMe oeuru noryt o+eue cuneuo pasnu+atec.
Kpone toro, rputepuu, ro rotopMn ctpoutc oeura pesynetatos tou unu uuou qeteneuoctu, sasuct ue tonero ot
coqepauu qeteneuoctu, uo u ot necta, sauunaenoro ek s cuctene qpyrux suqos qeteneuoctu.
outuo tare, +to pesynetatM rourpetuou qeteneuoctu oeuusaktc ro cootsetctsuk cyaectsykaun s
oaectse couaneuMn uopnan. 8 +actuoctu, rpasosMe u nopaneuMe uopnM, pernaneutupykaue qeteneuocte s
onactu arouonuru, noryt pasnu+atec s pasuoe spen, s pasuMx ctpauax, s pasuMx couaneuMx cnox u t.r.
Cootsetctseuuo oquu u te e pesynetatM arouonu+ecrou qeteneuoctu noryt oeuusatec s raqon rourpetuon
cny+ae ronouteneuo unu otpuateneuo s sasucunoctu ot ctereuu cootsetctsu yrasauuMn uopnan.
laroue, oeura pesynetatos qeteneuoctu rourpetuoro cyerta sasucut ot ueopnaneuMx uopn, rpuutMx s
ero nuauaen couaneuon orpyeuuu: ot ero couaneuoro ctatyca u couaneuou ponu, ot upasctseuuMx
ctepeoturos, ot peaneuMx couaneuMx csseu u otuoaeuuu, rotopMe snukt ua roseqeuue cyerta s tou unu uuou
couaneuou cutyauu u orpeqenkt teuqeuuu ero passutu rar nu+uoctu. Tarun opason, oeura ycreauoctu, tar
e rar u qpyrue rorasatenu, sasucut ue tonero ot sMpauuou cyerton ctpateruu, uo u ot tex rourpetuMx
rpeqnetuMx octotenects u couaneuMx ycnosuu, rotopMe saqakt sueauue orpauu+euu ua sepotuMe opnM
peanusauu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu nu+uoctu. pyrunu cnosanu, roseqeu+ecruu yposeue, s repsyk o+epeqe,
srnk+aet s ce auanus e+ea+ux, ose|m+ex ocpa+uve+uu ua sepotuMe crocoM peanusauu roseqeuu u
qeteneuoctu.
cxonorueck yposeus orucauu (yuru F2) otpaaet cyertuyk oycnosneuuocte qeteneuoctu u
roseqeuu [75; 76; 77; 78; 79; 81 u qp.]. 0ua coctout s ton, +to sMop ctpateruu qeuctsuu u roctyrros sasucut ot
uuqusuqyaneuou creuuru rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu sueauux (ro otuoaeuuk r cyerty) octotenects,
royqakaux ero rposnte raryk-nuo artusuocte. cuxonoru+ecruu nexauusn opnuposauu pearuu ua atu
octotenectsa, sMpaotru rnauos u rporpann sepotuMx qeuctsuu u otuoaeuue r sosnouMn crocoan ux
peanusauu uuqusuqyaneuo secena sapuatusuM (s tex unu uuMx oertusuMx ycnosux). cuxonoru+ecrue
nexauusnM roctpoeuu opasos rourpetuMx usueuuMx cutyauu (rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu), tar e rar u
rcuxonoru+ecruu nexauusn opnuposauu opasos sosnouMx qeuctsuu u nexauusn ux ocyaectsneuu, coctasnkt
ocuosuoe coqepauue rcuxu+ecrou perynuu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu, u raqMu us atux nexauusnos qeuctsyet s
cootsetctsuu c oaunu sarouanu, uo onaqaet sMpaeuuou uuqusuqyaneuoctek. 3tu nexauusnM rar pas u
rossonkt cyerty sMupate uuqusuqyaneuo aqersatuMe sueauun octotenectsan rocneqosateneuoctu
rpeopasosauu ucxoquMx cutyauu s enaenMe, t.e. opvupoeame u+dueud,ane+,s cmpamecus qeteneuoctu u
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roseqeuu.
Vouo ysuqete, +to usnoeuuMe sMae coopaeuu unekt uerotopyk auanoruk c uqenu tpaucartuoro auanusa,
passusasaunuc rpunepuo s te e roqM [265]. Tara auanoru, ro uaaeny nueuuk, qenaet uaa roqxoq qoctato+uo
rpoqyrtusuMn u rourpetuMn: roucr nexauusnos rcuxu+ecrou perynuu ocyaectsnetc sqece ue tonero c enek
orucauu pasnu+uMx rcuxu+ecrux rpoeccos u euoneuos, uo u qn toro, +toM cssate atu nexauusnM c
roseqeu+ecrunu euoneuanu, rotopMe snktc sueauunu ro otuoaeuuk r cyerty. 3to rossonet tare
oeuute sosnouoctu canoro cyerta snute ua uux.

5.4. cxonoruecke oco6euuoc npoecca npu pemeu iaqau

8seqeuue rateropuu saqa+a s rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus otrpMsaet onee auporue repcrertusM, rocronery
rpeqycnatpusaet rouctpyrtusuoe sMqeneuue enoctuMx aneneutos s uerpepMsuou quuanure peaneuMx usueuuMx
cutyauu; ectectseuuo, +to rpu aton ckqa srnk+aktc rar rpoeccM oaeuu, tar u oprauusau rpeqnetuou
qeteneuoctu. Crasauuoe osua+aet, +to tarou rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus qaet sosnouocte sMqente enoctuMe
aneneutM roseqeuu c ronoaek u ua ocuosauuu yuqaneutaneuMx rpusuaros saqa+u ee ,+|(uo+ane+ou
sav|+,mocmu u epeve++ou ocpa+uve++ocmu.
oq ,+|(uo+ane+ou sav|+,mocmes roqpasynesaetc ctpyrtypuposauuocte saqa+u: oneaa unu neueaa
orpeqeneuuocte ua+aneuMx u rpauu+uMx ycnosuu, orpauu+euu ua croco peaeuu u rpeqronaraenMu suq
ueoxoqunoro pesynetata u qp. oq epeve++ou ocpa+uve++ocmes rouunaetc orpeqeneuuocte rar noneuta
roctauosru saqa+u, tar u noneuta rony+euu peaeuu.
8seqeuua uanu uosa rcuxonoru+ecra rateropu saqa+a s otnu+ue ot uqeu u roueruu tpaucartuoro
auanusa, rossonet y+utMsate onee auporuu crertp uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu ue tonero s roseqeuuu, uo u s
rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnax ero perynuu, s +actuoctu, y+ecte uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu:
otpaeuu uopnatusuMx (saqauuMx qeteneuoctek) eneu;
sMopa crocoa peaeuu u/unu crocoa qeuctsu;
rpeqctasneuuu o ueoxoqunMx u rpuennenMx pesynetatax peaeuu u t.r.
8ce crasauuoe s enon osua+aet, +to saqa+a, yqy+u rouertyaneuo sanruytou s oertusuon, rpeqnetuo-
orpeqeneuuon rpoctpauctse u speneuu, orasMsaetc otrpMtou qn paccnotpeuu rar sueauux, tar u suytpeuuux
artopos s cyertuon rnaue, s rpoctpauctse-speneuu rcuxu+ecrou peaneuoctu. 8 roue+uon utore roqoua
otrpMtocte rar pas rossonet sMqente u qetaneuo paccnatpusate tarue aneneutM peaneuoro roseqeuu u
qeteneuoctu, rotopMe s rcuxonoru+ecron auanuse noryt Mte rpno cssauM c oaunu nexauusnanu u
uuqusuqyaneuMnu ocoeuuoctnu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu.
8auo roq+epruyte, +to roseqeu+ecruu auanus, sstMu snecte c rcuxonoru+ecrun, rossonet oeuusate rar
oertusuyk, tar u cyertusuyk cnouocte pasnu+uMx aneneutos roseqeuu. 0cuosauunu qn tarou oeuru
noryt ctate ctereue ctpyrtypuposauuoctu saqa+u, orpeqeneuuocte crocoa peaeuu, a tare nusocte ro speneuu
noneutos roctauosru u rony+euu pesynetata u qp.
8Mae nM ye orpeqenunu tarou rapanetp saqa+u, rar ee ctpyrtypuposauuocte. oq orpeqeneuuoctek crocoa
ee peaeuu nM uneen s suqy saqauuocte atoro crocoa s panrax ucxoquou cutyauu, ua+aneuMx u rpauu+uMx
ycnosuu unu ueoxoqunocte roucra u roctpoeuu onee unu neuee cuoro rnaua (opasa) qeuctsuu. nuteneuocte
uutepsana speneuu, rpuutoro (unu otryaeuuoro) ua peaeuue saqa+u, xapartepusyet tpeykaeec
Mctpoqeuctsue.
8anetun, +to nka saqa+a s csoeu oertusuou, uankqaenou +actu noet peaatec ye paspaotauuMn
crocoon unu rpeqycnatpusate rpeqsaputeneuMu roucr taroro crocoa. 8 repson cny+ae cyertusua cnouocte
saqa+u uue, +en so stopon, tar rar roucr crocoa peaeuu canoctoteneua saqa+a onee sMcororo yposu.
Ecte nuoectso oertusuMx rpunepos, unnkctpupykaux qauuoe ronoeuue.
8 arctpenaneuMx cutyaux +acto rpuxoqutc qeuctsosate s ycnosux, ue rpeqycnotpeuuMx uuctpyrunu
(rpasunanu, pernaneutupykaunu qeteneuocte), u roatony tpeyetc roucr uauonee enecoopasuoro crocoa
qeuctsuu.
8 oM+uou rpoeccuouaneuou (tpyqosou) qeteneuoctu +aae scero rpeqronaraetc ucronesosate ctepeoturuMe
rpuenM, rotopMe s rpoecce ocyaectsneuu qeteneuoctu ue uaqo roctouuo oeuusate c to+ru speuu ux
enecoopasuoctu.
laroue, s oMqeuuon roseqeuuu uan roctouuo rpuxoqutc cosepaate tar uasMsaenMe rpusM+uMe qeuctsu u
roctyrru, +acto qae ueocosuasaenMe.
puseqeuuMe rpunepM usnoeuM s ropqre yMsauu cyertusuou cnouoctu peaaenou saqa+u, rotopa
noet sospactate rpu yneueaeuuu uutepsana speneuu, otseqeuuoro ua rony+euue peaeuu. ocnequee osua+aet
69
rosMaeuue cyertusuou cnouoctu s cssu c ueoxoqunoctek ysenu+euu Mctpoqeuctsu.
leoxoquno sanetute, +to canu rcuxonoru+ecrue nexauusnM peaeuu saqa+ sMctyrakt rar nuoroyposuesMe
cuctenuMe opasosauu. KaqMu us yposueu, coxpau oaee coqepauue, uneet csou creuu+ecrue
ocoeuuoctu. pocteuaun snetc yposeue opnuposauu penertopuMx pearuu, rotopMu ue rpeqronaraet
ronuoro ocosuauu saqa+ u eneu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu, tar rar sMop crocoa pearuposauu u ero peanusau
ocyaectsnktc s cootsetctsuu c sarouonepuoctnu, ue tpeykaunu ocosuasaenMx peaeuuu.
8 tex cny+ax, rorqa tarou sMop ocyaectsnetc s rpoecce rpuutu +actu+uo unu ronuoctek ocosuasaenMx
peaeuuu, peanusyktc rcuxonoru+ecrue nexauusnM onee sMcorux yposueu. pu aton pasnu+uMe rcuxu+ecrue
opasosauu crnaqMsaktc s cuctenM c orpeqeneuuou uepapxueu. |epapxu+ecra ctpyrtypa rcuxonoru+ecrux
nexauusnos rpeqctasnet coou canoctoteneuMu uutepec, rocronery pasnu+uMe yposuu otpaeuu u perynuu
orasMsaktc oxsa+euuMnu rpnMnu u opatuMnu cssnu, rotopMe unekt xapartep neyposuesou ssaunuou
perynuu, Vuoroopasue atux csseu s roue+uon utore u orpeqenet ty rurocte, rnactu+uocte u rayaykc
uerpeqcrasyenocte rcuxu+ecrou perynuu, rotopMe ue qoctyruM uu oquou us cyaectsykaux texuu+ecrux cucten.
0cuosy atou rnactu+uoctu coctasnkt:
otopaeuue u usneueuue peaneuoctu (orepauu uaq rpeqnetanu);
qsueuue otopaeuuu, otopaeuue otopaaenoro (orepauu uaq opasanu);
rpoussoqctso usneueuuu s canux yuruouaneuMx nexauusnax, perynu ctpyrtypM u rapanetpos canoro
otpaeuu u perynuu (orepauu uaq orepaunu).
Crasauuoe tpeyet qoronuuteneuMx rocueuuu. asuo ye ctano routuMn, +to opnuposauue qae
rpocteuaux penertopuMx pearuu +aae scero ue noet Mte ocueuo tonero sMsMsakaunu ux sosqeuctsunu.
lankqaenMu paspMs rpu+uuuMx csseu tpeosan uaqneaaero ocueuu, rotopoe Mno rpeqnoeuo s opne
qsouuou qetepnuuauu: Mno rpusuauo, +to euoneuM roseqeuu cyerta rpu rpuoputete sueaueu
qetepnuuauu orpeqenktc suytpeuuunu ycnosunu [42; 87; 131; 194]. 8 aton, rar ronaranu cosetcrue rcuxonoru,
qeteneuoctuMu u cuctenuMu roqxoqM rpeoqonesanu orpauu+euu scex rpo+ux roqxoqos: uutpocrertusuMx,
uxesuopuctu+ecrux u uuMx [42; 52; 56; 58; 70; 82; 88 u qp.].
le sqasace s qetanu u sapuauu rpeqnoeuuoro rpuuura qetepnuuusna, otnetun tonero, +to ou uu+ero ue
qoasnn r rouunauuk rcuxu+ecrou perynuu, a rorpocty urcuposan u es toro o+esuquMu art, +to
roseqeu+ecrue euoneuM sasuct ot rcuxu+ecrux opasosauuu unu rpoeccos onee sMcorux yposueu, +en yposeue
usuro-xunu+ecrux pearuu oprauusna.
n uac yrasauua sasucunocte ot suytpeuuux ycnosuu osua+aet tonero to, +to ua sarouonepuoctu
opnuposauu penertopuMx pearuu orasMsaet snuuue coctouue rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnos onee sMcorux
yposueu. 3tu yposuu roq+uuktc qpyrun sarouonepuoctn; ux yuruouuposauue, s csok o+epeqe, sasucut ot
oaux u uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu otpaeuu repsMx, uueneaaux yposueu.
ponena usy+euu u orucauu tarux cutyauu cyaectseuuo ocnouetc ten, +to opnuposauue rnaua unu
rporpannM qeuctsuu cyerta rpoucxoqut cpasy ua scex yposux rcuxu+ecrou perynuu, uo ua raqon ro-csoeny,
qae rpu sMronueuuu ue o+eue cnouMx orepauu rarou-nuo qeteneuoctu, u qae s tex cny+ax, rorqa raqa us
tarux orepauu nusra r rpoctou penertopuou pearuu.
|snoeuua ocoeuuocte cuctenM rcuxu+ecrou perynuu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu ot+actu ocuet
v+ocoopasue |o+(en(uu ncuxonocuvec|ou cmp,|m,pe nuv+ocmu. Kaqa us atux roueruu, rar nM suqenu,
rpeqnaraet csou sapuaut uepapxuu rcuxu+ecrux rpoeccos u opasosauuu, u snecte c ten uu s oquon us uux ue
sMqenetc uepapxu orepauu uaq orepaunu, rotopa cyaectsyet s rpoeccax rcuxu+ecrou perynuu. 8
pesynetate, rar uu rapaqorcaneuo, onacte ronesuoro rpuneueuu raqou us tarux roueruu orpauu+eua posuo s
tou nepe, s rotopou uepapxu orepauu uaq orepaunu ue satparusaet sMqeneuuMx rapanetpos s
rpeqnaraenon sapuaute ctpyrtypM nu+uoctu.
3to rpusoqut r roctouuony pocty cnouoctu rcuxonoru+ecrux orucauuu, r rpuutuk uesuo sMpaeuuoro
rpuuura cootsetctsu cnouocteu ctpyrtypM u yuruu: nM ye rpuy+euM r tony, +to +en cnouee rara-nuo
qeteneuocte unu roseqeu+ecra cutyau, +en cnouee te unu uuMe usueuuMe octotenectsa, ten onee
cnouo qonua Mte yctpoeua rcuxu+ecra perynu u ten onee cnoua rcuxonoru+ecra ctpyrtypa nu+uoctu
tpeyetc qn ee orucauu.
8 pesynetate, rcuxonoru+ecrue uccneqosauu cyaectseuuo pasnu+akauxc suqos qeteneuoctu rpusoqt r
cosepaeuuo pasuMn rouerun u ctpyrtypan nu+uoctu. Kpone toro, otne+euua sMae teuqeuu cootsetctsu
cnouocteu ue rossonet oeuusate cyertusuyk cnouocte saqa+ qeteneuoctu, rocronery ucxoqut us sueauux
ro otuoaeuuk r cyerty octotenects. Ee rpeoqoneuue, ro uaaeny nueuuk, uaxoqutc s rpnou sasucunoctu ot
+ucna rpeopasosauuu tura orepauu uaq orepaunu, ueoxoqunMx qn ocyaectsneuu eneuarpasneuuMx
qeuctsuu.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
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oq+epruen, +to s routercte uaaero roqxoqa uneuuo cyertusua cnouocte saqa+ qeteneuoctu ctauosutc
artopon, orasMsakaun cyaectseuuoe snuuue ua rcuxu+ecryk perynuk roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu qauuoro
cyerta. partura u arcrepuneutaneuMe uccneqosauu roqtsepqakt, +to s tex cny+ax, rorqa cyertusua
cnouocte saqa+u rpesocxoqut sosnouoctu qauuoro cyerta, rpoucxoqut cpMs qeteneuoctu, otras ot ee
rpoqoneuu unu otsepeuue, uerpuutue saqa+ qeteneuoctu u t.q. [42; 61; 69; 73; 75; 76; 86 u qp.]. oqouMe
otrasM cpasy cuuakt cyertusuyk cnouocte peaaenou saqa+u, qae ecnu ouu oertusuo rpusoqt r
otpuateneuMn rocneqctsun. Vouo ronarate, +to ctpenneuue r cuueuuk otne+euuou cyertusuou cnouoctu
coctasnet ocuosy nuorux nexauusnos rcuxonoru+ecrou saautM u srnk+aetc s nexauusnM opnuposauu
rcuxonoru+ecrou rotosuoctu r qeteneuoctu.
8 cssu c atun cneqyet unete s suqy, +to nsa+ sadava de+mene+ocmu unu nponev+a+ cum,a(u+ cma+oe+mc+
dn+ c,se|ma ma|oeevu mone|o nocne moco, |a| o+u o(e+e+e uv e |avecmee ma|oeex. 3to coctasnet oquy us
rpuuuruaneuMx ocoeuuocteu rpeqnaraenoro uanu roqxoqa: c oquou ctopouM, rosnetc teopetu+ecra
sosnouocte oeuusate nkqeu ro +ysctsuteneuoctu r rponene, a c qpyrou s panrax rcuxonoru+ecrux orucauuu
tpeyetc cuo rpeqctasnte otnu+ue uopnatusuMx saqa+ ot ux cyertusuoro otpaeuu rpu roctpoeuuu noqeneu
peaaenou saqa+u.
8 ra+ectse rpunepa paccnotpun cneqykayk cutyauk. 0+eue nerro rpeqctasute cee, +to qsa pasnu+uMx
cyerta, uaxoqce s aconktuo oquuarosMx sueauux ycnosux u ucxoquMx cutyaux, une sueaue oquuarosMe
saqa+u u enu qeteneuoctu, noryt qenouctpuposate cosepaeuuo pasnu+uMe sapuautM roseqeuu. 3to pasnu+ue
nM rMtaenc ocuute uuqusuqyaneuMnu ocoeuuoctnu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu: pasnu+uou uarpasneuuoctek
nu+uoctu, csoeopasuMn rouunauuen enu u pasnu+uou notusaueu, roqrotosneuuoctek r pasnu+uMn crocoan
qeuctsu, ctereuek sauutepecosauuoctu s rony+euuu roue+uoro pesynetata u qp.
8necte c ten sce nouo ocuute onee rpoctMn u nerrun crocoon, ecnu ua+ate c toro, +to raqMu cyert s
qauuou cutyauu peaaet csok coctseuuyk, uuqusuqyaneuo-creuu+ecryk saqa+y (u xopoao M route, raryk
uneuuo?). Tara ucxoqua rocMnra rpusoqut uerocpeqctseuuo r rpusuauuk uuqusuqyaneuoctu noqeneu peaaenou
saqa+u u, cneqosateneuo, r ectectseuuony qn raqoro cyerta uuqusuqyaneuony sMopy pasnu+uMx ctpateruu u
rourpetuMx crocoos qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu. laronuun, +to ueoxoqunMn tpeosauuen cyertuoro auanusa
ua rcuxonoru+ecron yposue Mno orucauue uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu cyertusuoro otpaeuu saqa+
qeteneuoctu u rponenuMx cutyauu. C oquou ctopouM, taroe orucauue qonuo pacrpMsate otnu+ue
cyertusuoro otpaeuu peaaenou saqa+u ot ee uopnatusuoro (saqauuoro ennu qeteneuoctu unu couaneuMnu
ycnosunu) coqepauu. C qpyrou ctopouM, arrypatuoe orucauue cyertusuou noqenu peaaenou saqa+u rossonet
ouapyute ocuosuMe sarouonepuoctu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu ee peaeuu u ysuqete ux uuqusuqyaneuMe
ocoeuuoctu.
|uqusuqyaneuMu auanus saqa+u, ctoaeu repeq cyerton u rpuutou un r peaeuuk, rossonet oeuute
ssaunocsse noqenu peaaenou saqa+u, sMopa ctpateruu qeteneuoctu unu roseqeuu, paspaotru rnaua u
anroputna rourpetuMx qeuctsuu u ocoeuuocteu ux peanusauu. outuo, +to nka qeteneuocte snetc nuae
oquun us aneneutos usueqeteneuoctu qn ocyaectsnkaero ee cyerta. oatony enu, qocturaenMe un s
peaeuuu rourpetuMx saqa+ auanusupyenou qeteneuoctu, tar unu uua+e roq+uueuM onee rnoaneuMn u
yropqo+euuMn ro csoun rpuoputetan usueuuMn enn, rotopMe unekt uerocpeqctseuuyk csse c
uarpasneuuoctek nu+uoctu.
/e oqua tonero rurotesa o uanu+uu roqouou cssu rpeqronaraet cootueceuue uopnatusuMx eneu
qeteneuoctu c uarpasneuuoctek nu+uoctu u ctasut sorpoc o rpoeccax opnuposauu cyertusuMx eneu, onee
unu neuee artyaneuMx qn toro unu uuoro cyerta s yrasauuou qeteneuoctu, +to, s +actuoctu, rpeqronaraet
opnuposauue enu, to+uee, opasa enu u oeury sepotuMx ryteu ee qoctueuu. outuo, +to sauMnu
artopanu s atux rpoeccax ctauostc uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu otuoaeuu cyerta r cpeqctsan
qoctueuu csoux eneu, r sosnouoctn ux peaneuoro ucronesosauu. lerotopMn us atux cpeqcts cyert noet
otqasate rpeqro+teuue rpocto rotony, +to onaqaet ueoxoqunMnu qn ux ucronesosauu uasMranu, qpyrun
scneqctsue oeuru ux rar uauonee qeuctseuuMx s rourpetuMx ycnosux u t.r.
|uqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u s oeurax ycnosuu qeteneuoctu tare noryt Mte rpu+uuou pasnu+uu s sMope
ctpateruu qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu u cootsetctseuuo tare snukt ua rpoeccM eneronarauu. 0quu cyert
noet oeuusate atu ycnosu rar ocnoukaue unu qae ctpeccosMe, qpyrou rar uopnaneuMe.
cuxonoru+ecruu auanus qoneu unete s suqy, +to uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu cyertusuoro otpaeuu u
oeuru ycnosuu qeteneuoctu scerqa sMctyrakt s ra+ectse sauoro artopa s rpoeccax ctpyrtypuposauu saqa+,
s +actuoctu rpu eneronarauuu, u rpno snukt ua rcuxu+ecryk perynuk qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu. Tarue
ocoeuuoctu sasuct ot orMta, suauuu, uasMros, rcuxonoru+ecrux apeepos, otuoaeuu r couaneuMn uopnan u
nuorux qpyrux rcuxu+ecrux opasosauuu, sxoqaux s pasnu+uMe orucauu ctpyrtypM nu+uoctu, rpeqctasneuuMe s
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pasuoopasuMx rcuxonoru+ecrux rouerux.
Crasauuoe sMae rossonet cyaectseuuo rourpetusuposate ocuosuMe ronoeuu cyertuoro roqxoqa rpu
auanuse peaneuMx usueuuMx cutyauu u usueuuMx rponen rourpetuou nu+uoctu u, rar nM ronaraen,
ucronesosate ux s ra+ectse netoqonoru+ecrou asM rpu roctpoeuuu uuterpuposauuoro rcuxonoru+ecroro orucauu
nu+uoctu dn+ paspaom|u ,+dave+mane+ex eonpocoe meopemuvec|ou nepco+onocuu.

|nasa 6. Teopeuecke ocuoss qaqueckoro siauoqecs

epcouonor qenoso 6eceqs (uepcy6Lekuoe siauoqecse s qaqe). 8 rpeqMqyaeu rnase nM
paccnotpenu teopetu+ecrue ocuosM cyertuoro auanusa, s rotopon sauoe necto sauunakt roueruu usueuuou
cutyauu u peaneuou saqa+u, ctoaeu repeq cyerton u peaaenou un c oneaun unu neueaun ycrexon. 8 qauuou
rnase rpeqctasneuM uerotopMe ooaeuuMe pesynetatM uccneqosauuu tarux usueuuMx cutyauu, rotopMe
xapartepusyktc nenu+uoctuMn ssaunoqeuctsuen e duade. 8Mop qauuoro natepuana orpeqenetc ten, +to
ssaunoqeuctsue +enose+ecrux cyertos s quaqe snetc yuuraneuMn rpunepon vucmoco c,se|m-
c,se|m+oco esauvodeucmeu+, u s aton cnMcne qonuo Mno M ctate rpeqneton creuaneuoro uccneqosauu
rar rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu, tar u couaneuou rcuxonoruu. 0quaro atoro ue rpousoano, u quaqu+ecroe ssaunoqeuctsue
paccnatpusaetc s couaneuou rcuxonoruu nuo s routercte couaneuou reperuu (socrputu +enosera
+enoseron), nuo rar oquu us suqos uutepcyertuoro ssaunoqeuctsu s nanou rpyrre. Auanoru+uo, s rcuxonoruu
nu+uoctu cyaectseuuo oequeua rpuuuruaneua yuuraneuocte atoro suqa ssaunoqeuctsuu cyerta, u sorpocM
sqece csoqtc nuo r uccneqosauuk otuoaeuuu nu+uoctu (rpeunyaectseuuo anratuuuMx), nuo r usy+euuk
ronnyuuratusuMx crocouocteu nu+uoctu.
8necte c ten duaduvec|oe esauvodeucmeue rpeqctasnet coou tarou oert, s rotopon uauonee suo
rpocnatpusaktc ocoeuuoctu couaneuoro tura ssaunoqeuctsuu cyerta, usneueuue rotopMx u sMctyraet rar
couaneuoe roseqeuue cyerta. Pe+e uqet o qsyx saueuaux cyertuMx yurux atoro suqa couaneuoro
ssaunoqeuctsu, rotopMe octaktc s ocuosauuu +enose+ecroro oaeuu:
couaneuMu routart, cyte rotoporo csoqutc r repeqa+e cooaeuu c enek usneueuu roseqeuu qpyroro
cyerta (unu uuopnauouuMu artop couaneuoro snuuu ua qpyroro);
oneu cooaeuunu c enek oprauusauu cosnectuoro roseqeuu (unu artop cornacosauu cosnectuMx
qeuctsuu, qeteneuoctu).
|neuuo roatony co(uane+eu |o+ma|m qsyx cyertos {co(uane+oe esauvodeucmeue e duade) ue noet
paccnatpusatec tonero s routercte oaeuu unu tonero s routercte qeteneuoctu cyerta. 0u snetc
rnaccu+ecrun npuvepov couaneuoro roseqeuu, oquun us prux opasos rotoporo ctauosutc denoea+ eceda*.
pu aton rnasuMu areut, ectectseuuo, repeneaaetc ua nu+uocte s ee ssaunoqeuctsuu c rpupoquMn unu
couaneuMn orpyeuuen.
* 8 qauuou ruure ucronesyktc uerotopMe pesynetatM auanusa qenosou eceqM, rpeqrpuutMe uanu cosnectuo c oquun us uaaux
y+euuros C.A. luronaesMn. {puvev. aem.)

n toro +toM roq+epruyte aty ocoeuuocte rpuutoro uanu roqxoqa, nM s qaneueuaen orpeqenen e+ove+e
nuv+ocm+oco esauvodeucmeu+ da++oco c,se|ma c dp,cuvu c,se|mavu rar ose|m nepco+onocuvec|oco
uccnedoea+u+, ronroueutanu rotoporo ctauosutc nu+uocte s uepaspMsuon equuctse ee ssaunoqeuctsuu c
orpyakaun nupon, s ton +ucne c ee couaneuMnu routartanu u couaneuMn orpyeuuen. Tarou roqxoq rossonet
sMqente meopemuvec|,s, a|cnepuve+mane+,s u npu|nad+,s nepco+onocus rar uayry o nu+uoctuMx
(repcouaneuMx) euoneuax, ux rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnax u ux roseqeu+ecrux aertax.
8 cootsetctsuu c oaunu rpuuuranu c,se|m+oco a+anusa* scra +enose+ecra nu+uocte (repcoua)
paccnatpusaetc uanu rar enoctuoe quuanu+ecroe opasosauue, rar cuctena, uaxoqaac s +enpepee+ov
esauvodeucmeuu c orpyakaun nupon. pu aton nuoectso uuqusuqyaneuMx (repcouaneuMx) ssaunoqeuctsuu
qenutc ua qsa rpuuuruaneuo pasuMx rnacca:
cyert-oertuMu (unu tar uasMsaenMu +am,pane+eu);
cyert-cyertuMu (unu tar uasMsaenMu co(uane+eu).
* 3apodu+ |.V. 0+epru teopuu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu. V., 1997.

Creuaneuou opnou co(uane+oco esauvodeucmeu+ ctauosutc co(uane+eu |o+ma|m ved, cee nodo+evu,
rpeqronarakauu ove+ coo(e+u+vu c enek sMpaotru cocnacoea++oco (coevecm+oco) noeede+u+. Kar ye
rosopunoce, ocoou opnou taroro couaneuoro routarta snetc denoea+ eceda.
punep rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa qenosou eceqM, rpuseqeuuMu uue, rossonet ysuqete sosnouoctu
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teopetu+ecroro repcouonoru+ecroro auanusa, oeuute aertusuocte texuonoruu uutepcyertuoro
ssaunoqeuctsu, paccnotpete ctpyrtypy, asM u aertusuocte oprauusauu qenosoro routarta s xoqe qenosou
eceqM.

6.1. Teopeuecke acneks oprauia qenosoro o6meu

Kar otne+anoce sMae, cyaectseuuou ocoeuuoctek cutyauu necyertuoro ssaunoqeuctsu, unu
repcouaneuoro routarta, snetc to, +to ouo ocyaectsnetc neqy cee roqouMnu cyertanu c enek enu++u+
+a cocmo++ue unu noeede+ue qpyroro cyerta. oq qenossu kouakou +acto roqpasynesakt tarou
repcouaneuMu routart (qenosyk sctpe+y), enek rotoporo snetc qorosopeuuocte o rarou-nuo opne qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa.
Tara qorosopeuuocte qocturaetc s rpoecce oaeuu y+actuuros sctpe+u, oprauusosauuon s cootsetctsuu c ux
rpeqctasneuunu qpyr o qpyre, o sosnouoctu u uauonee enecoopasuMx cnocoax o|asa+u+ esauv+oco enu++u+,
o sosnouMx enx u cnocoax oc,(ecmene+u+ coevecm+ou de+mene+ocmu.
0nocoe o|asa+u+ enu++u+ sMupaktc unu ua ocuosauuu nu+uoro orMta, yneuu y+utMsate pearuk
coecequura, oeuusate ero roseqeuue s rpoecce eceqM, opnynuposate csou rpeqnoeuu s uauonee
rpuennenou qn uero opne, ucronesosate apryneutauk, rotopa qeuctseuua ro otuoaeuuk r coecequury. pu
aton ycreauocte qenosMx routartos so nuoron sasucut ue tonero ot coqepauu ssaunuMx rpeqnoeuuu, nueuuu u
apryneutos, uo u ot toro, rarun opason ouu opnynupyktc u s rarue noneutM ocyqeuu sMcrasMsaktc.
0quu u te e rpeqnoeuu, sMcrasauuMe s pasnu+uou opne, noryt sMsMsate pasuoopasuMe sapuautM
otuoaeuu coecequura r ux coqepauuk s sasucunoctu ot ero coctouu, uutepecos u uauonee artyaneuMx ua
noneut eceqM rponen. 8 pesynetate sosnouo sosuuruoseuue qsyx quanetpaneuo rpotusoronouMx cutyauu.
C oquou ctopouM, npa|muvec|u nones+oe npednoe+ue noet ue sMsMsate sauutepecosauuoctu s ero
ocyqeuuu u peanusauu tonero rotony, +to ouo sMcrasauo ue s tou opne unu s ueroqxoqauu noneut u
oeuusaetc otpuateneuo ro rarun-to cyertusuMn, uuorqa +ucto anououaneuMn coopaeuun, C qpyrou
ctopouM, ecnepcne|mue+a+ c to+ru speuu rpartu+ecrou ronesuoctu ude+ uuorqa sMsMsaet suyk rotosuocte r
qetaneuony ee ocyqeuuk u cosnectuou rpartu+ecrou peanusauu tonero rotony, +to oua satparusaet rarue-to
nu+uMe uutepecM unu rpeqnoeua qn ocyqeuu s repuoq rosMaeuuou artyaneuoctu rarux-to cssauuMx c ueu
rponen.
8MqeneuuMe qse cutyauu xapartepusykt qsa rpauuux cny+a. Peaneuo +aae scero nM uneen qeno c +en-to
rponeyto+uMn, rorqa coecequuru o(e+ueasm rpeqnoeuu u apryneutM qpyr qpyra |a| c mov|u spe+u+ ux
npa|muvec|ou nones+ocmu, ma| u c mov|u spe+u+ cocmee++oco c,se|mue+oco, avo(uo+ane+o o|paae++oco
om+oae+u+ | +uv. 8saunorouunauue u ssaunuoe qosepue unu uerouunauue u ueqosepue, rotosuocte r cosnectuou
qeteneuoctu unu otpuateneuoe nueuue o enecoopasuoctu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa opnupyktc s rpoecce
oneua nueuunu u sasuct ot cootuoaeuu yrasauuMx oeuor. 8arouonepuoctu snuuu atux oeuor ua xapartep u
quuanury passutu nenu+uoctuMx otuoaeuuu s oaeuuu usy+akt pasnu+uMe pasqenM couaneuou rcuxonoruu [81;
96].
3to osua+aet, +to ycreauocte qenosoro routarta sasucut ot crocoa oprauusauu rpoecca oaeuu ero
y+actuuros, orpeqenenoro yneuuen raqoro us uux y+utMsate ussectuMe s cospeneuuou couaneuou rcuxonoruu
sarouonepuoctu opnuposauu y coecequuros rpeqctasneuuu qpyr o qpyre u nueuuu ro ocyqaenMn sorpocan.
0tne+euuMe rpeqctasneuu u nueuu snktc asou qn passutu rpoecca oaeuu, rpeqronarakaero
ssaunorouunauue, ssaunuoe qosepue, sosnouocte ssaunuoro snuuu u s roue+uon utore noryt ctate
rpeqrocMnranu qn ua+ana cosnectuou qeteneuoctu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
enossu kouakou nouo uassate rar repsoe suaronctso tonero rpeqronaraenMx qenosMx raptuepos, tar u
sctpe+y qenosMx raptuepos, ye unekaux orMt qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa u xopoao suaronMx qpyr c qpyron. Taroe
ueoquosua+uoe rouunauue coqepauu qenosoro routarta suocut sua+uteneuyk ueorpeqeneuuocte s auanus
artopos, ot rotopMx sasuct pesynetatM qenosoro routarta, u sua+uteneuo ycnouet opnynuposauue
couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrux peroneuqauu ro ero oprauusauu. 3ta ueorpeqeneuuocte snetc cneqctsuen
snuuu rpeqsaputeneuoro suaronctsa ua sMop opn u crocoos oaeuu unu oprauusauu qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa.
poqenouctpuposate yrasauuoe snuuue nouo auporo pacrpoctpaueuuMn nueuuen o ton, +to qenosoe
cotpyquu+ectso ny+ae ctpoute ua ocuose xopoaux nu+uMx otuoaeuuu. 0cuosuou rpu+uuou pacrpoctpaueuuoctu
qauuoro nueuu snetc to, +to rpu suaronctse rpeonaqaet uutepec r ssaunuou oeure qenosMx ra+ects u +ucto
nu+uoctuMx ocoeuuocteu, a ue r ocyqeuuk repcrertus qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa. 8 aton cny+ae coqepauue
oaeuu +acto csoqutc r tar uasMsaenony nenu+uoctuony rosuauuk, coctoaeny s opnuposauuu y
73
coecequuros tarux oeuor.
cpeua qenossx napuepos, suaronMx pauee, rpeqronaraet ux cocpeqoto+euuocte ua orasauuu snuuu ro
oprauusauu unu rpoqoneuuk cosnectuoro qoctueuu oaux eneu s qenosou unu rarou-nuo qpyrou cepe,
asupykaeroc ua ye unekauxc rpeqctasneuux o nu+uoctu coecequura u cepe ero uutepecos (qenosMx
uutepecax u nu+uMx ctpenneuux). Venu+uoctuoe rosuauue ocyaectsnetc u s aton cny+ae, uo ouo s oneaeu
ctereuu roq+uueuo ye unekaunc y coecequuros rpeqctasneuun qpyr o qpyre, ctepeoturan,
copnuposasaunc s rpoecce cosnectuoro oaeuu u cosnectuou qeteneuoctu, u qenosMn acrertan
ocyqaenMx sorpocos.
8 qaneueuaen usnoeuuu roq denoeevu u+mepecavu yqen roqpasynesate to, +to uerocpeqctseuuo cssauo c
ennu, uanepeuunu, rnauanu u rpeqctasneuunu o repcrertusax s qenosou cepe; roq nuv+evu u+mepecavu
(ctpenneuunu) enauu u yctauosru, rotopMe ue unekt uerocpeqctseuuou cssu c qenosou cepou, uo o+eue
artyaneuM qn rourpetuou nu+uoctu s cuny rarux-to octotenects, ue unekaux rpnoro otuoaeuu r qenan, uo
orasMsakaux cyaectseuuoe snuuue ua qeteneuocte u roseqeuue s enon.
0tne+euuoe pasnu+ue snetc cneqctsuen nuoroopasu sapuautos cyertusuoro otpaeuu saqa+ nkou
qeteneuoctu, s ton +ucne cosnectuou. 0uo rpusoqut r opueutauu cyerta ua coctouue u qeuctsue s
cootuoaeuux, sasucaux rar ot uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu, tar u ot oertusuMx octotenects [82]. 8qece
sauo sanetute, +to cootuoaeuue qenosMx uutepecos u nu+uMx ctpenneuuu ro cyaectsy snetc cootuoaeuuen
opnaneuMx u ueopnaneuMx acrertos uutepcyertuoro ssaunoqeuctsu (oaeuu). puneuuteneuo r qenosMn
routartan ato cootuoaeuue qoctato+uo opnanusosauuMx (nerro ctpyrtypupyenMx) qenosMx uutepecos u
cnouMn opason ssaunocssauuMx ueopnaneuMx nu+uMx ctpenneuuu. epsMe so nuoron orpeqenktc
denoeevu |avecmeavu; stopMe nuv+ocm+evu ocoe++ocm+vu.
8 cssu c atun qn oneaeu orpeqeneuuoctu tpartosru routu qenosou routart yqen ronarate, +to ouo
osua+aet repsoe suaronctso qsyx nkqeu, us rotopMx, ro rpauueu nepe, oquu sauutepecosau s oprauusauu qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa, uo oa ouu ue pacronarakt qoctato+uo ronuou uuopnaueu o qenosMx ra+ectsax u nu+uoctuMx
ocoeuuoctx qpyr qpyra. o cyaectsy, qenosou routart ato yctauosneuue otuoaeuuu c enek oprauusauu
cosnectuou qeteneuoctu.
pu qauuon sapuaute rouunauu qenosoro routarta sctpe+a qenosMx raptuepos, suaronMx pauee, yqet
otuocutec ue r yctauosneuuk, a r passutuk otuoaeuuu s rpoecce ye onee unu neuee oprauusosauuou
cosnectuou qeteneuoctu. Ecnu sauutepecosauuocte s oprauusauu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa rposnet tonero
oquu us y+actuuros qenosoro routarta, to s qaneueuaen yqen uasMsate ero uuuuatopon qenosoro routarta unu
rpocto uuuuatopon routarta, a qpyroro - roteuuaneuMn raptuepon.
huaop qenosoro kouaka oM+uo peaaet onee cnouyk saqa+y, +en roteuuaneuMu raptuep. 0u qoneu
qousatec opnuposauu y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa taroro sre+atneuu o cee u csoux rpeqnoeuux, rotopoe
sMsMsano M sauutepecosauuocte s qenoson cotpyquu+ectse.
oatony usnoeuuMe uue rpuuurM, peroneuqauu, crocoM u rpuenM oprauusauu qenosoro routarta
opueutuposauM ua ucronesosauue ux rpeqe scero ero uuuuatopon. 0quaro ouu noryt ucronesosatec u tenu, rto
rpeqronaraet, +to ua uux orasMsaetc snuuue c enek sauutepecosate repcrertusanu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa,
tenu, rto snetc roteuuaneuMn raptuepon. n uux usnoeuuoe uue noet Mte qoronuuteneuMn ocuosauuen
qn csoespeneuuoro pacrosuasauu orasMsaenoro snuuu u ero uarpasneuuoctu.
peqnaraenMe s qauuou rnase rpuuurM, peroneuqauu, crocoM u rpuenM rossonkt uuuuatopy qenosoro
routarta rpasuneuo sMpate croco ero oprauusauu, ctpoute csoe roseqeuue c y+eton nu+uoctuMx ocoeuuocteu
roteuuaneuoro qenosoro raptuepa u s roue+uon utore onee ycreauo qousatec csoeu enu ua+ana u passutu
qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
6noco6 oprauia qenosoro routarta orpeqenetc sMopon rosoqa, necta u speneuu suaronctsa, sorpocos
qn ocyqeuu, apryneutauu sMcrasMsaenMx to+er speuu, a tare uerotopMnu acrertanu roseqeuu
uuuuatopa routarta, y+utMsakaunu sosnouyk pearuk roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ua ero rpeqnoeuu, u nuoroe
qpyroe, srnote qo ocoeuuocteu pe+u, yneuu cnyaate coecequura u t.r.
pasuneua oprauusau qenosoro routarta oecre+usaet ero repepactauue s qenosoe cotpyquu+ectso rpu
ycnosuu roqrotosneuuoctu uuuuatopa, ero yneuuu ruro opueutuposatec s rpoecce passutu qenosoro routarta,
oocuosauuo sMupate crocoM snuuu ua roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, to+uo u csoespeneuuo y+utMsate pearuk
coecequura ua te unu qpyrue sMcrasMsauu.
|neuuo roatony rpuneueuue suauuu us onactu couaneuou rcuxonoruu u rcuxonoruu nu+uoctu tpaquuouuo
rpeqctasnet uutepec qn tex suqos qeteneuoctu, rotopMe cssauM c ueoxoqunoctek yctauosneuu u passutu
otuoaeuuu c pasnu+uMnu nkqenu. 0 aton csuqetenectsykt nuoro+ucneuuMe sapyeuMe rynurauu,
rocsaeuuMe couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrun uccneqosauun rponen oaeuu u oprauusauu pasnu+uMx suqos
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
74
cosnectuou qeteneuoctu. 8 +actuoctu, s uaaeu ctpaue qoctato+uo rorynpuM paotM . Kapueru, A. usa [105;
164] u nuorux qpyrux. Veuee ussectuM auanoru+uMe uccneqosauu ote+ectseuuMx creuanuctos [30; 31; 81], +to
nouo ocuute ux opueutaueu ue ctonero ua rpartu+ecrue, cronero ua +ucto uay+uMe enu.
Cneqyet roq+epruyte, +to roqasnkaee oneauuctso sapyeuMx uccneqosauuu ocuosauo ua couaneuMx,
rpasosMx, rynetypuMx u uauouaneuMx uopnax roseqeuu, pernaneutupykaux qenosoe cotpyquu+ectso s
yrasauuMx ctpauax. 3to satpyquet ronuoe ucronesosauue rpeqnaraenMx ux astopanu peroneuqauu s
cospeneuuMx ycnosux uaaero oaectsa.
Tar, uarpunep, to+ra speuu o ton, +to qn usuecneua sauo snoute neueae, a sapaotate oneae,
rpeqronaraet rpnyk csse c rpasosMnu uopnanu, orpeqenkaunu yposeue peutaeneuoctu u ropqor
uanoroonoeuu. Tara csse snuet ua perytauk usuecneua, a sua+ut, u ua ero repcrertusM. auua
ocoeuuocte snetc oquou us ocuosuMx rpu+uu uactopoeuuoro otuoaeuu saraquMx rpeqrpuuunateneu r
rpeqnoeuun rony+ate o+eue sMcoryk rpuMne. Taroe otuoaeuue ocoeuuo xapartepuo qn tex usuecneuos,
rotopMe rpusMrnu paotate s ctpauax, rqe yposeue peutaeneuoctu orpauu+eu sarouoqatenectson.
puseqeuuMu rpunep xapartepusyet snuuue cnoane+ex u no|ane+ex co(uane+ex +opv +a cnoco deucmeu+ u
noeede+ue |o+|pem+ou nuv+ocmu [81; 83]. |neuuo ato snuuue orpeqenet cootuoaeuue qenosMx uutepecos u
nu+uMx ctpenneuuu, tar rar s rpoecce ctauosneuu nu+uoctu ouu opnupyktc s cootsetctsuu c atunu uopnanu.
ponena yrasauuoro snuuu, r coaneuuk, ro+tu ue paccnatpusanace ote+ectseuuou couaneuou rcuxonorueu.
0quaro ee sua+unocte s uactoaee spen, rorqa tpeyetc opueutau ua uosMe uopnM rpu coxpaueuuu
rpeqctasneuuu, ssrnqos u yctauosor, copnuposauuMx ua ctapMx, qoctato+uo o+esuqua. n peaeuu atou
rponenM ueoxoqunM teopetu+ecrue uccneqosauu u ocuosauuMe ua uux rpartu+ecrue peroneuqauu. Kpone toro,
tpeyetc orpeqeneuua octopouocte s ucronesosauuu peroneuqauu sapyeuMx astopos, rotopMe ue y+utMsakt
creuury cospeneuuMx ycnosuu Poccuu.
8 cssu c atun sosuurna ueoxoqunocte creuaneuoro uccneqosauu, rotopoe rossonuno M oecre+ute
rpasuneuyk oprauusauk qenosoro routarta c y+eton rcuxonoru+ecrou creuuru quaqu+ecroro oaeuu.
0csoeuue rpeqnoeuuoro qanee natepuana, s rpuuure, ue tpeyet asosou rcuxonoru+ecrou roqrotosru. 0uo
noet ocyaectsntec canoctoteneuo s rpoecce rpartu+ecrou qeteneuoctu ro oprauusauu qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa.
8 atou rnase rpeqctasneuM ocuosuMe rpuuurM oprauusauu qenosMx routartos. 8uaronctso c uunu ueoxoquno
qn onee rnyororo rouunauu couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrux sarouonepuocteu yctauosneuu u passutu
nenu+uoctuMx otuoaeuuu, oocuosauuoro sMqeneuu artopos, orpeqenkaux quuanury u ycreauocte qenosoro
routarta. 3tu rpuuurM copnynuposauM s suqe rpasun u sorpocos, rotopMe rossonkt oocuosauuo sMupate
croco oprauusauu qenosoro routarta, y+utMsate qenosMe ra+ectsa u nu+uoctuMe ocoeuuoctu roteuuaneuoro
raptuepa, csoespeneuuo roppertuposate oaeuue c uun s rpoecce suaronctsa.
Peroneuqauu, usnoeuuMe s repsou +actu rn. 7, otpaakt te suauu u uasMru, rotopMe ueoxoqunM qn
peaeuu pasnu+uMx sorpocos roqrotosru qenosoro routarta. 0uu rossonkt uuuuatopy qenosoro routarta
sMupate uauonee pauouaneuMe crocoM qeuctsu, sMqente uauonee sua+unMe aneneutM roseqeuu
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa u rpasuneuo ux oeuusate. Tarue peroneuqauu ueoxoqunM qn rpartu+ecroro
conkqeuu ocuosuMx rpuuuros, tar rar raqa us uux orpeqenet rnk+esMe atarM qenosoro routarta u
y+utMsaet sarouonepuoctu ux repepactauu s qenosoe cotpyquu+ectso.
CrocoM u rpuenM oprauusauu qenosoro routarta usnoeuM so stopou +actu rn. 7. 0uu rossonkt uuuuatopy
routarta oocuosauuo sMupate croco qeuctsu u roseqeuu, csoespeneuuo ero roppertuposate, rpeoqonesate
ueenateneuMe qn uero teuqeuuu s opnuposauuu nueuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. partu+ecroe ocsoeuue
atux crocoos u rpuenos enecoopasuo rposoqute, auanusupy coctseuuMe qeuctsu c to+ru speuu conkqeuu
rpeqnoeuuMx rpuuuros u peroneuqauu, a tare rnauupy auanoru+uMe qeuctsu s yqyaen. Co+etauue
rputu+ecroro auanusa coctseuuMx qeuctsuu c onee ronuou roqrotosrou r rpeqctoaun routartan rossonut
qoctato+uo Mctpo sMpaotate ueoxoqunMe rpartu+ecrue uasMru.

6.2. 0cuosuse npuns oprauia qenossx kouakos

8o sseqeuuu rnasM yrasMsanoce, +to enek qenosoro routarta snetc oprauusau cosnectuou qeteneuoctu.
n qoctueuu atou enu uuuuatop routarta qoneu qoutec opnuposauu y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa sronue
orpeqeneuuMx rpeqctasneuuu o cee u csoux rpeqnoeuux, rotopMe crococtsosanu M rpuutuk rocnequun
peaeuu o enecoopasuoctu ua+ana qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
0quospeneuuo c atun uuuuatop routarta qoneu rpertctsosate rosneuuk y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa tarux
rpeqctasneuuu, rotopMe noryt sMssate conueuu s enecoopasuoctu atoro peaeuu.
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Ecnu yrasauuoe peaeuue yqet paccnatpusatec roteuuaneuMn raptuepon rar uauonee enecoopasuoe unu
ortunaneuoe u ctauet qn uero ctunynon r rourpetuMn qeuctsun ro oprauusauu cosnectuou qeteneuoctu, to
ene qenosoro routarta nouo c+utate qocturuytou.
CospeneuuMe couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrue uccneqosauu csuqetenectsykt o s+avumene+ov enu++uu +a
nodo+oe peae+ue vomuea(uu, cucmeve ,cma+oeo| u (e++ocmeu c,se|ma, |omopee ompaasm |a| eco denoeee
|avecmea, ma| u nuv+ocm+ee ocoe++ocmu [42; 96; 153]. 0oaa rpuseqeuuMe s yrasauuMx paotax qauuMe,
nouo cqenate sarnk+euue o ton, +to, rpuuuna peaeuue o enecoopasuoctu u rpartu+ecrou ronesuoctu qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa, roteuuaneuMu raptuep opueutupyetc ua ctereue ueorpeqeneuuoctu cutyauu, sosnouyk
ronesuocte peaeuu u coctseuuMu rporuos repcrertusuoctu ero peanusauu.
pu aton +acto uankqaetc cneaeuue notusa c enu cotpyquu+ectsa u saqa+, rotopMe ouo rossonet peaate,
ua rpoecc coctseuuo rpocueuu cutyauu u rony+euu ueoxoqunou uuopnauu ua uuopnauouuMu roucr.
8 pesynetate taroro roucra sMpaatMsaetc otuoaeuue r coecequury u ocyqaenMn sorpocan, rotopoe scerqa
uneet suyk anououaneuyk orpacry u so nuoron orpeqenet oeury ronesuoctu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
0tne+euua ocoeuuocte rpuutu peaeuu orpeqenetc rputepunu, ua ocuosauuu rotopMx ouo rpuuunaetc.
lauonee roqpouo tarue rputepuu paccnotpeuM s paotax [35; 86; 132; 143], rpoauanusuposauM s panrax
rateropuu saqa+a, otpaakaeu ocoeuuoctu opnuposauu cyertusuMx rpeqctasneuuu o ueoxoqunoctu
roucra peaeuu [75; 76; 153] u ooaeuM s paotax [70; 81; 82; 152].
Pesynetaton teopetu+ecroro ooaeuu rateropuu rponena, saqa+a rar ocoMx usueuuMx cutyauu
nu+uoctu sunc cneqykauu rpartu+ecru sauMu sMsoq.
n repexoqa ot uanepeuu r qeuctsuk cyert qoneu rpeqctasnte:
enaenoe yqyaee coctouue cutyauu, s rotopou ou uaxoqutc (unu sosnouMe enu);
teryaee coctouue cutyauu (srnk+a s uero oeury enecoopasuoctu ee coxpaueuu unu usneueuu);
pasnu+ue neqy teryaeu u enaenou cutyaunu;
qeuctsu ro sosnouony rpeoqoneuuk atoro pasnu+u;
sosnouMe rocneqctsu qn raqoro sapuauta oprauusauu tarux qeuctsuu (usneueuue sueauux octotenects
u coctseuuoro coctouu).
3to osua+aet, +to uuuuatop qenosoro routarta qoneu qoutec opnuposauu y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa
ueoxoqunMx rpeqctasneuuu, y+utMsa ero cyertusuMe rputepuu ro oeure ronesuoctu rpeqnoeuuu o
cosnectuou qeteneuoctu, anououaneuony otuoaeuuk r crocoan ee oprauusauu u opne ux ocyqeuu
(rputepuu I u II poqa [73; 86]). 3tu rputepuu orpeqenkt otuoaeuue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r qenosMn ra+ectsan
u nu+uoctuMn ocoeuuoctn uuuuatopa routarta, ctereue sauutepecosauuoctu s rpeqnoeuux o qenoson
cotpyquu+ectse u s roue+uon utore coctasnkt asy qn opnuposauu notusos cosnectuou qeteneuoctu.
Pone u sua+unocte otne+euuMx rputepues qenouctpupyet oquu us pesynetatos uccneqosauu ponu
+enose+ecroro artopa s rpoussoqctseuuo-arouonu+ecrou qeteneuoctu [96]. 0u coctout s ton, +to ronouteneuoe
sre+atneuue u enauue cotpyquu+ate, rar rpasuno, sosuuraet ro otuoaeuuk r ten nkqn, rotopMe routuM,
xopoao rporuosupyenM u qeuctsykt s uarpasneuuu, ueoxoqunon oeuusakaeny; cootsetctseuuo otpuateneuoe
sre+atneuue sMsMsakt nkqu, rotopMe ueroutuM, uerpeqcrasyenM u s +en-to rpotusoqeuctsykt unu noryt
rpotusoqeuctsosate oeuusakaeny.
epe+ucneuuMe rpu+uuM opnuposauu ronouteneuoro unu otpuateneuoro otuoaeuu u ecte oeura ro
rputepun repsoro u stoporo poqa, y+utMsakaa qenosMe ra+ectsa, nu+uoctuMe ocoeuuoctu u oertusuMe
octotenectsa oeuusakaero. Ee snuuue ua xapartep ssaunootuoaeuuu neqy nkqenu orpeqenet rnasuMe
rpu+uuM nenu+uoctuMx, nerpyrrosMx u, suquno, neuauouaneuMx rounurtos, rytu ux noranusauu,
rpeoqoneuu ueenateneuMx teuqeuuu u rpeqotspaaeuu ooctpeuuu qo noneuta ueyrpasnenoro passutu.
n paccnatpusaenou rponenM ouu rpeqctasnkt uutepec, tar rar sMqenkt uauonee sua+unMe c to+ru
speuu enu qenosoro routarta artopM, snukaue ua ero passutue. poqyrtusuony y+ety atux artopos
crococtsyet conkqeuue rpuuuros, rpeqnoeuuMx uue.
kou qenosou routart oM+uo passusaetc, rpoxoq +epes uecronero ataros: suaronctso, orpeqeneuue cepM
ssaunuMx uutepecos, cornacosauue ycnosuu ux peanusauu s cosnectuou qeteneuoctu u cosnectuMu sMop
ssaunorpuennenoro crocoa tarou peanusauu.
oqpouo c oocuosauuen sMqeneuu uneuuo atux ataros nouo osuaronutec s paotax 6.1. onosa [132]. C
to+ru speuu uaaux eneu sauo rouctatuposate, +to rpoqonuteneuocte atux ataros noet neutec, ouu noryt
ronuoctek ocyaectsntec s rpoecce qenosoro routarta unu rpu roqrotosre r ueny, uo scerqa rpucytctsykt u
coctasnkt ocuosuoe coqepauue oaeuu y+actuuros taroro routarta.
larpunep, cepa ssaunuMx uutepecos +actu+uo noet Mte orpeqeneua qo suaronctsa, a rpu suaronctse
tonero yto+utec. /cnosu cosnectuou peanusauu oaux uutepecos noryt s sua+uteneuou ctereuu sasucete ot
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creuuru rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu y+actuuros qenosoro routarta. Torqa rpu suaronctse rotpeyetc
tonero yto+ueuue uerotopMx qetaneu toro, +to ye cuo, ucxoq us onactu rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu.
8 nkon cny+ae atarM passutu qenosoro routarta rpeqctasnkt coou +actuMu cny+au yctauosneuu
nenu+uoctuMx otuoaeuuu, unekaux repcrertusy repepactauu s qenosoe cotpyquu+ectso. oatony rpu
oprauusauu qenosoro routarta enecoopasuo conkqate pq rpuuuros, otpaakaux ussectuMe s couaneuou
rcuxonoruu sarouonepuoctu u oecre+usakaux tpeyenyk uarpasneuuocte passutu qenosoro routarta. Kpatro ux
nouo copnynuposate cneqykaun opason.
I. hnuquamop denoeoeo konmakma donaen cmpevumsc k movy, vmom eeo npednoaenu vakcuvansno
coomeemcmeoeanu nauonee akmyansnmv dn nomenquansnoeo napmnepa qenv u nuvnmv cmpevnenuv.
leoxoqunocte conkqeuu qauuoro rpuuura cssaua c ten, +to oquun us ocuosuMx artopos, oprauusykaux
cosnectuyk qeteneuocte u cyaectseuuo snukaux ua passutue qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa, snetc +anuvue
o(ux (eneu. KaqMu +enoser pyrosoqctsyetc rarun-to uuqusuqyaneuMn uaopon eneu. 0uu noryt neutec ro
coqepauuk u artyaneuoctu, uo scerqa nouo sMqenute tar uasMsaenoe rone eneu, rotopMn rourpetua nu+uocte
pyrosoqctsyetc s teryauu repuoq speneuu [131; 132].
Taroe none (eneu xapartepusyet ue tonero cepy qenosMx uutepecos, uo u rarue-to nu+uMe ctpenneuu u
yctauosru. 8 roue+uon utore ouo otpaaet rpeqctasneuu cyerta o uauonee enateneuMx qn uero pesynetatax
coctseuuou qeteneuoctu u crocoax ux rony+euu c ,vemov eco denoeex |avecme u nuv+ocm+ex ocoe++ocmeu,
a sua+ut, u rputepuu, rotopMnu ou pyrosoqctsyetc, rpuuuna peaeuue o enecoopasuoctu qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa. oatony nkoro +enosera +acto uutepecyet ue tonero rpartu+ecra ronesuocte pesynetatos ero
qeteneuoctu, uo u sosnouocte yqosnetsopeuu +ucto nu+uMx, uuorqa qae crpMsaenMx ctpenneuuu u enauuu,
oeuusaena ro cootsetctsuk ux rpeqnaraenMn crocoan qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
punepon roqouMx ctpenneuuu u enauuu noryt Mte rpuopeteuue unu rosMaeuue astoputeta, oecre+euue
ctauneuoctu unu rpectuuoctu couaneuoro ctatyca, rpuopeteuue repcrertusuMx sosnouocteu u qp. 8nuuue
nu+uMx ctpenneuuu u enauuu ua sMop eneu rpusoqut r tony, +to qn nkqeu +ectonkusMx unu ysne+euuMx
opeou c rourypeuton sosnouocte rosMaeuu coctseuuoro astoputeta unu uaueceuu yaepa rourypeuty noet
rpeqctasnte oneauu uutepec, +en rony+euue qoxoqa.
Csse qenosMx uutepecos u nu+uMx ctpenneuuu noet rpusoqute r tony, +to roteuuaneuMu raptuep rpunet
peaeuue o rpeqro+tuteneuoctu oquoro us uecronerux anetepuatusuMx rpeqnoeuuu o qenoson cotpyquu+ectse ue
us-sa ero rpartu+ecrou ronesuoctu u repcrertusuoctu, a nuae s cuny oneaero cootsetctsu opnM atoro
rpeqnoeuu csoun nu+uMn ctpenneuun unu ronouteneuoro otuoaeuu r uuqusuqyaneuMn ocoeuuoctn u
perytauu uuuuatopa routarta, ero yneuuk sectu eceqy u t.r. 8 rocnequen cny+ae rpuuto rosopute, +to ycrex
qocturuyt c ronoaek nu+uoro oauu u yneuu roqate ce. C to+ru speuu ronoeuuu couaneuou rcuxonoruu
ato pesynetat rpeonaqauu snuuu ua peaeuue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa rputepues stoporo poqa,
rpeqronarakaux opueutauk ua narcunaneuyk aertusuocte qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
lapyaeuue copnynuposauuoro rpuuura rosMaaet sepotuocte rosneuu y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa
suytpeuuero cyertusuoro rpotusope+u: sauutepecosauuocte qenosMnu acrertanu rpeqnoeuuu uuuuatopa
routarta, uo uecootsetctsue ux nu+uMn ctpenneuun unu uaoopot. Taroe suytpeuuee rpotusope+ue oM+uo
sMsMsaet otpuateneuMe anouu, rotopMe s sua+uteneuou ctereuu rpertctsykt passutuk qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa, tar rar sMsMsakt otpuateneuoe otuoaeuue r uuuuatopy routarta, a sua+ut, u r nkMn ronesuMn
ero rpeqnoeuun.
|snoeuuMu rpuuur rpeqronaraet paccnotpeuue eneu, rotopMnu pyrosoqctsyetc roteuuaneuMu raptuep, s
suqe qsyx rpyrr:
enu, cootsetctsykaue qenosMn uutepecan;
enu, cootsetctsykaue nu+uMn ctpenneuun.
3tu rpyrrM cssauM neqy coou. enosMe uutepecM snukt ua nu+uMe ctpenneuu, u uaoopot. Tara csse
oycnosneua ten, +to repsMe otpaakt rpeqctasneuu o ycrexe s qenax, a stopMe o ctereuu sosnouoro
nu+uoro yqosnetsopeuu ot tarux ycrexos. Kpone toro, oua oycnasnusaet uanu+ue y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, tar
e rar u y nkoro qpyroro +enosera, tarux eneu, rotopMe cootsetctsykt rar qenosMn, tar u nu+uMn uutepecan.
oqouMe enu uauonee artyaneuM qn uero s cuny toro, +to ux qoctueuue narcunaneuo yqosnetsopet
qonuuupykaue rotpeuoctu u rpuoputetuMe notusM. oatony sauutepecosauuocte roteuuaneuoro raptuepa s
rpeqnoeuux uuuuatopa routarta uauonee sepotua, ecnu ouu aqersatuM uneuuo tarun enn, qoctueuue
rotopMx oecre+usaet qn roteuuaneuoro raptuepa narcunaneuyk aertusuocte rpeopasosauu teryaeu
cutyauu s enaenyk.
0ecre+euue yrasauuou aqersatuoctu s sua+uteneuou ctereuu snuet ua nueuue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ro
rosoqy repcrertusuoctu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa c uuuuatopon routarta. pu+en sauutepecosauuocte ten sMae,
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+en onee artyaneuMx eneu pacc+utMsaet qoctu+e roteuuaneuMu raptuep. 8 cssu c atun rpu oprauusauu
qenosoro routarta ronesuo conkqate eae oquu rpuuur.
II. heoxoduvmv ycnoeuev ycnemnocmu denoeoeo konmakma enemc oecnevenue coenacoeannocmu
npednoaenu unuquamopa konmakma c mevu qenvu u nuvnmvu cmpevnenuvu nomenquansnoeo
napmnepa, komopme nauonee akmyansnm dn neeo k vovenmy y cmanoenenu konmakma.
8Mae otne+anoce, +to coctas u artyaneuocte eneu nu+uoctu noet neutec roq snuuuen pasnu+uMx
oertusuMx u cyertusuMx octotenects. 3to rpusoqut r tony, +to cootsetctsue otqeneuMx qenosMx uutepecos
u nu+uMx ctpenneuuu ue scerqa Msaet roctouuMn u tare noet neutec. pu sosuuruoseuuu y roteuuaneuoro
raptuepa rarux-nuo rponen unu satpyqueuuu rosMaaetc artyaneuocte roucra crocoos ux rpeoqoneuu. 8 aton
cny+ae y uero rpeonaqaet uutepec ue ctonero r pesynetatan rpeqronaraenoro qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa, cronero r
oeure sepotuoctu ero qoctueuu (rpeonaqaet uuopnauouuMu roucr). 8 +actuoctu, yqa+nusMu
rpeqrpuuunatene noet ue rposute uutepeca r rpeqnoeuuk, rpeqronarakaeny cpequue qoxoqM, uo tpeykaeny
sMcorou qenosou artusuoctu. 0quaro ero otuoaeuue r tony e rpeqnoeuuk noet Mte ronouteneuMn, ecnu ou
octpo uyqaetc s qoronuuteneuMx uuaucosMx cpeqctsax unu rorqa o+eue sauutepecosau s rpuopeteuuu uosMx
cep snoeuu rarutana.
auuMu rpuuur uneet uerocpeqctseuuoe otuoaeuue r sMopy necta u speneuu qenosoro routarta. Ecnu s
ra+ectse necta sMupaetc ouc, to cneqyet unete s suqy, +to qn roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, cropee scero,
artyaneuMnu yqyt enu, cootsetctsykaue ero qeteneuoctu s aton ouce. 8uaronctso s ueouuaneuou
octauosre rossonet pacc+utMsate ua to, +to artyaneuocte qenosMx uutepecos uecronero cuueua, a nu+uMe
ctpenneuu sMpaeuM s oneaeu ctereuu.
8Mop speneuu qenosoro routarta tare enecoopasuo cootuocute c qauuMn rpuuuron. Xenateneuo
cosraqeuue speneuu sctpe+u c rosMaeuuen artyaneuoctu tex eneu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, rotopMe unekt
uerocpeqctseuuoe otuoaeuue r rpeqnoeuun uuuuatopa routarta. Kpone toro, cneqyet y+utMsate, +to
rpeqnoeuu, tpeykaue cepeesuou qetaneuou rpopaotru, ny+ae ocyqate s repuoqM narcunaneuou
paotocrocouoctu: c 10.00 qo 12.00 u c 14.00 qo 17.00. 0cyqeuue cnouMx sorpocos s roue pao+ero qu, rorqa
crasMsaetc ytonneuue, ueenateneuo, tar rar otpuateneua pearu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa noet Mte
sMssaua ue coqepauuen rpeqnoeuuu uuuuatopa routarta, a tonero ueenauuen ytpyqate ce
uutennertyaneuMnu uarpysranu u ctpenneuuen cropee sasepaute qena u repeutu r otqMxy.
+aae scero cosraqeuue eneu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa u uuuuatopa routarta ue o+esuquo. oatony s xoqe
qenosoro routarta ueoxoquna orpeqeneuua ssaunua ropperu, coqepauue rotopou orpeqenetc cneqykaun
rpuuuron.
III. 0peanuaaqu denoeoeo konmakma donana npedycvampueams ne monsko emenenue nauonee
akmyansnmx dn nomenquansnoeo napmnepa qene, no u opvupoeanue oe qenu, ydoenemeopme
denoemv unmepecav u nuvnmv cmpevnenuv nomenquansnoeo napmnepa u coomeemcmeyme
unmepecav unuquamopa konmakma, a makae noemmenue akmyansnocmu amo qenu no omnomenum k
dpyeuv.
enosou routart nouo c+utate ycreauMn, ecnu s pesynetate yqet orpeqeneua xot M oaa qn ero
y+actuuros ene qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa, oequukaa qenosMe uutepecM u nu+uMe ctpenneuu. 0rpeqeneuue
tarou enu ue scerqa Msaet sosnouo qo routarta. ae rpu uanu+uu cxoquMx eneu ouu noryt pasnu+atec ro
artyaneuoctu unu cootuoaeuuk qenosMx u nu+uMx uutepecos. oatony rpu oprauusauu qenosoro routarta spq nu
enecoopasuo pacc+utMsate ua uqeaneuoe cootsetctsue, rotopoe cpasy orpeqenet repcrertusuocte
cotpyquu+ectsa.
8 rpoecce qenosoro routarta +aae scero ocyaectsnetc ssaunuoe cornacosauue uuqusuqyaneuMx eneu ero
y+actuuros. Pesynetaton cornacosauu noet Mte oqua unu uecronero oaux eneu, rotopMe oequukt
uuqusuqyaneuMe. 8 aton coctout ssaunuoe snuuue y+actuuros qenosoro routarta, opnupykaee ux
sauutepecosauuocte s cotpyquu+ectse. n toro +toM ato snuuue Mno eneuarpasneuuMn, co ctopouM
uuuuatopa routarta ueoxoquno rpeqycnatpusate pasnu+uMe sapuautM ero passutu. Tarue sapuautM
sarnk+aktc s roataruon rpuutuu peaeuuu roteuuaneuMn raptuepon u cornacosauuon c coqepauuen atux
ataros snuuuu uuuuatopa routarta. 8 +actuoctu, enateneuo Mte rotosMn r rorMtran roteuuaneuoro raptuepa
roq+uuute cotpyquu+ectso csoun uutepecan unu sctpe+uMn rpeqnoeuun, rotopMe ue so scen cootsetctsykt
rpeqnoeuun uuuuatopa routarta.
poecc opnuposauu oaeu enu noet Mte yrpasnen, ecnu uuuuatop routarta oraetc roqrotosneuuMn
r ueny. 3tony crococtsyet rpeqsaputeneua rpopaotra uecronerux crocoos taroro cornacosauu.
0ocnacoea+ue o(ux (eneu noet ocyaectsntec s rpoecce ocyqeuu ux repcrertusuoctu c to+ru speuu
sosnouoctu rony+euu narcunaneuoro ycrexa s qenoson cotpyquu+ectse. 8auo, +toM atu enu royqanu
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roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r rourpetuMn peaeuun u qeuctsun. n atoro ou qoneu unete sronue orpeqeneuuMe
rpeqctasneuu o repcrertusuoctu oaux eneu. oatony sosuurna ueoxoqunocte opnynuposauu eae oquoro
rpuuura oprauusauu qenosMx routartos.
IV. Vev onee nepcnekmuena oa qens u vev onee peansnmvu npedcmaenmmc yvacmnukav
denoeoeo konmakma amu nepcnekmuem, mev onsme noenemc eoavoanocme dn eaauvonpuevnevo
unmeepaquu e denoeov compydnuvecmee u mev onee empaaaemc nompenocms eo eaauvno adanmaquu
k npednaeaevmv cnocoav decmeu.
pyrunu cnosanu, +en enateneuee qoctueuue oaeu enu qn y+actuuros qenosoro routarta, ten ouu onee
crosop+usM s sMope crocoos cosnectuoro ee qoctueuu. auuMu rpuuur otpaaet sauyk sarouonepuocte,
coctoayk s ton, +to uanu+ue oaeu enu sMsMsaet ssaunuMu uutepec, uo eae ue osua+aet uanu+u ssaunuoro
ctpenneuu r cosnectuony ee qoctueuuk s qenoson cotpyquu+ectse (uanu+u notusos y+actu s cosnectuou
qeteneuoctu).
eno s ton, +to oaa ene ue ucrnk+aet sosnouoctu sosuuruoseuu rpotusope+u s qenosMx u nu+uMx
uutepecax y+actuuros routarta, rotopoe noet repexoqute qae s autarouusn, ecnu ue rpeqrpuute
cootsetctsykaue nepM. punepon tarux rpotusope+uu snetc pacxoqeuue s to+rax speuu ua cporu
qoctueuu oaeu enu, s rotosuoctu sste ua ce otsetctseuuocte sa pesynetatM, a tare pasnu+ue s
rpeqctasneuux o crocoax qoctueuu atou enu u sosnoua tpaucopnau oaeu enu s rpoecce qenosoro
routarta. Cporu u crocoM qoctueuu oaux eneu noryt snute ua qenosMe uutepecM u nu+uMe ctpenneuu,
neute ux artyaneuocte u coqepauue, +to s utore crasMsaetc ua peaeuuu o enecoopasuoctu cosnectuou
qeteneuoctu.
peoqoneuuk tarux rpotusope+uu crococtsyet cornacosauuocte rpeqctasneuuu o repcrertusax
cotpyquu+ectsa. Ecnu tarue repcrertusM yqyt qoctato+uo o+esuquMnu qn roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, to ou cropee
rouqet ua ronrponuccM u s neueaeu ctereuu ctauet aconktusuposate coctseuuMe uutepecM. auua
sarouonepuocte ueoquorpatuo roqtsepqanace pesynetatanu pasnu+uMx uccneqosauuu, oua yctou+uso rposnetc
s yctauosneuuu nenu+uoctuMx otuoaeuuu, ocoeuuo s couaneuo uarpeuuou cpeqe [139; 153].
epcrertusuocte cotpyquu+ectsa cuuaet ssaunuyk tpeosateneuocte s qoctueuuu nuauaux eneu. 3to
snetc cneqctsuen enauu uautu crocoM qoctueuu yrasauuMx repcrertus +epes pq rponeyto+uMx eneu,
raqa us rotopMx noet rpeqctasnte neueauu canoctoteneuMu uutepec. oatony uuuuatopy qenosoro
routarta ueoxoquno ctpoute csoe snuuue ua roteuuaneuoro raptuepa tarun opason, +toM ctunynuposate ero r
cotpyquu+ectsy ue tonero qn qoctueuu nuauaux eneu, uo u qn orpeqeneuu repcrertus qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa s yqyaen.
8 pesynetate cuusutc sepotuocte rosneuu npuvu+ dn+ +ap,ae+u+ esauvono+uva+u+ u esauv+oco doeepu+,
tar rar uanu+ue yrasauuMx repcrertus cuuaet cyertusuyk sua+unocte pasnu+uu s otuoaeuuu r rponeyto+uMn
enn u crocoan ux qoctueuu, royqaet r artusuony u ssaunuony roucry rpuennenMx sapuautos peanusauu
atux repcrertus.
Conkqeuue qauuoro rpuuura rossonet rpeoqonesate sosuuruoseuue rpotusope+uu s otuoaeuuu y+actuuros
qenosoro routarta r crocoan qoctueuu oaeu enu. 3to qocturaetc sa c+et cornacosauuoro ucronesosauu
opue+ma(uu +a deucmeue u/unu +a cocmo++ue [82; 87]. /+actuuru qenosoro routarta noryt otqasate rpeqro+teuue
pasnu+uMn crocoan qeuctsu, oeuusa ux ro uauonee sepotuMn usneueuun coctouu teryaeu cutyauu u
ctereuu nu+uou yqosnetsopeuuoctu.
0cuosauu qn tarux rpeqro+teuuu noryt Mte rar oertusuMnu, tar u cyertusuMnu. K repsMn otuocutc
snuuue couaneuo-upasctseuuMx u rpasosMx uopn roseqeuu: ocoeuuoctu rynetypuMx u uauouaneuMx tpaquuu,
octotenects, s rotopMx uaxoqtc y+actuuru routarta, u t.r. Ko stopMn uuqusuqyaneuo-nu+uoctuMe
ocoeuuoctu: octopouocte unu crnouuocte r pucry, rpeqro+teuue ctauneuoctu Mctpony ycrexy, saota o
perytauu, rpusM+uocte rpeqnaraenoro crocoa qeuctsu u roqrotosneuuocte r ueny.
8 +actuoctu, y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa noet rosutec sauutepecosauuocte s qoctueuuu eneu
rpeqronaraenoro qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa, qae ecnu rpeqnaraenMe uuuuatopon routarta crocoM ee
qoctueuu noryt ue cootsetctsosate uopnan roseqeuu, rotopMx oM+uo rpuqepusaetc roteuuaneuMu
raptuep, xapartepuony qn uero crocoy peaeuu saqa+ s rpoeccuouaneuou cepe. ocnequee rpeqronaraet y+et
uuqusuqyaneuMx rpeqro+teuuu rarony-to ctunk rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, yposu u uarpasneuuoctu
rpoeccuouaneuou roqrotosru. Ecnu roteuuaneuony raptuepy rpeqnaraetc rpusM+uMu u xopoao eny suaronMu
croco cosnectuMx qeuctsuu, to sosuuruoseuue y uero rarux-nuo conueuuu s cssu c atun nanosepotuo.
|crnk+euu sosnouM s tex cny+ax, rorqa ene uactonero artyaneua qn uero, +to ou rotos ucronesosate qae
nanosuaronMu croco qn ee qoctueuu unu rorqa rpeqnaraenMu croco ronuoctek yqosnetsopet nu+uMe
ctpenneuu. 8 nkon cny+ae enateneuo, +toM crocoM cosnectuMx qeuctsuu sMsMsanu y roteuuaneuoro
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raptuepa uutepec qae sue sasucunoctu ot coqepauu oaux eneu. Torqa repcrertusa ux rpuneueuu noet
qoronuuteneuo sauutepecosate ero. pu opnuposauuu taroro uutepeca sauo y+utMsate eae oquu rpuuur
oprauusauu qenosMx routartos.
V. Ycnemnocms denoeoeo konmakma e anavumensno cmenenu aaeucum om coomeemcmeu
pacnpedenenu coquansnmx pone u ynkqu eeo yvacmnukoe ux coquansnmv cmamycav u eoavoanocmu
coxpanenu nauonee aenamensnoeo dn kaadoeo ua nux eapuanma pacnpedenenu e denoeov
compydnuvecmee.
Vueuue y+actuuros qenosoro routarta o repcrertusuoctu u crocoax sosnouMx cosnectuMx qeuctsuu scerqa
sasucut ot sapuauta pacrpeqeneuu couaneuMx poneu u yuruu s rpeqronaraenou oprauusauu qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa. Pacrpeqeneuue couaneuMx poneu orpeqenet ctatyc raqoro us y+actuuros qenosoro routarta s
qenoson cotpyquu+ectse: pasuorpasuMe raptuepM, otuoaeuu onee orMtuoro c ua+uuakaun, snuteneuoro c
uayaun cssu u t.q. Pacrpeqeneuue couaneuMx poneu tecuo cssauo c pacrpeqeneuuen yuruu s
cotpyquu+ectse, rotopoe osua+aet pasqeneuue osauuocteu u nepM otsetctseuuoctu sa pesynetatM qoctueuu
oaux eneu.
oatony roteuuaneuoro raptuepa noryt sauutepecosate tonero te rpeqnoeuu uuuuatopa routarta, rotopMe
cootsetctsykt enaenony qn repsoro sapuauty yrasauuoro pacrpeqeneuu. 3tot uutepec orpeqenetc
cootuoaeuuen ero rpeqctasneuuu o ctereuu ueorpeqeneuuoctu saqa+, rpartu+ecrou ronesuoctu pesynetatos,
xapartepe qeuctsuu ro ux rony+euuk, rotopMe rpno unu rocseuuo sasuct ot ponu raptuepa s qenoson
cotpyquu+ectse.
koe s+a|ovcmeo npednonacaem ssaunuyk o(e+|, co(uane+oco cmam,ca. 3to ronoeuue roqtsepqaetc ten,
+to, rpeqctasnce rpu suaronctse, nM, rar rpasuno, cooaaen o cee to, +to u orpeqenet uaa couaneuMu
ctatyc: necto paotM, poq sautuu u t.r. laa uutepec r uosony suaronony rpeqe scero royqaet uac r rony+euuk
cseqeuuu o ero couaneuon ctatyce. |neuuo roatony tar rorynpeu oneu susutuMnu rapto+ranu. Cseqeuu,
xapartepusykaue couaneuMu ctatyc uosoro suaronoro, rossonkt copnuposate repsu+uoe otuoaeuue r ueny u
ctpoute oaeuue c uun ua ocuosauuu atoro otuoaeuu [132].
8 qenoson routarte y+et couaneuoro ctatyca uneet oneaoe sua+euue. Ecnu uuuuatop routarta rpeqctasnet
conuquyk oprauusauk, to ou noet s oneaeu ctereuu pacc+utMsate ua uutepec r cee, +en s cny+ae, rorqa ata
oprauusau ueussectua roteuuaneuony raptuepy. Xenateneuo, +toM coqepauue rpeqnoeuuu uuuuatopa
routarta cootsetctsosano ronouteneuou perytauu rpeqctasnenou un oprauusauu.
8 rpoecce qenosoro routarta sauo qoutec ue tonero sauutepecosauuoctu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa s
qoctueuuu oaux eneu, uo u ero yqosnetsopeuuoctu pacrpeqeneuuen couaneuMx poneu u yuruu e eepa++ov
cnocoe opca+usa(uu coevecm+ex deucmeuu. 8pq nu pyrosoqutene rpyruou oprauusauu sauutepecyetc
rpeqnoeuuen, rotopoe rpeqronaraet qn uero pone pqosoro ucronuuten. Ecnu e atu rpeqnoeuu
rpeqronarakt rosMaeuue ero couaneuoro ctatyca, a ou qoctato+uo +ectonkus, to ouu noryt sauutepecosate ero.
pu yctauosneuuu qenosoro routarta ueoxoquno oecre+ute ycnosu, rpeqronarakaue ssaunorouunauue s
xoqe routarta. eno s ton, +to oaeuue sooae u qenosou routart s +actuoctu rpeqctasnkt coou creuu+ecryk
opny artusuoctu nkqeu, s pesynetate rotopou opnupyetc ssaunorouunauue [131; 132], a ssaunootuoaeuu
otpaakt notusM, opnupykauec s rpoecce oaeuu.
+aae scero rotpeuocte s oaeuuu sosuuraet y +enosera torqa, rorqa ou ctanrusaetc c rarou-to rponenuou
cutyaueu u eny ue xsataet coctseuuoro orMta u sosnouocteu qn ee peaeuu [70; 73]. +actu+uo ato ronoeuue
y+teuo s opnynuposre rpuuura, roq+eprusakaero ueoxoqunocte opueutauu ua uauonee artyaneuMe qn
y+actuuros routarta enu. 0quaro atot rpuuur ue oxsatMsaet scex ycnosuu, ueoxoqunMx qn opnuposauu
ssaunuoro uutepeca r oaeuuk u rpuutu peaeuu o qenoson cotpyquu+ectse.
0aeuue srnk+aet s ce ue tonero ove+ u+opva(ueu o +avepe+u+x, uo tare rpeqronaraet ove+
deucmeu+vu u tar uasMsaenoe venuv+ocm+oe eocnpu+mue, ocuosauuoe ua ssaunuMx oeurax roseqeuu s enon,
nunuru, ecturynuu, nauepM sectu eceqy u t.r. [56; 318]. oatony uutepec r oaeuuk sasucut ot co+etauu
cxoqctsa u pasnu+u nkqeu so ssrnqax, orMte, nauepax, artyaneuMx rponenax. 6es cxoqctsa uesosnouo
ssaunorouunauue, a es pasnu+u ue sosuuraet ssaunuMu uutepec u rotpeuocte s oaeuuu.
auuoe ytsepqeuue nouo rocuute cneqykaun opason. 6es cxoqctsa s rpeqctasneuux o rnk+esMx routux
u o rarux-to ocuosuMx acrertax s qenosou u nu+uou cepe nkqu ue noryt rouunate qpyr qpyra. larpunep, es
xopoaero suauu raroro-to oaero sMra oaeuue sooae uesosnouo. Pasnu+ue s uerotopMx nueuux, ssrnqax,
oeurax u sMsoqax noet sMssate sauutepecosauuocte s ux ocyqeuuu, ecnu tarue pasnu+u ue uoct
autarouuctu+ecroro xapartepa. Taroe co+etauue cxoqctsa u pasnu+u rpeqctasnet coou quanertu+ecroe
rpotusope+ue, orpeqenkaee quuanury passutu otuoaeuuu oaakauxc. |cronesosauue atoro rpotusope+u rpu
oprauusauu qenosMx routartos rossonet eneuarpasneuuo snute ua ux quuanury, opnupy u passusa uutepec
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roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r sMcrasMsauun uuuuatopa routarta.
3ta sosnouocte oecre+usaetc conkqeuuen cneqykaero rpuuura.
VI. 0pu nodeomoeke k denoeovy konmakmy u e npoqecce eeo paaeumu neoxoduvo nocmonno
yvummeams covemanue cxodcmea u paanuvu eaendoe, vnenu, vanepm noeedenu, a aamev empams
mako eapuanm amoeo covemanu, komopm e nauonsme cmenenu cnococmeyem opvupoeanum y
nomenquansnoeo napmnepa unmepeca k paaeumum denoeoeo compydnuvecmea.
auuMu rpuuur nouo rpoqenouctpuposate ,cnoeu+vu esauvono+uva+u+ s eceqe, rotopMe Mnu sMqeneuM, s
+actuoctu, rpu uccneqosauuu ocoeuuocteu oaeuu [96]:
uanu+ue rpunepuo oquuarosMx cseqeuuu ro ocyqaenou tene, ucrnk+akaux rpuuuruaneuMe pasnu+u s
tpartosre oquux u tex e routuu;
y+et uuqusuqyaneuMx yctauosor, orpeqenkaux rouunauue coecequuranu apryneutauu ro ocyqaenMn
sorpocan;
qopoenateneuocte u ssaunuMu uutepec r nueuuk coecequura;
rpusepeuuocte cxoquMn couaneuMn uopnan u rpasunan, conkqaenMn s oaeuuu.
epe+ucneuuMe ycnosu xapartepusykt ueoxoqunoe cxoqctso ssrnqos u couaneuMx rosuuu, rotopoe snuet
ua ssaunorouunauue u rossonet useate rpotusope+uu, uapyaakaux ato ssaunorouunauue. Taroe cxoqctso
osua+aet uanu+ue rpeqrocMnor qn ronouteneuoro otuoaeuu r sMcrasMsauun qpyr qpyra. lerotopoe pasnu+ue s
yrasauuMx acrertax noet crococtsosate passutuk ssaunuoro uutepeca, ecnu racaetc stopoctereuuMx qetaneu.
0uo sMsMsaet nkorMtctso, uo ue sMsMsaet ooctpeuuMx qucryccuu.
Tar, uarpunep, uuuuatop routarta noet roq+epruyte csok uuopnuposauuocte ro ten sorpocan, rotopMe ue
o+eue xopoao suaronM roteuuaneuony raptuepy, uo o rotopMx ou uneet orpeqeneuuoe rpeqctasneuue. 8 aton
cny+ae roteuuaneuMu raptuep, cropee scero, saxo+et yto+uute uutepecykaue ero qetanu. pu aton uuuuatopy
routarta ueoxoquno ctpenutec r opnuposauuk y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ronouteneuoro sre+atneuu o
csoeu ronreteutuoctu s ocyqaenMx sorpocax. 8 rpotusuon cny+ae snecto ueoxoqunoro uutepeca rosutc
ueqosepue, rotopoe s rocneqykaen yqet repeuocutec roteuuaneuMn raptuepon ua sMcrasMsauu uuuuatopa
routarta ro qpyrun rosoqan.
8 couaneuou rcuxonoruu sMqenktc qsa ocuosuMx crocoa opnuposauu yronuytoro sre+atneuu o
coecequure: ude+muu|a(u+ u pene|cu+. epsMu osua+aet ,nodone+ue coeced+u|,, stopou nepe+oc +a ce+
eco nosu(uu. |nu, +to to e canoe, opnuposauue sre+atneuu o coecequure ua ocuosauuu paccnotpeuu ero
nueuu c to+ru speuu creuuru ero e octotenects, nuo opnuposauue taroro sre+atneuu ua ocuose
paccnotpeuu ero nueuu c to+ru speuu coctseuuMx octotenects.
8 oaeuuu oM+uo ucronesyktc oa crocoa. 3to nouo qenate eneuarpasneuuo c y+eton quanertu+ecroro
rpotusope+u cxoqctsa u pasnu+u, orpeqenkaero quuanury oaeuu. oatony qn uuuuatopa qenosoro
routarta ronesuo conkqate eae oquu rpuuur.
VII. hnuquamopy denoeoeo konmakma neoxoduvo oocnoeanno u qenenanpaenenno noyadams
nomenquansnoeo napmnepa k udenmuukaquu u penekcuu, opuenmupycs npu amov na ucnonsaoeanue
duanekmuveckoeo npomueopevu veady cxodcmeov u paanuvuev npedcmaenenu yvacmnukoe konmakma.
|cronesosauue qauuoro rpuuura qaet sosnouocte uuuuatopy qenosoro routarta snute ua opnuposauue y
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ueoxoqunoro sre+atneuu o cee u csoux rpeqnoeuux. larpunep, sorpoc Kar sM
qynaete? cosqaet y coecequura rpeqrocMnru r penercuu, a qetaneua apryneutau coctseuuoro nueuu
royqaet ero r uqeutuurauu. Co+eta to u qpyroe, uuuuatop qenosoro routarta noet eneuarpasneuuo snute
ua opnuposauue nueuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa o cee u csoux rpeqnoeuux.
partu+ecroe ucronesosauue qauuoro rpuuura cssauo c ae|mavu venuv+ocm+oco eocnpu+mu+, rotopMe
noryt crococtsosate unu rpertctsosate passutuk qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa. K tarun aertan otuoctc:
repsu+uocte, uosusua, opeon [107; 132]. epeuv+ocme xapartepusyet snuuue repsoro sre+atneuu o +enosere ua
opnuposauue otuoaeuuu c uun s rocneqykaen. Venu+uoctuoe rosuauue, ro cyaectsy, rpeqctasnet coou
passutue repsoro sre+atneuu s roqpouoe rpeqctasneuue o +enosere, rotopoe crnaqMsaetc s rpoecce passutu
otuoaeuuu c uun, ua+uua c noneuta suaronctsa. loeus+a otpaaet snuuue uosMx u qoctato+uo ueouqauuMx
rposneuuu s roseqeuuu, rotopMe rpusnerakt r cee suunauue u sa c+et +ero noryt cyaectseuuo roppertuposate
ye unekauec rpeqctasneuu. 3to noryt Mte rposneuu, ctunynupykaue passutue otuoaeuuu unu
sMsMsakaue otpuateneuoe nueuue o rourpetuon +enosere. Dpeon srnk+aet s ce snuuue ua otuoaeuue r
cyerty perytauu tou couaneuou cpeqM, rotopyk ou rpeqctasnet. Ecnu atot +enoser +en-to auporo ussecteu,
to opeon s oneaeu ctereuu otpaaet ctepeoturM socrputu ero qeteneuoctu u roseqeuu uneuuo s atou cpeqe.
Ecnu nu+ua rorynpuocte ue sMcora unu ue ussectua roteuuaneuony raptuepy, to ero nueuue o uuuuatope
routarta s oneaeu ctereuu yqet sasucete ot ctepeoturos s otuoaeuuu r yrasauuou cpeqe.
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leoxoqunocte y+eta otne+euuMx aertos sMssaua cneqykaunu rpu+uuanu. epsoe sre+atneuue octasnet
prue accouauu s rantu. VM +acto saMsaen qetanu sctpe+ c xopoao suaronMnu uan nkqenu, uo +etro ronuun
octotenectsa repsoro suaronctsa c uunu. oatony u Mtyet nueuue o ton, +to o(e+|a noeede+u+ u deucmeuu
saeucum om nepeoco enevamne+u+.
3to osua+aet, +to uuuuatop qenosoro routarta qoneu tar ctpoute suaronctso c roteuuaneuMn raptuepon,
+toM repsoe sre+atneuue ot suaronctsa crococtsosano passutuk qenosMx otuoaeuuu s yqyaen. |qeaneuMn
snetc cny+au, rorqa uuuuatop qenosoro routarta qousaetc taroro sre+atneuu o cee, rotopoe royqaet
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa rposute uuuuatusy s oprauusauu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
3e|m +oeus+e nouo ucronesosate c tou e enek. 0u rossonet sMupate apryneutauk, rotopa
sMsMsaet y coecequura uutepec r rpoqoneuuk eceqM. punepon tarou apryneutauu noet Mte yronuuauue
ueussectuMx coecequury octotenects. 0M+uo ato sMsMsaet enauue +to-to yto+uute, paccrpocute roqpouee u
t.r.
3e|m opeona cssau c repsMn sre+atneuuen. n ero ucronesosauu s oprauusauu qenosMx routartos
sauo unete rpeqsaputeneuMe cseqeuu o otuoaeuuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r pasnu+uMn rateropun nkqeu.
y+ae, ecnu uuuuatop qenosoro routarta otuocutc r tou rateropuu, rotopa oM+uo sMsMsaet uutepec y
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa.
|snoeuuMe sMae rpuuurM oprauusauu qenosMx routartos oecre+usakt rpeqsaputeneuyk roqrotosry r
sctpe+e u suaronctsy, a tare orpeqenkt uauonee enecoopasuMe uarpasneuu passutu qenosMx otuoaeuuu.
o cyaectsy, ouu orpeqenkt rpyr sorpocos, rotopMe uuuuatop qenosoro routarta qoneu peaute qo repsou
sctpe+u c roteuuaneuMn raptuepon:
|a|ue denoeee u+mepece u nuv+ee cmpevne+u+ nome+(uane+oco napm+epa +auonee a|m,ane+e dn+ +eco |
vove+m, s+a|ovcmea c +uv u+u(uamopa |o+ma|ma?
|a|ue denoeee u+mepece nome+(uane+oco napm+epa onpeden+smc+ nuv+evu cmpevne+u+vu, u vmo
cnococme,em noeeae+us ux a|m,ane+ocmu dn+ +eco?
|a|ue denoeee |avecmea u nuv+ocm+ee ocoe++ocmu nome+(uane+oco napm+epa voc,m cmame oc+oea+uev,
,depueas(uv eco om npu++mu+ peae+u+ o (enecoopas+ocmu denoeoco comp,d+uvecmea c u+u(uamopov
|o+ma|ma?
|a|ue npednoe+u+ u apc,ve+me u+u(uamopa |o+ma|ma e +auoneaeu cmene+u coomeemcme,sm o(uv
(en+v u noeeae+us ux a|m,ane+ocmu no cpae+e+us c dp,cuvu?
|a|oe epev+ u vecmo ecmpevu +auonee coomeemcme,em oc,de+us npednoe+uu u+u(uamopa |o+ma|ma u
eeop, nome+(uane+ev napm+epov npednacaevex o(ux (eneu?
|a|ue enamene+ee dn+ nome+(uane+oco napm+epa nepcne|muee voc,m eme ce+sa+e c npednacaevevu
o(uvu (en+vu u npednoe+u+vu u+u(uamopa |o+ma|ma?
|a|uv voem eme +auonee eepo+m+oe om+oae+ue nome+(uane+oco napm+epa | mev cnocoav
docmue+u+ o(ux (eneu, |omopee comoe npednoume u+u(uamop |o+ma|ma u |omopee onpeden+sm
codepa+ue npednonacaevoco comp,d+uvecmea?
lac|one|o coomeemcme,em pacnpedene+ue co(uane+ex poneu u ,+|(uu e npednonacaevov denoeov
comp,d+uvecmee co(uane+ov, cmam,c, ,vacm+u|oe denoeoco |o+ma|ma, u |a| oecnevume +eoxoduvoe
coomeemcmeue?
|a|ue cxodcmea u pasnuvu+ e va+epe noeede+u+, escn+dax u npedcmaene+u+x +eoxoduvo nodvep|+,me
u+u(uamop, denoeoco |o+ma|ma, vmoe eeseame u+mepec | cee , nome+(uane+oco napm+epa?
|a|oe covema+ue ude+muu|a(uu u pene|cuu +auonee pa(uo+ane+o c mov|u spe+u+ opvupoea+u+ ,
nome+(uane+oco napm+epa +eoxoduvex enevamne+uu o nuv+ocmu u+u(uamopa denoeoco |o+ma|ma u eco
npednoe+u+x?
|a|ue eec|aseea+u+ u apc,ve+me u+u(uamopa denoeoco |o+ma|ma voc,m ,cunume nonoumene+oe enu++ue
ae|moe nepeuv+ocmu, +oeus+e u opeona +a nepepacma+ue denoeoco |o+ma|ma e denoeoe comp,d+uvecmeo?
epe+ucneuuMe sorpocM rossonkt uuuuatopy routarta orpeqenute taryk uarpasneuuocte ero passutu,
rotopa cootsetctsyet ero uutepecan u enn. 3tu sorpocM noryt peaatec rpu roqrotosre r routarty u s rpoecce
ero passutu.
Ecnu sce ouu uaxoqt ronouteneuoe peaeuue, rotopoe noet Mte rpartu+ecru ucronesosauo uuuuatopon
routarta, to qenosou routart, cropee scero, sasepautc qorosopeuuoctek o ua+ane qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa. Ecnu
peaaetc tonero +acte sorpocos, to sosnouo passutue qenosoro routarta s xoqe uecronerux sctpe+.
pu otcytctsuu sosnouocteu qn ronouteneuoro peaeuu xot M oquoro us sorpocos, sospactaet
sepotuocte toro, +to qenosou routart ue sasepautc oprauusaueu rpoqyrtusuoro qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
oatony rpu roqrotosre r qenosony routarty enecoopasuo narcunaneuo ucronesosate unekauec s
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pacropeuuu uuuuatopa routarta sosnouoctu.
0quaro ueenecoopasuo rpeueperate u sosnouoctek peaeuu yrasauuMx sorpocos unu ux yto+ueuuen
uerocpeqctseuuo s xoqe routarta. Peaeuue atux sorpocos tpeyet ot uuuuatopa routarta orpeqeneuuMx
rpartu+ecrux uasMros u yneuu coctasute rpasuneuoe rpeqsaputeneuoe sre+atneuue o roteuuaneuon raptuepe.
partu+ecrue uasMru, passusakaue rpuseqeuuMe teopetu+ecrue ronoeuu, nouo rpuopectu, rpuqepusace
peroneuqauu cneqykaeu rnasM.

|nasa 7. pknaqua nepcouonor qenosoro kouaka (kouueuap k kouuyukasuouy
noseqeu)

7.1. 0co6euuoc yposu oprauia qenosoro kouaka

enosou routart ocyaectsnetc s rpoecce oaeuu ero y+actuuros, roatony nouo sMqenute uecronero
yposueu atoro rpoecca, rotopMe cootsetctsykt roueruu, rpeqnoeuuou 6.1. onosMn [131; 132]. onesuocte
sMqeneuu atux yposueu s qauuou paote oycnosneua ten, +to raqMu ux uux onaqaet csoeu creuurou,
y+utMsaenou rpu ucronesosauuu rpeqnoeuuMx peroneuqauu.
Va|po,poee+e rpeqronaraet paccnotpeuue oaeuu rar oquou us ctopou usuu u qeteneuoctu nu+uoctu
(creuu+ecrou opnM artusuoctu). la aton yposue sMqenetc ssaunocsse nu+uoctu c ee couaneuMn
orpyeuuen u couaneuou cpeqou, s rotopou oua opnuposanace u opnupyetc.
3ta ssaunocsse orpeqenetc couaneuMnu u rpasosMnu uopnanu, rynetypuMnu u uauouaneuMnu
tpaquunu, sospactuMnu u ronosMnu ocoeuuoctnu, couaneuMn ctatycon, uarpasneuuoctek opasosauu u
coqepauuen rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, rotopMe tar unu uua+e snukt ua rpoecc oaeuu sue
sasucunoctu ot coqepauu ocyqaenMx sorpocos. 0uu noryt y+utMsatec y+actuuranu oaeuu +ucto
uutyutusuo, ecnu coecequuru opnuposanuce s oquou couaneuou cpeqe, unu ux y+et tpeyet cosuateneuou
roppertuposru roseqeuu raqoro us uux qn ronreucauu pasnu+uu s ctepeoturax, opnupyenMx atou cpeqou.
ocnequee uneet ocooe sua+euue rpu routartax c rpeqctasutennu ctpau, s rotopMx atu ctepeoturM
sua+uteneuo otnu+aktc ot rpuutMx y uac. larpunep, oaeuue c rpeqctasutennu nycynenaucrux ctpau unu kro-
socto+uou Asuu tpeyet rpeqsaputeneuoro osuaronneuu c turu+uMnu qn atux peruouos oM+anu u tpaquunu.
8 rpotusuon cny+ae sosnouo sua+uteneuoe uapyaeuue ssaunorouunauu.
Veso,poee+s xapartepusyet tar uasMsaenMe repuoqM oaeuu. la aton yposue sMqenkt +avane+,s as, u
as, cocnacoea+u+ nosu(uu.
epsa asa coctout s orpeqeneuuu uerotopou oaeu asM qn passutu eceqM. Ee rpoqonuteneuocte
sasucut ot coqepauu couaneuMx poneu coecequuros, ux uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu, yneuuu u uasMros
oaeuu, coqepauu rpeqMqyaux eceq. 8topa asa coctout s cornacosauuu rosuuu coecequuros, tenra
oneua nueuunu, opnuposauuu oaero oua eceqM, aneneutos ssaunuoro snuuu u oeuru. 3to asa
opnuposauu rpeqrocMnor qn ssaunorouunauu u ssaunuoro uutepeca, nuo rosneuu rpotusope+uu, rotopMe
es cootsetctsykaeu ronreucauu noryt rpusoqute r autarouusny.
/rasauuMe asM noryt +epeqosatec u reperpMsate qpyr qpyra, uo ouu scerqa rpucytctsykt s oaeuuu. pu+en
rpu rosneuuu s eceqe rarou-to uosou tenM cua+ana peanusyetc repsa asa rar rpeqrocMnra qn rpoqoneuu
ocyqeuu atou tenM.
Vu|po,poee+e rpeqronaraet paccnotpeuue tar uasMsaenMx conp+e++ex a|moe oaeuu. VM yqen uasMsate
corpeuuMnu tarue artM, rotopMe coqepat orpeqeneuuMe cnMcnosMe equuuM oaeuu u rotopMnu oM+uo
snktc:
sorpoc unu sMcrasMsauue u otuoaeuue r ueny coecequura;
sorpoc unu sMcrasMsauue u coqepauue otseta;
rpeqnoeuue o raron-nuo qeuctsuu u coqepauue sMronuenoro qeuctsu.
puuuruaneuo sosnouo tare paccnotpeuue oaeuu ua rcuxousuonoru+ecron yposue (uarpunep ua yposue
seretatusuMx pearuu), uo ouo cssauo c rpuneueuuen creuaneuMx arrapatypuMx netoqos u roatony sqece ue
paccnatpusaetc.
8Mqeneuue orucauuMx yposueu paccnotpeuu oaeuu rossonet rpeqnoute |o+|pem+ee pe|ove+da(uu dn+
|adoco us +ux.
0ecre+euue qenosMx uutepecos u nu+uMx ctpenneuuu cssauo c yto+ueuuen rosuuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa
ro sorpocan, uutepecykaun uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta. Ecnu roteuuaneuMu raptuep otuocutc r rateropuu
nkqeu, rposnkaux uuuuatusy s qenax qae s yaep rarun-to nu+uMn ctpenneuun, to uuuuatopy routarta
enateneuo roueutpuposate ero suunauue rpeqe scero ua qenosMx acrertax csoux rpeqnoeuuu. Ecnu e
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roteuuaneuMu raptuep crnoueu r rpeqro+teuuk nu+uMx ctpenneuuu qenosMn uutepecan, to enecoopasuee
ucronesosate opatuoe pacrpeqeneuue areutos s rpeqnoeuux uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta. 8uquo, +to qauua
peroneuqau otuocutc r narpoyposuk u roq+eprusaet ueoxoqunocte cornacosauu roseqeuu uuuuatopa
qenosoro routarta c uopnanu u tpaquunu, rpusM+uMnu qn roteuuaneuoro raptuepa.
pu sMope uauonee artyaneuMx oaux eneu ueoxoquno y+utMsate sosnouoe enauue roteuuaneuoro
raptuepa crpMte unekauec y uero rponenM. Ecnu y uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta ecte ocuosauu rpeqronarate
taroe enauue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, to ny+ae rorasMsate sosnouocte peaeuu atux rponen s qenoson
cotpyquu+ectse ue rpno, a rocseuuo. 8 rpotusuon cny+ae sosnouo otpuateneuoe otuoaeuue roteuuaneuoro
raptuepa r rpeqnoeuun uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta, sMssauuoe enauuen coxpauute csok perytauk u ue
pacrpMsate to, +to ou ue xo+et rpuqasate ornacre. y+ae opueutuposatec ua te uutepecM u ctpenneuu
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, rotopMe royqakt ero rposnte artusuocte s qenax. 3to rossonut sMqenute uauonee
artyaneuMe qn uero enu: sosnouocte rony+ute qoxoq; sosnouocte pacaupute qenosMe cssu; sosnouocte
pacaupute cepy qeteneuoctu; rosMcute ctauneuocte coctseuuoro ronoeuu u qp.
8 rpoecce qenosoro routarta ero y+actuuru rocneqosateneuo pacrpMsakt csou sosnouoctu ro oprauusauu
qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa. 8 oeure atux sosnouocteu u orasauuu snuuu ua raptuepa ueoxoquno y+utMsate, +to
nsd+v ceoucmee++o e oneaeu cmene+u doeep+me ceoev, v+e+us, vev dae ove+e apc,ve+mupoea++ou mov|e
spe+u+ dp,coco venoee|a. oatony roctereuuoe pacrpMtue sosnouocteu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta,
sMsMsakaee poct uutepeca roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, +acto orasMsaetc onee qeuctseuuMn, +en rpeqnoeuu,
ronuoctek pacrpMsakaue sce sosnouoctu. Ecnu roteuuaneuMu raptuep yqet c+utate, +to roctereuuo
yqosnetsopet csou qenosMe uutepecM u nu+uMe ctpenneuu, to ou yqet onee oxotuo rpuuunate rpeqnoeuu
uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta.
0cyqeuue repcrertus qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa scerqa ny+ae ocuosMsate ua artyaneuMx qn y+actuuros
qenosoro routarta uutepecax. peqnarakaa ctopoua +aae qousaetc ycrexa, ecnu opnynupyet csou
rpeqnoeuu rpu roctauosre sorpocos, racakauxc sosnouMx repcrertus qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa. |uuuatopy
qenosoro routarta cneqyet unete s suqy, +to rpnMe rpeqnoeuu ro rosoqy repcrertus qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa,
corposoqakauec ysepeuuMnu oeuranu ux ronesuoctu, noryt sMssate conueuu s ux peaneuoctu unu, ro rpauueu
nepe, enauue rpeqsaputeneuo ux oqynate. oatony enecoopasuee onerate ux s opny ocyqeuu
sosnouMx sapuautos, peaneuocte u ronesuocte rotopMx oecre+usaetc cosnectuMnu qeuctsunu.
Dc,de+ue (eneu, rotopMe noryt rpeqctasnte ssaunuMu uutepec, tar unu uua+e cssauo c oeurou crocoos
ux qoctueuu. Ecnu uuuuatop qenosoro routarta rMtaetc sauutepecosate csounu rpeqnoeuunu
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, unekaero onee sMcoruu couaneuMu ctatyc, to enateneuo roq+epruyte, +to tarue
rpeqnoeuu rpeqronarakt qn uero couaneuyk pone s qenoson cotpyquu+ectse, cootsetctsykayk atony ctatycy.
| uaoopot, rpeqnoeuue auanoru+uou ponu roteuuaneuony raptuepy, rotopMu ue ctpenutc r rosMaeuuk unu
roqtsepqeuuk csoero couaneuoro ctatyca us-sa ueenauu pate ua ce qoronuuteneuyk otsetctseuuocte unu
openeute ce qoronuuteneuMnu osauuoctnu, noet ue sMssate y uero sMcorou sauutepecosauuoctu.
8 nkon cny+ae sauo, +toM ocyqaenMe crocoM cosnectuMx qeuctsuu s rpeqronaraenon qenoson
cotpyquu+ectse snnuce M ectectseuuMn rpoqoneuuen unu passutuen xapartepuoro qn roteuuaneuoro
raptuepa uuqusuqyaneuoro ctun qeteneuoctu. Tar, qn nkqeu qeteneuMx, artusuMx ueenateneuM satru s
rony+euuu rponeyto+uMx pesynetatos, qn canonkusMx u +ectonkusMx saua sosnouocte rosMaeuu
csoero astoputeta, qn octopouMx scerqa oneaoe sua+euue rpuqaetc ssaunuMn rapautun.
Cootsetctsue rpeqnoeuuu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta couaneuony ctatycy roteuuaneuoro raptuepa
noet Mte oecre+euo pasnu+uMnu crocoanu. Ecnu pasnu+ue couaneuoro ctatyca y+actuuros routarta senuro
(unu so nuoron ue cosraqakt ux qenosMe uutepecM), to +eoxoduvo npueneve+ue nocped+u|a, uanu+ue rotoporo
ronreucupyet yrasauuMe pasnu+u. Tarun rocpequuron qoneu Mte +enoser, sauutepecosauuMu s orasauuu
ueoxoqunoro coqeuctsu uuuuatopy qenosoro routarta u xopoao rpeqctasnkauu cepy qenosMx uutepecos
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. pu otcytctsuu taroro rocpequura ero roucr u yctauosneuue otuoaeuuu c uun ro
cyaectsy rpeqctasnkt coou oprauusauk qenosoro routarta c enek ua+ana qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa c
rocpequuron.
lanuvue nocped+u|a ue snetc osateneuMn ycnosuen rpu sua+uteneuon pasnu+uu couaneuoro ctatyca
uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta u roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. Ecnu cnouo uautu rocpequura, to enecoopasuee
oneae suunauu yqente sMopy necta u speneuu qenosoro routarta. larpunep, sctpe+a s ueouuaneuou
octauosre ue rpeqronaraet sua+uteneuoro snuuu couaneuoro ctatyca, ecnu routart ctpoutc s ocuosuon ua
nu+uMx ctpenneuux roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. 0cyqeuue qenosMx uutepecos s rpoecce taroro routarta qonuo
uocute xapartep uuopnuposauu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa o sosnouoctx uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta. 8 aton
cny+ae rosoq qn suaronctsa ue qoneu Mte suo cssau c qenosMnu uutepecanu. 3to rossonet useate
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
84
otpuateneuoro snuuu pasnu+u couaneuoro ctatyca ua otuoaeuue r uuuuatopy qenosoro routarta.
pyrun crocoon rpeoqoneuu ueenateneuoro snuuu pasnu+u couaneuoro ctatyca snetc ucnonesoea+ue
pen,ma(uu opca+usa(uu, rpeqctasnenou uuuuatopon qenosoro routarta, rotopMu noet areutuposate suunauue
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ua ton, +to snetc ue rpocto +actuMn nuon, a uneet orpeqeneuuMe ronuono+u ot
oprauusauu, ussectuou roteuuaneuony raptuepy. 8 qauuon cny+ae oneaoe sua+euue uneet otuoaeuue
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r atou oprauusauu. 0uo orpeqenet u ero sauutepecosauuocte s rpeqnoeuux
uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta.
epe+ucneuuMe peroneuqauu ro oprauusauu qenosoro routarta ua narpoyposue otpaakt te uopnM oaeuu,
rotopMe crococtsykt ronouteneuony ucronesosauuk aertos repsu+uoctu u opeona.
Auanoru+uMe aertM nouo ucronesosate u ua qpyrux yposux. 8osnouoctu qn atoro qakt peroneuqauu ro
oprauusauu qenosoro routarta ua nesoyposue. K roqouMn peroneuqaun nouo otuectu rpeqnoeuu .
Kapueru [105], usnoeuuMe s ero rorynpuMx paotax. 0uu, ectectseuuo, otpaakt uuqusuqyaneuMu orMt astopa,
rony+euuMu s couaneuMx ycnosux, otnu+akauxc ot tex, rotopMe cyaectsykt ceroqu s uaaeu ctpaue. 0quaro
ooaeuue uerotopMx ero rpeqnoeuuu noet Mte ronesuMn s oprauusauu qenosMx routartos u rpusoqut r
cneqykaun peroneuqaun.
enoeou |o+ma|m enateneuo ua+uuate c ocyqeuu sorpocos, rotopMe rpeqctasnkt esycnosuMu uutepec
qn roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. 3to sorpocM, cssauuMe c ero ocuosuMnu yctpenneuunu, artyaneuMnu
rponenanu, uutepecanu u uanepeuunu. 0cyqeuue tarux sorpocos enecoopasuee satparusate rocseuuo u,
roq+eprusa cootsetctsue coctseuuoro nueuu nueuuk coecequura, srnk+ate s ocyqeuue to+ru speuu,
+actu+uo uapyaakaue ato cootsetctsue. 0quospeneuuo ueoxoquno +etro urcuposate otuoaeuue
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r roqouMn to+ran speuu u ue passusate ux ocyqeuue, ecnu ero otuoaeuue r uun
ctauosutc otpuateneuMn.
leenateneuo s ua+ane qenosoro routarta satparusate sorpocM, rotopMe ue rpuuto ocyqate rpu suaronctse.
Tar, usnuauuu uutepec r nu+uMn octotenectsan cropee sMsoset uactopoeuuocte, +en enauue rpoqonute
otrposeuuoe ux ocyqeuue. peqnoeuu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta, rotopMe rpeqronarakt rourpetuMe
qeuctsu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, +aae sMsMsakt y rocnequero enauue sce qetaneuo oqynate u tonero rocne
atoro rpoqonute eceqy. |crnk+euu sosnouM s tex cny+ax, rorqa roteuuaneuMu raptuep artusuo uaet
sosnouocte qn artusuMx qeuctsuu s orpeqeneuuon uarpasneuuu, a uuuuatop qenosoro routarta rpeqnaraet
uneuuo tarue qeuctsu. 8 aton cny+ae roteuuaneuMu raptuep ye roqrotosneu r rpuutuk rpeqnoeuuu
uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta.
|uuuatopy qenosoro routarta ueoxoquno Mte rotosMn r tony, +to roteuuaneuMu raptuep rposut uutepec
ue ro scen ero rpeqnoeuun unu uuuuatusan. 8 tarux cny+ax ueoxoquno rpeqoctasute raptuepy sosnouocte
usnoute csoe nueuue ronuoctek, qae ecnu ouo ue cootsetctsyet uutepecan uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta. 3to
rossonut rpocuute rosuuk roteuuaneuoro raptuepa u croppertuposate opny usnoeuu rpeqnoeuuu
uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta.
pu yctauosneuuu qenosoro routarta c tenu, rto ucrMtMsaet suyk rotpeuocte s canosMpaeuuu u
canoytsepqeuuu, enateneuo roq+eprusate sosnouocte yqosnetsopeuu atou rotpeuoctu s rpoecce qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa.
6eceqy ueoxoquno ctpoute tarun opason, +toM coecequur +aae cornaaanc, saqasan yto+ukaue sorpocM,
sauutepecosauuo usnaran csoe nueuue u s roue+uon utore c+utan, +to s ocuosuon ou snuet ua xoq ocyqeuu.
octouuMe u cnuaron suMe rorMtru uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta rpeqoctasute uuuuatusy roteuuaneuony
raptuepy noryt sMssate cuueuue uutepeca r eceqe. |x ueoxoquno +epeqosate c sMcrasMsauuen uuuuatopon
routarta coctseuuoro nueuu, otnu+akaeroc s +en-to ot to+ru speuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, uo ue
rpusoqaero r sosuuruoseuuk suMx rpotusope+uu.
Tarue sMcrasMsauu crococtsykt passutuk eceqM, ecnu ouu satparusakt sorpocM ueoxoqunMx
roteuuaneuony raptuepy sosnouocteu u cssauM c repcrertusou ux rpartu+ecrou peanusauu. Kpone toro,
roqouMe sMcrasMsauu qonuM crococtsosate opnuposauuk ronouteneuoro sre+atneuu o nu+uoctu
uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta. 3toro nouo qoutec rpu yneuuu uuuuatopa routarta sMcrasMsate ronesuyk qn
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa nMcne u rorasMsate, +to ronneutapuu u apryneutM roteuuaneuoro raptuepa
rpeqctasnkt coou ronesy qn uuuuatopa routarta c to+ru speuu passutu ero coctseuuoro nueuu. oatony
uuuuatopy routarta ueoxoquno ue tonero rposnte usupateneuocte u uactou+usocte s coctseuuMx
rpeqnoeuux, uo u rotosuocte oeuute ux c rosuuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa.
pu ueoxoqunoctu snuuu ua nueuue coecequura cneqyet y+utMsate, +to artusua qucryccu rossonet
qoutec pesynetata tonero s ton cny+ae, rorqa ee y+actuuru ue noryt (unu ue xott) rperpatute oneu
apryneutanu u oxotuo oocuosMsakt csoe nueuue.
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0octpeuue qucryccuu +acto rpusoqut r usnuauun anoun. oatony uuuuatopy qenosoro routarta
enecoopasuee userate sosuuruoseuu cnouMx u cnuaron octpMx qucryccuu s rpoecce passutu qenosoro
routarta u rpuqepusatec panor crorouuoro qenosoro ocyqeuu.
Cuueuue artusuoctu coecequura s otctausauuu csoeu to+ru speuu noet Mte sMssauo ero enauuen
rperpatute ua+asaykc qucryccuk. peoqonete ato enauue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa u royqute ero r
rpoqoneuuk ocyqeuu uutepecykaux uuuuatopa routarta sorpocos nouo, sMcrasas cornacue c ero to+rou
speuu, u ten canMn usasus ero ot ueoxoqunoctu uactausate ua csoen.
8 rocneqykaen, rpu ueoxoqunoctu, nouo sepuytec r ten e sorpocan, uo ocyqate ux cneqyet rocne toro,
rar otpuateneuMe anouu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa cneutc ua ronouteneuMe. oqouoe snuuue tpeyet ot
uuuuatopa routarta userate roq+eprusauu oauor unu ueto+uocteu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. Xenateneuo
rpeqoctasnte eny sosnouocte qn canoctoteneuou roppertuposru csoero nueuu. |uorqa uuuuatopy qenosoro
routarta ronesuo ua+ate c ocyqeuu csoux oauor u ueto+uocteu. 3to s sua+uteneuou ctereuu oner+ut
roteuuaneuony raptuepy roppertuposry csoero nueuu, tar rar ou yqet usasneu ot ueoxoqunoctu rpusuasate
csou oauru.
|snoeuuMe sMae peroneuqauu racaktc coqepauu eceqM s rpoecce qenosoro routarta. 0uu rossonkt
sMupate ocyqaenMe tenM u opny ux ocyqeuu s sasucunoctu ot |ovv,+u|amue+ou pea|(uu raptuepa.
8 taron sMope ronesua oeura nunuru u ectos coecequura. 3to rossonet yto+ute ero otuoaeuue r
coqepauuk eceqM u rotosuocte rpoqonate ee s rpeqnaraenon uarpasneuuu. 0eura nunuru oM+uo ue
sMsMsaet rarux-nuo cyaectseuuMx satpyqueuuu. +aae scero atu satpyqueuu sosuurakt rpu ueoxoqunoctu
crpMte coctseuuyk nunury ot coecequura. octato+uo roqpouo crocoM oeuru nunuru u ectos s eceqe
orucauM s paote [164].
pu rpartu+ecron ux rpuneueuuu cneqyet y+utMsate, +to sosnouoctu roqouMx crocoos uenes
aconktusuposate. 0uu rossonkt sMqente sua+unMe aneneutM roseqeuu, uo ue qorycrakt oquosua+uou
uuteprpetauu pesynetatos uankqeuu. 8necte c ten nouo roperoneuqosate opaaate suunauue ua cneqykaue
ectM u rosM roteuuaneuoro raptuepa s rpoecce passutu qenosoro routarta, osateneuo cootuoc ux c
coqepauuen eceqM s enon u c xapartepon otqeneuMx sMcrasMsauuu.
n uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta uauoneauu uutepec noryt rpeqctasnte uavenenu noam roteuuaneuoro
raptuepa so spen eceqM c uun. 0M+uo tarue usneueuu csuqetenectsykt o usneueuuu otuoaeuu r
coecequury unu r coqepauuk eceqM. Ecnu rosa roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ue neuetc, to, cropee scero,
roctouuMn octaetc u ero otuoaeuue r rpeqnoeuun uuuuatopa routarta.
8 oeure roqouMx usneueuuu rosM sauo y+utMsate, rarun opason s peaynsmame venemc paccmonue
neqy coecequuranu. /neueaeuue nerepcouaneuoro pacctouu noet csuqetenectsosate o enauuu
suunateneuo sMcnyaate unu orasate raroe-to snuuue ua coecequura. /senu+euue pacctouu +aae scero cssauo
c opnuposauuen otpuateneuoro otuoaeuu r nueuuk coecequura unu r ueny canony u, sosnouo, c rotosuoctek
artusuo sospaate ero to+re speuu. ocnequee +acto corposoqaetc qsueuunu, cxoquMnu c rorMtranu
cqsuuyte +to-to.
Manepa cudems tare noet xapartepusosate otuoaeuue r eceqe u coecequury. Ecnu roteuuaneuMu
raptuep cuqut, uarnouusauce srepeq, rar M rMtace sctate, to ato +acto snetc pesynetaton ero rora ue
sMcrasauuoro enauu rpepsate eceqy: nuo y uero uet speneuu qn rpoqoneuu eceqM, nuo ou c+utaet ee
ueenecoopasuou. onouteneuoe otuoaeuue r rpoqoneuuk eceqM oM+uo xapartepusyet csooqua rosa,
rpeqronarakaa yqoctso u otcytctsue rarux-nuo rpusuaros uarpeuu. 8Mcoronepue rposnetc s
rpuroqutoctu ronosM, rorqa ssrnq uarpasneu rar M csepxy suus. Tara nauepa (s co+etauuu c rosou
coruysauce) +acto cssaua c sMcorou canooeurou u uecronero rpeuepeuteneuMn otuoaeuuen r coecequury.
havenenue akmuenocmu aecmukynquu uneet rpunepuo tot e cnMcn, +to u usneueuue rosM. Ecnu
ecturynu ctauosutc onee artusuou, to ato noet osua+ate enauue rpusne+e suunauue coecequura.
Cuueuue artusuoctu ecturynuu oM+uo cssauo co cuueuuen uutepeca r ocyqaenony sorpocy. 0tcytctsue
ectos u cqepusauue ux artusuoctu, rar rpasuno, osua+aet enauue ue pacrpMsate rpeqespeneuuo csoux
uanepeuuu. 3to csouctseuuo nkqn crpMtuMn, octopouMn. XectM scerqa otpaakt anououaneuoe coctouue.
oatony suunateneuocte r ectan roteuuaneuoro raptuepa rossonet uuuuatopy routarta ny+ae
opueutuposatec s eceqe.
|utepec noryt rpeqctasnte tar uasMsaenMe noam aakpmmocmu. 0uu csuqetenectsykt o enauuu rperpatute
artusuoe oaeuue, crpMte csou uanepeuu, cocpeqoto+utec ua oeure cutyauu, ue pacrpMsa rpu+uu,
royqakaux r atony. Tarue rosM nerro pacrosuate, tar rar ouu uaronuuakt saauty ot sueauero sosqeuctsu. 3to
noryt Mte crpeaeuuMe ua rpyqu pyru; ronosa, stuyta s rne+u; rpurpMtMu pyrou pot; ypauuMe roq cton pyru u
t.r.
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potusoronouMu cnMcn unekt noam omkpmmocmu, rotopMe rar M pacrpMsakt +enosera qn sueauux
sosqeuctsuu. K uun otuoctc passeqeuuMe pyru, rpotuytMe r coecequury naqouu u qpyrue rosM,
csuqetenectsykaue o rotosuoctu r orasauuk snuuu.
7epenenue pasnu+uMx rpeqnetos oM+uo osua+aet crpMtoe enauue cocpeqoto+utec ua suytpeuuen auanuse,
ue rpepMsa eceqM. Tarue qeuctsu uankqaktc rpu ocyqeuuu sorpocos, sMsMsakaux uutepec u tpeykaux
qoronuuteneuoro auanusa octotenects.
pasuneuou oeure ecturynuu u rosM coecequura crococtsyet y+et avoquonansno okpacku eeo
emckaameanu, rotopa rposnetc s uutouaux. Pasnepeuua crorouua pe+e csuqetenectsyet o rotosuoctu r
coqepateneuou qenosou eceqe, tuxuu ronoc +acto corytctsyet rosMaeuuou cocpeqoto+euuoctu ua canoroutpone;
ryrakaue uutouauu cssauM c ueenauuen rosutusuo socrpuuunate apryneutM coecequura; rosMaeuue
rponroctu ronoca c rotpeuoctek s artusuou saaute coctseuuoro nueuu.
|snoeuuMe sMae ocoeuuoctu ectos, ros u uutouauu ronesuo ucronesosate s co+etauuu c oqenko
codepaanu emckaameanu. 3to rossonet uuuuatopy qenosoro routarta csoespeneuuo sMsnte ocuosuMe
teuqeuuu s opnuposauuu nueuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, rpeoqonesate ueenateneuMe teuqeuuu u
passusate crococtsykaue oprauusauu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa. Taroro pesynetata nouo qoctu+e, oocuosauuo
sMupa tenM qn ocyqeuu s ua+aneuou ase routarta u cornacy csou qeuctsu u sMcrasMsauu c pearunu
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. pu aton ueoxoquno cornacosauuo y+utMsate xapartepucturu scex yposueu oaeuu.
8 +actuoctu, sMop necta u speneuu qenosoro routarta s ocuosuon orpeqenet qn uuuuatopa routarta u
croco suaronctsa. 0u tar unu uua+e qoneu rposute uuuuatusy s ocyqeuuu rpeqnoeuuu ro oprauusauu
qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa. oatony necto u spen qenosoro routarta ueoxoquno sMupate, y+utMsa sosnouMe
anououaneuMe pearuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa u yto+uus ero anououaneuMu uactpou s ua+ane routarta.
8 sasucunoctu ot avoquonansnoeo cocmonu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa uuuuatop qenosoro routarta qoneu
cocpeqoto+utec ua opnuposauuu y coecequura ueoxoqunoro avo(uo+ane+oco +acmpo+ unu ua passutuu
unekaeroc. Kpone necta u speneuu qenosoro routarta, ua anououaneuoe coctouue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa,
esycnosuo, snuet noeede+ue u+u(uamopa |o+ma|ma. |neuuo nauepa roseqeuu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta
orpeqenet ronouteneuoe snuuue repsu+uoctu, uosusuM u opeona.
Ecnu uuuuatop routarta pacc+utMsaet sauutepecosate roteuuaneuoro raptuepa qoctato+uo rpusM+uMnu qn
rocnequero rpeqnoeuunu, to nauepa roseqeuu repsoro ye s ua+ane suaronctsa (s repsou ase) qonua
csuqetenectsosate o ton, +to uuuuatop routarta rpeqctasnet rpusM+uyk qn roteuuaneuoro raptuepa cepy
qeteneuoctu.
pu qoctueuuu atoro pesynetata uauonee sepotuo passutue y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa narorputuoro
uactpo ua yctauosneuue u passutue otuoaeuuu. 3tot pesynetat ueoxoquno passusate ua stopou ase.
Peroneuqauu, rotopMe rpusoqtc uue, xapa|mepus,sm vu|po,poee+s o(e+u+, tar rar rossonkt
orpeqenute otuoaeuue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r sorpocan u sMcrasMsauun uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta,
rpasuneuo oeuusate coqepauue ero otsetos u qeuctsuu s rpoecce oaeuu. partu+ecra peanusau tarux
peroneuqauu rpusoqut r ueoxoqunoctu rpuneueuu pqa creuu+ecrux crocoos u rpuenos oprauusauu
qenosoro routarta. Cneqykauu roqpasqen rocsaeu ux orucauuk.
pu osuaronneuuu c uun cneqyet unete s suqy, +to tarue crocoM u rpuenM rpeqronarakt rpeqsaputeneuyk
roqrotosry uuuuatopa routarta u uanu+ue y uero cootsetctsykaux rpartu+ecrux uasMros.

7.2. 6noco6s npeus ycauosneu qenossx kouakos (nepcouonor qaquecko kouuyuka)

8 sasucunoctu ot cootuoaeuu snuuu couaneuMx u +ucto rcuxonoru+ecrux acrertos ua yctauosneuue u
passutue qenosoro routarta nouo sMqenute qsa tura tarux routartos: oc+oea++ee +a denoeex u+mepecax unu
tonero +a nuv+ex cmpevne+u+x roteuuaneuoro raptuepa.
n repsoro tura xapartepuo rpeonaqauue snuuu couaneuMx acrertos, r rotopMn otuoctc couaneuMu
ctatyc, rpoeccu, qenosMe ra+ectsa u yposeue ronreteutuoctu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta.
KoutartM stoporo tura otnu+aet rpeonaqauue snuuu tarux +ucto rcuxonoru+ecrux acrertos, rar nauepa
roseqeuu, rotosuocte r ocyqeuuk nu+uMx sorpocos u uerotopMe nu+uoctuMe ocoeuuoctu.
0tne+euuoe pasnu+ue noet orasMsate cyaectseuuoe snuuue ua yctauosneuue u passutue otuoaeuuu s xoqe
routarta, a cneqosateneuo, crasMsaetc ua sMope crocoos u rpuenos, ucronesyenMx qn atoro.
oatony rpeqctasneuuMe s qauuon roqpasqene crocoM u rpuenM paccnotpeuM rpuneuuteneuo r raqony us
yrasauuMx turos.
osoq u rpu+uuM qenosoro kouaka nepsoro na oM+uo orpeqenktc uutepecanu uuuuatopa qenosoro
routarta u rpeqronarakt rourpetuMe qeuctsu c ero ctopouM. K tarun qeuctsun rpeqe scero otuocutc
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usnoeuue uuuuatopon routarta rpu+uu, royqusaux ero opatutec r roteuuaneuony raptuepy. 3ta ocoeuuocte
u orpeqenet creuury snuuu couaneuMx acrertos. |snoeuue uuuuatopon qenosoro routarta yrasauuMx
rpu+uu ueenateneuo csoqute r opnaneuony teneouuony ssoury unu oneuy susutranu. enecoopasuee
ucronesosate rpoeqypy rpeqctasneuu (rpeseutauu) qn cosqauu rpeqrocMnor repepactauu qenosoro routarta
s qenosoe cotpyquu+ectso.
oatony s routartax qauuoro tura enateneuo rpuqepusatec cneqykaeu rocneqosateneuoctu qeuctsuu.
peqe +en usnarate rourpetuMe rpu+uuM uutepeca r roteuuaneuony raptuepy enateneuo osuaronute ero co
cepou qeteneuoctu unu qenosMx uutepecos uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta. 3to ueoxoquno cqenate c
conkqeuuen tpaquuu, rotopMx rpuqepusaetc roteuuaneuMu raptuep, rpu aton uyuo areutuposate ero
suunauue ua ton, +to uuuuatop routarta tarun opason ctapaetc coqeuctsosate opnuposauuk qoctato+uo
ronuoro rpeqctasneuu o cee.
|snoeuue cepM qenosMx uutepecos qaet sosnouocte qn yto+ueuu uutepecos roteuuaneuoro raptuepa s
cootsetctsuu c peroneuqaunu rpeqMqyaero roqpasqena. n atoro ueoxoquno co+etauue uankqeuuu sa
nunurou u ectanu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, sMqeneuue suMx rposneuuu sauutepecosauuoctu c ero ctopouM, a
tare passutu tarou sauutepecosauuoctu. 3tony crococtsykt yto+ukaue sorpocM, sMcrasMsauu, passusakaue
nMcne coecequura. oqouoe ua+ano qenosoro routarta rossonet uuuuatopy useate repeuoca sosnouoro
otpuateneuoro otuoaeuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r otqeneuMn acrertan usnaraenMx oaux sorpocos u
ueratusuou pearuu ua rourpetuMe rpeqnoeuu.
peqnoeuuMu sapuaut qenosoro routarta ue qoneu Mte satuytMn. 0u ueoxoqun tonero qn yto+ueuu
cepM uutepecos roteuuaneuoro raptuepa u ero otuoaeuu r cepe qeteneuoctu uuuuatopa routarta. 8
roqouou oeure ueoxoquno y+utMsate cneqykaee. /cnosu arouonu+ecrou u ronutu+ecrou uectauneuoctu
rosMaakt sauutepecosauuocte s cropeuaeu peanusauu ronesuMx rpeqnoeuuu u so ssaunuMx rapautux,
oecre+usakaux sMronueuue qocturuytMx qorosopeuuocteu.
8 ua+ane qenosoro routarta repsoro tura sauo roq+epruyte uaqeuocte uuuuatopa u ero cocpeqoto+euuocte
ua sorpocax, rotopMe noryt Mte peaeuM qoctato+uo Mctpo. 8necte c ten usnuau artusuocte uuuuatopa
qenosoro routarta s rorMtrax sauutepecosate roteuuaneuoro raptuepa noet rpusectu r opnuposauuk y
rocnequero uactopoeuuoro otuoaeuu r rpeqnaraenony.
oatony ua+ano qenosoro routarta qonuo uocute xapartep rpeqsaputeneuoro uuopnuposauu o sosnouMx
qenosMx uutepecax uuuuatopa routarta, rotopoe roq+eprusano M ero uaqeuocte u rocneqosateneuocte s qenax.
3toro nouo qoutec rocseuuo, qenouctpupy yneuue csooquo opueutuposatec s rpoeccuouaneuMx sorpocax,
rotopMnu sauunaetc roteuuaneuMu raptuep unu r rotopMn ou rposnet uutepec.
8 ra+ectse crocoos qoctueuu tarou enu nouo ucronesosate yronuuauue suaronMx roteuuaneuony
raptuepy uneu, oprauusauu u tepnuuos. oqouoe yronuuauue opnupyet ronouteneuoe sre+atneuue o
uuuuatope qenosoro routarta rar o +enosere, otuocaenc r xopoao suaronou roteuuaneuony raptuepy (u
oeuusaenou un ronouteneuo) rateropuu nkqeu. 8 pesynetate, cuusutc sepotuocte sosuuruoseuu y uero
rputu+ecroro otuoaeuu r rpeqnoeuun uuuuatopa routarta.
Ecnu cepa qenosMx uutepecos roteuuaneuoro raptuepa yto+ueua s qoctato+uou ctereuu u ou rotos r
ocyqeuuk rourpetuMx sorpocos, to passutue routarta enateneuo ocyaectsnte s uarpasneuuu,
cootsetctsykaen uauonee artyaneuMn ero uutepecan. 8 +actuoctu, rpeqnoeuu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta
enecoopasuee opnynuposate tarun opason, +toM sosnouocte yqosnetsopeuu uutepecos roteuuaneuoro
raptuepa Mna M qoctato+uo o+esuqua, uo ue pacrpMsanace ronuoctek.
3to royquno M roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r yto+ueuuk sua+unMx qn uero qetaneu u ten canMn rossonuno M
sMqenute uauonee artyaneuMe qn uero enu, ro rosoqy rotopMx yto+ueuue yqet uauonee artusuMn.
8osnouocte canoctoteneuoro qoctueuu tarux eneu u ueoxoqunocte rpeqrpuuunate rarue-nuo ycunu
qn atoro yqyt passusate rotosuocte roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r repepactauuk routarta s qenosoe
cotpyquu+ectso.
pu aton ueoxoquno y+utMsate, +to oquou us artyaneuMx qn roteuuaneuoro raptuepa eneu noet Mte
enauue rnye pasopatec s ctereuu nu+uou sauutepecosauuoctu u rpartu+ecrou ronesuoctu rpeqnoeuuu
uuuuatopa routarta.
pu ueutpaneuon unu qae s +en-to otpuateneuon otuoaeuuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r usnoeuuk cepM
qeteneuoctu u uutepecos uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta, enecoopasuee roq+epruyte ueturu+uocte u
opuruuaneuocte rpeqnoeuuu rocnequero. n narcunaneuoro ucronesosauu aerta uosusuM s aton cny+ae
enateneuo roq+epruyte opuruuaneuocte rpeqe scero s ton, +to sMsMsaet cuueuue sauutepecosauuoctu unu
otpuateneuoe otuoaeuue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa.
3tot rpuen rossonut croueutpuposate ero suunauue ua sosnouoctu croppertuposate csoe rpeqsaputeneuoe
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sre+atneuue u +to-to yto+uute s xoqe routarta. 0quaro cneqyet unete s suqy, +to qauuMu rpuen uauonee
aertuseu s oaeuuu c nkqenu, rposnkaunu uutepec r uosMn uqen. pu ocyqeuuu rarux-nuo
rpeqnoeuuu c +enoseron roucepsatusuMn roq+eprusauue ux opuruuaneuoctu noet sMssate otpuateneuoe
otuoaeuue, roatony rpeqnoeuuMu rpuen cneqyet rpuneute usupateneuo.
/cunute ronouteneuoe snuuue aerta uosusuM nouo ucronesosauuen aerta opeona. n atoro nouo
opatute suunauue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ua to, +to snetc ronouteneuMn u otpuateneuMn s ocyqaenMx
sorpocax. Ecnu nueuue uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta ro atony rosoqy s ocuosuon yqet cosraqate c nueuuen
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, to uutepec rocnequero r passutuk routarta rosMcutc. 8ueaue ato rposutc
rosMaeuuen artusuoctu s eceqe.
8 ra+ectse xapartepuctur opuruuaneuoctu rpeqnoeuuu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta nouo uassate
cneqykaue: to, +to rosMaaet uaqeuocte rpeqnoeuuu uetpaquuouuMn crocoon, ucronesyet qoronuuteneuMe
sosnouoctu, rossonet rpusnerate qoronuuteneuMe cpeqctsa, pacaupet cepy snuuu u qpyrue xapartepucturu,
rpeqronarakaue peaeuue oM+uMx saqa+ u rponen uetpaquuouuMnu crocoanu.
epexoq r ocyqeuuk rpeqnoeuuu uuuuatopa routarta ueoxoquno ua+uuate cpasy rocne rosneuu y
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa rpusuaros sauutepecosauuoctu. Xenateneuo roq+eprusate csse rpeqnoeuuu c
sorpocanu, sMsMsakaunu uauoneauu uutepec y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. y+ae scero qenate ato, roctereuuo
strusa ero s ocyqeuue roqouMx sorpocos. 0rpauu+euuocte ronuMn, uo oquoctopouuun usnoeuuen cyauoctu
rarux-nuo rpeqnoeuuu +acto sMsMsaet cuueuue uutepeca r ux ocyqeuuk. uanor scerqa rpeqro+tuteneuee
nouonora c to+ru speuu repcrertus passutu otuoaeuuu u sMsneuu uutepecos coecequura. uanor rossonet
ero y+actuuran sMcrasMsate csoe nueuue ro ocyqaenMn sorpocan u rpu aton roppertuposate coctseuuyk to+ry
speuu.
oatony oc,de+ue npednoe+uu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta enateneuo ua+uuate, rorqa roteuuaneuMu
raptuep ye stuync s tarou quanor. 8osuuruoseuuk quanora crococtsyet roctauosra repeq coecequuron
sorpocos, royqakaux ero sMcrasMsate unu passusate csoe nueuue. 0quaro cneqyet ronuute, +to uenes
snoyrotpente tarunu sorpocanu. 6eceqa ue qonua rpespaaatec s orpoc.
Ecnu uuuuatop routarta xo+et ee+c+ume mov|, spe+u+ nome+(uane+oco napm+epa, to ou noet qenate ato ue
tonero roctauosrou rpnMx sorpocos, uo u roq+eprusa otcytctsue ronuou ysepeuuoctu s csoeu to+re speuu,
ccMnace ua cyaectsykaee pasnu+ue nueuuu ro ocyqaenony sorpocy. 3to nouo qenate rpu ocyqeuuu ue
tonero rourpetuMx rpeqnoeuuu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta, uo u sosnouMx repcrertus qenosoro
cotpyquu+ectsa.
oatony rpeqnoeuu uuuuatopa routarta enecoopasuee rposoqute s opne ocyqeuu sosnouMx
sapuautos, a ue orou+ateneuMx peaeuuu, +to cosqaet rpeqrocMnru qn oneua nueuunu u passutu routarta.
8 eceqe sauo unete s suqy, +to ronouteneuony uactpok roteuuaneuoro raptuepa crococtsyet
cootsetctsue tenra u +epeqosauu sMcrasMsauuu s rpusM+uou qn uero opne. 8 rpotusuon cny+ae sosnouo
eos+u|+oee+ue v,ecmea duc|ovopma, rotopoe tpaucopnupyetc s otpuateneuoe sre+atneuue o nu+uoctu
uuuuatopa routarta u o ero rpeqnoeuux.
oatony quanor, sosuurakauu s ua+ane qenosoro routarta, ueoxoquno ucronesosate ue tonero qn sMsneuu
uauonee artyaneuMx uutepecos roteuuaneuoro raptuepa, uo u qn yctauosneuu uauonee narorputuMx
ycnosuu eceqM. n atoro ueoxoquno ue qenate rorMtru repeusate coecequura, ue reperpyate ero oneaun
+ucnon anetepuatusuMx sapuautos, rpasuneuo sMupate tenr eceqM.
0quun us rpuenos qoctueuu qauuou enu snetc opnuposauue y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa orpeqeneuuoro
nueuu o couaneuon ctatyce uuuuatopa routarta. Xenateneuo, +toM roteuuaneuMu raptuep rpuaen r sMsoqy o
ton, +to ou noet peaute sce sorpocM c uuuuatopon routarta, ue rpuera r ronoau qpyrux rocpequuros unu
ronoauuros.
oatony sauo oecre+ute cootsetctsue coqepauu rpeqnoeuuu uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta ero peaneuMn
sosnouoctn u ronuono+un ro ux peanusauu. 6oneaoe sua+euue uneet ero yneuue roq+epruyte csok
ronreteutuocte s ocyqaenMx sorpocax, ue repexoq rpu aton r tpusuaneuony axsanectsy.
|snoeuuMe crocoM u rpuenM rossonkt copnuposate asy passutu qenosoro routarta u repepactauu ero s
qenosoe cotpyquu+ectso ua yposue rpeqsaputeneuoro cornacosauu eneu. aneueuaee passutue routarta oM+uo
Msaet cssauo c ocyqeuuen sapuautos oprauusauu cosnectuMx qeuctsuu ro ux qoctueuuk u orpeqeneuuen
oaux enu u ctpateruu. pu aton +acto unektc s suqy ue tonero nuauaue enu, uo u repcrertusuMe. epexod
| oc,de+us eapua+moe docmue+u+ o(ux (eneu rpeqctasnet coou creuu+ecruu aneneut qenosoro
routarta. o cyaectsy, ato ocyqeuue ycnosuu cosnectuou qeteneuoctu, coctoaee ue tonero s oneue
nueuunu, uo u s rpuutuu peaeuu, rpeqronarakaero rourpetuMe qeuctsu.
oatony, rpeqe +en ua+uuate ocyqeuue cosnectuMx qeuctsuu, uuuuatopy qenosoro routarta ueoxoquno
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yequtec s ton, +to roteuuaneuMu raptuep rotos r atony. 8 rpotusuon cny+ae eceqa noet sarou+utec
ocyqeuuen oaux eneu u ue repeutu r crocoan oprauusauu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
nasuony repexoqy r ocyqeuuk sapuautos cosnectuMx qeuctsuu crococtsyet ux yronuuauue rpu
cornacosauuu oaux eneu u sMsneuuu uauonee artyaneuMx us uux. Taroe ocyqeuue sosuuraet rpu usnoeuuu
uuuuatopon qenosoro routarta csoero nueuu ro rosoqy sosnouMx sapuautos qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa, oeuru
ux pauouaneuoctu, repcrertusuoctu, rpartu+ecrou ronesuoctu. n toro +toM ue sMsMsate ueenateneuoro
otuoaeuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r rocneqykaun rpeqnoeuun uuuuatopa routarta, nouo ucronesosate
rpuen, coctoauu s cneqykaen.
|uuuatop qenosoro routarta noet rpusoqute rpunepM peanusauu tex unu qpyrux sapuautos ssaunoqeuctsu,
rpusoq s ra+ectse rpunepa cutyauu, ue unekaue rpnoro otuoaeuu r ero rpeqnoeuun. 3tun ou saauaaet
ce ot ueenateneuoro repeuoca sosnouoro otpuateneuoro otuoaeuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r tarun
rpunepan ua te sapuautM, rotopMe xo+et rpeqnoute can. auuMu rpuen rossonet uuuuatopy routarta oeuute
pearuk roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ua rpunepM sosnouoro ssaunoqeuctsu u ten canMn orpeqenute
rpeqro+tuteneuMe (a tare ueenateneuMe qn uero) eae qo ux rourpetuoro ocyqeuu.
pyrou rpuen, rpeqoctasnkauu auanoru+uMe sosnouoctu, coctout s rpeqnoeuuu uecronerux sapuautos es
areutuposauu suunauu ua ux cssu c rourpetuMnu ennu. 8 aton cny+ae uuuuatop qenosoro routarta noet
cssMsate usnaraenMe sapuautM c tenu acrertanu coctseuuou qeteneuoctu, rotopMe ou cooaun rpu
suaronctse.
Tarue sapuautM enateneuo rpeqctasnte rar oM+uMe unu tpaquuouuMe, uo ue osateneuMe crocoM
qeuctsu. 8 pesynetate cosqaktc rpeqrocMnru qn ux ocyqeuu u yto+ueuu roteuuaneuMn raptuepon
qetaneu roqouMx sapuautos u sosnouoctu qn rpeqnoeuu un rarux-to coctseuuMx. pu ucronesosauuu taroro
rpuena uuuuatop qenosoro routarta rony+aet sosnouocte oeuute otuoaeuue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r
pasnu+uMn crocoan cosnectuMx qeuctsuu u sMpate uauonee aqersatuyk nueuuk roteuuaneuoro raptuepa
opny usnoeuu coctseuuMx rpeqnoeuuu.
pu aton ctauosutc sosnouMn yto+ueuue sapuautos cosnectuMx qeuctsuu +epes nu+uMe rpeqro+teuu
uuuuatopa qenosoro routarta. Tarue rpeqro+teuu ue qonuM Mte rateropu+uMnu u noryt sMcrasMsatec, ecnu
uuuuatop routarta ysepeu s ronouteneuon otuoaeuuu r uun co ctopouM roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. 8 yrasauuMx
rpeqro+teuux qonua sarnk+atec ocuosa cxoqctsa otuoaeuuu r orpeqeneuuMn sapuautan cosnectuMx qeuctsuu.
y+ae scero usnarate ux rar orpasqasaue ce (ro orMty uuuuatopa routarta), uo ue sossoqute ronouteneuMe
oeuru s aconkt.
|snoeuuMe rpuenM nouo rpuneute s co+etauuu qpyr c qpyron, opueutupyce ua pearuk coecequura u
roctereuuo qousace opnuposauu y uero sre+atneuu o ton, +to enateneuMe qn uuuuatopa routarta
sapuautM uauonee pauouaneuM qn yqosnetsopeuu cosnectuMx uutepecos. 3tot pesynetat qocturaetc s ton
cny+ae, rorqa rpeqnoeuu uuuuatopa routarta sMcrasMsaktc rpu uanu+uu y roteuuaneuoro raptuepa
rpeqsaputeneuoro ronouteneuoro nueuu o uux. 8 aton cny+ae rpeqnoeuu uuuuatopa routarta rar M roqsoqt
utor rpeqsaputeneuony ocyqeuuk.
pu ronouteneuon otuoaeuuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r rpeqnoeuun uuuuatopa routarta +acto Msaet
ueoxoquno sMcrasate rpeqnoeuu, rpeqronarakaue rpoqoneuue suaronctsa s yqyaen. 3to noet Mte
rpoqoneuue nu+uoro suaronctsa unu rocneqykaue qenosMe sctpe+u. Tarue rpeqnoeuu orasMsaktc
qeuctseuuMnu, ecnu roteuuaneuMu raptuep pacronoeu r ueopnaneuony sasepaeuuk qenosoro routarta, a ue r
sasepaeuuk ero cpasy rocne ocyqeuu repsMx rpeqnoeuuu. oqouMu repexoq r ueopnaneuou +actu qenosoro
routarta sarpernet ssaunuMe qorosopeuuoctu u crococtsyet passutuk qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa. 8 qauuon
cny+ae sauo userate uass+usoctu u cnuaron sanetuou ruroctu. |uuuatop routarta qoneu sMrnqete
crorouuMn, ysepeuuMn, uo ue cnuaron ouuaneuMn.
enoso kouak soporo na, rpeqronarakauu rpeonaqauue nu+uMx ctpenneuuu, ny+ae scero
yctauasnusate s ueouuaneuou octauosre u sMupate cootsetctsykauu rosoq, ue cssauuMu c qenosMnu
uutepecanu. 3to ny+ae rpuneute s tex cny+ax, rorqa cyaectseuuM pasnu+u s couaneuon ctatyce u cepe
qenosMx uutepecos y+actuuros routarta. oqouMe pasnu+u sua+uteneuo cuuakt sepotuocte rosneuu y
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa suou sauutepecosauuoctu s oprauusauu qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa cpasy rocne
suaronctsa. oatony qenosou routart qauuoro tura ny+ae ocuosMsate ua nu+uMx uutepecax u cunratux.
osoqon qn yctauosneuu taroro qenosoro routarta noet Mte uutepec roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r
ocyqeuuk nkoro sorpoca; rpu aton roqrotosneuuocte uuuuatopa routarta rposnetc s yneuuu roctpoute ua
aton uutepece eceqy, repesoqayk suaronctso s qenosoe cotpyquu+ectso. y+ae, ecnu uuuuatop qenosoro
routarta yqet ren-to rpeqctasneu roteuuaneuony raptuepy, uo sosnouM sapuautM canoctoteneuoro
suaronctsa. 8 nkon cny+ae rosoqon qn ua+ana eceqM qonuM Mte octotenectsa, s rotopMx ouu uaxoqtc s
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noneut suaronctsa. Xenateneuo, +toM sMcrasMsauu uuuuatopa routarta cootsetctsosanu uactpoeuuk
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa u sMsMsanu y uero ronouteneuMe anouu.
8 ua+ane eceqM uuuuatop qenosoro routarta, roq+eprusa cxoqctso nueuuu s oeure octotenects u
octauosru, qoneu areutuposate suunauue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ua sMsusauxc pasnu+ux, +toM
royqute ero r passutuk eceqM u yto+ueuuk sMcrasMsaenMx nueuuu. 0cuosuou enek uuuuatopa routarta ua
aton atare qonuo Mte opnuposauue ronouteneuoro sre+atneuu o cee. oatony sauo userate
uass+usoctu. Ecnu roteuuaneuMu raptuep ue pacronoeu r rpoqonuteneuou eceqe, to noet Mte ny+ae
orpauu+utec rpeqsaputeneuou eceqou u qorosoputec o sctpe+e s rocneqykaen. 8necte c ten otcytctsue
orpeqeneuuou artusuoctu co ctopouM uuuuatopa routarta noet ctate rpu+uuou cuueuu uutepeca r ueny,
rotopoe nouo rpeoqonete, ctpo csoe roseqeuue, orupace ua rpuuurM u peroneuqauu rpeqMqyaux rnas, a
tare ucronesy uerotopMe qoronuuteneuMe peroneuqauu, +acte us rotopMx rpusoqutc uue.
8uunauue roteuuaneuoro raptuepa noryt rpusne+e cneqykaue sorpocM:
sosnouocte (rpu ueoxoqunoctu) rony+euu coseta unu y+eta nueuu +enosera onee orMtuoro, onee
ronreteutuoro, suakaero rarue-to acrertM onee qetaneuo;
rotpeuocte s coqeuctsuu taroro +enosera qn rony+euu ronuoro rpeqctasneuu ro artyaneuMn rponenan;
uanu+ue y uuuuatopa routarta csseu u sosnouocteu, ueoxoqunMx roteuuaneuony raptuepy.
8 ra+ectse tarux sosnouocteu rpeqe scero ueoxoquno sMqenute cseqeuu, rossonkaue opueutuposatec s
ycnosux ronutu+ecrou u arouonu+ecrou uectauneuoctu. 3to noryt Mte cseqeuu o uosMx ronutu+ecrux
uuuuatusax u rpeopasosauux, uuopnau, cootsetctsykaa nu+uMn ysne+euun roteuuaneuoro raptuepa.
Ecnu roteuuaneuMu raptuep rposnet uutepec r ocyqeuuk repe+ucneuuMx sorpocos, to uuuuatop routarta
qoneu Mte rotos r ux yrnyneuuk u pacaupeuuk. pu aton yrnyneuue qonuo crococtsosate rosMaeuuk
sauutepecosauuoctu s rpoqoneuuu ocyqeuu, a ue uaoopot. 3toro nouo qoutec yronuuauuen coMtuu,
artos, nkqeu u nect, rotopMe ro ten unu qpyrun rpu+uuan artyaneuM qn roteuuaneuoro raptuepa.
la qauuon atare yctauosneuu qenosoro routarta ronesuo suocute s eceqy tenM, otpaakaue coctseuuMe
qenosMe uutepecM uuuuatopa routarta. 8 ra+ectse tarux aneneutos enecoopasuo ucronesosate yronuuauue
octotenects, cssauuMx co cepou qenosMx uutepecos uuuuatopa routarta u +actu+uo snukaux ua ero nueuue
ro ocyqaenMn sorpocan. auuMu croco rossonet yto+uute rotosuocte roteuuaneuoro raptuepa ocyqate
repcrertusM sosnouoro qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa. Ecnu ou yqet yto+ute octotenectsa, cssauuMe c qenosMnu
uutepecanu uuuuatopa routarta, ato nouo ucronesosate qn usneueuu uarpasneuuoctu eceqM u repexoqa r
ocyqeuuk sapuautos qenosoro cotpyquu+ectsa.
Eae oquu croco oprauusauu roqouoro qenosoro routarta noet Mte peanusosau, ua+uua cpasy e c
noneuta suaronctsa. Tara sosnouocte rosnetc s ton cny+ae, rorqa uuuuatop routarta, rpeqctasnce, cpasy
usnaraet creuury csoeu qeteneuoctu, a roteuuaneuMu raptuep oxotuo roqqepusaet eceqy ua aty teny. 8
roqouMx cny+ax nouo ronesosatec crocoanu u rpuenanu, rpeqnoeuuMnu dn+ denoeex |o+ma|moe nepeoco
muna. pu aton ueoxoquno y+utMsate octotenectsa suaronctsa u rposnte rurocte s ocyqeuuu sorpocos,
ue cssauuMx c qenosMnu uutepecanu. Ecnu eceqa rpoxoqut s ueouuaneuou octauosre, to oua tare qonua
uocute ueouuaneuMu xapartep.
8 |o+ma|max emopoco muna oneaoe sua+euue uneet cnedoea+ue +opvav u mpadu(u+v, rpusM+uMn qn
roteuuaneuoro raptuepa. eno sarnk+aetc s ton, +to rpuutMe s qauuon couyne uopnM u tpaquuu roseqeuu s
ouuaneuou octauosre qoctato+uo o+esuquM u ue rpeqronarakt cyaectseuuMx pasnu+uu s uuqusuqyaneuou
tpartosre. n routartos s ueouuaneuou octauosre tarue pasnu+u noryt Mte secena sua+uteneuMnu.
oatony uuuuatopy routarta enecoopasuo rpeqsaputeneuo rpucnotpetec r roseqeuuk roteuuaneuoro
raptuepa u tonero rocne atoro suaronutec. peqsaputeneua oeura ocoeuuocteu roseqeuu roteuuaneuoro
raptuepa rossonet useate otpuateneuoro snuuu tarux ua repsMu ssrnq nanosua+unMx qetaneu, rar nauepa
oqesatec, ecte, rute, rosopute u t.r.
Eae oquu croco yctauosneuu qenosoro routarta noet Mte ocuosau ua sMsneuuu anououaneuoro
otuoaeuu roteuuaneuoro raptuepa r ocyqaenMn sorpocan. |uuuatop routarta, qenouctpupy auanoru+uoe
anououaneuoe otuoaeuue, noet ynManeuuo rorasate csok ueqoctato+uyk ocseqonneuuocte o tex rpu+uuax,
rotopMe snukt ua ocyqaenMe artM, cutyauu u octotenectsa. 3to noet royqute roteuuaneuoro raptuepa
r qetaneuony usnoeuuk csoeu to+ru speuu u ten canMn stuyte ero s eceqy. Ecnu s taron ocyqeuuu
roteuuaneuMu raptuep satpouet csou qenosMe uutepecM, to uuuuatopy routarta enecoopasuo sMcrasate ro
atony rosoqy nueuue, s ocuosuon cosraqakaee c nueuuen roteuuaneuoro raptuepa u roq+epruyte cxoqctso
uutepecos.
8 qaneueuaen eceqa noet passusatec auanoru+uo routarty repsoro tura.
Eae oquu rpuen qn qoctueuu tou e enu coctout s usnoeuuu uuuuatopon routarta nueuu qpyrux nkqeu
91
ro sorpocan, cxoquMn c tenu, rotopMe ocyqaktc s xoqe yctauosusaeroc routarta. 3to rossonet pacaupute
rpyr ten qn eceqM u snecte c ten useate rpeqespeneuuoro pacrpMtu coctseuuoro uutepeca u otuoaeuu r
eceqe. 8 qaneueuaen nueuue, sMcrasauuoe roteuuaneuMn raptuepon, nouo ucronesosate qn areutuposauu
ero suunauu ua sosnouoctu peanusauu atoro nueuu s qenoson cotpyquu+ectse.
peqnoeuuMe s qauuou rnase rpuuurM, peroneuqauu, crocoM u rpuenM oprauusauu couaneuoro routarta
rpu roqrotosre u seqeuuu qenosou eceqM pacrpMsakt sosnouocte rpartu+ecroro ucronesosauu rouctpyrtusuMx
noqeneu nu+uoctu u suauuu o nexauusnax rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu s uutepcyertuon ssaunoqeuctsuu.
3tot natepuan, orupakauuc ua rnyuuuMe sarouM u nexauusnM +enose+ecroro roseqeuu, roctpoeu u usnoeu
tar, +toM nouo Mno rorasate, rar peaneuo noeecume ae|mue+ocme venuv+ocm+oco o(e+u+. 0u
rpequasua+eu qn toro, +toM uuuuatop qenosoro routarta qeuctsosan onee oocuosauuo, ue qorycran
rcuxonoru+ecrux oauor ronnyuurauu u ue cosqasan csounu qeuctsunu qoronuuteneuMx satpyqueuuu s
qoctueuuu uane+euuMx eneu.
|cronesy usnoeuuMe sMae rpuuurM u peroneuqauu, nouo onee ronuo y+utMsate sarouonepuoctu
yctauosneuu, roqqepauu u passutu couaneuoro routarta rar ocoou opnM otuoaeuuu neqy nkqenu u ten
canMn sMupate uauonee qeuctseuuMe opnM orasauu snuuu ua roteuuaneuoro raptuepa.
laronuun, +to ecka opva oenu ecms cnoco nepedavu nepconansnoeo cooenu dn ynpaenenu
unmepcy&ekmnmv eaauvodecmeuev, uavenenu noeedenu coecednukoe.

|nasa 8. 0prauiaouuse ouomeu oprauiaouuoe noseqeue

8.1. 0prauiaouuoe noseqeue: noue ocuosuse uanpasneu ccneqosau

0prauusauouuoe roseqeuue cpasuuteneuo nonoqoe uarpasneuue s couaneuou uayre. Kar ytsepqaet er
8yq*, can tepnuu rosunc nuae s roue 1950-x rr., srepsMe Mn sseqeu 1puen Potnuceprepon s rpotusosec
noquony s to spen, uo cropuony tepnuuy +enose+ecrue otuoaeuu. 0prauusauouuoe roseqeuue rar otqeneua
uayra co csoun rpeqneton u oerton uccneqosauu sauna csoe necto s lapsapqcrou arone usueca s 1962 r.
uae s 1970 r. ato uarpasneuue ctano passusatec s Aurnuu s ouqoucrou arone usueca u s 1974 r. s Lotnauquu
s /uusepcutete lnasro.
* Wood J . Mastering Management: Organizational behaviour // Financial Times. 1995, suppl. P. 2.

8ronue routuo, +to atot tepnuu actparu, cana oprauusau ue noet sectu ce orpeqeneuuMn
opason, nuae nkqu s atou oprauusauu seqyt ce tar unu uua+e. 3tot tepnuu yrotpenetc s corpaaeuuon suqe
u otuocutc r creuure +enose+ecrou qeteneuoctu u ssaunoqeuctsu nkqeu s oprauusauu.
0prauusauu oxsatMsakt sce uaae couaneuoe, rynetypuoe, ronutu+ecroe, arouonu+ecroe, rpupoquoe
orpyeuue, cuaa uac ueoxoqunMnu tosapanu u ycnyranu, rpeqoctasn paoty u sosnouoctu qn une, a s
uerotopMx cny+ax u ronora sMute enMn cooaectsan. Ten ue neuee s oneauuctse cny+aes nM rpusMrnu
otuocutec r oprauusaun rar r +eny-to canony coou pasynekaenyc. | ato cssauo rar pas c ten, +to
oprauusauu snukt aconktuo ua sce, +to uac orpyaet u +to nM qenaen. oq+ac nM repectaen saqynMsatec o
peaneuon srnaqe oprauusauu s usue nkqeu.
layra o oprauusauouuMx otuoaeuux rpeqronaraet nynetuqucurnuuapuMu roqxoq, uo epet csoe ua+ano oua
us rcuxonoruu, couonoruu, arouonuru u ronutonoruu, s neueaeu ctereuu us uctopuu, reorpauu, autporonoruu.
onroe spen seqytc cropM o ton, rpasonepuo nu sMqente oprauusauouuoe roseqeuue s otqeneuyk qucurnuuy,
ccMnace ua to, +to, ro cytu, ato cnece us pasuMx, rposoqaux ropou tecuo cssauuMe, a ropou u sosce ue
cssauuMe uccneqosauu roq aruqou pasuMx aron u uarpasneuuu.
0quaro te orponuMe usneueuu s nupe, rotopMe rpousoanu sa rocnequue qsa qectunetu, sactasnkt uac c
ocoMn suunauuen otuectuce r rponene auanusa creuuru yuruouuposauu oaectsa s enon, oprauusauu
pasuoro poqa, a tare nkqeu, s uux yuruouupykaux. Ecnu te nuuuu passutu oaectsa, rotopMe rposunuce s
roue qsaqatoro ctonetu, coxpautc u s yqyaen +to sronue sepotuo, to +enose+ectso, rar nM ye
otne+anu sMae, yqet unete qeno c tpen cneqykaunu rpyrranu rponen:
rnoanusaueu;
passutuen cryrou u cpequeu oprauusauu;
ra+ectseuuMnu qenorpau+ecrunu usneueuunu.
|no6ania. Vuorue uarpasneuu arouonuru, srnk+a opasosauue, ctonruytc s XXI s. co sce sospactakaun
snuuuen neqyuapoquou rourypeuuu. partu+ecru so scex cospeneuuMx narasuuax u qenouctpauouuMx canouax
ye ceroqu nouo sctpetute naccy tosapos us EsporM, Kopeu, Anepuru, Frouuu, Vercuru u qpyrux ctpau nupa.
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0trpMsaktc aronM, oneuuM, auru c neqyuapoquMn y+actuen.
Passutue texuonoruu u netoqos quctauuouuoro oy+euu rossonet yuusepcutetan rpoqasate csou rypcM s
nkyk ctpauy nupa. /e ceroqu, ronesyce |utepueton, nouo rony+ute yuusepcutetcroe opasosauue. 8ce
sospactakaue sosnouoctu anertpouuou ro+tM u suqeorouepeuuu rossonkt ctyqeutan u ux rperoqasatenn
roqqepusate roctouuMu uuopnauouuMu routart. ony+euue yuusepcutetcroro opasosauu oneae ue cssauo
c necton rpeMsauu ctyqeuta.
Passusaetc neqyuapoquMu oneu nueuunu s onactu yrpasneuu oprauusaunu nkMx rpouneu.
Esporeucruu Coks, pacaupkauu csou rpauuM qo Crauquuascrux ctpau u ctpau 8octo+uou EsporM, orasMsaet sce
oneaee snuuue ua tpyqosoe sarouoqatenectso u sautocte. Esporeucruu pMuor tpyqa, uauonee uuteucusuo
sapaotasauu s 90-e roqM, noet artusuo snute ua oprauusauu u ctpauM, rpeueperaue cosqauuen y ce
rpuutMx s Espore ycnosuu tpyqa. Kar roq+eprusakt Xurcou u ek*, pasuua rynetyp ua+uuaet urpate sce oneayk
pone s oprauusauouuon roseqeuuu. la uuqusuqyaneuMe rpoertM s onactu roucra paotM u roctpoeuu csoeu
rapeepM, tar e rar u ua oprauusauouuyk aertusuocte, sce oneaee snuuue orasMsaet suauue rnoaneuMx
repcrertus passutu.
* Hickson D. J ., Pugh D.S. Management Worldwide: The impact of social Culture on Organizations around the Globe. Penguin Books, 1995.

6kyna cpequ (lean and mean) oprauia. 8 90-e roqM nuposou arouonu+ecruu pMuor ctauosutc sce
onee usneu+usMn u uerpeqcrasyenMn. 8o-repsMx, nuoectso ronnep+ecrux oprauusauu ctanrusaktc c eae
onee noauou rourypeuueu; so-stopMx, rocyqapctseuuMu certop s oneauuctse rponManeuuo passutMx ctpau,
uaxoqce roq ueycMruMn routponen co ctopouM rocyqapctsa, rMtakaeroc ucrycctseuuo rpusatusuposate
rocyqapctseuuMe oprauusauu, ucrMtMsaet sce oneaue cnouoctu s cssu c corpaaeuuen kqeta u tpeosauuen
rosMcute aertusuocte rpoussoqctsa.
la aton oue rosnetc 0prauusauouua teopu Xutpoy (Heathrow Organizational Theory l0T). Cyte atou
teopuu csoqutc r tony, +to rpartu+ecru raqa stopa ruura, rotopyk sM rpuopetaete s aaporopty (s ruocre unu s
sane ouqauu) noet s te+euue oquoro nuae roneta paccrasate san o ton, rar nouo aertusuo yrpasnte
oprauusaueu, rar roqute ee pesynetatusuocte u rourypeutocrocouocte. C yqusuteneuMn roctouctson u peqrun
yropctson atu ruuru rpososrnaaakt rpuuurM yrpasneuu sceoaun ra+ectson (total quality management), oeaakt
uerpepMsuoe passutue, ytsepqakt ueoxoqunocte opueutauu ua rotpeuoctu rnueuta rar ua ueotennenMe u
ueoxoqunMe ycnosu canoro cyaectsosauu cospeneuuou oprauusauu.
8ce atu cosetM rar uenes ny+ae cootsetctsykt qyxy speneuu, rotopoe xapartepusyetc ctpenuteneuMnu u
paquraneuMnu usneueuunu, rar s rotpeuoctx u s ouqauux rnueutos, tar u s arouonu+ecrux ycnosux
qeteneuoctu oprauusauu.
uae oprauusauu, crocouMe cosnectute rpeqnaraenMe unu rourypeutocrocouMe rpoqyrtM (ycnyru),
rpuennenMe c to+ru speuu cootuoaeuu ra+ectsa u euM, c ronreteutuMn u rpeqauuMn csoeu paote
repcouanon, rurun u rotosMn r MctpMn repeneuan, nuae tarue oprauusauu unekt aauc sMute c oneaeu
sepotuoctek, +en puruquMe oprauusauu, ue crocouMe aqartuposatec r uosMn octotenectsan usuu.
8 ua+ane 1990-x rr. rosnktc, a saten sce aupe pacrpoctpauktc npocpavve co|pa(e+u+ nepco+ana, +to
rossonuno nuorun seqyaun uccneqosatenn rpeqpe+e nusruu roue cnyeuou rapeepM u roue paote, ro
rpauueu nepe, ctauneuou paote u tpaquuouuMn rnauan roctpoeuu rapeepM.
8 onactu rpoussoqctsa sce oneaee pacrpoctpaueuue rony+aet roqxoq, rony+usauu uassauue cryroe
rpoussoqctso. 3tot roqxoq sospoqaet uqeu 1. Teunopa, so scron cny+ae ou ctpenutc rosMcute notusauk
qoctueuu rpu ctauqaptusauu tpyqosMx rpoeccos, xapartepusyetc uerpepMsuMn cosepaeuctsosauuen
netoqos oprauusauu tpyqa, corpaaeuuen uerpoqyrtusuoro tpyqa u arouonueu satpat ua ucronesyenMe pecypcM.
Vouo crasate, +to qonuuupyet ctpenneuue r roctouuony cuueuuk ceectounoctu rpoqyruu, r nuuunusauu
oauor tpyqa u qeertos, r ucronesosauuk tar uasMsaenMx pao+ux rpyrr unu rpyros ra+ectsa, opnupykaux
ronauquMu qyx paotuuros.
oqouMe netoqM sMsMsakt cepeesuMe rponenM. pu ctpateru+ecrou nuuuu ua corpaaeuue repcouana tot
repcouan, rotopMu rpoqonaet paotate, ucrMtMsaet uapactakauu rcuxonoru+ecruu u usuonoru+ecruu ctpecc,
rocronery sospactaet uuteucuurau tpyqa. o nueuuk pqa uccneqosateneu* cryroe rpoussoqctso noet
rpusectu tare r secena rocpeqctseuuMn pesynetatan.
* Womack J .P., J ones D.T., Roos D. The Machine that Changes the World. N.Y., 1990; Wickens P.D. The Ascendant Organization: Combining
Commitment and Control for Longterm Sustainable Business Success, 1995.

/e r cepequue 90-x roqos rpuano rouunauue, +to rnatou sa usnuauee ysne+euue arouonueu cosqauue
auopercu+uou oprauusauu ctauostc ueqoctato+uMu quuanusn, rotep y paotuuros yqosnetsopeuuoctu tpyqon
93
u rar cneqctsue ueqoctator sosne+euuoctu paotuuros s rpoeccuouaneuyk qeteneuocte.
euorpaq. Cuueuue poqaenoctu, c oquou ctopouM, u rosMaeuue tarux rorasateneu ra+ectsa usuu, rar
rpoqonuteneuocte usuu u opasosateneuMu yposeue uaceneuu, c qpyrou, noryt sMssate qeuut pao+eu
cunM. 8 8enuroputauuu, uarpunep, cornacuo rporuosan, r 2035 r. ronu+ectso nkqeu, rpesMaakaux reucuouuMu
sospact (s 8enuroputauuu 65 net), yqsoutc. 8 ra+ectse rpeseutusuMx nep ua+uuakt paspaatMsatec uosMe
cxenM sautoctu*, s rotopMx rpeqycnatpusaetc rpusnerate r paote ueropeuuoe (qn qauuou ctpauM) uaceneuue,
a tare rpaqau reucuouuoro sospacta, sanyuux euauu u t.r.**
* Buchanan D., Huczynski A. Organizational Behaviour: an introductory text. Prentice Hall, 1997.
** Pe+e sqece uqet o sosnouoctx yrpasneuu oenon arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu (cn. tare pasqen III qauuou ruuru).
{puvev. aem.)

C+utaetc, +to qauuMe rpyrrM nu onee qopocosectuM u uaqeuM, uo qn uux qonuM Mte roctpoeuM
creuaneuMe npocpavve npoeccuo+ane+oco nepeo,ve+u+, atony routuureuty uyua ronoae s osnaqeuuu
sMron, ueoxoquno sseqeuue rurux rpauros paotM u qp. 8ce ato osua+aet nonem|, cosdame
nepco+uu(upoea++ee ,cnoeu+ u peuve mp,da, y+utMsakaue uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu paotuura. laqo
otnetute, +to s tpyqoson sarouoqatenectse uerotopMx ctpau cyaectsyet qucrpunuuau ro ronosony u pacosony
rpusuary. ucrpunuuau e ro sospacty (ocoeuuo qo 18 u rocne 40 net) ato sooae auporo ussectuMu art,
uecnotp ua pq creuaneuMx rouseuuu, rpuutMx neqyuapoquMnu oprauusaunu*. octato+uo
rpoauanusuposate osneuu s CV| o uaope raqpos s oprauusauu pasuoro poqa, +toM yequtec: so nuorux us
uux coqepatc secena ectrue sospactuMe tpeosauu r rauquqatan (ocoeuuo ua sarautuMe qonuoctu
neueqepos u rsanuuuposauuMx creuanuctos). 8epotuo, uneuuo roatony s 90-x roqax oquou us artyaneuMx
uccneqosatenecrux ten s oprauusauouuou rcuxonoruu ctana tena aertusuoro yrpasneuu pasuoxapartepuMnu
(pasuosospactuMnu, nuorouauouaneuMnu, pasuoronMnu u t.r.) ronnertusanu.
* Cn.: V0T rpuuurM u peroneuqauu: Copuur natepuanos Veqyuapoquou oprauusauu tpyqa. V., 1991.

CyaectseuuMu poct +ucna nu, qocturaux reucuouuoro sospacta, s co+etauuu co cuueuuen yposu
poqaenoctu osua+aet s repcrertuse sua+uteneuoe eospacma+ue mp,doeou +acp,s|u ua raqoro paotakaero u
co(uane+ou +acp,s|u ua raqoro uanorornateneaura. Ctonruysauce c ueoxoqunoctek rosMcute oen cpeqcts ua
sMrnaty reucuu u ua oxpauy sqopose s yqyaen, nuorue rocyqapctsa s sMcoropassutMx rponManeuuMx ctpauax
rpuctyrunu r paspaotre rporpann corpaaeuu pacxoqos ua rocyqapctseuuoe oecre+euue, ctapace
repeaqpecosate uaceneuue r +actuMn, uerocyqapctseuuMn ronrauun. oqoua ronutura rosnerna sa coou, c
oquou ctopouM, cosqauue uosMx rpusatusuposauuMx otpacneu arouonuru (uarpunep teneronnyuurauu,
ronnyuaneuMe ycnyru, tpaucropt, couaneuoe oecre+euue u ctpaxosauue), a c qpyrou ctopouM rpeqsuna
qoronuuteneuMe tpeosauu r aertusuoctu u ctounoctu ycnyr octasaeuc roq routponen rocyqapctsa
uupactpyrtypM: uuctutytos sqpasooxpaueuu, opasosauu, y+peqeuuu nectuoro canoyrpasneuu.
epe+ucneuuMe sMae ocoeuuoctu oaectseuuoro passutu, qenouctpupykaero oaenuposMe teuqeuuu
rnoanusauu, creuanusauk oprauusauouuou ronuturu u creuu+ecrue qenorpau+ecrue artopM,
cyaectseuuo ycnoukt saqa+u yrpasneuu oprauusaunu pasuoro tura. pu aton ronu+ectso u cnouocte
pasnu+uMx oprauusauouuMx rponen pactyt s reonetpu+ecrou rpoeccuu, oquospeneuuo sospactakt tpeosauu r
ra+ectsy yrpasneu+ecrux peaeuuu. Knk+esMn yneuuen (ronreteuueu) qn pyrosoquteneu nkoro yposu ctano
yneuue yrpasnte pasuoopasuen (management of diversity) s uerpepMsuo neukaeuc couaneuou cutyauu.
Tarun opason, ouqauu oaectsa otuocuteneuo roseqeuu oprauusauu u ux +neuos cyaectseuuo sospocnu u
ra+ectseuuo usneuunuce. 3tu usneueuu ctanu sanetuMnu s qsyx otuoaeuux. 8o-repsMx, sua+uteneuo sospocna u
ctana onee ocnMcneuuou rotpeuocte pyrosoquteneu pasuoro yposu s rcuxonoru+ecrux suauux, +to uaano csoe
otpaeuue s tenature u yposue uay+uo-rpartu+ecrux u oy+akaux cenuuapos. 8o-stopMx, cyaectseuuo ycununc
uutepec r couaneuou ponu u yuruu oprauusauu pasuoro poqa, ux y+actuu s paspeaeuuu couaneuMx rponen
uaceneuu (u coctseuuMx paotuuros).
Eae s ua+ane 90-x roqos rnyuuuou +eptou, rpouusMsakaeu sce oprauusauu cosepaeuuo pasuoro tura, ctan
areut ua saote o rnueute. epcouan nkoro yposu s oprauusaux ctan socrutMsatec s qyxe socrputu nkoro
qpyroro +enosera rar roteuuaneuoro rotpeuten (rnueuta) ycnyru unu rpoqyrta (unu +actu ycnyru unu rpoqyrta),
sa rotopyk qauuMu paotuur uecet repcouaneuyk otsetctseuuocte.
Tara opueutau ua rnueuta rpusuocut ocoMu otteuor u so ssaunootuoaeuu suytpu oprauusauu: ocoo
octpMn ctauosutc sorpoc o usy+euuu u noqenuposauuu sau+mepecoea++ocmu suytpeuuero rotpeuten
repcouana oprauusauu s ee roue+uon rpoqyrte c to+ru speuu ra+ectsa ero rpoussoqctsa u ra+ectsa ero qoctasru
roteuuaneuony rotpeutenk. Tarou roqxoq s ocoeuuoctu racaetc tex paotuuros s oprauusauu, rotopMe
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uaxoqtc s uerocpeqctseuuon routarte c sueauunu rotpeutennu rpoussoqunMx tosapos u ycnyr. |neuuo
qauuMu repcouan uaxoqutc s cutyauu repsoro routarta c roteuuaneuMn rnueuton, u ot toro, rar yqet
oprauusosau atot couaneuMu routart, rpno sasucut, rpoqonatc nu qenosMe otuoaeuu c roteuuaneuMn
rnueuton unu uet. 8 sua+uteneuou nepe ot atoro sasucut uvud u pen,ma(u+ sceu oprauusauu.
Kar ussectuo, s +enose+ecrux otuoaeuux rnyuuuyk pone ucpaem pacnpedene+ue enacmu (qeneruposauue
ronuono+uu u otsetctseuuoctu). lerporopuouaneuo oneaa pone, rotopa otsoqunace s rpase ua snacte
rocyqapctsy u oneaun oprauusaun s usuu oaectsa, ro-suqunony, uc+eprana ce, u nuauaee yqyaee
ctasut sorpoc o repepacrpeqeneuuu snactuMx otuoaeuuu, srnk+akaux s cyertM oprauusauouuMx u couaneuMx
otuoaeuuu nanMe oprauusauu u nanMe rpyrrM nkqeu (neueauuctsa). Tar, Poept XMos* s csoeu ruure Kynetypa
anoM roq+eprusaet, +to s Anepure neueauuctsa uactausakt ua csoen rpase Mte ycnMaauuMnu uneuuo
rotony, +to qonroe spen uaxoqunuce s usonuu. oxoee passutue coMtuu uankqaetc u s qsueuuu sa
ronutu+ecryk rpasuneuocte ucronesosauu sMra, yctauasnusakaero uosMe rpasuna u uanarakaero uosMe
orpauu+euu s ucronesosauuu uopn pasrosopuoro sMra. Tar, uarpunep, uerotopMe rpyrrM neueqepos s Asctpanuu
roqseprnu ocyqeuuk oquoro us astopos tercta, yrotpeusaero tepnuuM roq+uueuuMu u qucurnuua, tar rar,
ro ux nueuuk, atu cnosa yuusuteneuM u yaennkt rpasa repcouana, paotuuros qauuou oprauusauu.
* Hughes R. Culture of Complaint: The Fraying of America. N.Y., 1993.

8.2. Teopeuecka uoqens oprauiaouuoro noseqeu

Cornacuo rcuxoaronoru+ecrou roueruu oprauusauu, paspaatMsaenou s pycne cyertuoro auanusa*,
rpeqronaraetc quuanu+ecra cuctenuocte, enoctuocte u uerpepMsuocte passutu oprauusauouuMx rpoeccos. 8
cootsetctsuu c atun r uccneqosauuk creuuru oprauusauu rar yuuraneuou enoctuoctu (s nuoectse rpartu+ecru
ronesuMx saqa+ couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa) enecoopasuo roqxoqute tar e, rar u r uccneqosauuk
creuuru rposneuuu uuqusuqyaneuoctu otqeneuoro +enosera: rpu aton ocuosuou saqa+eu ctauosutc
perouctpyru enoctuoro couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecroro opasa unu xaparteponoru+ecroro tura oprauusauu.
0te+ectseuua rcuxonoru eae ue uaroruna qoctato+uoro orMta rpuneueuu yrasauuoro roqxoqa s rparture
opca+usa(uo++ou duac+ocmu|u.
* 3apodu+ |.V., Voposoea l.5. cuxocenautu+ecruu roqxoq r uccneqosauuk nuposocrputu // /rpasneuue +enose+ecrunu
pecypcanu: rcuxonoru+ecrue rponenM. V., 1997; 3apodu+ |.V. 0+epru teopuu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu. V., 1997.

laronuun, +to s pycne rpuutoro uanu roqxoqa rpeqronaraetc, +to s nkou oprauusauu uuterpuposauM
repeneuuMe, xapartepusykaue qsa rnacca rponen: euoneuonoruk coctseuuo +enose+ecroro roseqeuu
(sosnouoctu, rotpeuoctu, uutepecM, uuqusuqyaneuyk pesynetatusuocte u qp.), c oquou ctopouM, u
euoneuonoruk oprauusauu (enu, saqa+u, ctpyrtypy, texuonoruu, oprauusauouuyk pesynetatusuocte u qp.) c
qpyrou.
C to+ru speuu yrasauuoro crocoa usy+euu oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu, u+dueud,ane+ocme opca+usa(uu
rposnetc +epes xapartepuMu qn qauuou oprauusauu ctune +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu u necyertuMx
ssaunoqeuctsuu (unu oprauusauouuMu rnunat), rotopMu s uqeane rpussau oecre+ute rpucroconeuue qauuou
oprauusauu r uerpepMsuony usneueuuk s orpyakaeu cpeqe u crococtsosate oprauusauouuony passutuk*.
|neuuo s oprauusauouuon rnunate rar oaeu xapartepucture oprauusauouuMx otuoaeuuu arrynynupyetc
aertusuocte ctun pyrosoqctsa, ucronesyenoro pyrosoqutenen, xapartep ronnyuurauouuMx rotoros, creuura
pacnpedene+u+ enu++u+, u ocoeuuoctu couaneuoro uarpeuu, rposnkaeroc s qauuou oprauusauu s xoqe
sosuuruoseuu u paspeaeuu rounurtuMx cutyauu.
* lecnotp ua to, +to rpu roqouon auanuse oprauusau sMrnqut roxoeu ua cosoryruoro cyerta (rar ato rpuuto s oneauuctse
couonoru+ecrux u couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrux uccneqosauuu), cneqyet ronuute, +to s qeuctsuteneuoctu oprauusau rpeqctasnet coou
cooaectso ssaunoqeuctsykaux nkqeu. 3to cooaectso, ro uaaeny orpeqeneuuk, coctout us tpex yuqaneutaneuMx ronroueutos -
nkqeu, sxoqaux s oprauusauk; ux necyertuMx otuoaeuuu, rotopMe onee unu neuee yctou+uso socrpoussoqtc s qauuou
oprauusauu; ycnosuu usuu u qeteneuoctu atux nkqeu, onee unu neuee cootsetctsykaux enn u rpasunan oprauusauu. {puvev.
aem.)

Tarun opason, oprauusau rar M rpuopetaet csok coctseuuyk uuqusuqyaneuocte, ctauosutc rar M
cyerton, qenouctpupyet csou coctseuuMu ctune roseqeuu, +epes rotopMu tar nuonorusuposauua
oprauusau ua+uuaet snute rar ua raqoro rourpetuoro ee +neua, tar u ua qpyrue rpyrrM u oprauusauu.
pu couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecron auanuse uuqusuqyaneuoctu oprauusauu opca+usa(uo++oe noeede+ue (s
qeuctsuteneuoctu - roseqeuue +neuos oprauusauu) paccnatpusaetc ua cneqykaux tpex yposux:
uuqusuqyaneuMu yposeue (otqeneuoro cyerta, sctyrakaero so ssaunoqeuctsue c qpyrunu +neuanu qauuou
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oprauusauu u peanusykaero cootsetctsykaee uuqusuqyaneuoe oprauusauouuoe roseqeuue);
rpyrrosou yposeue (otpaakauu uanu+ue ueoquopoquMx oprauusauouuMx ctpyrtyp suytpu oprauusauu u
cootsetctseuuo ueoquopoquMx oprauusauouuMx otuoaeuuu u rosuuouuMx poneu);
oprauusauouuMu yposeue (s rotopon otpaaetc qeuctsue +neuos oprauusauu ot nua oprauusauu, t.e.
onee unu neuee cornacosauuoe cosnectuoe qeuctsue rpeqctasuteneu qauuou oprauusauu, uecyaee ua cee +eptM
yronuytoro sMae nuonorusupyenoro opasa oprauusauu, ee unuqa).
8auo roq+epruyte, +to ua scex yrasauuMx tpex yposux oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu cocyaectsykt ero
e+ove+onocuvec|uu nna+ (uankqaena peaneuocte) u |a,sane+eu, ncuxonocuvec|uu nna+ (ueuankqaena
peaneuocte). Ectectseuuo, +to atu rnauM auanusa ctauostc tou euoneuonoru+ecrou asou, c ronoaek rotopou
pacrpMsaetc peaneua cnouocte nexauusnos perynuu roseqeuu +enosera s oprauusauu*.
* 3apodu+ |.V., Voposoea l.5. /rpasneuue +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu, rcuxonoru+ecrue rponenM. V., 1997; Veueqep s
y+peqeuux couaneuou saautM: Vetoqu+ecroe rocoue / oq peqarueu k.V. 8apoquua, K.V. Vytee. V.: AP0CC, 1998.

Ecnu opatutec r uuqusuqyaneuony yposuk auanusa oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu, nouo ouapyute, +to ua
roseqeuue rourpetuoro +neua oprauusauu snukt +etMpe ocuosuMx artopa:
ero socrputue oprauusauouuou cutyauu;
ero otuoaeuue r oprauusauouuou cutyauu;
pasqenena qauuMn +enoseron cuctena euuocteu;
notusau oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu.
oq+epruen, +to yrasauuMe +etMpe artopa rpuuaqneat rnauy +enocpedcmee++o +e +ansdaevou
peane+ocmu: sueaueny uankqatenk ue qauo ysuqete, rar +enoser socrpuuunaet orpyakayk ero cutyauk, rar
ou otuocutc r ueu u ro+eny ou sMupaet tot, a ue uuou sapuaut roseqeuu, sce ato yqaetc sMcuute nuae s
pesynetate creuaneuoro rcuxonoru+ecroro uccneqosauu.
8necte c ten uneuuo atu +etMpe artopa orpeqenkt to, rar qauuMu +enoser yqet rposnte ce s
oprauusauu, rar yqet sMronutec ero rpoeccuouaneua qeteneuocte s oprauusauu, rarunu yqyt ero
pesynetatM u rar ou can yqet ux oeuusate, uaroue, uacronero yqosnetsopeuuMn ou ce ro+ysctsyet.
8 csok o+epeqe, uuqusuqyaneua pesynetatusuocte u yqosnetsopeuuocte paotou (s qauuou oprauusauu), tar
e, rar u notusau, orpeqenkaa srnk+euuocte (sosne+euuocte) qauuoro paotuura s qeteneuocte suytpu
oprauusauu, sasuct ot scex yposueu oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu. 8 ton +ucne ot cutyauouuoro artopa,
rposnkaero ce +epes oprauusauouuMu nexauusn yrpasneuu, +epes sueaukk perynuk oprauusauouuoro
roseqeuu, s +actuoctu, +epes rpeqsnenMu paotuury rpoert rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, cucteny
roctasneuuMx saqa+, qeneruposauue ronuono+uu u t.r. 8ce atu octotenectsa oprauusauouuMx otuoaeuuu
orpeqenkt rpoecc srnk+euu qauuoro paotuura s rpoeccuouaneuyk qeteneuocte s qauuou oprauusauu.
Cneqyet otnetute, +to s yronuyton rpoecce cyaectsykt coctseuuMe tpyquoctu qanero ue scerqa
rpeqsnenMe saqa+u qonuMn opason ctpyrtypuposauM (cn. sMae), otse+akt ouqauun paotuura u
cospeneuuMn tpeosauun ro pqy rapanetpos: ueqoctato+uo cnouM, ue scerqa sua+unM qn qauuoro paotuura,
ue rpeqronarakt ueoxoqunyk astouonuocte (canoctoteneuocte) peaeuu, ue coqepat uuquratopM
pesynetatusuoctu, ronorakaue canony paotuury oeuute rony+aenMe un pesynetatM tpyqa u ro+ysctsosate
crpaseqnusocte oeuru ero uuqusuqyaneuou pesynetatusuoctu qpyrunu nkqenu (uerocpeqctseuuMn
pyrosoqutenen, ronneranu ro paote) u qp. Tarun opason, cutyauouuMe oprauusauouuMe artopM, uapasue c
uuqusuqyaneuMnu, snukt ua rorasatenu pesynetatusuoctu paotM qauuoro +enosera s qauuou oprauusauu u
cootsetctseuuo orpeqenkt ero uuterpaneuyk yqosnetsopeuuocte sMronuenou s oprauusauu paotou*.
* loeu|oe 3.3., 3apodu+ |.V. cuxonoru+ecroe yrpasneuue rpoussoqctseuuou oprauusaueu. V., 1991.

8necte c ten s nkou oprauusauu raqony +enosery +neuy oprauusauu rpuxoqutc sctyrate so
ssaunoqeuctsue c qpyrunu nkqenu, t.e. s oprauusauu scerqa peaneuo cyaectsyet oprauusosauuoe nenu+uoctuoe
ssaunoqeuctsue, u oprauusauouuoe roseqeuue ctauosutc sasucunMn ot rourpetuMx nu+uoctuMx cucten, F-
roueruu, uuqusuqyaneuMx rotpeuocteu qpyrux y+actuuros oprauusauu, ot ux nenu+uoctuMx opueutauu u
uutepecos. Tarun opason, ua roseqeuue nkqeu s oprauusauu snuet cyaectsykaa rynetypa oprauusauu unu ta
oprauusauouua rynetypa, rotopa rposnetc s cuctene cyaectsykaux s qauuou oprauusauu +enose+ecrux
otuoaeuuu u ssaunoqeuctsuu, rotopa, s csok o+epeqe, orpeqenet cootsetctsykaue noqenu nManeuu u
roseqeuu nkqeu s atou oprauusauu. outuo, +to rynetypa oprauusauu saqaet cucteny rouseuuaneuoro unu
rpeqrucauuoro (ouqaenoro) roseqeuu s oprauusauu (tar e, rar u roseqeuu ueopnaneuoro,
uerouseuuaneuoro). Cneqosateneuo, oprauusauouua rynetypa s oneaou ctereuu rporpannupyet ronnertusuoe
ynouactpoeuue rar ua yposue opnaneuoro, tar u ua yposue ueopnaneuoro ssaunoqeuctsu s paccnatpusaenou
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oprauusauu.
o nueuuk pqa uccneqosateneu*, oprauusauouua rynetypa srnk+aet s ce cneqykaue ronroueutM:
nupososspeuue, uarpasnkaee qeuctsu +neuos oprauusauu s otuoaeuuu csoux cotpyquuros, ee rnueutos u
rourypeutos;
rynetypuMe euuoctu, qonuuupykaue s oprauusauu, cunsonM u nuM, ronorakaue route, +to snetc
sauMn qn oprauusauu (uarpunep ra+ectso rpoqyruu);
xapartepucturu roseqeuu rpu ssaunoqeuctsuu nkqeu s oprauusauu (putyanM u epenouuu; ucronesyenMu
rpu oaeuuu sMr u t.r.);
uopnM, rpuuunaenMe roscenectuo, unu rpasuna urpM s qauuou oprauusauu (uarpunep: sapaotan
rony+un);
rcuxonoru+ecruu rnunat s oprauusauu u qp.
* Hellriegel D., SlocumJ.W., Woodman R.W. Organizational Behaviour. N.Y.: West Publishing Company, 1995; pucou+ /.n. Couonoru
oprauusauu. V., 1980; pucou+ /.n. Cospeneuua couonoru oprauusauu. V., 1995.

Turu+uMn rpunepon usunusosauuoro sapuauta oprauusauouuou rynetypM cnyat cosqauuMe pyrosoqutennu
ronrauuu IBM cneqykaue rpuuurM*:
1. KaqMu +enoser sacnyusaet ysaeuu.
2. KaqMu roryratene uneet rpaso ua canoe ny+aee ocnyusauue, raroe tonero sosnouo.
3. ousatec cosepaeuctsa so scen.
* Podepc 1. . IBM ssrnq usuytpu. +enoser. 1upna. Vapretuur. V., 1990.

auuMe rpuuurM Mnu rourpetusuposauM s pasunax qenosoro oaeuu, rpuutMx s IBM u spy+aenMx
raqony cotpyquury ronrauuu. la+uuaetc atot roqerc roseqeuu cneqykaunu cnosanu: laaa ronrauu
onaqaet sasuquou perytaueu. lac oM+uo c+utakt ronreteutuMnu, rpeycresakaunu u socrutauuMnu nkqenu.
Tpu atu ra+ectsa ssaunocssauM. laaa rpusepeuuocte tsepqMn nopaneuMn rpuuuran suecna oneaou u canMu
uerocpeqctseuuMu srnaq rar s rpoeccuouaneuMu poct uaaeu ronrauuu, tar u s ee ycrex ua pMure. la rpoteuuu
nuorux net nM ueyctauuo opaaanu suunauue ua to, +to raqMu cotpyquur qoneu qeuctsosate s cootsetctsuu c
canMnu sMcorunu nopaneuMnu rpuuuranu. VM qenaen ato ceroqu u yqen qenate ato sastpa.
0paaaet ua ce suunauue sMcrasMsauue 0.|. leuucapetcroro* o ton, +to s uanu+uou rynetype rpoucxoqt
roctouuMe euuoctuMe, cunsonu+ecrue u auepruuuMe tpaucopnauu, tar +to rynetypa, rosop ua qaoccruu nauep,
noet Mte uassaua tenon repeneu, repeusaenMx rar ectectseuuMu rotor s ectectseuuou e cpeqe.
8xoqeuue s rynetypy uosMx qn uee coctasnkaux rouunaetc rar croutauuoe ouapyeuue pauee corpMtoro unu
eae ue Msaero. 8xoqeuue s peaneuocte qyxosuou usuu sosnouo +epes cosuasauue corpMtMx pauee
rpoctpaucts euuoctuoro roqnuuuoro orMta, rotopMe sare+atnesaktc s enoctuMx, cunynetauuMx opasax
sosnouou usuu s otrpMsauxc usueuuMx nupax. Kynetypa, tarun opason, rouunaetc rar ...cosoryruocte
cketuo-urouu+ecrux routerctos, pasnu+akauxc ro rpusuaran cosuasaenoctu/uecosuasaenoctu u rpoussoneuoctu/
uerpoussoneuoctu. octyruocte raroro-to routercta cosuasauuk yqet csuqetenectsosate o outaenoctu
oosua+euuoro s uen usueuuoro nupa, a ueqoctyruocte o ueoxoqunoctu ero euuoctuoro yctpoeuu unu
repeyctpoeuu**.
* le+ucapemc|uu D.n. poeru u suptyaneuocte s sosnouMx usueuuMx nupax // 8uptyaneuMe peaneuoctu s rcuxonoruu u s
rcuxorparture / |uctutyt +enosera PAl. V., 1995. 8Mr. 1.
** Tan e.

Kar ua uuqusuqyaneuon yposue oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu, tar u ua yposue roseqeuu rpyrrM qeuctsykt
otne+euuMe sMae qsa nexauusna perynuu roseqeuu:
uuqusuqyaneuMu (suytpeuuuu) +epes yctou+usyk cucteny rpeqctasneuuu uuqusuqa o canon cee, opas
coctseuuoro F, snukauu ua nenu+uoctuoe roseqeuue (s rpyrre);
oprauusauouuMu (sueauuu) +epes oprauusauouuyk rynetypy u cucteny opnaneuMx u ueopnaneuMx
otuoaeuuu, ocyaectsnenMx s qauuou oprauusauu.
0cuosua saqa+a atux nexauusnos perynuu rosnute ua pesynetatusuocte paotM rpyrrM, cosqate +ysctso
yqosnetsopeuuoctu rpyrrM csounu qoctueuunu, +to rossonet +neuan rpyrrM peanusosatec rar
rpoeccuouaneuo, tar u nu+uoctuo.
Tarun opason, aertusuocte rpyrrosoro roseqeuu oeuusaetc c to+ru speuu qenouctpupyenou
peiynsasuoc pyqa, yqosnesopeuuoc pyqou, npoqeccouansuoro nuuocuoro pais.
ocronery rpyrrM (ux +neuM), tar e rar u otqeneuMe uuqusuqM, uaxoqtc ue s usonuu, a s uerpepMsuon
ssaunoqeuctsuu c enek qoctueuu oaux unu oprauusauouuMx eneu, roctonery uankqaenMn euoneuon
97
rpyrrosoro roseqeuu ctauostc nerpyrrosMe otuoaeuu, perynupyenMe cuctenou pacrpeqeneuu snactu u
ronuono+uu, ennu u euuoctnu rourpetuMx rpyrr. pu aton denapmave+manusa(u+ ctauosutc oquou us
sauMx xapartepuctur oprauusauu.
Kar cneqyet us rcuxoaronoru+ecrou roueruu oprauusauu, oquou us saueuaux rponen yrpasneuu
oprauusauouuMn roseqeuuen snetc rponena rapnouu+uou uuterpauu pasnu+uMx acrertos suytpeuuero
+enose+ecroro roteuuana, crocouoro rposute ce +epes srnaq s oaee qeno. Tarun opason, nponeva
cocnacoea+u+ pasnuv+ex u+mepecoe u nompe+ocmeu snetc ocuosuou rpu oprauusauu nkoro ronnertusa.
Kar oequuute uutepecM scex paotuuros sorpyr eneu oprauusauu ua scex ee yposux? 3tot sorpoc peaaetc
ua oprauusauouuon yposue, u otset ua uero s oneaou ctereuu sasucut ot tex, rto rpuuunaet yrpasneu+ecrue
peaeuu s oprauusauu, u ot toro, rar ouu rpuuunaktc u peanusyktc s usue (cn. qanee).
puutue u peanusau yrpasneu+ecrux peaeuuu, a tare ux ra+ectso rpussauM rapautuposate oprauusauu ee
crocouocte r aertusuony cyaectsosauuk. la oprauusauouuon yposue roseqeuu rpuutue peaeuu
paccnatpusaetc rar ocuosuou nexauusn yrpasneuu oprauusauouuMn roseqeuuen, qetepnuuupykauu
oprauusauouuMu rnunat u pesynetatusuocte paotM oprauusauu rar equuoro enoro.
8 roueruu neueqneuta s roctouuo usneukaeuc cpeqe rpu rpuutuu nkoro yrpasneu+ecroro peaeuu
ocyaectsnetc roctouua ropperu roctasneuuMx eneu c y+eton usneukauxc tpeosauuu narpo-(sueaueu) u
nurpocpeqM (suytpeuueu). Ynpaene+ue usve+e+uev, uaeneuuoe ua oprauusauouuoe passutue, sMctyraet, tarun
opason, ueoxoqunMn aneneuton sceu cuctenM yrpasneuu s oprauusauu. pu aton rpu peanusauu
yrpasneu+ecroro peaeuu s eutpe suunauu pyrosoquten orasMsaetc ueoxoqunocte paspeaute ocuosuMe
asosMe rpotusope+u oprauusauu, cssauuMe co ctonruoseuuen uutepecos u rotpeuocteu ua pasuMx yposux
oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu.
Kar c+utan rnaccur oprauusauouuoro roucynetuposauu 3qrap Leuu*, opnM oprauusauouuou rynetypM
otse+akt ua qsa ocuosuMx sMsosa, c rotopMnu ctanrusaetc oprauusau:
a) arpeccusuocte sueaueu cpeqM;
) suytpeuu qesuuterpau.
* Shein E.l. Organizational Psychology. Prentice Hall, 1988.

Cootsetctseuuo, ro ero nueuuk, qse ocuosuMe yuruu ctauostc rpuuuruaneuo sauMnu qn nkou
oprauusauu:
a) aqartau u sMusauue s cpeqe;
) suytpeuu uuterpau.
0quaro ceroqu ye cuo, +to socrputue cpeqM (rar sueaueu, tar u suytpeuueu) rar roteuuaneuo arpeccusuou
orpauu+usaet sosnouoctu yrpasneuu, rocronery sMsMsaet r usuu cyryo saautuMe opnM oprauusauouuoro
roseqeuu, rposoupy rcuxonoruk roctouuou opeM s oprauusauouuMx otuoaeuux. Cenautu+ecra oce
roeqa unu ropaeuue ue crocoua ctate ocuosou qn roctpoeuu qoseputeneuMx otuoaeuuu s oprauusauu,
cosqauu +ysctsa otrpMtoctu, esoracuoctu, ronopta.
3to osua+aet, +to ueoxoqun repexoq r uosMn otuoaeuun u r uosony tury oprauusauouuoro ssaunoqeuctsu,
uyua repeopueutau scero rpoecca yrpasneuu. Pauee suunauue rcuxonoros cocpeqoto+usanoce, rnasuMn
opason, ua rpounarture u cutuu rounurtos neqy cyerton u rpoeccuouaneuou (couaneuou) cpeqou s
cuctene nu+uocte ronnertus. Terepe rosnktc cosepaeuuo uosMe rponenM, u s uosMx couaneuMx
octotenectsax ueoxoquno route, +to:
rpeqrpuuunatene, rar u rocyqapctso, artusuo cosqaet uosMe pao+ue necta s cepe uaenuoro tpyqa;
pao+ue u y+euMe necta arsusaneutuM c to+ru speuu artusuou ronuturu s cepe sautoctu;
+en sMae opasosateneuMu yposeue rpoeccuouana, ten onee ou roneseu ua pMure csooquou pao+eu
cunM, ten onee ou couaneuo saauaeu;
canoctoteneuMu rpoeccuouan can cosqaet ronauqy qn sMronueuu tex unu uuMx couaneuMx yuruu;
rpoeccuouan rpoussoqut uyuMu qpyrun, a ue canony cee, ronesuMu rpoqyrt, ten canMn artusuo opnupy
pMuor tosapos.
Taroe rouunauue opnupyet uosMe saqa+u couaneuou rcuxonoruu u repcouonoruu s cepax
rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu u sautoctu. le uaqo oneae ctpenutec r aqartauu cyerta r usuu s
ronnertuse u s nupe rpoeccuu, rotopMe rpotusoctot atony cyerty rar acpeccue+a+ cpeda; ue uaqo
roctouuo uqtu ro cneqan, cuuna uaspesakaue nu+uoctuMe u uuteprepcouaneuMe rounurtM, cssauuMe c canou
uqeonorueu taroro rpotusoctouu. Cneqyet, uarpotus:
opnuposate rotosuocte +enosera r sctpe+e c uosou usueuuou cutyaueu, yneuue ctpoute csok
rpoeccuouaneuyk cyqey;
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
98
creuaneuo y+ute +enosera cosqasate ronauqM u passusate yneuue u enauue paotate s ronauqe;
rosMaate couaneuyk euuocte rpoeccuouanusna u rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu u t.q.
lesasucunoe ncuxonocuvec|oe conpoeode+ue npo(ecca cma+oene+u+ u paseumu+ npoeccuo+ana, ro
oneaony c+ety, uarpasneuo ua opnuposauue rotosuoctu +enosera r canoctoteneuony tpyqy, rotosuoctu u
enauuk suectu csou srnaq s oaee qeno u peanusosate csou sosnouoctu.
yusa Xeu ytsepqaet: F suy, rar nuorue ronrauuu ua+uuakt neutec. puqet spen, rorqa rounurtM u
corepuu+ectso saseqyt usuec s tyrur. 0quaqM nM sce ysuaen, +to qn raqoro us uac ecte qeno. VM narocnosun
qpyr qpyra u roenaen scen rposetauu. Konrauuu ua+uyt usneute rpuoputetM csoeu qeteneuoctu. 0uu
roqqepat ctpenneuue csoux paotuuros r tsop+ecrony canosMpaeuuk; ux rpoqyru u ycnyru rpuuecyt ronesy
sceu rnauete. sdu xom+m non,vume om paome oneae, vev npocmo sapnnam,. 0uu xott suectu srnaq s oaee
qeno scero +enose+ectsa u peanusosate csou sosnouoctu. Xenauue qenate qopo ua rnoaneuon yposue roequt
natepuanuctu+ecruu roqxoq r nupy*.
* Xeu . Cuna suytpu uac. V.: pousqat, 1998.

8ocrputue nkou usueuuou cutyauu rar cum,a(uu onema, a ue rar arta sosnesqu qonuo oquospeneuuo
usneuute otuoaeuue r orpyakaeu cpeqe ue rar r orpauu+usakaeu, arpeccusuou, uo uarpotus rar r
rpeqoctasnkaeu sosnouocte neutec u pactu. 0uo repesoqut rpoecc yrpasneuu oprauusauouuMn
roseqeuuen us rnocroctu sMusauu s rnocrocte uerpepMsuoro ocosuauuoro oy+euu, ussne+euu yporos us orMta
peaeuu roscequesuMx rponenuMx cutyauu u noqenuposauu onee aertusuoro peaeuu saqa+ s yqyaen.
Tarun opason, ene oprauusauouuoro passutu coctout s yrpasneuuu usneueuunu so nuoectse tarux
ssaunoqeuctsykaux repeneuuMx oprauusauu, rar nkqu (+enose+ecrue pecypcM), enu, saqa+u, texuonoruu,
ctpyrtypa u qp., ua scex tpex yposux uuqusuqyaneuoro, rpyrrosoro u oprauusauouuoro (cutyauouuoro)
roseqeuu. 8 roue+uon c+ete yrpasneuue usneueuunu u opnuposauue oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu sasuct ot
rosuuu rourpetuoro pyrosoquten u ot ctun ero pyrosoqctsa, ot tou cuctenM +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu
(ronnyuurauouuMx csseu), rotopa opasyet cany oprauusauk.
lassauua cucmeva |ovv,+u|a(uo++ex ce+seu, rpouusMsakaa sck oprauusauk s enon, oecre+usaet
ssaunuoe cornacosauue, rpucroconeuue roseqeuu nkqeu. Cana cyte ronnyuuratusuou qeteneuoctu coctout s
yctauosneuuu tarou roorepauu, rorqa roseqeuue raqoro uuqusuqa usneuetc u, s ussectuou ctereuu,
perynupyetc arton y+actu (s roseqeuuu) qpyrux uuqusuqos. 0cuosuMn rpequasua+euuen ronnyuurauu s
oprauusauu snetc oneu uuopnaueu, oecre+usakauu roorepatusuyk ssaunoronoae c enek roopquuauu
qeuctsuu, a scra roopquuau tpeyet, +toM raqMu y+actuur Mn s coctouuu rpeqsuqete qeuctsu qpyrux u
pearuposate cootsetctsykaun opason.
Pesynetaton ronnyuurauu, tarun opason, snetc ue rpocto usneueuue yctauosor unu opn roseqeuu
y+actuura roq snuuuen sueauux ctunynos, uo docmue+ue onpedene++ou cmene+u cocnacu+. outue
ronnyuurau otuocutc uneuuo r tarony ssaunuony oneuy uuopnaueu, naroqap rotopony cornacue
passusaetc, roqqepusaetc unu paspyaaetc. erro ysuqete, +to +actuou (xot u creuu+ecrou) opnou
yrpasneuu usneueuunu snetc yrpasneuue rounurtuou cutyaueu. 0quaro terepe (s cootsetctsuu c
rouerueu usuu s uearpeccusuou cpeqe) ata cutyau sMctyraet rar +eomsevneveu |ovno+e+m npo(ecca
peae+u+ nponev+ou cum,a(uu, cssauuMu co ctonruoseuuen uuqusuqyaneuMx rpeqctasneuuu (opasos) peaneuou
oertuou cutyauu s rpoecce ee cosnectuoro paspeaeuu. n pyrosoquten cornacosauue uuqusuqyaneuMx
rpeqctasneuuu snetc +eoxoduvev ,cnoeuev |o+cmp,|mue+oco paspeae+u+ nponeve.

8.3. 6ceua kouuyukaouusx csie

8 cootsetctsuu c passusaenMnu rpeqctasneuunu o(ecmeo c,(ecme,em nuae |a| cocnacoea++a+
de+mene+ocme nsdeu, u ecnu nkqn, crocouMn r uesasucunony roseqeuuk, yqaetc qeuctsosate rar equuoe
enoe, octaetc rpeqronoute, +to raqMu rarun-to opason noet rpeqsuqete, +to uanepeuM qenate qpyrue.
6naroqap +eny qocturaetc taroe ssaunorouunauue?
ou eku*, sepotuo, oquun us repsMx arcrepuneutaneuMx rcuxonoros copnynuposan nMcne, +to o(ecmeo
c,(ecme,em e |ovv,+u|a(uu u vepes |ovv,+u|a(us. 0aectso u ecte ronnyuurau. VM otne+anu sMae, +to
peaneuocte, uankqaena rpu usy+euuu couaneuMx rpyrr, ecte ssaunoqeuctsue neqy nkqenu, a yctou+usMu
ropqor, pasnu+unMu s ux ssaunootuoaeuux, u coctasnet couaneuyk ctpyrtypy. Couaneua ctpyrtypa, tarun
opason, coctout us uerpepMsuoro rotora roopquuuposauuMx qeuctsuu, s rotopMx y+actuuru orasMsakt qpyr qpyry
roqqepry. 8Mronu arcrertauu (ouqauu) rpyrrM, raqMu +enoser es scroro ocosuauu s ra+ectse
roo+uoro rpoqyrta csoero coctseuuoro rpucroconeuu yrpernet couaneuyk ctpyrtypy. |neuuo s taron cnMcne
99
u rosopt, +to raqMu +enoser areut couaneuoro routpon. Pearupy ua roseqeuue qpyrux nkqeu tar, rar ouqaet
ssaunoqeuctsykaa c uun rpyrra, raqMu suocut csou srnaq s yrperneuue ee ctpyrtypM.
* Dewey J. How we think. 1909.

VM otne+anu tare, +to pesynetaton ronnyuurauu snetc ue rpocto usneueuue yctauosor unu roseqeuu
cnyaaten roq snuuuen sueauux ctunynos, uo docmue+ue onpedene++ou cmene+u cocnacu+. Cornacue osua+aet,
+to s raroe-to spen y pasuMx nkqeu cyaectsyet roxoee orpeqeneuue cutyauu. Korqa sosuuraet cornacue,
rpoucxoqut ssaunorpouuruoseuue raptuu nupa, +to rossonet raqony y+actuury cornacosauuoro qeuctsu
rouunate to+ru speuu qpyrux y+actuuros. Cyte ronnyuuratusuou qeteneuoctu, cneqosateneuo, coctout ue s
sMpaeuuu rpeqaectsykaux nMcneu u +yscts, uo s yctauosneuuu tarou roorepauu, rorqa noeede+ue |adoco
usve++emc+ u e useecm+ou cmene+u pec,nup,emc+ a|mov ,vacmu+ dp,cux u+dueudoe.
Koopquuau tpeyet, +toM raqMu y+actuur Mn s coctouuu rpeqsuqete qeuctsu qpyrux. Vuoroe sasucut ot
toro, raroe sua+euue rpuqaetc ocuosuMn oertan cutyauu, +to sasucut ot rpoanoro orMta y+actuuros. +toM
rpeqsuqete, rar crnoueu roctyrute qpyrou +enoser, tpeyetc rpouuruyte s ero qyay, rar-to y+ecte ero
cyertusuMe repeusauu, ero coctseuuoe orpeqeneuue cutyauu u csoero necta s ueu. Ecnu nkqu s coctouuu
rouunate qeuctsu qpyr qpyra ryten coy+actu, ato sua+ut, +to crocouocte +enosera aertusuo y+actsosate s
cornacosauuMx qeuctsux sasucut ot ero crocouoctu ctauosutec (s soopaeuuu) pasnu+uMnu nkqenu. Tara
crocouocte +enosera rocturate roseqeuue qpyrux orpauu+eua ero rynetypou u nu+uMn orMton.
pu aton cornacue sosce ue osua+aet rapnouuu uutepecos.
Ecnu ro rarou-to rpu+uue +enoser otpMsaetc ot rpyrrM, ou pucryet ytpatute routart c ee rouerueu
peaneuoctu. Eny ctauosutc tpyquee rposepte csou rurotesM, u coMtu, rpousoaeqaue pauee, tepkt csoe
sua+euue, rotopoe ouu rony+anu s qpyron cny+ae. larpunep, rcuxuatpM uasMsakt rcuxoturanu uneuuo tex nkqeu,
rotopMe ytpatunu csse c peaneuoctek.
Ecnu peaneuocte ato couaneuMu rpoecc, to +enoser orasMsaetc rcuxoturon rpocto rotony, +to ou ue s
coctouuu pasqente rpeqctasneuu o nupe, csouctseuuMe qpyrun uopnaneuMn nkqn. 8srnq oneauuctsa
rcuxuatpos peanuctu+eu roctonery, rocronery ouu pasqenkt raptuuy nupa, rpuutyk oneauuctson qpyrux nkqeu,
a ux raueutM usyt s uepeaneuon nupe roctonery, rocronery ux opueutau coqeput nuoro uerouseuuaneuMx
sua+euuu.
KaqMu raueut cosqaet csou ocoMu nup co sua+euunu, rotopMe ue snktc oerton couaneuou
patuurauu. epeusauu csoeopasuo rateropusyktc u uuteprpetupyktc. Cneqosateneuo, raueut noet
rpuutu s yac ot +ero-to, +to qpyrun tpyquo yqet sanetute, uo oert uneet qn uero ocooe sua+euue. oatony
oneauuctso atux nkqeu ue y+actsyet uu s raron nupe, om+ocumene+o |omopoco c,(ecme,em cocnacue.
Vouo crasate, +to ocuosuMn co(uane+ev npus+a|ov, rotopMu otnu+aet +enose+ecryk rpyrry ot rpoctoro
arperata uuqusuqos, snetc cnoco+ocme ,vacm+u|oe e|nsvamec+ e cocnacoea++ee deucmeu+. 8 rostopkauxc
cutyaux cosnectua qeteneuocte oprauusyetc ryten ssaunuMx rpucroconeuuu y+actuuros, u roopquuau
sua+uteneuo oner+aetc ,cma+oene+uev cocnacu+.
6onee toro, s ussectuon cnMcne nouo crasate, +to o(ecmeo c,(ecme,em mone|o nacodap+ esauv+ev
,cm,n|av venoeevec|ux c,(ecme. lpyrrosMe aanouM crnaqMsaktc s roopquuuposauuon qeuctsuu, u tara
roopquuau sosnoua tonero naroqap orpeqeneuuMn turan roseqeuu, ronesykaunc ssaunuou roqqeprou.
8auocte ssaunuou roqqepru ctauosutc ocoeuuo o+esuquou s rpusucuMx cutyaux. Korqa yctauosusauec
couaneuMe ssaunootuoaeuu uapyaaktc ueouqauuMnu usneueuunu s ycnosux usuu u rouseuuaneuMe
uopnM orasMsaktc ueaqersatuMnu, uactyraet repexoquMu repuoq, s te+euue rotoporo nkqu ue suakt, +ero nouo
ouqate qpyr ot qpyra. 6yqy+u ue ysepeuM s canux cee, ouu aqyt raroro-to poqa yeqeuuoctu ot qpyrux. Tarue
uankqeuu roqtsepqakt nMcne, +to nkqu rpucrocanusaktc r roctouuo usneukaunc usueuuMn
octotenectsan. 0uu ocyaectsnkt csoe rpucroconeuue cosnectuo, cosdaea+ vepes |ovv,+u|a(us +oeee cxeve
|oonepa(uu.
3to rorasMsaet, +to venoeevec|oe o(ecmeo +,+o paccvampueame c|opee |a| +enpepee+eu npo(ecc
ctauosneuue, +en rar Mtue. To e otuocutc u r +enose+ecrun rpeqctasneuun o peaneuoctu, s ton +ucne o
peaneuoctu couaneuou. Kar ruaet T. Luytauu, ...+enose+ecroe rpeqctasneuue o peaneuoctu ecte s ocuosuon
couaneuMu rpoecc. 3to ue osua+aet, yqto uet peaneuoro nupa sue uac, uo to, +to suakt o uen nkqu, ecte
rpoqyrt y+actu s rpyrre. Xot rateropuu spen ot speneuu repecnatpusaktc u ueto+uMe rpeqctasneuu ycreauo
roppertupyktc, s nkoe qauuoe spen oneauuctso sua+euuu, ro cyaectsy, tarosM, rarunu nkqu cornacunuce ux
c+utate. To, +to nkqu oM+uo uasMsakt peaneuoctek, ecte pao+a opueutau, otuocuteneuo rotopou
cyaectsyet sMcora ctereue cornacu*.
* uu,ma+u T. Couaneua rcuxonoru. V., 1969.
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Paccnatpusa rpoeccM ronnyuurauu s oprauusauouuon routercte, roq+epruen, +to ouu snktc usueuuo
sauMnu cssykaunu sseuenu neqy pyrosoqutennu u repcouanon, neqy paotuuranu pasuMx yposueu u
sueauun orpyeuuen. peqctasnet uutepec sMqeneuue ronnyuurauu rar oquou us saueuaux yuruu
neueqepa s cospeneuuon neueqneute, coctoaeu s yctauosneuuu u passutuu ssaunoqeuctsu neqy
repcouanon, qpyrunu oprauusaunu c enek ocosuauu u rpuutu unu ocuosuMx eneu u saqa+ oprauusauu*.
leoxoquno roq+epruyte, +to enu oprauusauu noryt Mte qocturuytM tonero +epes qpyrux nkqeu u c qpyrunu
nkqenu. 0cuosua +acte rpuoputetuMx yuruu cospeneuuoro pyrosoquten ato runotuposauue, nounusau
pecypcos u ronnyuurau, u ux ocyaectsneuue ctauosutc sosnouMn nuae naroqap repeqa+e uuopnauu. 8
atou cxene tpaucopnupyktc tpaquuouuMe rte yuruu pyrosoquten, sMqeneuuMe eae aronou A. 1auon:
rnauuposauue, oprauusau, roopquuau, routpone u notusau, rotopMe rpuopetakt terepe xapartep
opca+usa(uo++oco esauvodeucmeu+.
* Veueqep s y+peqeuux couaneuou saautM: Vetoqu+ecroe rocoue / oq peq. k.V. 8apoquua, K.V. Vytee, V.: AP0CC, 1998.

8 uaaeu roueruu ynkqu nunomupoeanu cssaua co crocouoctek pyrosoquten rpuuunate peaeuu u
roppertuposate ux ua nkon us ataros sMronueuu c enek rosMaeuu aertusuoctu qoctueuu
oprauusauouuMx eneu. |o peanusau peaeuu s cospeneuuon nupe rpoucxoqut s cutyauu roctouuo
usneukauxc tpeosauuu narpo- u nurpocpeqM. 3ertusuoe runotuposauue roqpasynesaet tare yrpasneuue
oprauusaueu s ycnosux orpauu+euuMx pecypcos. unotuposauue cpasuusaetc c rpoeccon canonetosoqeuu,
rorqa ecte enauue roracte s orpeqeneuuMu ryurt uasua+euu, ecte napapyt, qenakauu sosnouMn
ocyaectsneuue atoro enauu, u ecte peaneuocte (uarpunep cuna setpa, qpyrue rpertctsu), sactasnkaa
rpuuunate orepatusuMe peaeuu ro ropperuu qeuctsuu s cutyauu sMsneuuMx otrnoueuuu. 8 panrax peanusauu
qauuou yuruu roctouuMu routpone u cpasueuue teryaux pesynetatos paotM c roctasneuuMnu ennu u
sMsneuue otrnoueuuu ctauostc ocuosuMnu saqa+anu qeteneuoctu pyrosoquten.
4ynkqu vounuaaquu pecypcoe roqpasynesaet crocouocte pyrosoquten ocyaectsnte aertusuyk
oeury, roucr u nounusauk unekauxc suytpeuuux pecypcos u rpusnerate sueauue pecypcM qn oecre+euu
uopnaneuoro yuruouuposauu u passutu oprauusauu. pu aton roq pecypcanu rouunaetc tare unekauuc s
uanu+uu repcouan, ero rsanuurau, texuu+ecra u texuonoru+ecra asa, uuaucosMe u uusectuuouuMe
sosnouoctu, uanu+ue rurou oprauusauouuou ctpyrtypM u t.q.
Cootsetctseuuo ynkqu kovvynukaquu roqpasynesaet crocouocte neueqepa yctauasnusate u
roqqepusate aertusuoe ssaunoqeuctsue, rar neqy paotuuranu oprauusauu ua pasuMx yposux
oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu (so suytpeuueu ronnyuurauu), tar u neqy oprauusaunu (so sueaueu
ronnyuurauu). Tar, uarpunep, enMu pq ssaunoqeuctsuu neqy pyrosoqutennu u paotuuranu cssau c
rpocueuuen saqa+, rpuoputetos u ouqaenMx pesynetatos; c oecre+euuen sosne+euuoctu repcouana s peaeuue
saqa+ oprauusauu; c ocyqeuuen rponen pesynetatusuoctu, aertusuoctu u ra+ectsa paotM; c qoctueuuen
rpusuauu u sosuarpaqeuuen c enek notusauu; c cosepaeuctsosauuen u passutuen rpoeccuouaneuou
ronreteutuoctu paotuuros; co copon uuopnauu o uaspesakaeu unu peaneuo cyaectsykaeu rponene; c
ocyqeuuen c repcouanon rpqyaux usneueuuu; c rony+euuen cseqeuuu o uosMx uqex, ycosepaeuctsosauux u
rpeqnoeuux.
Vouo crasate, +to artu+ecru sce, +to qenaetc s oprauusauu qn qoctueuu ee eneu, tpeyet
aertusuoro oneua uuopnaueu. o cytu, sc qeteneuocte cospeneuuoro pyrosoquten rpoucxoqut s
u+opva(uo++ov npocmpa+cmee: ua ocuose rony+euuou uuopnauu ou rpuuunaet peaeuu, s suqe uuopnauu
ou rony+aet ropy+euu c sMaectoaero yposu yrpasneuu, rocpeqctson ee repeqa+u ou qaet ropy+euu
repcouany u routponupyet ucronueuue u t.q. |uopnau rpouusMsaet u snuet ua sce qpyrue yuruu u suqM
qeteneuoctu neueqepa, a ra+ectso uuopnauouuoro oecre+euu rpoeccos rpuutu peaeuuu snetc
ocuosou ero ycreauou qeteneuoctu.
Cyaectsyet nuoro roqxoqos ro opca+usa(uu u+opva(uo++oco oecneve+u+ qeteneuoctu oprauusauu, ee
cotpyquuros u neueqepa. partu+ecru so scex roqxoqax orpeqenetc rotpeuocte s uuopnauu, rar ro
ra+ectseuuMn xapartepucturan (rara uuopnau?), tar u ro ronu+ectseuuMn (repuoqu+uocte, ueoxoqunMu u
qoctato+uMu oen u t.q.). |neuuo uarpasneuue ronnyuurauu u ux cete saqaet qsueuue uuopnauu. Tar,
ronnyuuratusuMu rotor noet qsuratec s ropusoutaneuon unu septuraneuon uarpasneuuu. 8epturaneuoe
uarpasneuue, s csok o+epeqe, roqpasqenetc ua uucxoqaee u socxoqaee.
KonnyuuratusuMu rotor, qsuyauuc ot oquoro yposu s rpyrre unu oprauusauu r qpyrony, onee uusrony
yposuk, snetc +ucxod+(uv. 0u ucronesyetc pyrosoqutennu rpyrr qn roctauosru saqa+, orucauu paot,
uuopnuposauu o rpoeqypax oeuru pesynetatos tpyqa, ocyqeuu rponen, sosuurakaux s xoqe peanusauu
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saqa+ rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu u rony+euuMx pesynetatos. pu aton sauo unete s suqy, +to +en oneae
yposueu rpoxoqut uuopnau, ten oneae sepotuocte toro, +to oua yqet ucraeua s rpoecce ee repeqa+u u
uuteprpetauu.
3ocxod+(a+ u+opva(u+ s oprauusauu qsuetc ot onee uusroro r onee sMcorony yposuk u ucronesyetc
qn opatuou cssu paotuuros c pyrosoqctson c enek uuopnuposauu o teryaux rponenax, pesynetatax
paotM c to+ru speuu canux paotuuros.
lopuso+mane+oe +anpaene+ue qsueuu uuopnauu cssauo c ocyaectsneuuen oaeuu cpequ +neuos
pao+eu rpyrrM oquoro yposu, cpequ pyrosoquteneu oquoro u toro e yposu unu qpyroro repcouana oquoro yposu.
lopusoutaneua oprauusau ronnyuurauu rosMaaet orepatusuocte rpuutu peaeuuu sa c+et corpaaeuu
ronu+ectsa uepapxu+ecrux oprauusauouuMx yposueu, rosMaeuu canoctoteneuoctu u otsetctseuuoctu nu,
sosne+euuMx s cosnectuyk qeteneuocte.
Cyaectsykt pasnu+uMe mune cemeu |ovv,+u|a(uu, rotopMe tare cssauM c ra+ectson u ronu+ectson
uuopnauu. Ctpyrtypa cetu ronnyuurauu snuet ua to+uocte u ueqsycnMcneuuocte rocnauuu, ua cnaeuuocte
yuruouuposauu rpyrrM, ua +ysctso yqosnetsopeuu +neuos rpyrrM ot ocyaectsnenoro ssaunoqeuctsu u s
roue+uon utore ua oayk pesynetatusuocte paotM. Cpequ pasnu+uMx turos ceteu sMqenktc cneqykaue.
ene rpocteuaa ctpyrtypa, oecre+usakaa repeqa+y uuopnauu ot oquoro paotuura qpyrony. pu
aton sauMn snetc orpeqeneuue tenra paotM.
|oneco sce yrpasneuue ocyaectsnetc us oquoro eutpa, rpu aton ra+ectso paotM sceu rpyrrM sasucut ot
ra+ectsa paotM pyrosoquten. Ctpyrtypa xopoao u yctou+uso oprauusosaua, yropqo+eua, xot u ue ctone artusua.
Cete ronnyuurauu s suqe |p,ca snetc artusuou, es uanu+u opnaneuoro nuqepa, rpu aton sosnouo
rosneuue ueopnaneuoro nuqepa. Xopoao peaaktc tsop+ecrue saqa+u; otne+aetc narorputuMu couaneuo-
rcuxonoru+ecruu rnunat, rpu rotopon qeuctsyet ronnertusuMu pasyn; uuopnau uprynupyet csooquo.
unopa ronnyuurauouua ctpyrtypa, rpu rotopou cyaectsyet opnaneuMu nuqep, oquaro nuoroe sasucut ot
+enosera, +epes rotoporo rpoxoqut sc uuopnau u rotopMu uneet sosnouocte uuteprpetuposate ee qo toro, rar
oua roraqet uerocpeqctseuuo r pyrosoqutenk. pu aton ou noet ue sxoqute s oprauusauouuyk ctpyrtypy,
uaxoqce nuae s uuopnauouuou cetu.
V+oco|a+ane+a+ |ovv,+u|a(uo++a+ ceme snetc rpunepon artusuou cetu es uanu+u opnaneuoro nuqepa:
oua rossonet scen +neuan rpyrrM csooquo oneuusatec uuopnaueu, rpu aton yqosnetsopeuuocte ot
rpoecca ssaunoqeuctsu qosoneuo sMcora.
PaccnotpeuuMe sMae ronnyuurauouuMe cetu otpaakt creuury opnaneuoro ssaunoqeuctsu neqy
paotuuranu u pyrosoqutennu s oprauusauu.
0quaro opnaneua cuctena ssaunoqeuctsu ue snetc equuctseuuou, otpaakaeu sck cucteny
cyaectsykaux s oprauusauu ronnyuurauu.
8aua pone rpuuaqneut u +eopvane+ou cucmeve esauvodeucmeu+, tou cepe, rqe uuopnau cyaectsyet
s suqe cnyxos, repecyqos, crneteu u t.q. Cuctena ueopnaneuMx ronnyuurauu uneet tpu rnasuMx xapartepucturu,
a uneuuo:
ue roqqaetc routponk co ctopouM opnaneuou cuctenM oprauusauu;
socrpuuunaetc paotuuranu rar onee uaqeua u qoctosepua, +en opnaneua cuctena repeqa+u
uuopnauu, ucronesyena pyrosoqutennu;
ucronesyetc rpeqe scero c enek yqosnetsopeuu rotpeuocteu u uutepecos tex nkqeu, rotopMe s uee
sxoqt.
Vouo crasate, +to opnaneua ctpyrtypa oprauusauu cosqaet ty oprauusauouuyk octauosry, ua oue
rotopou passusaetc u rposnetc ueopnaneua cuctena +enose+ecrux ssaunootuoaeuuu. 8 oneauuctse
cny+aes uneuuo ueopnaneua oprauusau noet cnyute uauonee ronuony yqosnetsopeuuk nu+uoctuMx
rotpeuocteu paotuuros s esoracuoctu, rpuuaqneuoctu, rpusuauuu u qp., scero toro, +to ro ten unu uuMn
rpu+uuan ue rony+uno yqosnetsopeuu s opnaneuou oprauusauu.
C to+ru speuu auanusa creuuru repeqa+u uuopnauu ro ueopnaneuMn rauanan cssu, uutepec
rpeqctasnet uccneqosauue*, rposeqeuuoe s oquou us ueoneaux upn cpequ 67 pyrosoquteneu pasuMx sseuees. 8
pesynetate Mno ouapyeuo, +to, uecnotp ua to, +to cnyxu snktc sauMn cpeqctson repeqa+u uuopnauu,
nuae 10% pyrosoquteneu sMcaero sseua snktc rauanon ux repeqa+u, t.e. nuae 10% pyrosoquteneu repeqanu
rony+euuyk uuopnauk onee +en oquony +enosery. larpunep, o ton, +to oquu us pyrosoquteneu coupanc
repeutu s qpyryk ronrauuk, suanu 81 %, uo nuae 11% repeqanu aty uuopnauk qpyrun nkqn.
* Davis |. Management Communication and the Grapevine. Harvard Business Review, 1953.

6naroqap atony uccneqosauuk Mnu cqenauM qsa uutepecuMx sMsoqa. 0rasanoce, +to uuopnau o coMtux,
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rpeqctasnkaux oauu uutepec, repeqasanace ot oquoro rpyruoro roqpasqeneuu unu otqena qpyrony (uarpunep
ot otqena rpoussoqctsa otqeny rpoqa) u ue uprynuposana suytpu canoro otqena. 6Mno yctauosneuo tare, +to
pasua uuopnau repeqasanace pasuMnu nkqenu s rpyrre, t.e. ue Mno ouapyeuo nkqeu, roctouuo
snkauxc rauanon repeqa+u pasuou uuopnauu.
oqouoe uccneqosauue Mno rostopeuo cpequ rocyqapctseuuMx cnyaaux oquoro us ueoneaux y+peqeuuu*.
0quaro uutepecuMn qoronueuuen r rpeqMqyaeny uccneqosauuk sunoce to, +to ouo rposoqunoce ue tonero cpequ
pyrosoqaero coctasa, uo u cpequ rpoctMx paotuuros. 8uose Mnu ouapyeuM 10% nu, cnyaaux rauananu
repeqa+u roqouou uuopnauu.
* Summon l., Porter L.W. A study of the grapevine in a governmental organization // Pers. Psychol. 1968.

0quaro s otnu+ue ot rpeqMqyaero uccneqosauu uuopnau, repeqasaena ro ueopnaneuMn rauanan cssu
s rocyqapctseuuon y+peqeuuu, uprynuposana ue neqy, a suytpu oquoro u toro e otqena. oqouMu pesynetat
Mn otueceu ua c+et y+actu s uccneqosauuu ue tonero pyrosoquteneu, uo u rpoctMx paotuuros. pu aton
pyrosoqutenu, ucrMtMsa oneayk rotpeuocte s uuopnauu, sauutepecosauM s ee rony+euuu ussue. 8necte c
ten cpequ cnyaaux rocyqapctseuuoro y+peqeuu Mna ouapyeua roctouua rpyrra nu, snkauxc rauanon
repeqa+u uuopnauu taroro tura.
Fsnetc nu uuopnau, uprynupykaa ro ueopnaneuMn rauanan cssu, to+uou u uaqeuou? Kar
rorasMsakt uccneqosauu, ua 75% qa, snetc. 8osuuraet sorpoc o ton, raryk pone urpakt cnyxu s oprauusauu
u nouo nu ux yneueaute? puuto c+utate, +to cnyxu u crnetuu rpussauM rputuo sosyqate nkqeu, r uun
rpuerakaun. 0quaro onee cyaectseuuMn snetc to, +to cnyxu rpeqe scero rpussauM*:
ctpyrtypuposate ueorpeqeneuuyk cutyauk, yneueaus tpesouocte;
rpuqate cnMcn orpauu+euuou unu parneutapuou uuopnauu;
cnyute cpeqctson oequueuu nkqeu s rpyrre unu aytcauqepos s roanuuu;
rosMcute ctatyc +enosera, ux repeqakaero (F suak o aton, a sM uet), unu ero snacte (8 noeu snactu
crasate san o aton unu uet).
* Hirschhorn L. Cutting back. San Francisco, 1983.

Kar rorasMsakt uccneqosauu, cnyxu rosnktc s cutyauu sauou qn nkqeu, uo ueorpeqeneuuou, a
cneqosateneuo, u sMsMsakaeu rosMaeuue tpesouoctu. Kar ussectuo, rpoeccuouaneua usue usounyet
roqouMnu cutyaunu.
Kourypeuu u cerpetuocte s rpyruMx oprauusaux orytMsakt peaeuue tarux sorpocos, rar uasua+euue uosMx
pyrosoquteneu, ctpyrtypua peoprauusau, usneueuu s pasneaeuuu otqenos u pao+ux rpyrr, oeura
qeteneuoctu paotuuros s oprauusauu u sarnk+euue uosMx qorosopos. outuo, +to cnyxu noryt yne+ec nuae
torqa, rorqa rotpeuoctu u ouqauu, crposouposasaue ueorpeqeneuuocte cutyauu, yqyt paspeaeuM, a tpesora
u ueorpeqeneuuocte yneueaatc.
Tarun opason, sauo rouunate sua+euue ueopnaneuou ronnyuurauu s usuu oprauusauu c enek
uqeutuurauu tex rponen, rotopMe rpeqctasnktc sauMnu qn paotuuros u rposoupykt rosMaeuue
tpesouoctu. leopnaneua ronnyuurau noet paccnatpusatec u rar unetp, u rar nexauusn opatuou cssu,
curuanusupykauu o uutepecax u rotpeuoctx repcouana. lusenuposate cnyxu s oprauusauu aqnuuuctpatusuMn
ryten uesosnouo, uo nuuunusuposate ux ueratusuMe rocneqctsu nouo, ecnu:
perynpuo cooaate paotuuran o rpuutMx pyrosoqutennu sauMx peaeuux;
ocute paotuuran ueoxoqunocte peanusauu peaeuuu u qeuctsuu, rotopMe noryt sMrnqete
uerocneqosateneuMnu u tauuMnu;
ocseaate rar rnkcM, tar u nuuycM rocnequux peaeuuu u yqyaux rnauos;
otrpMto ocyqate sosnouMe ueratusuMe rocneqctsu peanusauu peaeuuu, uo uu+to tar ue crococtsyet
rosMaeuuk tpesoru, rar ue rony+usaue ocyqeuue sMnMcnM.

8.4. Hoqenposaue sqqeksuoro noseqeu s oprauia. 0prauiaouus knua

8orpoc vodenupoea+u+ ae|mue+oco venoeevec|oco esauvodeucmeu+ e opca+usa(uu snetc qn
oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu s ero rpartu+ecron acrerte eutpaneuMn. 8 rarou ctereuu oprauusau noet u
qonua y+utMsate uutepecM u rotpeuoctu csoux paotuuros? Kar cornacosate uutepecM u rotpeuoctu
oprauusauu u repcouana? 0quun us repsMx otsetos ua sorpoc o ponu ssaunorouunauu s oprauusauouuon
roseqeuuu snetc noqene, paspaotauua ose kt u Xapu |urpen, rotopa uasMsaetc ro repsMn yrsan
uneu astopos oruo oxapu (The Johari Window)*. 8 ocuose atou noqenu neut rpeqronoeuue o ton, +to
103
ssaunorouunauue noet cyaectseuuo yny+aute aqersatuocte socrputu u ronnyuurauk.
* Robbins S.P. Organizational Behaviour. Concept. Controversies. Applications. Prentice Hall, 1996.

o nueuuk astopos, nenu+uoctuoe ssaunoqeuctsue sasucut ot crocouoctu raqoro rourpetuoro +enosera
Mte otrpMtMn, qn +ero ucronesyetc taroe routue, rar arcrosuu (exposure), u ot crocouoctu rony+ute
opatuyk uuopnauk. Tarun opason, a|cnosu(u+ orpeqenetc rar crocouocte +enosera so ssaunoqeuctsuu c
qpyrunu nkqenu pacrpMte csou +ysctsa, nMcnu, roqenutec csoun usueuuMn orMton. 8 to spen rar opam+a+
ce+se osua+aet crocouocte +enosera rony+ate roqouyk e uuopnauk o cee ot qpyrux nkqeu, ero yneuue qate
sosnouocte qpyrony pacrpMtec. 3tu qsa artopa saqakt +etMpe cutyauu:
otrpMtoe oruo;
cneroe oruo;
sarpMtoe oruo;
ueussectuoe oruo.
0trpMtoe oruo coqeput uuopnauk, ussectuyk rar qauuony rourpetuony +enosery, tar u qpyrun nkqn,
uaxoqaunc c uun s routarte. 3to tar uasMsaenoe rposneuuoe F, unu rynu+uoe F (the public self). Pe+e
uqet o uuopnauu, racakaeuc ocoeuuocteu qenouctpupyenoro roseqeuu u notusauu, roqqakauxc
uankqeuuk co ctopouM.
Cneroe oruo coqeput uuopnauk, racakaykc +yscts, roseqeu+ecrux pearuu, o+esuquMx qn qpyrux
nkqeu, uo octakauxc ueussectuou qn qauuoro rourpetuoro +enosera. oqoua cutyau sosnoua s ton cny+ae,
rorqa +enoser rpueraet r saautuMn pearun, norupykaun roctyrneuue r ueny uuopnauu o uen co ctopouM
qpyrux nkqeu.
8arpMtoe oruo coqeput uuopnauk, ussectuyk qauuony +enosery, uo ueussectuyk qpyrun nkqn. 8 qauuon
cny+ae pe+e uqet o tarux nMcnx u +ysctsax +enosera o canon cee, rotopMe xopoao un ocosuaktc, uo rotopMnu
+enoser, ro tou unu uuou rpu+uue, ue c+utaet uyuMn roqenutec c orpyakaunu. 3to tar uasMsaenoe cnuaron
nu+uoe (the private self).
leussectuoe oruo coqeput uuopnauk o +ysctsax u orMte, ueussectuon rar canony +enosery, tar u qpyrun
nkqn.
o nepe toro, rar pacaupetc onacte otrpMtoro orua, t.e. +enoser ucronesyet sosnouocte pacrpMtec,
pactet u sosnouocte ssaunorouunauu neqy nkqenu. Ecnu e qauua onacte nana, to torqa senura
sepotuocte yctauosneuu cnouMx ssaunoootuoaeuuu u ssaunoqeuctsu c qpyrunu nkqenu sa c+et cyeuu
csooqM u croutauuoctu s oaeuuu.
6oneaa otrpMtocte +enosera crococtsyet ue tonero rposneuuk roqnuuuoro F +enosera, uo u seqet r onee
aqersatuony socrputuk qpyrux nkqeu. Poct otrpMtoctu corpaaaet onacte sarpMtou uuopnauu o +enosere, uo
ctauosutc sce neuee ueoxoqunMn +to-to crpMsate o cee unu otpuate to, +to can +enoser +ysctsyet unu suaet.
o nueuuk uccneqosateneu, pacaupeuue onactu otrpMtoctu sosnouo naroqap pacrpMtuk u pocty opatuou
cssu. ence c qpyrunu nkqenu csounu +ysctsanu u orMton, +enoser rpeqoctasnet sosnouocte u qpyrun nkqn
Mte ctone e otrpMtMnu. Tar, pacrpMtue oquoro ropoqaet otrpMtocte qpyroro, +to rossonet corpatute onacte
cneroro orua. Tarun opason, opatua csse corpaaaet uuopnauk o ocoeuuoctx roseqeuu, ueo+esuquMx
qn qauuoro +enosera. 0quaro cneqyet otnetute, +to naroqap qeuctsuk saautuMx nexauusnos corpaaeuue
qauuou onactu tpeyet ropasqo onee qnuteneuoro speneuu u oneaux nu+uoctuMx satpat.
leoxoquno roq+epruyte, +to npo(ecc pac|pemu+ ce+ |a| nuv+ocmu ececda uveem |a| nnsce, ma| u vu+,ce.
0trpMtocte seqet r ny+aeny rouunauuk canoro ce, nu+uoctuony u rpoeccuouaneuony pocty, ny+aeny
nenu+uoctuony rouunauuk, oquaro noet corposoqatec onesueuuMnu oayaeuunu, cssauuMnu c
ueoxoqunoctek ocosuasate ue+to uosoe o cee, +to noet qanero ue scerqa cootsetctsosate rpusM+uMn
rpeqctasneuun o cee.
|ssectuo, +to cnuaron oneaa ctereue pacrpMtu canoro ce corposoqaetc rosMaeuuen tpesouoctu,
rotopyk canony +enosery yqet tpyquo accununuposate, +to noet rpusectu r paspyauteneuMn qn nu+uoctu
rocneqctsun. 8arpMtocte, s csok o+epeqe, oeperaet +enosera ot onu, xot rnatou sa ato snetc rotep
sosnouoctu rnyuuuMx nu+uoctuMx roctueuuu u passutu*.
* Cn. tare natepuanM o repcouonoruu qenosou eceqM s uactoaeu ruure (rn. 7 u 15).

Kar nM ye roq+eprusanu, rpoecc pacrpMtu tecuo cssau u oquospeneuuo uaxoqutc roq snuuuen rpoecca
opatuou cssu. 0patua uuopnau, rotopa rpeqoctasnetc +enosery qpyrunu nkqenu, noet Mte
+pessM+auuo euuou, a noet ue onaqate uurarou euuoctek. +toM opatua csse Mna rosutusuou, ro nueuuk
uccneqosateneu, ueoxoquno, +toM ocyqeuue creuuru uankqaenoro roseqeuu u pearuu otse+ano
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cneqykaun tpeosauun:
uneet enek rono+e coecequury;
rpoucxoqut rpu ycnosuu uanu+u qosepu neqy coecequuranu, ucrpeuue, c roqnuuuMn y+actuen;
snetc cropee orucateneuMn, +en oeuo+uMn;
coqeput rourpetuMe u to+uMe, a ue oaue rpunepM, ocuosauuMe ua coMtux rocnequero speneuu;
cyaectsnetc s to spen, rorqa coecequur qeuctsuteneuo rotos r socrputuk uuopnauu;
nueuue cooaakaero csepeuo c nueuuen qpyrux nkqeu c enek roqtsepqeuu ero uctuuuoctu;
srnk+aet s ce tonero te coMtu, rotopMe roqqaktc usneueuuk qauuMn +enoseron;
ue coqeput s cee uuopnauu oneaeu, +en +enoser noet socrpuute s qauuMu repuoq speneuu.
pu ycnosuu, ecnu otrpMtocte corposoqaetc aertusuou opatuou cssek, +enoser rpuopetaet
sosnouocte passute csok ocosuauuocte s rpoecce nenu+uoctuoro ssaunoqeuctsu. 8 pesynetate, onacte
otrpMtoctu ysenu+usaetc sa c+et cyeuu scex qpyrux onacteu. Cyaectsykt cneqykaue rpuuurM usneueuu
qauuou ssaunocssu.
1. |sneueuue s oquon rsaqpaute orua oxapu snuet ua sce qpyrue.
2. 0tpuauue, corpMtue u cnerota otuunakt auepruk y rouctpyrtusuoro nenu+uoctuoro ssaunoqeuctsu.
3. /rposa satopnausaet rpoecc ocosuasauu; ssaunuoe qosepue ycropet ocosuauue.
4. poecc uacunectseuuoro ocosuauu (pacrpMtu) ue aertuseu u ue enateneu.
5. +en neueae rsaqpaut otrpMtoctu, ten equee ronnyuurau.
6. Cosnectua paota rpeqronaraet csooqy s sMpaeuuu +yscts, nMcneu, qeuctsu, t.e. scero toro, +to
sneaaetc s onacte otrpMtoctu. 3to osua+aet, +to +en oneae pecypcos u yneuuu uneetc y qauuoro +enosera
s onactu nenu+uoctuoro ssaunoqeuctsu, ten oneaunu sosnouoctnu ou onaqaet u qn aertusuoro
ucronueuu saqa+ rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu.
|cronesosauue s rparture yrpasneuu oprauusauouuMn roseqeuuen ua scex tpex yposux tou unu uuou
ronnyuurauouuou noqenu (ctepeotura) rossonet cosqasate u quaruocuposate orpeqeneuuMu opca+usa(uo++eu
|nuvam, snukauu ua pesynetatusuocte rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu u yqosnetsopeuuocte ek. |neuuo
csooqa s qoctyre r uuopnauu unu ee otcytctsue cyaectseuuMn opason crasMsaetc ua rpoqyrtusuoctu
cosnectuou qeteneuoctu u creuure nenu+uoctuMx otuoaeuuu s oprauusauu.
K coaneuuk, rar yrasMsan s qucryccuu uanor u ronnyuurau unococrue rponenM 6.A. apaxoucruu:
8 cospeneuuou cutyauu ro-rpeueny eae qosneet ronnyuuratusuMu ctepeotur, ro rotopony ocuosuMn
ucto+uuron uuopnauu sMctyraet eutp, otryqa cooaeuu qosoqtc qo repuepuu. 8cronuuaetc
ocuosuou rpuuur pyrosoquteneu copauuu, ro ueqopasyneuuk uneuosasauxc coseaauunu: le yqen
passoqute qucryccuu, rotopMe sarau+usanuce pernurou: 8orpocM ecte? 8orpocos uet. 8ce csooquM!*.
* Evene++oe |.l. 0y+euue raputetuony quanory. ., 1991.

|qean e coctout s ton, +toM roctpoute ronnyuuratusuMe otuoaeuu ro tury quanorosMx, t.e. orupace +a
npes,vn(us +enpeve++oco paee+cmea ,vacm+u|oe. Ecnu s repson cny+ae rpu ocnMcneuuu artos u oeure
uuopnauu tonero eutp onaqaet aconktuou csooqou, +to ue noet ue rpeqronarate sosnouocte qurtata,
to so stopon cny+ae, rorqa cosqaetc atnocepa quanora, rpeqronaraetc ocyqeuue u rpuutue peaeuuu c
pasnu+uMx nu+uoctuMx u uutennertyaneuMx rosuuu, to+er speuu.
Pe+e s taron cny+ae ua+uuaet uqtu nuae o opnuposauuu uerotoporo yposu ssaunuMx cornaaeuuu, asuca
ueconueuuoctu u orpeqeneuuu rarux-nuo pasnu+akauxc ryteu rpoqsueuu r oaun enn. Cutyau quanora
rpu aton otnu+aetc ot rpoctoro pasrosopa ten, +to qae ecnu oquony us coecequuros ue upasutc ta to+ra
speuu, rotopa rporoseqyetc, eny sce e rpuxoqutc uay+utec sMcnyausate u euute +enosera,
rpuqepusakaeroc atou to+ru speuu.
leconueuuo, +to roqouMe otuoaeuu, poqakauec s otset ua ucronesosauue orpeqeneuuou
ronnyuurauouuou noqenu, ue noryt ue crasatec ua scen opca+usa(uo++ov |nuvame, ocuosuMnu rpusuaranu
rotoporo snktc cneqykaue artopM:
yposeue qosepu;
ra+ectso opatuou cssu (ueratusua unu rosutusua);
ctereue csooqM s canosMpaeuuu (nu+uoctuon u rpoeccuouaneuon);
uanu+ue rpasa rpuuunate sua+unMe qn oprauusauu peaeuu;
ctereue uuopnuposauuoctu o saqa+ax u qocturuytMx pesynetatax;
yposeue yqosnetsopeuuoctu s rpuuaqneuoctu r qauuou oprauusauu;
ctereue anououaneuou srnk+euuoctu s usue qauuou oprauusauu;
rpuutue ua ce otsetctseuuoctu sa coctouue qen s oprauusauu.
105
orasatenen naconpu+m+ocmu opca+usa(uo++oco |nuvama noet Mte ctereue repece+euu rotpeuocteu
oprauusauu u paotuuros.
Modens opeanuaaquonnoeo noeedenu no muny emuepmm / emuepmm. larpunep, paccnotpun cny+au,
rorqa uneetc sua+uteneuoe repece+euue qsyx onacteu, otpaakaux rotpeuoctu u roseqeuue, csouctseuuMe
oprauusauu, c oquou ctopouM, u rotpeuoctu u roseqeuue, csouctseuuMe paotuuran, c qpyrou. 8 aton cny+ae
taroe repece+euue nouo uuteprpetuposate rar rposneuue roqqepusakaero u +ysctsuteneuoro r rotpeuoctn
paotuuros roseqeuu pyrosoquten, rpu aton canu paotuuru roqqepusakt enu oprauusauu u ee pyrosoqctso.
C+utaetc, +to tara cutyau seqet r tecuMn, otrpMtMn, +ectuMn, crpaseqnusMn u +ysctsuteneuMn
otuoaeuun, rotopMe rpusoqt r osepuk c oneaou yrsM. Koue+uMn pesynetaton roqouoro ssaunoqeuctsu
snetc sqoposMu rnunat s oprauusauu, rorqa y paotuuros ecte csooqa qynate, pactu u sooae suocute
cyaectseuuMu srnaq s oprauusauk, qae cosepaate oauru es ctpaxa uarasauu. 8 roqouou oprauusauu
paotuuru oM+uo oneae yqosnetsopeuM tpyqon u canu ctpentc r qoctueuuk eneu oprauusauu, qae tex,
rotopMe tpyquo qoctu+e.
Kourpyautuocte s +enose+ecrux ssaunootuoaeuux snetc noauou anououaneuou cunou, nerro
pacrosuasaenou rpouuateneuMn u anratu+uMn uankqatenen ro tarun roseqeu+ecrun rpusuaran, rar xopoauu
routart rnas, +actMe ssaunoqeuctsu c rpeqctasutennu snactu, nunu+ecrue rposneuu qopotM u qpyenku, a
tare nrrue u rouunakaue uutouauu ronoca.
Modens opeanuaaquonnoeo noeedenu no muny emuepmm / npouepmm. 0 cuueuuu yposu qosepu s
oprauusauu rosopt cneqykaue ocoeuuoctu s roseqeuuu pyrosoquten:
sMronueuua paota euutc nano unu ue euutc sooae;
rpesanupykt yrposM u uarasauu rpu peqrux roxsanax;
ucronesyetc rpunkqua u repcouaneua rputura s aqpec paotuuros;
roqqepusaetc atnocepa ctpaxa;
otcytctsyet uutepec r rpeqnoeuun paotuuros;
paotuuru paccnatpusaktc rar rearu/oertM;
rposetaet asoputusn u ysoneueuu es pasopa.
8 pesynetate, pyrosoqctso oprauusauu ua+uuaet rpeqsnte oneaue, uo uepeanuctu+uMe tpeosauu r
paotuuran, ctauosutc neuee +ysctsuteneuMn, neuee anratu+uMn u neuee osao+euuMn rotpeuoctnu
paotuuros, qenouctpupy suo ueratusuoe otuoaeuue r roq+uueuuMn. 8 csok o+epeqe, pacrpoctpaukauuc
ctpax snactu, paspyaakauu qosepue r pyrosoqutenn, oequuet nkqeu ro nepe toro, rar yrpernetc qosepue
neqy tenu, rony yrpoakt. +ysctsa uesaauaeuuoctu u yssunoctu sactasnkt paotuuros opasosMsate noauMe
ueopnaneuMe oprauusauu qn saautM csoux uutepecos u rotpeuocteu.
Modens opeanuaaquonnoeo noeedenu no muny emuepmm / npouepmm c oeux cmopon. 1opnuposauue
noauou orrosuuouuou ueopnaneuou oprauusauu paotuuros, ro cyaectsy, suaneuyet sosuuruoseuue cteuM
(rcuxonoru+ecroro apeepa), satpyqukaeu pasynuyk ronnyuurauk neqy qsyn ctopouanu: pyrosoqctson
oprauusauu u paotuuranu. Pesynetaton peanusauu ctpateruu sMurpMa/rpourpMa c oeux ctopou snetc
sosuuruoseuue rounurtuoro ssaunoqeuctsu.
XapartepuMn qn orucauuoro sMae oprauusauouuoro rnunata snetc opnuposauue u passutue s
oprauusauu qsyx turos paotuuros: tex, rto roruuyn oprauusauk u yaen us uee (oM+uo ato 20% paotuuros) u
tex, rto roruuyn oprauusauk, uo ue yaen us uee (rpunepuo 80% octasauxc ua csoux pao+ux nectax).
pu uanu+uu oneaoro +ucna paotuuros, rotopMe s anououaneuon, rcuxonoru+ecron rnaue roruqakt
oprauusauk, uo ue yxoqt, oM+uMnu ctauostc cneqykaue sneuu:
cuueuue ra+ectsa rpoqyruu rpu pocte ee ceectounoctu;
sMcoruu rorasatene ro otxoqan rpoussoqctsa;
uapyaeuue rpaura sMronueuu paot;
oneaoe ronu+ectso rporynos u nuoectso orosqauuu ua paoty;
oneaoe ronu+ectso supycuMx saonesauuu;
+actMe ysoneueuu crocouMx u ronreteutuMx paotuuros;
uepeuoe opaaeuue c naauuanu u oopyqosauuen;
+actMe repepMsM s paote;
otcytctsue repcouaneuou otsetctseuuoctu sa pesynetatM tpyqa;
otcytctsue rporpann ro rosMaeuuk rpoeccuouaneuou rsanuurauu;
rpesanuposauue ctaporo orMta, ctapMx euuocteu, ctapMx tpaquuu;
otcytctsue repcrertusuoro, rpeqsocxuaakaero nManeuu;
otcytctsue tsop+ecroro roqxoqa r peaeuuk rponen.
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Tarun opason, teopetu+ecruu auanus u qauuMe anrupu+ecrux uccneqosauuu rorasMsakt, +to cucmeva
opca+usa(uo++ex om+oae+uu orpeqenet (rpasqa, qoctato+uo cnouMn opason) cucmev, opca+usa(uo++oco
noeede+u+. |uterpaneuMn rorasatenen ra+ectsa oprauusauouuMx otuoaeuuu nouo c+utate oprauusauouuMu
rnunat. Cneqyet roq+epruyte, +to c to+ru speuu auanusa oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu, cuctena
|ovv,+u|a(uo++ex ce+seu s oprauusauu, tar e rar u opca+usa(uo++eu |nuvam, cyaectseuuMn opason sasucut
ot cmun+, peanus,evoco e da++ou opca+usa(uu p,|oeodcmea (nudepcmea).

|nasa 9. cxonoruecke npo6neus ynpasneu s oprauia. 0prauiaouuse ouomeu
(pykosoqcso, kouqnks nqepcso)

9.1. cxonoruecke npo6neus ynpasneu coansusu npoeccau

8 aton routercte ua repequuu rnau sMqsuraktc tarue sauMe qn cospeneuuou rparturu uay+uMe rponenM,
rar uccneqosauue rpoeccos opnuposauu nepco+ane+ex (e++ocmeu. Pe+e uqet, s repsyk o+epeqe, o euuoctu
tpyqa rar tpyqa qn qpyroro; o sorpocax passutu uosMx necyertuMx otuoaeuuu u aertusuoro tpyqa s
oprauusauu; o rponenax sMopa rpaqaucrou rosuuu, rpoeccuouaneuou cyqeM u rapeepM, sMopa u qeuctsuu
s oprauusauu u t.r. 8 roue+uon c+ete ato nponeve onpedene+u+ u oc,(ecmene+u+ nepeve+ e venoeevec|ou
c,dee repeneua necta s oprauusauu, repeneua oprauusauu, repeneua coqepauu tpyqa, repeneua rpoeccuu
u t.r.
pu aton raqa us repe+ucneuuMx sMae rponen tpeyet creuaneuo uccneqosate couaneuMe u
rcuxonoru+ecrue nexauusnM opnuposauu (u qeuctsu) ocuosuMx qetepnuuaut +enose+ecroro roseqeuu
rotpeuoctu, enu, saqa+u, ctpyrtypM sMopa, oprauusauu qeuctsu u repeneuM qeuctsu, a s coctseuuo
rcuxonoru+ecron routercte uccneqosate sarouonepuoctu cyertusuoro otpaeuu, otuoaeuu, uanepeuu,
qeuctsu, yqosnetsopeuuocte pesynetaton qeuctsu u t.q.
VM ronaraen rpu aton, +to rnasua saota oaectsa cosqate ycnosu uopnaneuoro passutu raqoro +enosera
tarun opason, +toM u+dueud voc cav peaame ceou nponeve +a |adov +oeov amane ceoeu c,dee n,vae, vev
+a npeded,(ev, a raqoe +oeoe no|one+ue nsdeu peaame ceou nponeve n,vae, vev npe+ee. lnasuoe rpu
aton oecre+ute ueyMsakauu poct uutennertyaneuoro pecypca u qeteneuoro roteuuana uosMx roroneuuu,
nuuunusuposate rotepu ua couaneuMx repexoqax neqy opasosauuen u tpyqon, t.e. oecre+ute pasynuoe
co+etauue uerpepMsuoro opasosauu c narcunaneuou sautoctek rpu ocosuauuon couaneuon yrpasneuuu u
ronoau ua scex atarax usueuuoro rytu raqoro otqeneuoro +enosera.
3tu rponenM u rynauutapuMe saqa+u nM paccnatpusaen s ra+ectse rnasuMx uarpasneuuu couaneuoro
(rocyqapctseuuoro) yrpasneuu, s ton +ucne yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu, aertusuoro yrpasneuu
oprauusauouuMn roseqeuuen nkqeu, yrpasneuu rporpannanu passutu +enose+ecrou coctasnkaeu oaectsa.
|ccneqosauue rponen, sosuurakaux sqece, a tare cosqauue uay+uou asM qn peaeuu rpartu+ecrux saqa+
rpeqronaraet oprauusauk u rposeqeuue ronrnercuMx uccneqosauuu ua ctMre rynauutapuou u couaneuMx uayr,
pasynuoe coequueuue yuqaneutaneuMx uccneqosauuu opasosauu u passutu +enosera s cuctenax neukauxc
couaneuMx uuctutytos c rpurnaquMnu uccneqosauunu u rpartu+ecrunu paspaotranu netoqonoro-
texuonoru+ecroro xapartepa. pu aton, rar u rpu scron qpyron yrpasneuuu, pe+e noet uqtu o ronroueutax
yrpasneuu: quaruocture coctouu yrpasnenoro oerta, o enx yrpasneuu, o ero cpeqctsax u, uaroue, o
texuonorux yrpasneuu. KaqMu us repe+ucneuuMx ronroueutos uneet creuaneuMe orpauu+euu ua sMop
rourpetuMx aneneutos us nuoectsa sosnouMx upasctseuuMe, atu+ecrue, rcuxonoru+ecrue.
|nekauuc s nutepatype natepuan u uaa coctseuuMu orMt paotM s atou onactu yeqakt s ton, +to
crsosuMnu, opueutuposauuMnu ua rpnoe rpartu+ecroe rpunoeuue rponenanu qauuou cepM, tpeykaunu
co+etauu pasnu+uMx roqxoqos u pasuoro yposu uccneqosauuu u paspaotor, ctauostc cneqykaue.
8 oaectseuuMx oequueuux (ua yposue oaectseuuoro canoyrpasneuu):
rpuutue cosnectuMx peaeuuu;
paota s ronauqe;
roqop ronauqM (sorpocM cosnectunoctu, rnunata, pacrpeqeneuu yuruu u qp.).
8 rocyqapctseuuMx ctpyrtypax (oprauax rocyqapctseuuoro yrpasneuu):
yrpasneuue couaneuMnu rpoeccanu;
yrpasneuue couaneuMn raptuepctson;
yrpasneuue pMuranu u pMuo+uMn roseqeuuen;
yrpasneuue 3Al*;
yrpasneuue CV|, napretuuron u pernanou u qp.
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* 3Al arouonu+ecru artusuoe uaceneuue (cn. pasqen III).

8 oprauusaux:
yrpasneuue yurunu oprauusauu;
yrpasneuue passutuen oprauusauu (uuuosaunu);
yrpasneuue oprauusauouuMnu otuoaeuunu (socrputue u passutue oprauusauouuMx otuoaeuuu,
pacrpeqeneuue snuuu u snactu, pacrpeqeneuue ronuono+uu u otsetctseuuoctu);
aqnuuuctpatusuoe yrpasneuue u yrpasneuue repcouanon;
roqop u corposoqeuue pyrosoqctsa u qp.
8 yrpasneuuu uuqusuqyaneuMn u oprauusauouuMn roseqeuuen:
yrpasneuue uuopnauouuMnu rotoranu (s ton +ucne pacropquteneuou, ocseqonuteneuou u ucronuuteneuou
uuopnaueu);
yrpasneuue aqnuuuctpatusuMnu crocouoctnu u uutepecanu (snacte, snuuue, rpoussoqctso, rpuMne,
nuqepctso u pyrosoqctso, uuuuatusuocte u otsetctseuuocte, aertusuocte ucronueuu u qp.);
yrpasneuue ennu, uutepecanu, euuoctnu u oprauusauouuMnu otuoaeuunu roq+uueuuMx;
opasosauue u socrutauue nu+uoctu s routercte rpocouaneuoro roseqeuu;
cosqauue u rpuneueuue uopn (atu+ecrux, upasctseuuMx u rcuxonoru+ecrux) rar peryntopos oprauusauouuMx
otuoaeuuu u t.r.
8ce atu rponenM opasykt ueruu oauu routyp tex sorpocos, rotopMe orpeqenkt uarpasneuu passutu
rcuxonoru+ecrux uccneqosauuu couaneuMx rpoeccos, texuonoruu u cucten yrpasneuu couaneuMnu rpoeccanu.
0uu qonuM Mte paccnotpeuM c to+ru speuu usy+euu u oeuru roseqeuu nu+uoctu s pasnu+uMx arouonu+ecrux
u couaneuMx ycnosux, a tare c y+eton sosqeuctsu otqeneuou nu+uoctu unu couaneuou rpyrrM ua
opnuposauue atux ycnosuu. 0rMt taroro usy+euu uarorneu s rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu, s +actuoctu, s
rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu u oprauusauouuou rcuxonoruu, +to u rocnyuno ocuosauuen qn
paccnotpeuu uassauuMx sMae rponen.

9.2. Teopeuecke npo6neus nuuoc s oprauiax: nuuocs, nqepcso pykosoqcso

ponena nu+uoctu s pyrosoqctse u nuqepctse neut ua ctMre couaneuou rcuxonoruu, rcuxonoruu
oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu u rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu*. outuo, +to s ycnosux cospeneuuMx peopn poccuucrou
arouonuru atu rponenM sMqsuraktc ua repequuu rnau: secena sauyk pone rpuopetaet aertusuoe
yrpasneuue oprauusaunu s cootsetctsuu c rotpeuoctnu pMura. peqrputu sauutepecosauM s rpanotuMx,
rpoeccuouaneuo roqrotosneuuMx pyrosoqutenx, crocouMx rpu rpuutuu yrpasneu+ecrux peaeuuu
opueutuposatec s uuaucosMx, kpuqu+ecrux, rcuxonoru+ecrux u qpyrux sorpocax.
* pu roqrotosre tercta qauuou rnasM ucronesosauM natepuanM locronctata u Vuutpyqa Poccuu, locronnonoqeu Poccuu, Konuteta
ro opasosauuk pasutenectsa VocrsM, a tare pesynetatM uccneqosauuu rperoqasateneu, acrupautos u ctyqeutos aryneteta
rcuxonoruu Vocroscroro ropoqcroro reqaroru+ecroro yuusepcuteta. {puvev. aem.)

Vuoro+ucneuuMe uccneqosauu rorasMsakt, +to oquu pyrosoqutenu aertusuo peaakt yrpasneu+ecrue
saqa+u, rpanotuo sMctpausakt oprauusauouuMe otuoaeuu, ycreauo rpeoqonesakt sosuurakaue tpyquoctu,
qpyrue e s roqouMx ycnosux tepktc, sMsMsakt ueqosepue y roq+uueuuMx u teprt ueyqa+y. 8 atou cssu
ocoeuuo sauMn ctauosutc orpeqenute, rar te unu uuMe nu+uoctuMe ra+ectsa rposnktc s pyrosoqctse u
yrpasneuuu, s +en coctot ocoeuuoctu nuqepctsa u pyrosoqctsa, rar nuqepcrue ra+ectsa noryt Mte cssauM c
aertusuoctek pyrosoqctsa u yrpasneuu nkqenu s oprauusaux.
8 rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu u couaneuou rcuxonoruu rpu auanuse nu+uoctu u qeteneuoctu pyrosoquten rpuuto
pasnu+ate pykoeodcmeo u nudepcmeo, rpusuasa, oquaro, qosoneuo cuneuyk csse neqy uunu. Tar, nudepcmeo
snetc couaneuMn (oprauusauouuMn) rpoeccon, s xoqe rotoporo oquu +enoser orasMsaet snuuue ua qpyroro
+enosera unu ua rpyrry, u s aton cnMcne ouo snetc couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrun sneuuen. P,|oeodcmeo scerqa
cssauo c ouuaneuMn ctatycon rourpetuou oprauusauu. Pyrosoqutene ato qonuocte, pyrosoqutene onaqaet
orpeqeneuuMnu ouuaneuMnu ronuono+unu, ucronesyet qauuyk eny oprauusaueu snacte. Tarun opason, c
rcuxonoru+ecrou to+ru speuu cneqyet pasnu+ate enu++ue rar couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecruu euoneu u enacme rar
ouuaneuo-oprauusauouuMu euoneu. 0tnetun, +to nuqep noet snute ua nkqeu es rarux M to uu Mno
ouuaneuMx ronuono+uu. Koue+uo, qn atoro nuqep qoneu onaqate cootsetctsykaun uaopon creuaneuMx
nu+uoctuMx ra+ects, rotopMe rpuuto uasMsate nudepc|uvu |avecmeavu.
8 nutepatype sMqenktc canMe pasuoopasuMe uaopM nu+uoctuMx ra+ects, orpeqenkaux ncuxonocuvec|uu
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nopmpem ae|mue+oco p,|oeodumen+. pu aton otne+aetc, +to pyrosoqutene ue ctauosutc nuqepon tonero
naroqap uaopy nu+uMx csoucts, - sauo, rar u s rarux cutyaux rposnktc ra+ectsa nuqepa u rar
socrpuuunakt qeuctsu u unuq pyrosoquten roq+uueuuMe.
onuno usy+euu nuqepcrux ra+ects, s auanuse aertusuoro pyrosoquten sMqenetc uccneqosauue cmun+
p,|oeodcmea, rotopMu, s csok o+epeqe, orpeqenetc: ctereuek qeneruposauu pyrosoqutenen csoux ronuono+uu,
ctereuek y+actu roq+uueuuMx s rpuutuu peaeuuu; yposuen uuopnuposauuoctu roq+uueuuMx; pacrpeqeneuuen
snuuu s oprauusauu u turanu snactu, rotopMe ucronesyet pyrosoqutene. 8Mqenktc tpu ocuosuMx ctun
pyrosoqctsa: astoputapuMu, qenorpatu+ecruu u nuepaneuMu. VM ue yqen rpusoqute sqece qetaneuyk
xapartepuctury atux ctuneu, tar rar ouu qoctato+uo xopoao oocuosauM u orucauM s cootsetctsykaeu
nutepatype*. 8necte c ten auanus rcuxonoru+ecrou nutepatypM qoctato+uo yequteneuo pacrpMsaet cnouocte
ssaunootuoaeuuu neqy nuqepctson u pyrosoqctson: ue raqMu pyrosoqutene snetc (u qae noet sntec)
nuqepon s csoeu oprauusauu, oquaro raqMu pyrosoqutene noet Mte oeueu c to+ru speuu ero aertusuoctu
ro pqy rcuxonoru+ecrux coctasnkaux. K ux +ucny otuoctc nu+uoctuMe (s ton +ucne nuqepcrue) ra+ectsa
pyrosoquten; ocoeuuoctu yrpasneu+ecroro ctun pyrosoquten, ocoeuuoctu socrputu pyrosoquten
roq+uueuuMnu u t.r. 3tu rcuxonoru+ecrue xapartepucturu noryt Mte ronoeuM s ocuosy coctasneuu
ncuxonocuvec|oco nopmpema p,|oeodumen+, rotopMu, s csok o+epeqe, noet cnyute ocuosou qn oeuru
aertusuoctu pyrosoquten u qn otopa u roqopa aertusuoro pyrosoquten.
* Vec|o+ V.X., /neepm V., Xedo,pu 1. 0cuosM neueqneuta. V., 1992; 3uxa+c|uu D.0., la,voe /.n. Veueqneut. V., 1995; 3ec+u+
3.P. 0cuosM neueqneuta. V., 1996.

Ycnemuoe qyukouposaue raqoro rpeqrputu, oprauusauu s enon, rar u ycreauocte qeteneuoctu
raqoro us ee +neuos, tpeyet sua+uteneuMx ycunuu ro ux oprauusauu, orpeqeneuuk enesou uarpasneuuoctu,
roopquuauu qeuctsuu uuqusuqos u rpyrrM, t.e. uyqaetc s opca+usa(uo++ov ,npaene+uu.
Kar otne+anoce, rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus paccnatpusaet qse uecosraqakaue opnM yrpasneuu s
oprauusaux: p,|oeodcmeo u nudepcmeo.
3tu qse opnM yrpasneuu unekt orpeqeneuuoe cxoqctso, rotopoe sanetuo ye s tepnuuonoru+ecrou
cenauture. Tar, p,|oeodumene yrsaneuo - ato seqyauu sa pyry, a nudep s repesoqe c aurnuucroro (leader)
seqyauu. 8 to e spen atu routu cyaectseuuo pasnu+aktc, rotony +to pyrosoqutene oM+uo sauunaet
ouuaneuyk rosuuk s ctpyrtype oprauusauu, torqa rar nuqep ato +aae scero ueopnaneua rosuu, u nuqep
rar M sMqsuraetc cuusy. 8necte c ten uuorqa atu qse opnM yrpasneuu coequuktc s oquon nue.
Cyaectsyet sua+uteneuoe +ucno uccneqosauuu o pyrosoqctse u nuqepctse, s rotopMx atu routu creuaneuo
pasequueuM. 8 +actuoctu, s ote+ectseuuou rcuxonoruu qoctato+uo +etro sMqenetc yrasauua creuura
routuu pyrosoqctsa u nuqepctsa: qn toro +toM aertusuo yrpasnte roq+uueuuMnu, p,|oeodumene done+
onadame nudepc|uv enu++uev. 0quou tonero qonuoctu c cootsetctsykaunu snactuMnu ronuono+unu
ueqoctato+uo qn toro, +toM Mte xopoaun pyrosoqutenen.
Cornacuo teopuu +ept nuqep onaqaet orpeqeneuuMnu csouctsanu u +eptanu, naroqap rotopMn ou
sMqsuraetc s nuqepM. uqepy rpucyau cneqykaue rcuxonoru+ecrue ra+ectsa: ysepeuuocte s cee, octpMu u
ruruu yn, ronreteutuocte, cuneua son, yneuue route ocoeuuoctu rcuxonoruu nkqeu, oprauusatopcrue
crocouoctu. Kar csuqetenectsykt uccneqosauu, s pasuMx cutyaux nuqepM rposnkt pasuMe ra+ectsa, qpyrunu
cnosanu, ropou nuqepon ctauosutc +enoser, ue onaqakauu repe+ucneuuMnu sMae ra+ectsanu. 0quaro, c qpyrou
ctopouM, +enoser, onaqakauu repe+ucneuuMnu sMae ra+ectsanu, noet u ue ctate nuqepon.
|neuuo roatony sosuurna cum,amue+a+ meopu+ nudepcmea, cornacuo rotopou nuqepon ctauosutc tot +enoser,
rotopMu rpu sosuuruoseuuu s rpyrre rarou-nuo cutyauu uneet ra+ectsa, crocouoctu, orMt, ueoxoqunMe qn
ortunaneuoro paspeaeuu atou cutyauu qn qauuou rpyrrM. |ccneqosauu roqtsepqakt, +to s pasuMx cutyaux
rpyrra sMqsuraet pasuMx nkqeu s ra+ectse nuqepa. Tar, 6.. apMruu sMqenet turM nuqepos ro cneqykaun
rpusuaran: s sasucunoctu ot xapartepa yrpasneu+ecrou qeteneuoctu (yuusepcaneuMu nuqep, cutyatusuMu nuqep),
ee coqepauu (nuqep sqoxuosutene, nuqep ucronuutene, qenosou nuqep, anououaneuMu nuqep) u ctun
pyrosoqctsa (astoputapuMu nuqep, qenorpatu+ecruu nuqep).
pu aton 6.. apMruu qenaet cosepaeuuo orpeqeneuuoe pasnu+ue neqy pyrosoqutenen u nuqepon rpyrrM:
nuqepctso s ocuosuon cssauo c perynuposauuen suytpurpyrrosMx nenu+uoctuMx otuoaeuuu, uocaux
ueouuaneuMu xapartep, s to spen rar pyrosoqutene snetc cpeqctson perynuposauu otuoaeuuu s panrax
ouuaneuou couaneuou oprauusauu;
nuqepctso rpeqctasnet coou rnasuMn opason euoneu nurpocpeqM, a pyrosoqctso aneneut narpocpeqM,
otse+akauu cuctene qonuuupykaux s ueu couaneuMx otuoaeuuu;
nuqepctso sosuuraet u yuruouupyet rpeunyaectseuuo ctuxuuuo, pyrosoqctso e rpeqctasnet coou
109
rpoecc eneuarpasneuuou u routponupyenou csepxy qeteneuoctu couaneuMx oprauusauu u uuctutytos;
s otnu+ue ot nuqepctsa pyrosoqctso ato sneuue onee ctauneuoe, neuee roqsepeuuoe reperaqan so
nueuux u uactpoeuux +neuos rpyrrM;
rpoecc pyrosoqctsa xapartepusyetc rpuneueuuen ropasqo onee orpeqeneuuou cuctenM pasnu+uMx cauruu,
+en s nuqepctse;
rpoecc rpuutu peaeuuu s cuctene pyrosoqctsa uocut onee cnouMu u nuororpatuo orocpeqosauuMu
xapartep, +en s ycnosux nuqepctsa;
qeteneuocte nuqepa rpoteraet rpeunyaectseuuo s panrax nurpoctpyrtypM nanou rpyrrM, cepa e qeuctsuu
pyrosoquten ropasqo aupe u oxsatMsaet pasnu+uMe yposuu couaneuou cuctenM, ua rotopMx ou, s +actuoctu,
rpeqctasnet nanyk rpyrry;
nuqepctso ecte +ucto rcuxonoru+ecra xapartepuctura roseqeuu orpeqeneuuMx +neuos rpyrrM, s to spen rar
pyrosoqctso ato rpeunyaectseuuo couaneua xapartepuctura opnaneuMx otuoaeuuu s rpyrre rpeqe scero s
rnaue pacrpeqeneuu poneu yrpasneuu u roq+uueuu.
n toro +toM onaqate nuqepcrun snuuuen, pyrosoqutene qoneu socrpuuunatec rpyrrou rar:
oquu us uac. uqep uneet orpeqeneuuMe oaue xapartepucturu c +neuanu rpyrrM, roatony ou
socrpuuunaetc rar csou, a ue rar +you, rotony +to +yaru oM+uo sMsMsakt uactopoeuuocte;
roqouMu oneauuctsy us uac. uqep qoneu Mte uactoaun +neuon rpyrrM, s ocoou ctereuu
sornoaakaun s cee uopnM u euuoctu, unekaue uauoneaee sua+euue qn rpyrrM;
ny+auu us uac. lyuo Mte ue tonero roqouMn oneauuctsy us uac, uo u, rar ato uu rapaqorcaneuo,
ny+aun us uac, +toM cnyute rpunepon, opason qn roqpaauu. pu aton nuqep ue qoneu rasatec
uanuoro ny+ae uac, s rpotusuon cny+ae nuqep ue yqet rar oquu us uac, +to noet sMssate y rpyrrM oraceuue,
+to ee rponenM ue yqyt routuM u sauM nuqepy. oq+uueuuMe qonuM Mte ysepeuM, +to pyrosoqutene noet
rono+e yqosnetsopeuuk ux rotpeuocteu, u pyrosoqutene qoneu orpasqate ux ouqauu s aton otuoaeuuu.
Kar nM otne+anu sMae, y pyrosoquten sosuuraet rponena cornacosauu nuqepcrux roteuuanos c
rpeqrucauuMnu eny yurunu snactu, seqe snacte snetc ocuosuMn crocoon orasauu snuuu ua
roq+uueuuMx. Cyaectsykt pasuoopasuMe opnM, ctunu u suqM snactu. larpunep, 1. Peuseu paccnatpusaet
cneqykaue suqM snactu: snacte, ocuosauuyk ua rpuuyqeuuu; snacte, ocuosauuyk ua sosuarpaqeuuu; arcreptuyk
snacte (ocuosauuyk ua creuaneuMx suauux, rotopMe ue unekt qpyrue); atanouuyk snacte unu snacte rpunepa
(roq+uueuuMe ctapaktc roxoqute ua csoero rpusnerateneuoro u ysaaenoro pyrosoquten); sarouuyk unu
tpaquuouuyk snacte (oquu +enoser roq+uuetc qpyrony +enosery ua ocuose toro, +to ouu ctot ua pasnu+uMx
uepapxu+ecrux ctyreux s oprauusauu)*. 8Mop pyrosoqutenen toro unu uuoro tura snactu sasucut ot toro, rarou
rourpetuo rpyrrou ou pyrosoqut, ee ocoeuuocteu, ctereuu spenoctu. Kpone toro, sce pyrosoqutenu s sasucunoctu
ot rourpetuou cutyauu noryt ucronesosate nkou us oosua+euuMx sMae turos snactu.
* 0avecu+ 0.n., 0mon+pe+|o .. cuxonoru yrpasneuu. Poctos-ua-ouy, 1997.

Kar ye rosopunoce, ue raqMu pyrosoqutene snetc nuqepon. 0quaro s sasucunoctu ot xapartepa u
yctpouctsa oprauusauouuMx otuoaeuuu u oprauusauouuoro roseqeuu pyrosoquten unektc pasnu+uMe
sosnouoctu, +toM ctate nuqepon: nuo uaqo copnuposate tarue nuqepcrue ra+ectsa (+toM rony+ute snuuue s
ronnertuse), nuo cosqate cootsetctsykauu opas (unuq) s rnasax roq+uueuuMx, nuo sMpate cootsetctsykauu
ctune yrpasneuu (pacrpeqeneuu snactu u otsetctseuuoctu). 8 aton cnMcne uccneqosauue nu+uoctu pyrosoquten
ueoxoquno qn toro, +toM, paccnotpes ctpyrtypy canou nu+uoctu, orpeqenus netoqonoruk u netoqM ee usy+euu,
sMcuute, rarue csouctsa nu+uoctu pyrosoquten noryt unete rpuuuruaneuoe sua+euue qn ero otopa (roqopa)
u rocneqykaeu aertusuou qeteneuoctu.
Koue+uo, nouo crasate, +to sce coctasnkaue ctpyrtypM nu+uoctu unekt otuoaeuue r aertusuony
yrpasneuuk. Cootsetctseuuo, nouo uautu nuoectso creuaneuMx uccneqosauuu s onactu rcuxonoruu
yrpasneuu, s rotopMx ocuosuou areut qenaetc ua nu+uoctuMe artopM yrpasneuu, sMqenktc tar
uasMsaenMe neueqepcru xapartepucturu yrpasneua pyrosoquten. pu aton ouu +acto roqpasqenktc ua
orMt, crocouoctu, qenosMe u nu+uoctuMe ra+ectsa.
peqcasneue o nuuoc s cospeueuuo ncxonor ynpasneu coansuo ncxonor. outuo,
+to ueoxoquno y+utMsate uuqusuqyaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrue ocoeuuoctu nu+uoctu, snuuue nu+uoctuMx
xapartepuctur ua pesynetatusuocte qeteneuoctu pyrosoquten. 0quaro xopoao ussectuo, +to s cospeneuuou
rcuxonoruu qo cux rop ue yctonoce cano orpeqeneuue nu+uoctu, u ua sorpoc, +to taroe nuv+ocme, rcuxonoru
otse+akt ro-pasuony.
u+uocte +enosera, roue+uo, yuuraneua, u oquu +enoser otnu+aetc ot qpyroro, uo rpu aton pasuMe nkqu noryt
qenouctpuposate qoctato+uo cxoquMe opasM roseqeuu s cxoquMx cutyaux (uneuuo ata ocoeuuocte
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+enose+ecrux uuqusuqos neut s ocuose pasnu+uMx |naccuu|a(uu u munonocuu nuv+ocmu). Ecnu routue u+dueud
srnk+aet s ce oaue ra+ectsa rpeqctasuten +enose+ecroro poqa rar uonoru+ecroro suqa, to nu+uocte
orpeqenkt rar cucteny co(uane+o s+avuvex |avecme u+dueuda, rar nepy osnaqeuu +enoseron couaneuMnu
euuoctnu u ero crocouocte r peanusauu atux euuocteu. outue nu+uoctu cssauo c routuen
u+dueud,ane+ocmu c tsop+ecrun rpenonneuuen s uuqusuqe oaecouaneuMx ra+ects c uerostopunou cuctenou
otuoaeuuu rourpetuoro +enosera r nupy, c ero uuqusuqyaneuMnu crocouoctnu, s ton +ucne ocoeuuoctnu ero
couaneuoro ssaunoqeuctsu*.
* /+a+eee 5.l. +enoser rar rpeqnet rosuauu. ., 1967; /+a+eee 5.l. 0 rponenax cospeneuuoro +enoserosuauu. V., 1977.

8 ctpyrtypy nu+uoctu oM+uo srnk+aktc uutennert, crocouoctu, tenrepaneut, xapartep, sonesMe ra+ectsa,
anouu, notusau, couaneuMe yctauosru*. pu aton cnoco+ocmu +aae scero rouunaktc rar uuqusuqyaneuo
yctou+usMe csouctsa +enosera, orpeqenkaue ero ycrexu s pasnu+uMx suqax qeteneuoctu. Tevnepave+m
srnk+aet s ce ra+ectsa, ot rotopMx sasuct roseqeu+ecrue pearuu +enosera ua qpyrux nkqeu, usueuuMe
cutyauu u couaneuMe octotenectsa. Xapa|mep coqeput ra+ectsa, orpeqenkaue roctyrru +enosera s
otuoaeuuu qpyrux nkqeu. 3oneeee |avecmea oxsatMsakt creuaneuMe nu+uoctuMe csouctsa, snukaue ua
ctpenneuue +enosera r qoctueuuk roctasneuuMx eneu. ,ecmea +aae scero paccnatpusaktc s routercte
repeusauuu, sne+euuu u royqeuuu r qeteneuoctu, a co(uane+ee ,cma+oe|u s routercte yeqeuuu,
euuocteu u otuoaeuuu nkqeu. 8 cyauoctu, sce rcuxonoru+ecrue suauu suoct csok nerty s rouunauue nu+uoctu:
+to ee opnupyet, ro+eny cyaectsykt uuqusuqyaneuMe pasnu+u, rar rpoucxoqt ee passutue u usneueuu ua
rpoteuuu usuu +enosera.
* Teopuu nu+uoctu / Peq. K. Xonn, l. uuqceu. V., 1997; Teopuu nu+uoctu / Peq. . Xeenn, A. 8uurnep. C., 1999.
0coMu uutepec s uaaen routercte rpeqctasnkt te roqxoqM s rcuxonoruu, s rotopMx ocyaectsnetc
enoctuMu roqxoq r +enosery*. 8 uux +enoser paccnatpusaetc u co ctopouM rpucyaux eny oae+enose+ecrux
csoucts, u co ctopouM ero uerostopunou uuqusuqyaneuoctu. lnasuMe routu, rotopMe sqece ucronesyktc,
u+dueud, nuv+ocme, u+dueud,ane+ocme.
* /+a+eee 5.l. 0 rponenax cospeneuuoro +enoserosuauu. V., 1977.

Cpequ uccneqosauuu nu+uoctu s ote+ectseuuou rcuxonoruu XX s. nouo sMqenute uauonee sua+unMe
roueruu: ronrnercuMu cuctenuMu roqxoq r nu+uoctu (6.l. Auauees, 6.1. onos); nu+uocte rar cyert
qeteneuoctu (A.l. eoutees); nu+uocte rar cuctena otuoaeuuu (8.l. Vcuaes); roueru uuterpaneuou
uuqusuqyaneuoctu (B.C. Vepnuu); ctpyrtypuo-yuruouaneua roueru nu+uoctu (K.K. natouos); nu+uocte rar
cosoryruocte nu+uoctuMx cnMcnos (8.8. Ctonuu); nu+uocte rar cyert yrpasneuu (A.|. Kutos, A.M. Ctonpeuro) u
qp.
oanyu, oquun us uenuorux ote+ectseuuMx astopos, rotopMu rpeqnoun uauonee oocuosauuyk u
passepuytyk ctpyrtypy nu+uoctu, Mn K. K. natouos*. la ocuose rputepu cootuoaeuu couaneuoro u
uonoru+ecroro s ra+ectsax nu+uoctu s ee ctpyrtype sMqeneuM +etMpe uepapxu+ecru cootuocauec roqctpyrtypM:
repsa +anpaene++ocme nuv+ocmu, stopa onem, tpete u+dueud,ane+ee ocoe++ocmu ncuxuvec|ux
npo(eccoe, +etsepta uoncuxuvec|ue ceoucmea.
* namo+oe |.|. Cuctena rcuxonoruu. V., 1980.

lanpaene++ocme nuv+ocmu oequuet tarue ra+ectsa ctpenneuuu u otuoaeuuu nu+uoctu, rotopMe
rposnktc rar ee couaneuMe u nopaneuMe ocoeuuoctu. +eptM nu+uoctu, sxoqaue s aty roqctpyrtypy, s csoen
roqasnkaen oneauuctse ue unekt uerocpeqctseuuMx spoqeuuMx saqatros, a otpaakt uuqusuqyaneuo
rpenonneuuoe oaectseuuoe cosuauue. larpasneuuocte nu+uoctu srnk+aet s ce tarue ee opnM, rar sne+euu,
enauu, uutepecM, crnouuoctu, uqeanM, yeqeuu, nupososspeuue. larpasneuuocte nu+uoctu pasnu+aetc s
sasucunoctu ot cepM qeteneuoctu. 8 routercte rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu uauonee uutepecua npoeccuo+ane+a+
+anpaene++ocme nuv+ocmu (ro poqy csoeu qeteneuoctu pyrosoqutene qoneu rposnte uactou+usocte u cuny s
ctpenneuuu sauunatec rarou-to orpeqeneuuou rpoeccueu u cosepaeuctsosatec s ueu).
8 pasnu+uMx opnax uarpasneuuoctu nu+uoctu rposnktc u otuoaeuu, u nopaneuMe ra+ectsa, u pasnu+uMe
rotpeuoctu. 3ta roqctpyrtypa, ro rpeqronoeuuk astopa, opnupyetc ryten socrutauu.
Dnem oequuet suauu, uasMru, yneuu u rpusM+ru, rpuopeteuuMe s nu+uon orMte u ryten oy+euu, s
rotopMx ten ue neuee secena sanetuo rposneuue uonoru+ecru u qae reuetu+ecru oycnosneuuMx csoucts
nu+uoctu. 3ty roqctpyrtypy uuorqa uasMsakt uuqusuqyaneuou rynetypou, unu roqrotosneuuoctek.
Dcoe++ocmu ncuxuvec|ux npo(eccoe oequukt uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu otqeneuMx rcuxu+ecrux
rpoeccos, unu rcuxu+ecrux yuruu, rouunaenMx rar opnM rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu u perynuu: rantu,
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anouu, oayaeuuu, nManeuu, socrputu, +yscts, sonu.
5uoncuxuvec|ue ceoucmea srnk+akt s ce ocoeuuoctu tenrepaneuta, ronosMe u sospactuMe csouctsa
nu+uoctu u ee tar uasMsaenMe oprauu+ecrue usneueuu. Csouctsa nu+uoctu, sxoqaue s aty roqctpyrtypy,
uecpasuuno oneae sasuct ot usuonoru+ecrux ocoeuuocteu nosra u rouctutyuu +enosera, a couaneuMe
sneuu ux tonero cyopquuupykt u ronreucupykt. Artusuocte atou roqctpyrtypM orpeqenetc, ro nueuuk
astopa, ocuosuMnu csouctsanu uepsuou cuctenM.
0coeuuoctu otqeneuMx csoucts atux +etMpex uepapxu+ecrux roqctpyrtyp, oquaro, ue uc+eprMsakt
uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu nu+uoctu, rocronery ua atu roqctpyrtypM uarnaqMsaktc eae qse oaue
(uuterpaneuMe) roqctpyrtypM: xapa|mep u cnoco+ocmu. 0uu rpeqctasnkt coou oaue ra+ectsa nu+uoctu,
srnk+akaue s ce ocoeuuoctu raqou us +etMpex ocuosuMx uepapxu+ecrux roqctpyrtyp.
8 ycnosux rpootopa nkqeu ua orpeqeneuuMe qonuoctu mevnepave+m u xapa|mep onpeden+sm
npucod+ocme venoee|a | +opvane+ov, o(e+us u dopocoeecm+ov, om+oae+us | eenon++evou paome 8
rcuxonoru+ecrou xapartepucture turos tenrepaneuta sMqenktc cneqykaue ero csouctsa: ceusutusuocte,
peartusuocte, artusuocte, cootuoaeuue peartusuoctu u artusuoctu, tenr pearuu, rnactu+uocte puruquocte,
arctpaseptuocte uutposeptuocte, anououaneua sosyqunocte u qp.
laronuun ocuosuMe rcuxonoru+ecrue ocoeuuoctu rnaccu+ecrux +etMpex turos tenrepaneuta.
0a+ceu+uvec|uu mevnepave+m cuneuMu, ypasuoseaeuuMu, nauneuMu tur, uusrotpesouMu arctpasept. n
caursuuura xapartepua rosMaeuua peartusuocte, rposnkaac s ton, +to ou uso u c oneaun sosyqeuuen
otrnuraetc ua sce, rpusnerakaee ero suunauue. 0u Mctpo rpucrocanusaetc r uosMn ycnosun, Mctpo peaaet
teryaue orepatusuMe saqa+u, onaqaet Mctpou repernk+aenoctek suunauu, sMcorou anououaneuoctek,
routartuoctek, ronnyuuratusuoctek. Ero nouo ucronesosate qn paspqru rounurtuMx cutyauu s rpyrre,
oprauusauu cosnectuMx qeuctsuu, nuqepctsa. Caursuuuru nano roqsepeuM uepsuMn cpMsan, ctpeccoyctou+usM.
0quaro ouu nano rpoqyrtusuM s ycnosux nouotouuou qeteneuoctu, tpeykaeu qnuteneuoro uarpeuuoro
suunauu, crnouuM r repeneue octauosru u suqos qeteneuoctu.
Xonepuvec|uu mevnepave+m - cuneuMu, ueypasuoseaeuuMu, c rpeonaqauuen sosyqeuu +enoser,
sMcorotpesouMu arctpasept. n xonepura, rar u qn caursuuura, tare xapartepuM sMcora peartusuocte u
artusuocte, MctpMu tenr pearuu, uo peartusuocte y uero rpeonaqaet uaq artusuoctek. 0u uauonee
rpoqyrtuseu tan, rqe tpeyetc sMcora artusuocte, ysne+euuocte, roueutpau suunauu, nuqepctso, sMcora
ponesa artusuocte. lo ero cneqyet ro sosnouoctu otctpauute ot rounurtuMx cutyauu, ctporo oertusuo
oeuusate ero ycrexu u tartu+uo yrasMsate ua ueqoctatru, socrutMsate sMqepry u canoonaqauue.
8 ocuose necvamuvec|oco mevnepave+ma neut cuneuMu, ypasuoseaeuuMu, uueptuMu tur uepsuou cuctenM.
1nernatur snetc uusrotpesouMn uutposepton. o xapartepucture |.. asnosa, nernatur crorouuMu,
ypasuoseaeuuMu, scerqa posuMu, uactou+usMu u yropuMu tpyeuur usuu. 8 qeteneuoctu nernatur rposnet
rpoqynauuocte, yropctso u, rar rpasuno, qosoqut ua+atoe qeno qo roua. 0quaro ou ucrMtMsaet sua+uteneuMe
tpyquoctu rpu ueoxoqunoctu Mctporo opueutuposauu s rounurtuMx u ctpeccosMx cutyaux, Mctporo
rpuutu peaeuuu. Vanorpuroqeu ou u qn cropoctuou repepaotru y+euou u rpoussoqctseuuou uuopnauu;
couaneuo raccuseu, ue rpeteuqyet ua nuqepctso s rpyrrax, nanooauteneu u nanoanououaneu.
Vena+xonuvec|uu mevnepave+m cnaMu tur uepsuou cuctenM, sMcorotpesouMu uutposept. peqctasutenu
atoro tura otnu+aktc sMcorou anououaneuou +ysctsuteneuoctek, a scneqctsue atoro u rosMaeuuou pauunoctek.
Venauxonur nanorpuroqeu r uepsuMn reperpysran, r rpeoqoneuuk ctpeccosMx cutyauu, s rotopMx +acto tepetc,
satopnausaetc; ue rounurteu, uo essaauteu repeq rounurtanu, ctapaetc ux oxoqute, a ue paspeaate. le
rpeteuqyet ua nuqepctso, uo s xopoaen ronnertuse ucronuuteneu, otsMs+us, uaet oropy s onee cuneuou
nu+uoctu. 8 crorouuou usueuuou cutyauu, ue tpeykaeu repeuarpeuu, noet rposnte sMcoryk
uutennertyaneuyk u rpartu+ecryk paotocrocouocte, sqyn+usocte, otsetctseuuocte, ucronuuteneuocte.
Ecnu sepuytec r rponene oeuru nu+uoctuMx ocoeuuocteu pyrosoquten, to cneqyet otnetute, +to, s
rpuuure, +enoser c nkMn turon tenrepaneuta noet ctate pyrosoqutenen ryten uerotopou ropperuu
roseqeuu, uo qn raqoro tura tenrepaneuta ata ropperu yqet pasuou. oatony, sepotuo, onee sauMnu
rapanetpanu nu+uoctu pyrosoquten ctauostc ocoeuuoctu ero xapartepa.
Xapa|mep ato cosoryruocte uuqusuqyaneuo-csoeopasuMx csoucts nu+uoctu, orpeqenkauxc ee
otuoaeuunu u rposnkauxc s turu+uMx qn qauuou nu+uoctu crocoax qeteneuoctu. Xapartep nouo c+utate
rapracon nu+uoctu, s rotopMu sxoqt tonero uauonee sMpaeuuMe u tecuo ssaunocssauuMe csouctsa nu+uoctu,
ot+etnuso rposnkauec s pasnu+uMx suqax qeteneuoctu. Ctpyrtypa xapartepa paccnatpusaetc rpeqe scero
ro cnousaunc y +enosera turan otuoaeuuu: 1) otuoaeuue r qpyrun nkqn; 2) otuoaeuue r canony cee; 3)
otuoaeuue r qeteneuoctu; 4) otuoaeuue r ronnertusy, r oaectsy s enon.
8 otnu+ue ot tenrepaneuta rar quuanu+ecrou ctopouM roseqeuu xapartep rossonet oeuute coqepateneuyk
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
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couaneuyk ctopouy roseqeuu cyerta, ero euuoctuMe opueutauu. Xapartep snetc pesynetaton passutu
nu+uoctu s outoreuese s cssu c sarperneuuen s roseqeuuu uuqusuqa pasnu+uMx rposneuuu rcuxu+ecrux
rpoeccos: rosuasateneuMx, anououaneuMx u sonesMx. Xapartep noet Mte: uopnaneuMn, canaucuposauuMn,
unu areutyuposauuMn, c +pesnepuMn rposneuuen uecronerux +ept (uarpunep arsanetuposauuocte,
rureptunuocte, ueyrpasnenocte).
8ctyra so ssaunoqeuctsue c orpyakaun nupon, +enoser otpaaet ue tonero nuoroopasuMe rpeqnetM u
sneuu, ux pasnu+uMe ra+ectsa u csouctsa, scesosnouMe cssu u sasucunoctu, uo u oertusuMe otuoaeuu,
rotopMe crnaqMsaktc y uero rar y nu+uoctu c otqeneuMnu oertanu otpaeuu. Tara csoeopasua ctopoua
otpaeuu nupa coctasnet onacte v,ecme, unu avo(uo+ane+,s cep, nu+uoctu.
8Mronu pasnu+uMe suqM qeteneuoctu, rpeoqonesa rpu aton sueauue u suytpeuuue rpertctsu, +enoser
sMpaatMsaet s cee eoneeee |avecmea, xapartepusykaue ero rar nu+uocte. 8 cnouon soneson qeuctsuu
sMqenkt cneqykaue atarM: 1) ocosuauue enu u ctpenneuue qoctu+e ee; 2) ocosuauue pqa sosnouocteu
qoctueuu enu; 3) rosneuue notusos, ytsepqakaux atu sosnouoctu; 4) opea notusos u sMop; 5) rpuutue
oquou us sosnouocteu s ra+ectse peaeuu; 6) ocyaectsneuue rpuutoro peaeuu. K sonesMn ra+ectsan, rotopMe
osateneuo qonuM Mte passutM y pyrosoquten, otuoctc: eneyctpenneuuocte, peauteneuocte, cnenocte,
uactou+usocte, sMqepra, nyectso, uuuuatusuocte, canoctoteneuocte, qucurnuuuposauuocte.
3vo(uu, v,ecmea u eon+ tecuo ssaunocssauM rpu sMronueuuu +enoseron nkou qeteneuoctu. 0pasy
anououaneuo-sonesyk xapartepuctury nu+uoctu, ouu orocpeqosauuo, +epes pasnu+uMe ncuxuvec|ue cocmo++u+,
snukt ua artusuocte nu+uoctu s qoctueuuu eneu rpu sMronueuuu pasnu+uMx suqos rpoeccuouaneuou
qeteneuoctu.
Cospeneuua rcuxonoru rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa* rpeqnaraet rposoqute oeury rpoeccuouaneuMx
crocouocteu, s ton +ucne crocouocteu pyrosoquten ro tpen coctasnkaun: oaue, creuaneuMe u
rpartu+ecrue. 8 +actuoctu, rpunepon oaux crocouocteu pyrosoquten snetc uutennert rar otuocuteneuo
yctou+usa ctpyrtypa ynctseuuoro passutu. Cneqyet roq+epruyte, +to creuaneuMe u rpartu+ecrue crocouoctu
sasuct ot xapartepa u ctaa paotM cootsetctseuuo.
* /rpasneuue +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu: rcuxonoru+ecrue rponenM. V., 1997.

onuno orMta u crocouocteu, sMqenktc, rar otne+anoce sMae, denoeee u nuv+ocm+ee |avecmea
pyrosoquten, rotopMe oecre+usakt aertusuyk paoty sosrnasnenou un oprauusauu. K ux +ucny rpuuto
otuocute tarue ra+ectsa, rar qonuuautuocte, ysepeuuocte s cee, anououaneua ypasuoseaeuuocte
(ctpeccoyctou+usocte), rpeatusuocte, rpeqrpuun+usocte (s ton +ucne uosatopctso), nu+ua otsetctseuuocte
(uaqeuocte), oauteneuocte (ronnyuuratusuocte) u qp.

9.3. Heoqs iyueu nuuoc pykosoqen

0eura csoucts nu+uoctu ueoxoquna qn rporuosuposauu uuqusuqyaneuoro u rpyrrosoro roseqeuu,
rpasuneuou pacctauosru raqpos, roqopa pyrosoquteneu. 8 arcrepuneutaneuou repcouonoruu usy+euue nu+uoctu
rpeqctasnet coou cosoryruocte rpuenos usnepeuu nu+uoctuMx xapartepuctur. lecnotp ua to, +to +aae scero
sMop tex unu uuMx rpuenos orasMsaetc sasucunMn ot rpuutoro qauuMn uccneqosatenen orpeqeneuu
nu+uoctu, cyaectsyet sronue uay+uoe rpeqctasneuue o ton, rar u rarunu netoqanu nouo usy+ate nu+uoctuMe
ocoeuuoctu +enosera. Ectectseuuo, +to auanoru+uMe netoqM u rpuenM rpuneuktc qn usy+euu nu+uoctu
pyrosoquten.
lansde+ue ato usy+euue nu+uoctu s ycnosux ectectseuuou u rpusM+uou qn uero qeteneuoctu: urposou,
y+euou, rpoussoqctseuuou. lankqeuue rpusoqut r uarorneuuk artos, ua ocuose rotopMx nouo cqenate
sarnk+euue o rpoeccuouaneuou rpuroquoctu pyrosoquten, ycreauoctu ycsoeuu un rpoeccuouaneuMx suauuu u
uasMros, crocouocteu r peaeuuk rourpetuMx rpoussoqctseuuMx u yrpasneu+ecrux saqa+. yten uankqeuu
nouo rony+ute qauuMe o ocoeuuoctx rantu u suunauu, socrputu u nManeuu, o turonoru+ecrux csouctsax
tenrepaneuta, +eptax xapartepa u t.r.
5eceda ocyaectsnetc s ycnosux uuqusuqyaneuoro unu rpyrrosoro usy+euu coecequuros. +toM eceqa
Mna rpoqyrtusuou, ueoxoquno sapauee taateneuo rpoqynate ee tenatury, copnynuposate sorpocM u
pyrosoqute te+euuen eceqM qo rony+euu orpeqeneuuoro pesynetata. |uorqa eceqy nouo saneuute
a+|emupoea+uev, rorqa sorpocM u otsetM roctyrakt s ruceneuuou opne.
C ronoaek a+anusa pes,nemamoe de+mene+ocmu (ot+etos, peepatos, pauouanusatopcrux u qenosMx
rpeqnoeuuu, crouctpyuposauuMx rnauos u noqeneu, rpuutMx peaeuuu) nouo orpeqenute notusauk xapartepa,
crocouocte r teopetu+ecrou, rpartu+ecrou u yrpasneu+ecrou qeteneuoctu pyrosoquteneu.
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cuxonocuvec|oe mecmupoea+ue ato creuaneuo paspaotauuMe saqa+u (rpoM) qn orpeqeneuu pasnu+uMx
csoucts uuqusuqa. TectM qorycrakt ucronesosauue natenatu+ecrou ctatucturu, roatony qakt onee to+uMe
qauuMe, +en uankqeuu u eceqM, rpunuace s aton rnaue r arcrepuneuty.
n eneu uccneqosauu nu+uoctu noryt ucronesosatec tpu ocuosuMx suqa tectos:.
coctseuuo nu+uoctuMe, rpuneuenMe qn usnepeuu uuqusuqyaneuMx csoucts +enosera. 6anneua oeura
qauuou nu+uoctuou xapartepucturu ocuosMsaetc ue ua equuctseuuon otsete, a ua cosoryruoctu otsetos, rotopMe
snecte opasykt arany, rpequasua+euuyk qn usnepeuu paccnatpusaenoro csouctsa. Dnpoc+u| noet usnepte
rar oquy, tar u uecronero nu+uoctuMx ra+ects (uarpunep auporo ussectuMe tectM Auseura ro orpeqeneuuk
tenrepaneuta u canooeure rcuxu+ecrux coctouuu, tect Ketenna 0coeuuoctu xapartepa, tect Lnuaera
Areutyau xapartepa);
uutennertyaneuMe, rpuneuenMe qn orpeqeneuu yposu ynctseuuoro passutu u ero cootsetctsu sospacty
+enosera (uarpunep tectM 6uue, 8ercnepa, LT/P u qp.);
rpoeccuouaneuMe, rpuneuenMe qn rpoeccuouaneuoro otopa nkqeu, usy+euu notusauu u rpuroquoctu r
orpeqeneuuMn suqan qeteneuoctu (uarpunep rpoeccuouaneuMu orpocuur urrnaua, tect 0 Knunosa).
/creauocte rpoterauu yrpasneu+ecroro rpoecca, uactpoeuue nkqeu s oprauusauu, otuoaeuu neqy
cotpyquuranu sasuct ot nuoectsa artopos: uerocpeqctseuuMx ycnosuu paotM, rpoeccuouaneuMx ra+ects
raqposMx paotuuros, yposu yrpasneu+ecroro coctasa u qp. | oquy us repsMx poneu s pqy atux artopos urpaet
nuv+ocme p,|oeodumen+. u+uocte pyrosoquten, ero orMt, qenosMe u xaparteponoru+ecrue ocoeuuoctu urpakt
seqyayk pone s yrpasneuuu oprauusaunu.
8uauue rcuxonoru+ecrux ocoeuuocteu nu+uoctu u yneuue y+utMsate ux rpu roqope raqpos, a s ocoeuuoctu
pyrosoqaux, snetc oquun us ocuosuMx ycnosuu sMcorou aertusuoctu qeteneuoctu oprauusauu scex
yposueu. n atux eneu +aae scero ucronesyktc tarue netoqM, rar uankqeuue, auretuposauue u nu+uoctuoe
tectuposauue. Konuuau qauuMx rpuenos, roctpoeuua rpuneuuteneuo r saqa+an rourpetuou oprauusauu,
coctasnet s csoeu cosoryruoctu ncuxonocuvec|,s mex+onocus us,ve+u+ nuv+ocmu p,|oeodumen+ e eco
npoeccuo+ane+ou de+mene+ocmu.
8 paotax, rocsaeuuMx usy+euuk nu+uoctu pyrosoquten, otne+aetc, +to uenes rosopute o ra+ectsax
nu+uoctu pyrosoquten sooae, t.e. s otpMse ot rourpetuoro coqepauu ero qeteneuoctu u corytctsykaux eu
artopos. |nekauec qauuMe csuqetenectsykt o ton, +to uerotopMe ra+ectsa, sctpe+akauec rpu auanuse
qeteneuoctu pyrosoquteneu rpoussoqctsa, otcytctsykt s xapartepucturax pyrosoquteneu uay+uMx ronnertusos, u
uaoopot. 8necte c ten nouo sMqenute oaue tpeosauu r nu+uoctu pyrosoquten co ctopouM ero
rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu.
1. Couaneua uarpasneuuocte. Pyrosoqutene rar ouuaneuoe nuo qoneu xopoao suate sarouoqateneuMe u
uopnatusuMe artM, perynupykaue qeteneuocte ssepeuuoro eny ronnertusa. 0u qoneu suate u rouunate
ocuosuMe euoneuM u artopM, orpeqenkaue saueuaue cepM usuu rocyqapctsa, tarue, rar ronutura,
arouonura, rpaso u t.q.
2. PassutMe oprauusatopcrue crocouoctu. 0quo us ocuosuMx ra+ects pyrosoquten yneuue oprauusosate
cosnectuyk paoty nkqeu. 0qua us ocuosuMx saqa+ yrpasneuu cosqate ycnosu qn rposneuu artusuoctu,
uuuuatusM, tsop+ectsa nkqeu, passutu ux artusuou notusauu. 8 pqe uccneqosauuu rorasauo, +to tpeosauu r
oprauusatopcrun crocouoctn srnk+akt s ce tpeosauu r cneqykaun rcuxonoru+ecrun csouctsan nu+uoctu:
crocouocte otpaate c qoctato+uou ronuotou rcuxonoruk yrpasnenou rpyrrM s xoqe peaeuu cosnectuMx saqa+;
rpartu+ecra uarpasneuuocte yna osnaqeuue suauunu u yneuunu s onactu rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu,
rotosuocte rpuneuute ux s rpoecce peaeuu oprauusatopcrux saqa+; rcuxonoru+ecruu tart uanu+ue +ysctsa nepM
so ssaunootuoaeuux c nkqenu; tpeosateneuocte crocouocte rpeqsnte r nkqn aqersatuMe tpeosauu s
sasucunoctu ot ocoeuuocteu cutyauu; rputu+uocte crocouocte ouapyute u sMpasute sua+unMe qn qauuou
qeteneuoctu otrnoueuu ot ycnosuu, qurtyenMx roctasneuuou saqa+eu; crnouuocte r oprauusatopcrou
qeteneuoctu rotpeuocte s ueu u cteuu+uocte rpu ee sMronueuuu.
3. 8Mcora ronreteutuocte s orpeqeneuuou rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu s cootsetctsuu c rpounen
pyrosoqunoro ronnertusa, tar rar pyrosoqutene ue sooae yrpasnet nkqenu, a yrpasnet ux qeteneuoctek qn
peaeuu orpeqeneuuoro rpyra rpoeccuouaneuMx saqa+. 0quaro s cuny csoeu paotM, cssauuou c oprauusaueu
nkqeu, pyrosoqutene qoneu snaqete cuctenou suauuu u s cneuMx onactx (reqarorure, rcuxonoruu, norure,
ature), torqa ou cnoet +etro orpeqente enu qeteneuoctu, ynete ux oocuosate u yequte, a uuorqa u sactasute
nkqeu sepute s ueoxoqunocte ux qoctueuu.
4. 0rMt. 3ertusuocte yrpasneu+ecrou qeteneuoctu pyrosoquten uaxoqutc s rpnou sasucunoctu ot ero
orMta. 0quaro rpu aton ueoxoquno otnetute, +to oquuarosMu cta paotM y pasuMx pyrosoquteneu ue osua+aet
oquuarosoro yposu ux rpoeccuouaneuoro nactepctsa. auuoe routue coctout us tpex ssaunocssauuMx
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aneneutos: yrpasneu+ecrux suauuu, yneuuu u uasMros. /rpasneu+ecrue suauu sarnaqMsakt s rpoecce
opasosauu (s oneauuctse cny+aes, roue+uo, sMcaero). /rpasneu+ecrue yneuu rpeqctasnkt coou rpuneueuue
atux suauuu ua rparture. 3tu yneuu pyrosoquten sasuct rar ot oertusuou ctpyrtypM ero qeteneuoctu, tar u ot
ero oaux crocouocteu. K uun nouo otuectu yneuue uautu roqxoq r +enosery (oauu sMr), yneuue cnyaate,
rposoqute coseaauu. Cootsetctseuuo crasauuony sMae, rpu usy+euuu nu+uoctu pyrosoquten oneaoe sua+euue
unekt yronuytMe pauee ctpyrtypuMe rapanetpM nu+uoctu, tarue, rar crocouoctu, tenrepaneut, xapartep, son,
anouu u +ysctsa, uarpasneuuocte.
8saunootuoaeuu roq+uueuuMx c pyrosoqutenen, rcuxonoru+ecruu rnunat ronnertusa, pesynetatM ero paotM,
rar nM ye yronuuanu, sasuct tare ot cmun+ p,|oeodcmea u ,npaene+u+, peanusyenoro pyrosoqutenen. 8 cssu c
atun cyaectsyet creuaneuMu roqxoq r oeure aertusuoctu pyrosoquten, rotopMu ocuosau ua taron routuu,
rar ctune pyrosoqctsa (yrpasneuu). Ctune pyrosoqctsa (yrpasneuu) ato rpusM+ua nauepa roseqeuu
pyrosoquten ro otuoaeuuk r roq+uueuuMn, +toM orasate ua uux snuuue u royqute r qoctueuuk eneu
oprauusauu*. 0mune p,|oeodcmea orpeqenetc ctereuek qeneruposauu pyrosoqutenen csoux ronuono+uu
(pacrpeqeneuuen ronuono+uu neqy pyrosoqutenen u roq+uueuuMn); ctereuek y+actu roq+uueuuMx s rpuutuu
peaeuuu; turanu snactu, rotopMe ucronesyet pyrosoqutene.
* partu+ecra rcuxonoru qn neueqepos. V., 1997.

8 cootsetctsuu c rouerueu Kypta esuua s rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu sMqenktc astoputapuMu
(astorpatu+ecruu), qenorpatu+ecruu u nuepaneuMu ctunu pyrosoqctsa.
n aemopumap+oco cmun+ pyrosoqctsa xapartepuM eutpanusau, roueutpau snactu s pyrax oquoro
pyrosoquten. 0u equuonu+uo rpuuunaet peaeuu, ectro orpeqenet sck qeteneuocte roq+uueuuMx, ue qasa
un sosnouoctu rposute uuuuatusy. oq+uueuuMe qonuM ucronute tonero to, +to rpurasauo, rpu aton ouu
rony+akt nuuunyn ueoxoqunou uuopnauu. Pyrosoqctso roqneuetc ronauqosauuen. eteneuocte
roq+uueuuMx ectro routponupyetc. 0cuosuMe ucronesyenMe turM snactu: snacte, ocuosauua ua rpuuyqeuuu, u
tpaquuouua snacte.
pu devo|pamuvec|ov cmune pyrosoqctsa snacte qeeutpanusosaua. 3tot ctune ctpoutc ua qsouuou ocuose:
denoeoco u nuv+oco aemopumema. Pyrosoqutene roucynetupyetc c roq+uueuuMnu s rpoecce sMpaotru peaeuu,
xot rpaso orou+ateneuoro sMopa octasnet sa coou. oq+uueuuMe rony+akt qoctato+uo uuopnauu, +toM
unete rpeqctasneuue o repcrertusax paotM. |uuuatusa sc+ecru ctunynupyetc. Pyrosoqutene qenerupyet +acte
csoux ronuono+uu. 8 qauuon cny+ae noryt Mte ucronesosauM nkMe turM snactu, uo rpeunyaectseuuo
rpuneuetc snacte, ocuosauua ua rooapeuuu unu ua rpunepe. Tarou ctune Msaet ortunaneu s uerotopMx suqax
rpoussoqctsa, yrpasneuuu y+euMnu saseqeuunu, tsop+ecrunu ronnertusanu, ropoqa onee ternMu
rcuxonoru+ecruu rnunat s ronnertuse.
uepane+eu cmune pyrosoqctsa ctpoutc ua ronuon qosepuu r ucronuutenn. Pyrosoqutene-nuepan
qorycraet ronuyk csooqy qeuctsuu csoux roq+uueuuMx s rpeqenax ux yuruouaneuMx osauuocteu, snactuMe
ronuono+u ucronesyktc nuuunaneuo. Tarou ctune qoryctun s tsop+ecrux ronnertusax, tar rar qucurnuua
roqqepusaetc sa c+et cosuateneuoctu u canooprauusauu cotpyquuros, euaux pyrosoquten rar nuqepa
reuepatopa uqeu. 0quaro atot ctune yrpasneuu noet Mte ueaertusuMn s cnouMx arctpenaneuMx
cutyaux.
la rparture sctpe+aktc u uuMe opnM ssaunoqeuctsu pyrosoquten u roq+uueuuMx, uo ouu ocuosauM ua
paccnotpeuuMx tpex ctunx yrpasneuu. Kar u sMop tura snactu, ctune yrpasneuu sasucut ot rourpetuou
cutyauu, rorqa pyrosoqutene qoneu rpuneute pasnu+uMe ctunu pyrosoqctsa. Tar, s oM+uMx ycnosux uauonee
aertusuMn orasMsaetc qenorpatu+ecroe pyrosoqctso. 8 cnouou rputu+ecrou cutyauu enecoopasuee
ucronesosate aneneutM astoputapuoro ctun.
poseqeuuMu sMae auanus yuqaneutaneuMx rponen yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu ronnertusanu rponen
nuqepctsa u pyrosoqctsa rossonet otnetute cneqykaee: peaneuoe snuuue pyrosoquten ua qeteneuocte
ronnertusa ocuosMsaetc ue tonero ua ero ouuaneuMx ronuono+ux, uo u ua nu+uon astoputete, t.e. uneet qse
coctasnkaue opvane+oco p,|oeodumen+ u +eopvane+oco nudepa. 0rtunaneuMn snetc tur pyrosoquten
c sMcorun ouuaneuMn, rpoeccuouaneuMn u nu+uMn ctatycon. Pasnu+u neqy pyrosoqutenen u nuqepon
cssauM c ten, +to s nkou oprauusauouuou ctpyrtype unektc qsa tura otuoaeuuu neqy nkqenu: opnaneuMe
u ueopnaneuMe. uqepon uurorqa uenes ctate, ecnu +neuM rpyrrM ue socrpuuunakt rourpetuoe nuo rar nuqepa.
Pyrosoqutene e oM+uo uasua+aetc yrason csepxy. Pyrosoqctso u nuqepctso snktc crocoanu oprauusauu u
yrpasneuu qeteneuoctek nkqeu s tpyqoson ronnertuse, tonero s oquon cny+ae ato sosnouo s cuny
qonuoctuMx ronuono+uu, a s qpyron naroqap ueouuaneuMn nenu+uoctuMn otuoaeuun.
8auMn csouctson p,|oeodumen+-nudepa snetc yneuue Mte yrpasnkaun, ue auaupy atoro. lenanyk
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pone qn peaeuu atoro sorpoca urpaet sasoesauuMu aemopumem, naroqap rotopony pyrosoqutene tare
ctauosutc nuqepon rpyrrM, a ero rpurasauu sMronuktc s cuny sepM s ero ronreteutuocte, tanautnusocte.
8Mqenkt tpu opnM astoputeta: opnaneuMu astoputet, nopaneuMu astoputet u yuruouaneuMu astoputet.
1opvane+eu aemopumem opnupyetc us uaopa snactuMx ronuono+uu u rpas, rotopMe qaet pyrosoqutenk
sauunaenMu roct. Can ro cee tarou astoputet ue noet oecre+ute sMcoryk ctereue snuuu pyrosoquten ua
csoux roq+uueuuMx. Vopane+eu aemopumem sasucut ot upasctseuuMx ra+ects pyrosoquten. 1,+|(uo+ane+eu
aemopumem orpeqenetc ronreteutuoctek pyrosoquten, ero qenosMnu ra+ectsanu, otuoaeuuen r csoeu
rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu.
oru+uo, +to pyrosoqutene, ronesykauuc astoputeton, pacronaraet r cee nkqeu, ronouteneuo snuet ua
uux. K peaeuun astoputetuoro u ueastoputetuoro pyrosoquten roq+uueuuMe otuoctc ro-pasuony. 8 repson
cny+ae yrasauu sMronuktc es qoronuuteneuoro aqnuuuctpatusuoro uauna, so stopon cny+ae pacropeuu
sMsMsakt cnouMe suytpeuuue repeusauu u rpotusope+u. 1opnuposauue astoputeta sasucut u ot
roq+uueuuMx. 0uu roqqepusakt qeuctsu pyrosoquten, rpusuauuoro unu nuqepon u astoputeton. Vouo crasate,
+to astoputet nuqepa-pyrosoquten snetc qeuctseuuMn artopon rosMaeuu aertusuoctu pyrosoqctsa.

9.4. cxonoruecka oeuka pykosoqen. 06op noq6op pykosoqene

Kar ussectuo, qn aertusuoro pyrosoqctsa ueoxoqunM opasosauue, rpoeccuouanusn, nu+ua rynetypa u
atura, a tare uanu+ue oprauusatopcrux crocouocteu.
8 rcuxonoruu yrpasneuu sa rocnequue roqM uarorneu orpeqeneuuMu orMt roqopa u oeuru raqpos, s ton
+ucne pyrosoquteneu. 8auocte rposeqeuu tarou paotM o+esuqua, xot sa+actyk rpeqrputu uruopupykt
rpeqnoeuuMe un netoquru otopa. 0cuosuou yurueu roqopa u pacctauosru pyrosoquteneu snetc
yctauosneuue arta rpuroquoctu toro unu uuoro +enosera r orpeqeneuuou couaneuou ponu pyrosoquten.
0quun us eutpaneuMx sorpocos co(uane+o-ncuxonocuvec|ou o(e+|u nu+uoctu yqyaux pyrosoquteneu ro rpasy
c+utaetc sorpoc o ton, +to oeuusate. Tpaquuouuo oeura rauquqatos ua qonuocte ocyaectsnetc ua ocuose
cosda+u+ vodenu nuv+ocmu rar uerotopou cosoryruoctu rpoeccuouaneuo-qenosMx u nu+uoctuMx ra+ects, uanu+ue
rotopMx c+utaetc ueoxoqunMn qn pyrosoquten, sauunakaero qauuyk qonuocte. poeqypa oeuru
rpeqronaraet coroctasneuue nu+uoctuMx repeneuuMx, opasykaux csoeopasuyk uqeaneuyk noqene, c
nu+uoctuMnu repeneuuMnu, unekaunu uerocpeqctseuuoe otuoaeuue r oeuusaenony. Ctereue ux cosraqeuu
rossonet yctauosute cootsetctsue paotuura sauunaenou qonuoctu. Teopetu+ecrun ocuosauuen qauuoro
roqxoqa cnyut rpeqronoeuue o uanu+uu cssu neqy nu+uoctuMnu ocoeuuoctnu ucronuuten u ctereuek
ycreauoctu peanusauu un rpoeccuouaneuou ponu.
Vemode nodopa p,|oeod+(ux |adpoe noryt Mte ocuosauM rar ua rcuxonoru+ecrou, tar u ua uuou ocuose. 8
cssu c atun cyaectsykt tpu rpyrrM netoqos: npoc+ocmuvec|uu, srnk+akauu s ce ucronesosauue auretuMx
qauuMx, ruceneuuMx u yctuMx xapartepuctur, nu+uMx eceq, rcuxonoru+ecrux tectos; npa|muvec|uu vemod,
ocuosauuMu ua oeure pesynetatos rpartu+ecrou qeteneuoctu; uvuma(uo++eu vemod, rorqa ucrMtyenony
rpeqnaraetc peaate rourpetuyk cutyauk. 8 ra+ectse rpunepa sosenen rporuoctu+ecruu netoq qn rposepru
cootsetctsu pyrosoquteneu sauunaenou qonuoctu.
Paccnotpun rocneqosateneuo rpoecc rcuxonoru+ecroro otopa pyrosoquteneu ua qonuocte. 0u srnk+aet s
ce:
rpeqsaputeneuMu otop opueutau s rpeqMqyaen orMte rpeteuqeuta (auanus uorpau+ecrux, auretuMx
qauuMx);
rcuxonoru+ecroe tectuposauue;
usy+euue nu+uoctuMx ocoeuuocteu rauquqatos c ronoaek uutepsek u rpyrrosou oeuru;
unutauouuoe noqenuposauue (urposa cutyau);
uuctutyt ucrMtateneuoro cpora.
la atare npedeapumene+oco omopa oprauusauu auporo ucronesykt crertp uorpau+ecrux netoqos, rpu
uuteprpetauu pesynetatos rotopMx rpuneuktc rpucyaue rourpetuou oprauusauu rputepuu. Auanus
uorpau+ecrux qauuMx rposoqutc c oropou ua ocuosoronarakaue euuoctu oprauusauu, rotopMe noryt Mte
saurcuposauM s ouuaneuMx qoryneutax upnM, nuo cyaectsosate s suqe uerucauMx sarouos u sntec
csoero poqa tpaquueu. lauoneauu areut rpu taron auanuse qenaetc ua sospact, ron u opasosauue. 8anetun,
+to sospactuou rputepuu ectro snuet ua rpuutue peaeuu uneuuo ua atare rpeqsaputeneuoro otopa.
|cronesosauue uocpauvec|ux vemodoe s xoqe rpeqsaputeneuoro otopa uneet u pq orpauu+euuu:
roctouuoe usneueuue orpyeuu tpeyet repuoqu+ecroro usneueuu uorpau+ecrux rputepues;
ecnu oprauusau opueutupyetc ua oneaoe +ucno uorpau+ecrux rputepues, to pyrosoqutenu ro ctunk
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pyrosoqctsa yqyt o+eue roxou qpyr ua qpyra. oatony s cny+ae paquraneuMx usneueuuu s oprauusauu rpuqetc
saneuute rpartu+ecru scex pyrosoquteneu;
rposepra roqnuuuoctu uorpau+ecrux qauuMx tpeyet sua+uteneuoro speneuu.
Cpequ qoronuuteneuMx neporputuu, rposoqunMx s xoqe rpeqsaputeneuoro otopa, cyaectseuua pone
otsoqutc a+anus, pe|ove+da(uu u ceudemenecme, rotopMe rpeqctasnet rauquqat. 3tot netoq qaet sosnouocte
rony+ute rpeqctasneuue o rpoeccuouaneuon rpoanon rauquqata, ero ctereuu ussectuoctu, astoputete.
Auanus rpoanoro orMta rpeteuqeuta ctauosutc sosnouMn s cny+ae rpuneueuu netoqa
uecuctenatusuposauuoro tectuposauu. 8 xoqe netoqa rauquqaty rpeqsnetc ooaeuuoe orucauue
tpeosauuu yqyaeu qeteneuoctu, a ou qoneu orucate rourpetuMe coMtu us csoeu usuu, csuqetenectsykaue,
c ero to+ru speuu, o ero rotosuoctu r aertusuony sMronueuuk atou qeteneuoctu. lecnotp ua to +to netoq
ocuosMsaetc ua canooeure csoux rpoanMx qoctueuuu, ato ue yneueaaet ero aertusuocte.
|cronesosauue s rpoeccuouaneuon otope ua qonuocte ncuxoduac+ocmuvec|ou u+opva(uu, rony+aenou rpu
ronoau tectos, repeuno rar repuoq naccosoro rpuneueuu, tar u repuoq rputuru (cn. sMae). 8 uactoaee spen
nuorue oprauusauu cuctenatu+ecru ucronesykt ncuxonocuvec|oe mecmupoea+ue dn+ nodopa p,|oeod+(ux
|adpoe. 0quaro uenes crasate, +to tectosMe rcuxoquaruoctu+ecrue rpoeqypM s rpoeccuouaneuon otope
pyrosoquteneu yuuuuposauM s qoctato+uou ctereuu. TectosMe atapeu cosqaktc ucxoq us rouertyaneuMx
rpeqro+teuuu oprauusatopos otopa. 8 te+euue rpoqonuteneuoro speneuu octaetc secena rorynpuMn
rcuxoquaruoctu+ecruu ronrnerc, rpequasua+euuMu qn orpeqeneuu crocouoctu r yrpasneuuk nkqenu, rotopMu
srnk+aet s ce uccneqosauue u+menne|m,ane+oco, |ovv,+u|amue+oco u eoneeoco nome+(uanoe nuv+ocmu.
8 ra+ectse rpunepa rpartu+ecroro sornoaeuu taroro roqxoqa nouo rpusectu ucronesosauuMu l. Kyqpaosou
netoq oeuru nuv+ocm+ex, denoeex u npoeccuo+ane+ex |avecme qn rcuxoquaruocturu crocouoctu r
yrpasneu+ecrou qeteneuoctu.
1. uv+ocm+ee |avecmea: a) crocouocte +ytro otuocutec r roq+uueuuMn, yneuue uautu uuqusuqyaneuMu
roqxoq r raqony; ) tartu+ua tpeosateneuocte; s) yneuue cosqate crorouuyk qpyectseuuyk octauosry s
ronnertuse, roqqepusate cosuateneuyk qucurnuuy s ronnertuse; r) crocouocte sapaate aueprueu u
nounusosate roq+uueuuMx cnoson u nu+uMn rpunepon; q) yneuue sMpaate csou nMcnu +etro u qoctyruo; e)
yneuue ctasute oaectseuuMe uutepecM sMae nu+uMx; ) anououaneua cqepauuocte; s) nopaneua
yctou+usocte, +ectuocte u rpuuuruaneuocte; u) crocouocte oertusuo oeuusate nkqeu, rpasuneuo
socrpuuunate rputury; r) +ysctso knopa.
2. enoeee |avecmea: a) ctpenneuue cosetosatec c roq+uueuuMnu rpu peaeuuu sauMx qn ronnertusa
sorpocos; ) crocouocte orepatusuo rpuuunate rpasuneuMe peaeuu, Mctpo repernk+ate suunauue c oquoro
oerta ua qpyrou; s) yneuue pacrpeqente saqauu s cootsetctsuu c sosnouoctnu ucronuuteneu; r) enauue
rpeqoctasute roq+uueuuMn csooqy tsop+ectsa u arcrepuneuta; q) yneuue routponuposate roq+uueuuMx; e)
crocouocte qeuctsosate c uerotopMn pucron, ue ouqa yrasauuu csMae.
3. poeccuo+ane+ee |avecmea: a) rpoeccuouaneuMe suauu, yneuu, uasMru; ) suauu, cssauuMe c
oprauusaueu texuonoruu; s) ctpenneuue rosMaate csok rsanuurauk, uasMru canoopasosauu; r) yneuue
aertusuo ronesosatec uuopnaueu.
Pes,nemame npedeapumene+oco omopa u ncuxonocuvec|oco mecmupoea+u+ usy+aktc creuanuctanu
raqposMx cny. poecc otopa noet orpauu+usatec atun ataron nuo corposoqatec rocneqykaun
u+mepees u/unu mex+u|ou cp,nnoeou o(e+|u.
n+mepees oprauusyetc ua ocuose auretuMx qauuMx, peroneuqauu u pesynetatos rcuxonoru+ecroro
tectuposauu. K rponenuMn sorpocan s ucronesosauuu uutepsek otuocutc sasucunocte pesynetatos uutepsek ot
xapartepuctur uutepsekepa, ot crocoos, rotopMnu ou ronesyetc rpu opaotre uuopnauu, u ot cyertusuMx
rputepues rpuutu peaeuu.
Vemod cp,nnoeou o(e+|u s ocuosuon ucronesyetc sa pyeon u qn uac rora ue uneet ocooro sua+euu
(ucrnk+euue coctasnet rpeqnoeuuMu K.K. natouosMn netoq ooaeuu uesasucunMx xapartepuctur nu+uoctu
V0lX).
nvuma(uo++eu vemod rpeqronaraet rpuneueuue raroro-nuo sapuauta qenosou urpM unu tpeuuura.
Creuu+ecrun sapuauton uvuma(uo++oco vemoda snetc uuctutyt ucrMtateneuoro cpora. 0u srnk+aet s ce
neporputu qn ysenu+euu sepotuoctu rpasuneuoro sMopa pyrosoquten.
Tarun opason, pasuoopasue rourpetuMx netoqos oecre+usaet rpuuuruaneuyk sosnouocte cosqauu
texuonoru+ecru u rcuxonoru+ecru oocuosauuMx rpoeqyp otopa pyrosoquteneu, rotopMe csoqt pucr oauo+uoro
peaeuu r nuuunyny, rossonkt roctpoute rpanotuMu rcuxonoru+ecruu roptpet pyrosoquten u rpuneuute atot
roptpet s peaeuuu saqa+ oeuru, otopa u roqopa pyrosoquten.
8 enon e raqMu pyrosoqutene can ctpenutc r rosMaeuuk aertusuoctu csoeu yrpasneu+ecrou
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qeteneuoctu u yrperneuuk astoputeta. oatony ou sauutepecosau s tarou uuopnauu, rotopa qana M
sosnouocte ysuate csou nu+uoctuMe ocoeuuoctu s cpasueuuu c qpyrunu, onee aertusuo ucronesosate csou
ronouteneuMe u ueutpanusosate otpuateneuMe ra+ectsa.
8necte c ten pyrosoqutenu secena ueoxotuo uqyt ua tectuposauue, rcuxonoru+ecra quaruoctura qn nuorux us
uux sneuue ueusseqauuoe u roatony sMsMsakaee ecrorouctso u ueysepeuuocte s cee. Pyrosoqutene rotos
roqsepratec nkMn ucrMtauun, racakaunc ero qenosMx ra+ects, uo ue rotos pacrpMte csou nu+uoctuMe
ocoeuuoctu. 0u oracaetc, +to ata uuopnau ctauet ussectua roq+uueuuMn, ue scerqa uactpoeuuMn
naroenateneuo. |neuuo roatony y uux rcuxoquaruoctura sMsMsaet suytpeuuee corpotusneuue, uecnotp ua
artyaneuyk rotpeuocte unete oertusuyk uuopnauk o cee.
Paspeaute ato rpotusope+ue rossonet cavoo(e+|a p,|oeodumen+. Canooeura, snce ucto+uuron
rputu+ecrou uuopnauu, orasMsaet snuuue ua canocosuauue pyrosoquten, crococtsyet artususauu
canosocrutauu u canopassutu, rossonet onee eneuarpasneuuo roppertuposate csou ra+ectsa. |neuuo
canooeura rossonet usasutec ot +ysctsa ueussectuoctu u roctereuuo rpeoqonete rcuxonoru+ecruu apeep ro
otuoaeuuk r tectan. 0quaro netoqura canooeuru noet Mte ucronesosaua nuae qn roctpoeuu
rpeqsaputeneuMx sMsoqos o ra+ectse pyrosoqctsa u rpuroquoctu r pyrosoqaeu qeteneuoctu u qonua Mte
qoronueua uankqeuunu sa qeteneuoctek u creuaneuMn tectuposauuen peaneuMx pyrosoquteneu.
+acto s rpartu+ecrou qeteneuoctu pyrosoquteneu sosuurakt cnouMe sorpocM u tpyquMe noneutM. 8 xoqe
oquoro uccneqosauu Mn rposeqeu orpoc pyrosoquteneu, +toM sMcuute, ueoxoquno nu un rcuxonoru+ecroe
roucynetuposauue: 30% otsetunu otpuateneuo, 70% ronouteneuo. pu aton ueoxoquna rcuxonoru+ecra
ronoae noet Mte secena pasuoopasuou u noet Mte rar uuqusuqyaneuou, tar u rpyrrosou.
n+dueud,ane+a+ ncuxonocuvec|a+ novo(e oM+uo ocyaectsnetc rcuxonoron ryten rpuneueuu
uuqusuqyaneuou eceqM, roucynetauu. pu aton uaqo ot+etnuso rouunate, +to opaaeuue r creuanucty ue
cnyut rpusuaron raroro-to rcuxu+ecroro saonesauu, xot sa+actyk taroe roucynetuposauue ueoxoquno s
ctpeccosMx cutyaux. |uqusuqyaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecroe roucynetuposauue rposoqutc rpeqe scero c enek
rono+e nu+uoctu pasopatec c coctseuuMnu rponenanu u tpyquoctnu. 8aqa+a rcuxonora sarnk+aetc, ro cytu,
s ctunynuposauuu u roqqepre +enosera.
leoxoqunMnu ycnosunu rcuxonoru+ecroro roucynetuposauu snktc qoposoneuoe cornacue ua rony+euue
roucynetauu, a tare qosepue roucynetupyenoro, ero artusuocte u tsop+ecroe, uccneqosatenecroe otuoaeuue r
coctseuuMn rponenan. puuunate unu ue rpuuunate orasMsaenyk ronoae scerqa octaetc qenon
roucynetupyenoro,
lp,nnoea+ ncuxonocuvec|a+ novo(e sarnk+aetc s y+actuu s rpyrrosMx tpeuuurosMx rpoeqypax. 8nuuue
rpyrrM ua +enosera +pessM+auuo senuro, roatony s xoqe taroro rcuxonoru+ecroro roucynetuposauu +neuM rpyrrM
rony+akt ue tonero uuopnauk u opatuyk csse, uo tare roqqepry ot nkqeu, unekaux cxoquMe rponenM u
repeusauu.
oqsoq utor ocyqeuuk, nouo ytsepqate, +to qn aertusuoro yrpasneuu uyuo Mte ue tonero
pyrosoqutenen, uo u nuqepon oquospeneuuo. Ctate nuqepon +enosery rossonkt tarue +eptM nu+uoctu, rar
ysepeuuocte s cee, octpMu yn, cuneua son, oprauusatopcrue crocouoctu. 0quaro atoro ueqoctato+uo, u ua
rparture +enoser, onaqakauu tarunu ra+ectsanu, noet u ue ctate nuqepon. oatony qeuctsuteneuMn nuqepon
ctauosutc tot, rto +eoxoduv cp,nne dn+ onmuvane+oco paspeae+u+ |pumuvec|ou (nponev+ou) cum,a(uu.
Cyaectseuuoe snuuue ua to, rar socrpuuunakt pyrosoquten roq+uueuuMe, c+utakt nu ero nuqepon,
orasMsaet cmune ,npaene+u+. pu auanuse nuqepctsa u pyrosoqctsa orasanoce, +to pyrosoqutene ue noet Mte
nuqepon, ecnu ou ue ronesyetc astoputeton s csoen ronnertuse. Pyrosoqutene qoneu uay+utec cocnacoeeeame
ceou nudepc|uu nome+(uan c npednuca++evu ev, ,+|(u+vu enacmu.

PA3E III. PAKTh+E6KAP EP60h00|hP. YPAEhhE +E0E+E6KhHh PE6YP6AHh KAK
06h0A AKThh0h 60hAbh0h 0hThKh

|nasa 10. 0cuoss aksuo coansuo nonk. Kouen ynpasneu uenoseuecku
pecypcau

10.1. +enoseueckoe iuepeue coansuo nonk

Ceroqu so scen nupe uayra u ronutu+ecra rpartura ua+uuakt rpusuasate, +to cssykaun sseuon neqy
rpupoqou u oaectson snktc ue naccM, ue rnaccM, a rourpetua nu+uocte, rotopa rpussaua orasMsate u
orasMsaet cyaectseuuoe snuuue rar ua rpupoqy, tar u ua oaectso, rar ua rocyqapctso, tar u ua ero arouonury u
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
118
ronutury. +enoser qeuctsuteneuo ctauosutc nepunon scex seaeu, sMcaeu oaectseuuou euuoctek, qsuratenen
u saueuaeu coctasnkaeu oaectseuuoro rporpecca.
octereuuo yxoqut s rpoanoe actpartuoe, ro cytu, yuruouanuctcroe rouunauue nu+uoctu, sMctyrakaeu s
ra+ectse suutura rocyqapctseuuou naauuM, csoero poqa rpusoquoro penu s ee ronutu+ecron nexauusne.
8necte c ten cospeneuuoe rouunauue sua+euu +enosera s couorpupoquou asonkuu u uMue rpousaet cee
qopory c oneaun tpyqon: peuqusM ctaporo roqxoqa r +enose+ecrou coctasnkaeu oaectseuuoro rporpecca sce
eae qakt o cee suate. 8 uaaux ycnosux taroe passutue uuqusuqyaneuoro u oaectseuuoro cosuauu ue noet
octasatec ctuxuuuMn rpoeccon.
|ccneqosauu oaectseuuoro nueuu rorasMsakt*, +to y raqoro +enosera, usyaero ceu+ac s Poccuu,
uarorunoce ctonero ouq, ueyqosnetsopeuuMx rotpeuocteu, uesoctpeosauuMx crocouocteu, rcuxonoru+ecroro
qucronopta, +to ouu noryt sMnutec, a roe-rqe ye u sMnusaktc s o+aru couaneuou uarpeuuoctu u
roupoutauu, ue crococtsy rpoqsueuuk s cosuauue nkqeu eneu u saqa+ ouosneuu Poccuu.
* Cn.: Vouutopuur oaectseuuoro nueuu: arouonu+ecrue u couaneuMe repeneuM. 8|0V, |utepeutp, AlX.

leoxoqun enMu ronrnerc rpuuuruaneuo uosMx qeuctsuu, rotopMu M rossonun pacrpMte raqony +enosery
sce oratctso ero uuqusuqyaneuoctu u uarpasute ato oratctso so naro oaectsa u ero peopnuposauu.
Cyte +enose+ecroro oaectsa coctasnkt tpu ronroueuta:
coctseuuo nkqu-uuqusuqM;
natepuaneuMe ycnosu ux usuu;
cosoryruocte otuoaeuuu neqy nkqenu.
|nu, +to to e canoe, uuqusuqyaneuoe Mtue nu+uoctu rar ocooro uuqusuqyaneuoro cyerta; cosoryruocte ee
otuoaeuuu c nuoectson oertos orpyakaero nupa (otuoaeuu cyert oert); cosoryruocte ee otuoaeuuu c
nuoectson cyertos (otuoaeuu cyert cyert, unu uutepcyertuMe otuoaeuu).
Passutue oaectsa cssauo c passutuen atux tpex ronroueutos. pu aton rpoussoqctso ycnosuu +enose+ecrou
usuu ecte arouonu+ecra qeteneuocte, s rotopou canu rpoeccM u ctpateru+ecrue nuuuu arouonu+ecroro
rpoussoqctsa orpeqenkt u, s csok o+epeqe, orpeqenktc arouonu+ecrou ronuturou oaectsa. poussoqctso
+enosera u +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu coctasnkt couaneuyk cepy oaectseuuoro rpoussoqctsa, a rpoeccM
rocyqapctseuuoro u oaectseuuoro yrpasneuu atun rpoussoqctson coctasnkt cyte couaneuou ronuturu.
Pacrpeqeneuue suunauu u pecypcos (s ton +ucne uutennertyaneuoro) s rpoussoqctse u yrpasneuuu neqy
yrasauuMnu tpen ronroueutanu, opueutau ua uay+uoe yrpasneuue unu e csooquoe te+euue couaneuMx
rpoeccos, pacrpeqeneuue couaneuMx yuruu neqy rocyqapctseuuMnu u uerocyqapctseuuMnu ctpyrtypanu, -
sce atu artopM, uapqy c qpyrunu, orpeqenkt coqepauue rouertyaneuMx coctasnkaux couaneuou ronuturu
oaectsa u rocyqapctsa. 0tuoaeuue r passutuk +enosera u srnk+euue ero s oaectseuuo sua+unMe nuuuu
cyqeM, cootuoaeuue opasosauu u sautoctu, ctpyrtypa sautoctu saqakt orpauu+euu ua texuonoruk
peanusauu couaneuou ronuturu. poqynauua u rnauonepua ronutura qonua srnk+ate s ce pauouaneuoe u
ue rpotusope+aaee rpupoqe +enosera peaeuue, ro neueaeu nepe, tpex ssaunocssauuMx rpyrr rponen:
tpaucopnau poccuucrou rocyqapctseuuoctu;
repexoq r uosMn (s ton +ucne pMuo+uMn) nexauusnan so scex couaneuo-arouonu+ecrux cepax;
ctauosneuue rpaqaucroro oaectsa, pacaupkaero u yrpernkaero couaneuyk asy peopn Poccuu.
8nuuue yrasauuMx rponen ua couaneuyk ronutury oaectsa u rocyqapctsa cssauo c roucron uay+uo
oocuosauuMx peroneuqauu:
s onactu pacrpeqeneuu couaneuMx yuruu neqy rocyqapctseuuMnu cnyanu u uerpasutenectseuuMnu
oprauusaunu;
s cepe quepeuuauu yrpasneuu u peanusauu couaneuou ronuturu neqy eutpaneuMnu u
peruouaneuMnu, s ton +ucne nyuuuraneuMnu sseuenu;
s onactu orpeqeneuu cootuoaeuuu neqy cepanu rocyqapctseuuou cnyM, uaenuoro tpyqa,
rpeqrpuuunatenectsa, penecneuuu+ectsa u couaneuMx paot;
s +actu yctauosneuu couaneuou arsusaneutuoctu pao+ux u y+euMx nect (s routercte artusuou couaneuou
ronuturu).
/crex rposeqeuu couaneuo-arouonu+ecrux u ronutu+ecrux peopn s Poccuucrou 1eqepauu terepe s
sua+uteneuou ctereuu yqet sasucete ue ctonero ot ycunuu ronuturos, cronero ot toro, yqyt nu atu ycunu
rouunatec u socrpuuunatec nkqenu rar qeno peopn, rar saqa+a roctpoeuu uosou Poccuu, u ctauyt nu ouu
nu+uMn qenon raqoro poccuuuua.
8qece sosuuraet uosa cepeesua rpartu+ecra rponena: ueoxoquno sectu roctouuyk paoty ro usneueuuk
ctpyrtypM oaectseuuou rcuxonoruu, sMpaotre uosou noqenu roseqeuu nkqeu s oaectse, rotopa rotpeyet
119
repexoqa c yposu naccosuquMx sneuuu u rpoeccos ua yposeue otuoaeuuu u ycnosuu usuu rourpetuMx
uuqusuqos. Tonero tar nouo aertusuo pacaupute +enose+ecruu, rcuxonoru+ecruu rnaqapn peopn, rpuqate
un orou+ateneuMu, ueopatunMu xapartep. | uaoopot, ryte saurpMsauu c nkqenu, s ton +ucne nuae s cepe
yqosnetsopeuu ux natepuaneuMx tpeosauuu u +ectonkusMx rpeteusuu, rar rorasMsaet nuposa
rcuxonoru+ecra uayra u couaneua rpartura, +acto qaet otpuateneuMu pesynetat.
0osua+euuoe sqece rponenuoe rone ro+tu ueuseuo rpeqronaraet repeocnMcneuue rynauuctu+ecrux ocuos
oaectseuuoro peopnuposauu. luroun opason uenes qoryctute cuueuu rpnou otsetctseuuoctu
rocyqapctsa sa couaneuyk saauty raqoro ero rpaqauuua.
pu aton sosuuraet, ro rpauueu nepe, tpu rpuuuruaneuo uosMx sosnouoctu artusuo cnr+ate
uenarorputuoe qeuctsue rponen tpaucopnauouuoro repuoqa ua +enosera:
yneueaute quarasou u croppertuposate aert qeuctsu uenarorputuMx couaneuo-arouonu+ecrux
artopos;
pacaupute quarasou aqartusuMx sosnouocteu +enosera, s +actuoctu/oy+au ero aertusuony roseqeuuk ua
csooquon pMure tpyqa;
cosqate couaneuMe nexauusnM ronorakaero qeuctsu, oecre+usakaue roqqepry +enosera s tex
octotenectsax usuu, rqe eny noet Mte tpyquo crpasutec canony, ocoeuuo ua rputu+ecrux uutepsanax
usueuuoro rytu.
n atoro, tar e rar u s cepe rnaccu+ecrou couaneuou saautM, qonuM Mte paspaotauM canu couaneuMe
nexauusnM, cosqauM cootsetctsykaue ctpyrtypM u texuonoruu, rpuutM u oecre+euM rocyqapctson nuuunaneuMe
couaneuMe ctauqaptM (uarpunep ctauqaptM nuuunaneuMx uuopnauouuMx u roucynetauouuMx ycnyr,
opasosateneuMe u rpoeccuouaneuMe ctauqaptM, rapautuposauuMe nuuunynM ronoau u roqqepru u qp.).
8 roue+uon c+ete rnasuoe ato oprauusosauuMe u oecre+euuMe (rapautuposauuMe) rocyqapctson
ncuxonocuvec|oe conpoeode+ue u noddep|a raqoro +enosera ua scen ero usueuuon rytu, u ocoeuuo ua atarax
ero ctauosneuu rar rpaqauuua u rpoeccuouana. peqe scero rotony, +to uMue s aertusuon ocyaectsneuuu
couaneuo-arouonu+ecrou ronuturu peaakayk pone ua+uuakt urpate tarue artopM, rar ctereue rcuxonoru+ecroro
ronopta nkqeu; oen sueaueu u suytpeuueu nurpauu, yposeue rcuxonoru+ecrou u couaneuou saautM
rpeqctasuteneu pasuMx cnoes uaceneuu; quuanura rpoussoqctsa u socrpoussoqctsa tpyqosoro u, roue+uo,
uutennertyaneuoro u rpoeccuouaneuoro pecypca uauu, t.e. sc cosoryruocte ra+ects +enose+ecrou
coctasnkaeu, sua+unocte rotopMx s ycnosux rnoaneuou noqepuusauu poccuucroro oaectsa tpyquo
repeoeuute.
la cospeneuuon atare passutu uaaero oaectsa, xapartepusykaenc pesrun usneueuuen couaneuMx
ycnosuu, cssauuMn c ronutu+ecrunu u arouonu+ecrunu rpeopasosauunu, y+et snuuu repe+ucneuuMx artopos
ocoeuuo artyaneu, tar rar rossonet urcuposate uuqusuqyaneuMe ocoeuuoctu tpaucopnauu euuoctuMx
opueutauu, ssrnqos u yeqeuuu. oqoua urcau qaet sosnouocte onee oocuosauuo sMsute rpu+uuM
passutu tex unu qpyrux couaneuMx rpoeccos, oeuute sosnouMe couaneuMe rocneqctsu peaeuuu,
rpuuunaenMx ua rocyqapctseuuon yposue, a tare orpeqenute u orasate artusuoe snuuue ua teuqeuuu passutu
atux rpoeccos. 8Mcora artyaneuocte repe+ucneuuoro uauonee o+esuqua rpu paccnotpeuuu rponenM tpyqosMx
pecypcos, oecre+euu arouonuru u ronuturu raqpanu ueoxoqunou rsanuurauu u t.r.
Creuura atux rponen tpeyet roppertuposru uerotopMx yuqaneutaneuMx couaneuMx roueruu,
usneueuu oaectseuuoro cosuauu. laae cosuauue uactonero rpusMrno r roctouuony yrotpeneuuk pqa
uqeonorusuposauuMx rnuae, +to scruu pas, rorqa pe+e uqet o auanuse u oeure rpyruMx oaectseuuMx
(ronutu+ecrux, arouonu+ecrux u t.r.) sneuuu unu rocyqapctseuuMx peaeuuu, orpeqenkaux passutue ctpauM, qn
+uctotM auanusa rpuxoqutc ua+uuate c repeorpeqeneuu uerotopMx routuu, sauMx qn rocneqykaero
usnoeuu. pu aton rayaac tpusuaneuocte sMterakaux us taroro repeorpeqeneuu sMcrasMsauuu, rar u
rpeqe, orasMsaetc ue onee +en o+epequou rcuxonoru+ecrou unnksueu.
0txoq ot atux rnuae rpeqronaraet repecnotp noru+ecrou ctpyrtypM u csseu asosMx routuu rynauuctu+ecrou
opueutauu, oeuru ux peaneuoro coqepauu u oena: ssaunootuoaeuuu c qpyrunu, cneuMnu routunu,
opnupykaunu onacte rynauutapuoro suauu; ssaunocssu ux c oertanu u coMtunu oertusuoro nupa
(otpaeuuen rpeqnetuou peaneuoctu s ctpyrtype routuu). pu aton ueoxoquno ot+etnuso rouunate tot art, +to
ctpyrtypa u opnuposauue rynauutapuoro u couaneuoro suauu coscen ue osateneuo cosraqakt co ctpyrtypou u
coqepauuen rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu, roctpoeuu uuqusuqyaneuou raptuuM nupa, xot, sepotuo, oaun
cneqctsuen toro u qpyroro snetc oprauusau nu+uoro orMta, orpeqenkaero sarouonepuoctu roseqeuu
+enosera.
la+uen c canoro, rasanoce M, rpoctoro rpunepa. Korqa nM rpousuocun cnosa o(ecmee++oe npouseodcmeo,
s cosuauuu uaaux corpaqau sosuuraet senuroe nuoectso canMx pasuoopasuMx orpeqeneuuu u accouauu. lo,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
120
rar rorasMsakt rposeqeuuMe uanu orpocM, cpequ uux uet canoro rnasuoro u canoro cyaectseuuoro: to+uoro u
aqersatuoro rouunauu cnMcna atoro cnosoco+etauu. lu oquu us orpoaeuuMx ue crasan uan, +to oaectseuuoe
rpoussoqctso ato npouaeodcmeo oecmea. pyrunu cnosanu, oaectseuuoe rpoussoqctso rpeqronaraet
noddepa+ue us+u onpedene++ou venoeevec|ou opca+usa(uu u npodone+ue amou us+u.
lo torqa oaectseuuoe rpoussoqctso srnk+aet s ce, rar nuuunyn:
rpoussoqctso canoro +enosera;
rpoussoqctso ycnosuu +enose+ecrou usuu;
rpoussoqctso u socrpoussoqctso +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu.
0+eue roxoe, +to uneuuo taroe rouunauue Mno cano coou pasynekaunc qn unocoos, rynauuctos u
oaectsoseqos rpeqMqyaero ctonetu. | s aton rouunauuu +enose+ecra coctasnkaa, +enose+ecroe usnepeuue
scerqa sauunanu repsoe necto, uo qn uux Mno cosepaeuuo cuo, +to es +enosera uet u ue noet Mte uuraroro
+enose+ecroro oaectsa.
8ronue ectectseuuo, +to s taron rouunauuu yuqaneutaneuMnu ctauostc cneqykaue sorpocM.
+to coou rpeqctasnet, rarunu sarouanu orpeqenetc u ro rarou texuonoruu ocyaectsnetc yronuytoe
rpoussoqctso +enosera rar oaectseuuoro cyaectsa? (oucru otseta ua atot sorpoc orpeqenkt uarpasneuu
cospeneuuMx uccneqosauuu s onactu rcuxonoruu u couonoruu, rocsaeuuMx usy+euuk rpoeccos opnuposauu
nu+uoctu.)
+to coou rpeqctasnet, rarunu sarouanu orpeqenetc u ro rarou texuonoruu peanusyetc rpoussoqctso u
socrpoussoqctso +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu s oaectse? (oucran otsetos ua atot sorpoc rocsaeuM, s +actuoctu,
uccneqosauu quuanuru +enose+ecrux cooaects: pasnu+uMx suqos cosnectuou qeteneuoctu, opnuposauu u
quuanuru otqeneuMx couaneuMx rpyrr u oprauusauu, teuqeuuu s passutuu couaneuMx uopn.)
8 cssu c usnoeuuMn xotenoce M roq+epruyte oquy rpuuuruaneuyk ocoeuuocte uaaeu to+ru speuu ua
nuauaue saqa+u venoee|os+a+u+ rar ocuosM yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu, ocoeuuo ecnu unete s suqy
couaneuyk (couaneuo-tpyqosyk) cepy. VM ronaraen, +to sce otne+euuMe sMae rponenM osua+akt rpeqe
scero ueoxoqunocte uccneqosate co(uane+,s du+avu|, venoee|a, usy+ate ero cma+oene+ue u paseumue |a|
cpada+u+a u npoeccuo+ana.
epe+ucneuuMe sMae rponenM u tar rouunaenMe rynauutapuMe saqa+u nM paccnatpusaen s ra+ectse
rnasuMx uarpasneuuu couaneuoro (rocyqapctseuuoro) ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu, ,npaene+u+
npocpavvavu paseumu+ venoeevec|ou cocmaen+s(eu o(ecmea.
Peaeuue atux rponen rotpeyet ot ronutonoruu, arouonuru, couonoruu, rcuxonoruu u qpyrux uayr o +enosere
paspaotru rpuuuruaneuo uosMx roqxoqos u netoqos. 3tu netoqM, ro orpeqeneuuk, qonuM Mte uaeneuM ua
cosqauue crocoos rporuosuposauu u ropperuu roseqeuu uuqusuqos, nanMx u oneaux rpyrr nkqeu; ouu
qonuM oecre+usate rpoqyrtusuoe passutue oaectsa s enon, rpeqotspaaa sosuuruoseuue pasnu+uoro poqa
rounurtos, u ronreucuposate ueratusuMe aertM, ueuseuMe s repuoq rapquuaneuMx peopn.
|ccneqosauue rponen, sosuurakaux sqece, a tare cosqauue uay+uou asM qn peaeuu rpartu+ecrux saqa+
rpeqronaraet oprauusauk u rposeqeuue ronrnercuMx uccneqosauuu ua ctMre rynauutapuou u couaneuou uayr,
pasynuoe coequueuue yuqaneutaneuMx uccneqosauuu ctauosneuu u passutu +enosera s cuctenax neukauxc
couaneuMx uuctutytos c rpurnaquMnu uccneqosauunu u rpartu+ecrunu paspaotranu netoqonoro-
texuonoru+ecroro xapartepa.
onutu+ecrue, couaneuMe u arouonu+ecrue peopnM s Poccuu roctouuo ctanrusaktc c rponenanu
rocyqapctseuuoro u oaectseuuoro perynuposauu couaneuMx rpoeccos (s ton +ucne rpnoro yrpasneuu unu).
3tu rponenM, rar nM rorMtanuce rorasate, oycnosneuM sosuuruoseuuen uosMx couaneuMx euoneuos, uuMx
rpuuuros oprauusauu usuu u qeteneuoctu nkqeu s repexoquMx ycnosux, rpeqronarakaux poct sua+unoctu
+enose+ecrou nu+uoctu u ee otsetctseuuoctu s orpeqeneuuu coctseuuou cyqeM.
8 rocnequue roqM s Poccuu srepsMe ua+anu cornacosauuo opnuposatec oe setsu couaneuou ronuturu
rocyqapctsa: couaneua saauta rpusucuMx rpyrr uaceneuu u artusuoe yrpasneuue pMuron tpyqa u sautoctek,
opnuposauue raqposoro (rpoeccuouaneuoro) roteuuana arouonuru. pu aton repsa setse rpeqctasnet coou
cospeneuuMu sapuaut couaneuou ronoau u opnupyetc rpeunyaectseuuo rocyqapctson (ocoeuuo couaneuMn
rocyqapctson) c y+actuen arouonu+ecru artusuMx cnoes uaceneuu. 8topa setse couaneuou ronuturu u snetc,
ro cyaectsy, a|mue+ou co(uane+ou nonumu|ou rocyqapctsa u uneet csoeu enek uneuuo cosqauue u aertusuyk
qeteneuocte yronuytMx cnoes arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu.
Akmuena coquansna nonumuka rpeqronaraet ycuneuue rocyqapctseuuoro snuuu ua csse neqy
rpoeccuouaneuMn opasosauuen u rpoeccuouaneuMn tpyqon rpu seqyaeu ponu tpyqa.
Paseumue |adpoeoco nome+(uana u pa(uo+ane+oe ucnonesoea+ue venoeevec|ux pec,pcoe snetc oquun us
rnasuMx uarpasneuuu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu rocyqapctsa; ouo uneet enek rosMaeuue rpoeccuouaneuo-
121
rsanuurauouuoro yposu repcouana rpeqrputuu, ycuneuue tpyqosou notusauu u corposoqeuue
rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM u qonuo ocyaectsntec +epes ycuneuue rocyqapctseuuoro sosqeuctsu ua ctpyrtypy
u ra+ectso raqposoro (rpoeccuouaneuoro) roteuuana uauouaneuou arouonuru, ceptuurauk
rpoeccuouaneuMx raqpos s neqyuapoquon ctauqapte, paspaotry u peanusauk ronrnercuMx eqepaneuMx,
neotpacnesMx u peruouaneuMx rporpann passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos, cosqauue aertusuou cuctenM
rpoeccuouaneuou opueutauu u corposoqeuu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, cosepaeuctsosauue cuctenM
rpoeccuouaneuou roqrotosru u reperoqrotosru sautoro u uesautoro uaceneuu. 0uo rpeqycnatpusaet
ocosuauuoe yrpasneuue u canoyrpasneuue passutuen +enosera rar rpaqauuua u rpoeccuouana, a ato osua+aet,
+to s oaectseuuon cosuauuu oopnnetc cosepaeuuo uosa roueru otuoaeuu r +enosery |o+(en(u+
,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uv pec,pcov.
Pesynetaton yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon, c oquou ctopouM, qonuo ctate cosda+ue |o+mu+ce+ma
xopoao nodcomoene++ex cne(uanucmoe, otse+akaux tpeosauun pMura so scen rpoeccuouaneuon crertpe: ot
penecneuuura u rpeqrpuuunaten qo uaenuoro paotuura u rocyqapctseuuoro cnyaaero (+uuosuura). C qpyrou
ctopouM, qn atoro routuureuta qonua Mte oecre+eua npod,|mue+a+ sa++mocme.
pu peaeuuu rourpetuMx sorpocos couaneuou ronuturu ato csoqutc r sosqeuctsuk ua tpu ocuosuMe
coctasnkaue: ycnosu usuu u qeteneuoctu otqeneuMx uuqusuqos u couaneuMx rpyrr, nenu+uoctuMe
otuoaeuu s pasnu+uMx cepax qeteneuoctu, rpoecc passutu canoro cyerta opnuposauue otqeneuou
nu+uoctu. 3ta tpuaqa rposnetc, ouapyusa csok creuury, s pasnu+uMx cepax: opasosauu, tpyqa u
otqMxa; sautoro u csooquoro speneuu +enosera u t.q. pu aton saueuaun aneneuton couaneuoro yrpasneuu
rpoeccon oaectseuuoro rpoussoqctsa +enosera rar rpaqauuua u rpoeccuouana ctauosutc yrpasneuue
+enose+ecrunu pecypcanu s cuctenax opasosauu u sautoctu, u ocoeuuo rpoeccanu u nexauusnanu repexoqa
ot opasosauu r tpyqy u opatuo.
Koueru yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu orpeqenet coqepauue cneqykaux rpartu+ecrux saqa+:
cosqauue ycnosuu qn tpyqa, opasosauu u csooquoro speneuu cyerta;
roqqepauue u passutue +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu s tpyqe, opasosauuu u s csooquon speneuu;
ctauosneuue u passutue +enosera rar cyerta tpyqa, opasosauu u coctseuuou usuu.
n peaeuu yrasauuMx saqa+ uyuM co(uane+ee vexa+usve yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon. Paspaotra
atux nexauusnos rpeqronaraet artusuyk oropy ua ronrnerc uayr o +enosere, s rotopon cnuaktc, c oquou
ctopouM, arouonu+ecra uayra u rpurnaqua couonoru, a c qpyrou teopetu+ecra u rpurnaqua rcuxonoru,
srnk+a ckqa couaneuyk rcuxonoruk u rcuxonoruk tpyqa, rcuxonoruk u rcuxoquaruoctury nu+uoctu u qp.
Vexauusn rocyqapctseuuoro snuuu ua opnuposauue u pauouaneuoe ucronesosauue aertusuoro raqposoro
roteuuana arouonuru snetc ronrnercuMn, oxsatMsakaun sce yposuu septuranu yrpasneuu eqepaneuMu,
cyertos eqepauu u nyuuuraneuMu. 8 aton cny+ae yrpasneuue +enose+ecrun pecypcon ctauosutc s
qeuctsuteneuoctu yrpasneuuen couaneuMnu rpoeccanu usuu nkqeu ua tou unu uuou tepputopuu, s tou unu uuou
arouuae, a ue tonero qeteneuoctu rpoeccuouanos s tou unu uuou oprauusauu, s ton unu uuon y+peqeuuu.
0o(uane+a+ nonumu|a, srnk+a s ce uecronero saueuaux uarpasneuuu qeteneuoctu oaectsa,
uerocpeqctseuuo satparusaet usoro cyerta, ero peaneuMe otuoaeuu u cuctenM ssaunoqeuctsuu c orpyakaeu
ero qeuctsuteneuoctek. 8 atou cssu repeq couaneuou uayrou u repeq +enoseroseqeuuen sooae sosuurakt
rponenM +enose+ecroro usnepeuu s couaneuMx sneuux, y+eta +enose+ecroro artopa s yrpasneuuu
couaneuMnu u arouonu+ecrunu cuctenanu, paspaotru rcuxonoru+ecrux ocuos yrpasneuu arouonu+ecrun
roseqeuuen +enosera.

10.2. Pocccke peqopus: paucqopuaouuse qeuoueus s coansuo-pyqoso cqepe

Auanus rpoecca rocyqapctseuuoro, ronutu+ecroro u xosuctseuuoro repeyctpouctsa Poccuu sMsnet
nuoectso rponen, tar unu uua+e satparusakaux ocuosuMe cepM usueqeteneuoctu +enosera: opasosauue,
tpyq, csooquoe spen. Kar nM ye otne+anu [k.V. 8apoquu, 1995-1997], oneauuctso us atux rponen s tou unu
uuou ctereuu cssauo c roucron uosMx +eadvu+ucmpamue+ex vexa+usvoe, rosMaakaux aertusuocte
rocyqapctseuuoro u oaectseuuoro perynuposauu couaneuMx rpoeccos.
Ctauosutc routuMn, +to tpyquoctu, sosuurakaue s rpoecce passutu peopn, cyaectsykt ua oue u
scneqctsue paquraneuMx usneueuuu ycnosuu usuu nkqeu, +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu, ocoeuuocteu rpaqaucroro u
rpoeccuouaneuoro passutu canoro +enosera. 1opnupyktc ra+ectseuuo uuMe rpuuurM oprauusauu usuu u
qeteneuoctu nkqeu, neuetc uepapxu couaneuMx u roseqeu+ecrux uopn u euuocteu, ua repequuu rnau
sMxoqt sorpocM couaneuo yctou+usoro u esoracuoro passutu ue tonero rocyqapctsa u ctpauM, uo u nu+uoctu,
rpaqauuua.
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3tu repeneuM s usuu poccuucroro uaceneuu s sua+uteneuou ctereuu ocnouktc s cssu co creuurou
repexoquoro repuoqa, c rosneuuen tar uasMsaenMx mpa+copva(uo++ex co(uane+ex e+ove+oe,
rpeqronarakaux peaneuoe pacaupeuue uuqusuqyaneuMx csooq, usneueuue nepM otsetctseuuoctu +enosera s
orpeqeneuuu coctseuuou cyqeM, pactyayk uarpysry ua canoctoteneuocte +enose+ecrou nu+uoctu.
C ua+ana peopn poccuucroro oaectsa rpoano qectunetue, u, rar nM ronaraen, rosunace peaneua
sosnouocte onee unu neuee arrypatuo rpoauanusuposate nuuysauu uctopu+ecruu otpesor c y+eton uarorneuuou
euoneuonoruu, qauuMx uay+uMx uccneqosauuu, oeuru rpousoaeqaux ronutu+ecrux, couaneuMx u arouonu+ecrux
usneueuuu. Ecnu paccnatpusate rpoucxoqaue s Poccuu rpoeccM c +enoseroseq+ecrou to+ru speuu, nouo onee
to+uo orpeqenute rpu+uuM rosneuu u oeuute coctouue to+er passutu couaneuou u xosuctseuuou ronuturu,
sMsute sarouonepuoctu u repcrertusM usneueuu otuoaeuuu nkqeu, ux roseqeuu s rputu+ecrux usueuuMx
octotenectsax, rotopMx uenano cnounoce sa ucteraue roqM. |neuuo venoeevec|oe usvepe+ue orpeqenet
ocoeuuoctu uosMx couaneuMx cutyauu, xapartepusyet ra+ectseuuyk quuanury tex ycnosuu u artopos, s
rotopMx passopa+usaktc nuuuu usuu peaneuMx uuqusuqos, opnupyetc u ocyaectsnetc rpaqaucra u
rpoeccuouaneua rapeepa raqoro +enosera.
Terepe ye ctauosutc sce onee cuo, +to yuqaneutaneuMn ycnosuen passutu poccuucroro oaectsa u
poccuucrou arouonuru snetc passutue +enose+ecroro pecypca oaectsa, es rotoporo uenMcnunM uurarue
qonrousyaue usneueuu s ycnosux usuu u qeteneuoctu nkqeu, s cuctene ne+enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu. 3to
osua+aet, s +actuoctu, +to rnasuMn artopon poccuucrux peopn ctauosutc cpada+c|uu, u+menne|m,ane+eu u
npoeccuo+ane+eu nome+(uan ctpauM. 8 atou cssu ocoMu uutepec qn uac rpeqctasnet oeura coctouu
oaero roteuuana u sepotuou quuanuru +enose+ecroro pecypca (rar uuqusuqyaneuoro, tar u ronnertusuoro) s
ycnosux couaneuMx u arouonu+ecrux peopn.
|toru qectunetuero repuoqa paquraneuMx peopn, rpoucxoqaux s Poccuu, rorasMsakt, +to uapqy c
o+esuquMnu ronouteneuMnu noneutanu ua atare repexoqa poccuucroro oaectsa ot rnauosou r pMuo+uou
arouonure ouapyunoce nuoectso ueratusuMx sneuuu: cyaectseuuo yxyqaunace arouonu+ecra cutyau,
ysenu+unoce paccnoeuue oaectsa ro yposuk qoxoqos, yrano ra+ectso usuu u t.q. 0coeuuo sanetuM rocneqctsu
atux sneuuu s rcuxonoru+ecrou cepe cyaectseuuMn opason usneuetc roseqeuue nkqeu, ux otuoaeuu qpyr
r qpyry, ux cuctenM euuocteu; neuetc couaneua u nu+uoctua opueutau uuqusuqa rpu oeure couaneuMx u
ronutu+ecrux coMtuu; uankqaetc ronpusau rosuuu s otuoaeuuu r xoqy peopn, s ctereuu y+actu s uux
rourpetuMx nkqeu.
Kar rorasMsakt pesynetatM couonoru+ecrux orpocos, qn sua+uteneuMx routuureutos uaceneuu, ocoeuuo
cnao couaneuo saauaeuuMx, aertM peopn u cootsetctseuuo otuoaeuue r uun orpeqenktc pesro
sospocaeu uectauneuoctek couaneuo-tpyqosMx otuoaeuuu, rotepeu ysepeuuoctu s sastpaauen que*. 3to
nuauuu pas roqtsepqaet ussectuMu art, +to s opnuposauuu oMqeuuou rcuxonoruu +enosera couaneuMe u
arouonu+ecrue octotenectsa usuu sauunakt seqyaee necto.
* ,npoe 3.n., ep+ea V.1. Votusauouua cepa cosuauu nonoqeu: coctouue u teuqeuuu passutu. V., 1993; P,m|eeuv V.l.,
omanoe 3.. ocne aronM. 0rMt couonoru+ecroro uccneqosauu. V., 1995.

8 atou cssu ucrnk+uteneuo sauMn ctauosutc rcuxonoru+ecru opueutuposauuMu auanus tex couaneuMx u
arouonu+ecrux tpaucopnauu poccuucroro oaectsa, rotopMe orpeqenkt qeuctsuteneuMe ocoeuuoctu
usueuuMx cutyauu rourpetuoro +enosera. 3tot auanus rorasMsaet, +to s pesynetate peopn s Poccuu nouo
ouapyute pq qoctato+uo yctou+usMx narpo- u nurpoarouonu+ecrux euoneuos, rotopMe cyaectseuuo snukt ua
otuoaeuu u roseqeuue +enosera u rotopMe, s csok o+epeqe, s sua+uteneuou nepe canu orpeqenktc
qeuctsykaunu +enose+ecrunu otuoaeuunu u roseqeuuen.
Tar, s te+euue rocnequero rtunetu s Poccuu pesro sospocna tar uasMsaena rpoeccuouaneua nurpau:
eeroquo qectru nunnuouos +enoser ro ten unu uuMn rpu+uuan neukt necto csoeu paotM, u atot artop
ctauosutc sauMn rapanetpon quuanuru poccuucroro pMura tpyqa. 8repsMe c 1993 r. roctouuMn u sua+unMn
artopon uaaeu usuu ctana espaotua (s 1999 r. ee yposeue oeuusanc c y+eton crpMtou opnM s 8-12 nnu
+enoser rpu 65 nnu +enoser arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu Poccuu). | xot, cyq ro ouuaneuMn qauuMn
locronctata Poccuu, yposeue espaotuM sa rocnequuu roq octasanc otuocuteneuo ctauneuMn, s 1999 r. ro+tu 4
nnu +enoser opatunuce s peruouaneuMe oprauM eqepaneuou cnyM sautoctu 1C8. pu aton ctpyrtypuMe
xapartepucturu opaaeuuu coxpaunuce rpunepuo tenu e, +to u s 1993 r.
0eura unekaeuc ctatuctu+ecrou uuopnauu u qauuMx nouutopuura couaneuo-tpyqosou cepM rossonet
ysuqete, +to ctpyrtypa poccuucroro pMura pao+eu cunM pesro ucraeua:
sua+uteneuo ro+tu ua 20 nnu +enoser yneueaunc oauu oen arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu
Poccuu;
123
cyaectseuuo sMpocno u rpoqonaet ysenu+usatec +ucno pautee u uey+teuuMx canosautMx nu;
ua+uua c 1995 r. ra+ectseuuo usneuunoce cootuoaeuue rpeqrputuu rocyqapctseuuou u uerocyqapctseuuou
opn coctseuuoctu: repsMe coctasnkt ye neuee ronosuuM oaero +ucna rpeqrputuu u y+peqeuuu Poccuu;
rpoucxoqut repepacrpeqeneuue pao+eu cunM: uankqaetc sua+uteneuMu repexoq sautMx us repsu+uoro u
stopu+uoro s tpetu+uMu certop arouonuru; pactet ropusoutaneua rpoeccuouaneua nurpau neqy otpacnnu
uapoquoro xosuctsa;
rpoeccuouaneuMu rpoune poccuucrux paotuuros sua+uteneuo otnu+aetc ot auanoru+uMx rpouneu
passutMx rocyqapcts;
ua+uua c 1993 r. srepsMe ua csooquon pMure rosunuce sMrycruuru oaeopasosateneuou u
rpoeccuouaneuou aron.
Tarun opason, qae atu, secena opueutuposo+uMe, qauuMe rossonkt oeuute rnyuuy toro rpusucuoro
coctouu, s rotopon orasanoce poccuucroe oaectso ua uutepsane repexoqa ot aqnuuuctpatusuou cuctenM
rocyqapctseuuoro yrpasneuu r pMuo+uou arouonure (cn. tan. 10.1).

Tanua 10.1
6pasuensuse oeuk Pocc paissx cpau no skououuecku nokaiaenu napauepau uenoseueckoro
pecypca

N r/r

orasatenu +ucneuuMe sua+euu
Poccu 1990 Poccu 1995 PassutMe ctpauM
1 2 3 4 5
01
02
03





04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
loccertop s arouonure
3Al (+enose+ecruu pecypc arouonuru)
8auto s arouonure
s ton +ucne:
s ouuaneuou arouonure
so stopu+uon certope
s rponManeuuoctu
s uerpoussoqctseuuMx otpacnx
poeccuouaneua nurpau
6espaotuMe
Cpequ qnuteneuocte opasosauu
Cpequuu uutepsan rosMaeuu rsanuurauu
Tpyqoyctpouctso sMrycruuros
Votusau u sua+unocte tpyqa (paur)
Xenakt paotate ro creuaneuoctu
|nekt rpoeccuouaneuMe rnauM
Xenakt rpoqonate rpoeccuouaneuyk y+ey
|crMtMsakt roctouuMu ctpecc
>90%
>84nnu
>80 nnu



72,8%
27,2%
7-10%
< 1%

4,5 roqa
>95%
3-4
>75%

>60%
< 20%
< 50%
73,5 nnu
67,0 nnu

50,7 nnu
33,6 nnu
15,1 nnu
11,0 nnu
>25%
>8%
11,5 net
6 net
<50%
10-12
< 20%
< 20%
<15%
>50%
< 20%




< 50%


10-12%
4-6%
12,9 J
2-3 roqa
>95%
2-3 EC
>80% G
>95% J
>60% Fra
20-30% J

8 atux ycnosux artyaneuou ctauosutc paspaotra tarou rocyqapctseuuou ronuturu, rotopa oecre+una M
eepo+m+oe ,cmouvueoe paseumue poccuuc|ux peopv u poccuuc|oco o(ecmea. 3ta saqa+a sronue cootsetctsyet
oaeu ctpateruu nuposoro cooaectsa, rpososrnaaeuuou ua 8cenupuon 1opyne - 92 s Puo-qe-Xaueupo*.
* 8ctpe+a ua sMcaen yposue naueta 8enn. porpanna qeuctsuu / eutp sa uaae oaee yqyaee. Xeuesa, 1993.

8necte c ten cuo, +to Poccu qonua qynate ue tonero o rytx (t.e. enx u texuonorux) yctou+usoro passutu,
uo tare o pec,pcax, |omopee voc,m oecnevume amo paseumue. 8 aton cny+ae pe+e qonua uqtu, s repsyk
o+epeqe, o uenoseueckx pecypcax Pocc.

10.3. oseqeuueck (ncxonorueck) auani paucqopuaouusx npoeccos

Auanus coctouu +enose+ecroro pecypca Poccuu rorasMsaet, +to rponena oeuru, pauouaneuoro
ucronesosauu u aertusuoro ero socrpoussoqctsa ctauosutc oquou us rnasuMx: pe+e seqe uqet ue tonero o
arouonu+ecrou ctaunusauu, uo u o repcrertusax esoracuoro u yctou+usoro passutu scero uaaero oaectsa.
CreuaneuMe uccneqosauu, rposeqeuuMe uanu s 1993-1999 rr., rorasMsakt, +to s ycnosux repexoquoro r
pMury repuoqa cuneuo usneuunoce rcuxonoru+ecroe otuoaeuue r tpyqy u tpyqosou qeteneuoctu rar y nonoqeu,
tar u y sspocnoro uaceneuu. peqe scero ctanu qpyrunu cuctenM nu+uoctuMx euuocteu u oeuor: nM ye
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otne+anu pauee, +to sua+uteneuo sospocno oayaeuue nu+uoctuou u cutyatusuou ueorpeqeneuuoctu. ony+euuMe
uanu qoronuuteneuo qauuMe orpocos u auretuposauu rorasMsakt, +to uutepecM (ysne+euu) cospeneuuou
nonoqeu u peaneuo qeuctsykaue artopM rpoeccuouaneuoro sMopa sua+uteneuo pacxoqtc.
3tu uccneqosauu rossonkt ysuqete tare, uacronero qanero pacxoqtc uuqusuqyaneuMe euuoctu u oeuru
coctseuuMx sosnouocteu u repcrertus y sspocnMx u nonoqMx nkqeu, y qeteu u ux poquteneu, s ton +ucne rar rpu
auanuse coctseuuoro coctouu, tar u rpu oeurax cnouMx usueuuMx cutyauu, rotopMe cssauM c rponenanu
rpoeccuouaneuoro sMopa u rcuxonoru+ecrou ronoau (tan. 10.2).
Tanua 10.2
Xapakep nouom, ueo6xoquo qeu np ss6ope npoqecc

N r/r onoae, ueoxoquna qetn rpu sMope rpoeccuu o nueuuk qeteu
1993 1995
1
2
3
4
5
8 oeure uutepecos, crnouuocteu, crocouocteu
8 oeure sqopose rpuneuuteneuo r rpoeccuu
8 coctasneuuu rpoeccuouaneuoro rnaua
8 paote ro canosocrutauuk
8 uuopnuposauuu o rpoeccuu
15%
3%
27%
34%
42%
26,9%
-
24,6% 10,2%
34,7%

8Mopo+uMe ocneqosauu paotuuros rpoussoqctseuuMx rpeqrputuu pasnu+uMx opn coctseuuoctu tare
roqtsepqakt otne+euuMe uanu pauee teuqeuuu: ua oue ctpyrtypuMx rpeopasosauuu arouonuru, sa rotopMnu
rocneqosanu pesrue usneueuu s ctpyrtype u quuanure poccuucroro pMura tpyqa, uankqaetc sneuue, secena
uerputuoe ro csoun qonrocpo+uMn aertan: cyaectseuuo raqaet rpectu rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu u
rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa.
leyctou+usocte cospeneuuou usuu u ueysepeuuocte s sastpaauen que uaxoqut csoe uerocpeqctseuuoe
rpoqoneuue s pactyaux nu+uoctuMx uarpeuux u ctpeccax, rotopMe uankqaktc rar y qeteu, tar u y
poquteneu, rar y nonoqMx nkqeu, tar u y sspocnMx. pu aton uankqaenMe pesynetatM rpartu+ecru ue sasuct ot
ocoeuuocteu peruoua, ot rona u sospacta, ot rpoeccuouaneuou rpuuaqneuoctu u couaneuoro ronoeuu nkqeu,
a ooaeuua ctpyrtypa opnupykauxc s atux ycnosux cnMcnosMx oeuor (cenautu+ecrux rpoctpaucts) u
nu+uoctuMx saaut (c y+eton ropqra rpuoputetos) ouapyusaet crpMtMe u suMe teuqeuuu r arpeccuu.
8 xoqe creuaneuMx rcuxonoru+ecrux ocneqosauuu Mn rposeqeu sMopo+uMu auanus uuqusuqyaneuMx u
rpyrrosMx cenautu+ecrux rpoctpaucts c ronoaek uccneqosauu uuqusuqyaneuMx u rpyrrosMx pereptyapuMx
peaetor ro noquuuposauuony netoqy P. Kennu*. PesynetatM atoro uccneqosauu qenouctpupykt sua+uteneuMe
usneueuu s uuqusuqyaneuou rcuxure qauuMe rossonkt ysuqete cnueuue uuqusuqyaneuMx oeuor tarux
nu+uoctuMx u roseqeu+ecrux xapartepuctur, rar cuna, avo(uo+ane+ocme u peaumene+ocme, c oquou ctopouM, u
|o+po+ma(u+, conep+uvecmeo, nodaene+ue u |o+nu|m, c qpyrou.
* 3apodu+ |.V., oxune|o 3.n, Teopetu+ecrue uctoru u uasua+euue pereptyapuMx nu+uoctuMx netoqur // 1pauenna ., 6auuuctep .
losMu netoq uccneqosauu nu+uoctu. V., 1987.

ony+euuMe qauuMe unekt qn uac ocooe sua+euue, rocronery, rar nM ronaraen, uneuuo paota oeuo+uoro
nexauusna neut s ocuose opnuposauu u qeuctsu nu+uoctuMx cnMcnos, rpeqro+teuuu u sMopos +enosera*.
oatony usy+euue euoneuonoruu u sarouonepuocteu paotM atoro nexauusna noet qate uccneqosatenk u
rpartu+ecrony rcuxonory onee ronuoe rouunauue rpnMx snuuuu usneukauxc couaneuMx cutyauu ua
oprauusauk roseqeuu nu+uoctu. VM noen tare ouapyute uerotopMe rcuxonoru+ecru sauMe pasnu+u s
cenautu+ecrux ctpyrtypax, rotopMe noryt Mte cssauM c yctou+usMnu rapanetpanu couaneuMx cutyauu, s
rotopMx peanusyetc usueuuMu ryte +enosera, a tare c yctou+usMnu rpeqctasneuunu o sepotuMx teuqeuux
ux passutu.
* 3apodu+ |.V. Vetoqonoru+ecrue rponenM rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa u cuutesa +enose+ecrou qeteneuoctu // 8orpocM
ruepueturu. V., 1982; 3apodu+ |.V. cuxonoru+ecra yuru oeuusauu u perynu +enose+ecrou qeteneuoctu // Cyertusua
oeura s ctpyrtype qeteneuoctu. Capatos, 1987; 3apodu+ |.V. Voqene nu+uoctu s rcuxoquaruocture. V., 1994. Ku. 1.

Auanoru+uoe uccneqosauue Mno rposeqeuo uanu ua orycuMx rpyrrax (nanMx sMoprax) anepuraucrou
nonoqeu (nonoqMx y+uteneu).
pu coroctasneuuu arcrepuneutaneuMx pesynetatos poccuucrou u anepuraucrou rpyrr nonoqeu nouo
ouapyute ctatuctu+ecru sua+unMe pasnu+u. C uaaeu to+ru speuu, uarpunep, cneqyet opatute suunauue ua to,
+to tara saueuaa (qn uaaero speneuu) roseqeu+ecra xapartepuctura, rar comp,d+uvecmeo, orasanace s
anepuraucrou sMopre s reonetpu+ecron coceqctse c |ovnpovuccov, npucnocone+uev u ccnauea+uev u c
125
nu+uoctuMnu rapanetpanu spenocmu u omeemcmee++ocmu. 8 poccuucrou sMopre comp,d+uvecmeo opasyet
cosepaeuuo usonuposauuyk rpyrry roseqeu+ecrux rouctpyruu, uecnotp ua to, +to cssu c rapanetpanu spenocmu
u omeemcmee++ocmu nu+uoctu octanuce rpunepuo tarunu e, rar u y anepuraues (+to roqtsepqakt tare
qauuMe rnactepuoro auanusa). pu aton y anepuraues comp,d+uvecmeo u nodaene+ue opasykt quanetpaneuo
rpotusoronouMe rpyrrM. / uux e usea+ue u npucnocone+ue rpartu+ecru uesasucunM, a y poccuu cssauM
tecueuaun opason.
pune+ateneuo tare, +to s uuqusuqyaneuMx oeurax poccuucrou rpyrrM orasanuce cuneuo cssauuMnu
(uaxoqtc s oquon rnactepe) tarue rapanetpM nu+uoctu, rar avo(uo+ane+ocme, cuna, a|mue+ocme u
peaumene+ocme, rotopMe s anepuraucrou sMopre pacranuce ua qsa canoctoteneuMx rnactepa: cuna u cn,u+a, c
oquou ctopouM, u avo(uo+ane+ocme, a|mue+ocme u peaumene+ocme, c qpyrou.
0tnetun, +to rpeqctasneuuMe sMae pesynetatM xapartepusykt nuae canMu ua+aneuMu atar uccneqosauu
oquou us yuqaneutaneuMx xapartepuctur +enose+ecrou rcuxuru ctpyrtypM cenautu+ecroro rpoctpauctsa,
uccneqosauue rotopou qaet sosnouocte pacrpMte uuqusuqyaneuMe u rpyrrosMe usneueuu s ctpyrtype euuocteu,
s paote oeuo+uoro nexauusna perynuu roseqeuu s peaneuMx cutyaux. puneueuue aqersatuoro netoqa
uccneqosauu rossonuno rony+ute uosMe euoneuonoru+ecrue pesynetatM, roqtsepqakaue aertM snuuu
cnMcnosMx u euuoctuMx ctpyrtyp ua ocoeuuoctu couaneuo orpaaeuuou cutyauu.
cuxonoru+ecruu auanus tpaucopnauouuMx euoneuos cuo rorasMsaet, +to nuoro+ucneuuMe repeneuM,
uankqaenMe s ycnosux peopn poccuucroro oaectsa u poccuucrou arouonuru, sMsMsakt r usuu secena
sauMe usneueuu s roseqeu+ecrux u nu+uoctuMx xapartepucturax rpaqau Poccuu*.
* 3apodu+ |.V. /rpasneuue +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu: rcuxonoru+ecrue rponenM. V., 1994; 3apodu+ |.V. Passutue +enosera s
usneukaeuc couaneuou cutyauu // poeccuouaneuoe oy+euue u rosMaeuue rsanuurauu s ycnosux arouonu+ecrou
tpaucopnauu oaectsa u opnuposauu uosou couaneuou ronuturu. V., 1995.

Peaeuue oosua+euuMx sMae rponen rpeqronaraet paspaotry cne(uane+ex coc,dapcmee++ex u
o(ecmee++ex vexa+usvoe ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uv pec,pcov. 0quun us sapuautos taroro nexauusna noryt
ctate enesMe rporpannM yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu ua eqepaneuon u peruouaneuon yposux;
rporpannM rpoeccuouaneuoro ctauosneuu u passutu +enosera s opasosateneuMx y+peqeuux; rnauM u
rporpannM passutu repcouana ua rpeqrputux.
8necte c ten orMt rpartu+ecrou paotM qorasMsaet tare rpauukk ueoxoqunocte s cosqauuu ocuosateneuou
uay+uou asM qn peaeuu repe+ucneuuMx rpartu+ecrux saqa+: ouu saqakt rnasuMe uarpasneuu passutu
rcuxonoru+ecrou u couaneuou teopuu u opnupykt rotpeuocte s cosqauuu uosMx netoqos uccneqosauu, oeuru,
corposoqeuu u roqqepru rpoeccos qsueuu +enosera s ocuosuMx couaneuMx cuctenax ero passutu s
cuctenax opasosauu u rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa.

10.4. hosa ncxonoruecka napaqrua ee pons s paipa6oke aksuo coansuo nonk

|ssectuo, +to uqe y+eta +enose+ecroro artopa s cosqauuu uosMx naauu u texuonoruu, rosusaac s Poccuu
s 60-e roqM, Mna secena rporpeccusuou u oecre+una passutue pasuoopasuMx rpunoeuuu arcrepuneutaneuou
rcuxonoruu so ssaunoqeuctsux +enoser naauua, pacrpMna rytu rosMaeuu aertusuoctu
rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu. 0tnetun tare, +to passutue teopetu+ecrou u rpurnaquou rcuxonoruu ua ase
rapaqurnM y+eta +enose+ecroro artopa s rpoeccax rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu u s oprauusauouuon
yrpasneuuu cosqano secena noauyk ocuosy qn peaeuu enMx rnaccos rpartu+ecrux saqa+, s ton +ucne c
rpuneueuuen |a,sane+ex npu+(unoe. 0uu Mnu peanusosauM s peaeuuu saqa+ yrpasneuu nkqenu (ux
roseqeuuen, otuoaeuunu, crocouoctnu u t.r.), s rpoertuposauuu qeteneuoctu u cyertos qeteneuoctu, s
oeure rpoeccuouaneuo sauMx ra+ects, roctpoeuuu rcuxonoru+ecrux roptpetos uuqusuqos u t.r. 8ce ato uaano
auporoe rpuneueuue s paspaotre pasnu+uMx rcuxonoru+ecrux acrertos arouonu+ecrou usuu: tpyqa, yrpasneuu,
sqpasooxpaueuu, oopouM, opasosauu u qp.
Cneqyet rpusuate tare, +to uneuuo ata uqe copnuposana uay+uyk ocuosy qn roctauosru sronue rourpetuou
u repcrertusuou saqa+u: roucra sosnouocteu yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun roseqeuuen, yrpasneuu crocouoctnu u
uutepecanu +enosera.
8necte c ten rpartu+ecra peanusau atou uqeu s 60-x - 80-x roqax qsaqatoro ctonetu rpusena r passutuk
tar uasMsaenoro rcuxonoru+ecroro yuruouanusna u r cyaectseuuony otpMsy qeteneuoctu ot cyerta atou
qeteneuoctu. 0cuosauuoe ua qauuou roueruu passutue rpurnaquou rcuxonoruu sce onee u onee pasequuno
rcuxonoruk qeteneuoctu u rcuxonoruk nu+uoctu. 8 roue+uon c+ete ato rpuseno r rpotusoroctasneuuk rpoeccos
aertusuoro roseqeuu u rpoeccos passutu +enosera. Ctpyrtypa +enose+ecrou rcuxuru, yuruouaneuMe
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
126
sosnouoctu, sarouonepuoctu rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu, roucr pasuoopasuMx turonoruu
(es y+eta peaneuo qeuctsykaero cyerta) ctanu ocuosuMnu oertanu rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa. Koue+uo, rpu
aton cyaectsosana rcuxonoru passutu u qeuuuposanuce rpuuurM passutu, uo ato Mnu rpuuurM u
uccneqosauu passutu rcuxuru, a ue cyerta, onaqakaero atou rcuxurou, u s passusakaenc cyerte ucranu
sarouonepuoctu rosneuu uosMx rcuxu+ecrux ctpyrtyp u yuruu snecto usy+euu rcuxonoru+ecrux ocuosauuu ero
peaneuMx roctyrros u qeuctsuu, nu+uoctuoro passutu s rourpetuMx octotenectsax ero usuu.
8 sua+uteneuou nepe naroqap roscenectuony rpunoeuuk tarou rcuxonoru+ecrou rapaqurnM rpousoana
artu+ecra denepco+uu|a(u+ npu|nad+oco ncuxonocuvec|oco s+a+u+, +to sMpasunoce e npomueonocmaene+uu
npo(eccoe ae|mue+oco noeede+u+ u npo(eccoe paseumu+ venoee|a.
la uaa ssrnq, uneuuo s aton coctout coqepauue rpusuca cospeneuuou rcuxonoru+ecrou teopuu, a coscen ue s
ueqoctatre rsanuuuposauuMx creuanuctos unu cpeqcts ua rposeqeuue uccneqosauuu: ato rpuuuruaneuMu
rpusuc roseqeu+ecrou rapaqurnM.
Cosqauue rcuxonoru+ecrux ocuos yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon rpeqronaraet:
paspaotry uosou rouertyaneuou asM usy+euu rcuxonoru+ecrux nexauusnos oprauusauu u yrpasneuu
roseqeuuen +enosera s rourpetuMx usueuuMx cutyaux. 8 aty asy cneqyet srnk+ute cenautu+ecrue u oeuo+uMe
nexauusnM, peaneuMe uuqusuqyaneuMe opasM usueuuou cutyauu, rpeqctasneuu o rponene, opasM saqa+ u
sepotuMx crocoos ux peaeuu;
paspaotry routuuuou u rputepuaneuou ocuosM usy+euu rpoeccos passutu cyerta (usueuuoro rytu,
couaneuou u rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM; oeuru repcrertus passutu rar pacaupeuu uuqusuqyaneuMx csooq u
sosnouocteu, ysenu+euu oena u ctpyrtypM ero ssaunoqeuctsuu; ysenu+euue uuqusuqyaneuoro pasuoopasu, s
ton +ucne sa c+et nu+uoctuoro passutu; poct +ucna u ra+ectsa peaaenMx usueuuMx rponen u qp.);
uccneqosauue sarouos passutu +enosera rar cyerta coctseuuou usueqeteneuoctu; oeury sosnouocteu
rpeopasosauu sueauero orpyeuu u rpeopasosauu canoro cyerta; usy+euue nexauusnos u artopos
passutu, orpeqeneuue ero rapanetpos u rputepues; paspaotry netoqos u texuonoruu oeuru coctouu u
sosqeuctsu ua rpoeccM passutu cyerta u t.q.
8ce ato sorpocM s sua+uteneuou nepe uosMe, ouu orpeqenkt enMe uarpasneuu paspaotru |o+cmp,|mue+ou
u |a,sane+ou meopuu ncuxonocuu. 0uu tpeykt usy+ate +enosera rar cyerta s ero peaneuon orpyeuuu, a
cneqosateneuo, ocooe sua+euue rpuopetaet rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus:
cyerta s cuctene ero neukauxc ssaunoqeuctsuu c orpyakaun nupon (raysaneuMe ocuosM
uuqusuqyaneuoro roseqeuu);
cyerta u ero usneueuuu s ycnosux rourpetuou oprauusauu (oprauusauouuoe roseqeuue u sosnouoctu
yrpasneuu s oprauusauu);
usneueuuu cyerta s usneukaeuc oprauusauu (peaneuMe usueuuMe rytu, rpoeccuouaneua rapeepa u
rcuxonoru+ecrue rpu+uuM ux uuqusuqyaneuoro pasuoopasu).
outuo, +to qn atoro uyuM ue tonero paquraneuMe repeneuM s rouertyaneuou ase rcuxonoruu (rotopMe u
uankqaktc s uaae spen s nuposou rcuxonoru+ecrou uayre u rparture), uaqo cosqasate rpuuuruaneuo uosMe
netoqM auanusa, oeuru u sosqeuctsu ua rpoeccM passutu cyerta.
PaccnotpeuuMe sMae rcuxonoru+ecrue rponenM otuoctc r +ucny yuqaneutaneuMx, uo es ux peaeuu
ctauosutc uesosnouMn aertusuoe peaeuue uosMx rpartu+ecrux saqa+, sosuurakaux rpu peanusauu
ocuosuMx uarpasneuuu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu, rpu paote s cepe yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu.
|ccneqosauu, rposeqeuuMe s rocnequue roqM uanu u roq uaaun pyrosoqctson, rossonunu yto+uute roctauosry
pqa rpuuuruaneuMx sorpocos netoqonoruu u oaeu teopuu rcuxonoruu, a tare peaute pq rouertyaneuMx
rponen, s +actuoctu:
paspaotate roueruk aronoru+ecrou uuau cyerta, paccnotpete turonoruk ero ssaunoqeuctsu c
orpyakaun nupon;
pacrpMte oayk cxeny rcuxu+ecrou perynuu roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu cyerta, srnk+a ckqa acrert ee
passutu;
rorasate ssaunocsse rpoeccos rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu, oeuru u rpuutu peaeuu s oaeu cxene
perynuu roseqeuu.
0aa roctauosra rponenM rossonuna rpeqnoute rourpetuMe rcuxonoru+ecrue noqenu saqa+u, peaaenou
cyerton, noqenu nu+uoctu s peaeuuu saqa+, noqenu rpoeccuouaneuoro ctauosneuu u passutu +enosera.
3rcrepuneutaneuMe u anrupu+ecrue uccneqosauu rocnequux net sMsunu uosMe euoneuM s rpoeccax
rcuxu+ecroro otpaeuu u perynuu passusakaeroc cyerta:
rpespaaeuu rponenM s saqa+y qn cyerta (+ysctsuteneuocte r rponene, ctpyrtypuposauue saqa+u,
cyertusua noqene saqa+u, rpuutue saqa+u, ee cyertusuoe peaeuue, paspaotra anetepuatus u ctpateruu,
127
oeura sepotuMx rocneqctsuu, oeura ortunaneuoctu peaeuu u qp.) u aertusuoe ee peaeuue unu otras;
rcuxonoru+ecruu nexauusn reuepauu u cyertuMe ucto+uuru uuqusuqyaneuMx u rpyrrosMx oauor
roseqeuu, sosnouMe crocoM ux quaruocturu u ropperuu; cyertuMe rputepuu xopoaero u rpasuneuoro
roseqeuu (rputepuu ortunaneuMx ctpateruu); uerotopMe euoneuM cenauturu rounurtuMx cutyauu u
pacaerneuue oeuo+uo-notusauouuou cepM (notusM oy+euu, qeteneuoctu, cyaectsosauu u passutu);
nexauusn roctpoeuu rcuxu+ecroro opasa nupa u canoro cyerta, a tare nexauusnM rcuxu+ecrou perynuu
roseqeuu u qeteneuoctu, srnk+akaue s ce ocoeuuoctu roctpoeuu cyertusuMx rnaccuurauu u oeuor,
nexauusnM rpuutu peaeuu o ua+ane u rperpaaeuuu qeuctsu, ctpyrtypy rcuxonoru+ecrou rotosuoctu r qeuctsuk
s tou unu uuou cutyauu.
PaspaotauuMe s xoqe atux uccneqosauuu teopetu+ecrue noqenu yrasauuMx nexauusnos rocne ux anrupu+ecrou
arpoauu nernu s ocuosy cosqauu peaneuMx couaneuMx nexauusnos u uosMx opasosateneuMx texuonoruu,
rossonkaux (rpu uanu+uu qoctato+uo to+uMx usneputeneuMx rpuuuros u quaruoctu+ecrux rputepues) rosMcute
aertusuocte arouonu+ecroro roseqeuu u rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, orpeqenute yposeue
rpoeccuouanusna u oeuute peaneuMe repcrertusM nu+uoctuoro (rpaqaucroro u rpoeccuouaneuoro) passutu
+enosera.

|nasa 11. Paise uenoseueckx pecypcos kak rnasuoe uanpasneue aksuo coansuo
nonk (npo6neus ryuauia coansuo eop npakk)

11.1. uuocuse (nepcouonoruecke) npo6neus paucqopuaouuoro nepoqa

Kar yrasMsanoce s rpeqMqyaeu rnase, ronutu+ecrue u arouonu+ecrue peopnM s Poccuu uatonruynuce ua
cepeesuMe rponenM rocyqapctseuuoro u oaectseuuoro perynuposauu couaneuMx rpoeccos, s ton +ucne
rpnoro yrpasneuu unu. 3tu rponenM oycnosneuM uuMnu rpuuuranu oprauusauu usuu u qeteneuoctu
nkqeu, creuurou repexoquoro repuoqa, sosuuruoseuuen uosMx couaneuMx euoneuos, rpeqronarakaux
pacaupe+ue u+dueud,ane+ex ceood, pocm s+avuvocmu venoeevec|ou nuv+ocmu, eospacma+ue omeemcmee++ocmu
venoee|a e onpedene+uu cocmee++ou c,dee.
VM otne+anu tare, +to uapqy c o+esuquMnu ronouteneuMnu noneutanu peopn, cutyau repexoqa
poccuucroro oaectsa r pMury ouapyuna nuoectso ueratusuMx sneuuu.
/xyqaunace arouonu+ecra octauosra, yran yposeue usuu, ysenu+unoce paccnoeuue oaectsa ro yposuk
qoxoqos u t.q.
8repsMe c 1993 r. roctouuMn artopon uaaeu usuu ctana espaotua; ee yposeue noet sospactu s 2000 r.
sa c+et crpMtou opnM qo 8 -12 nnu +enoser.
8 1993 r. srepsMe ua csooquon pMure rosunuce sMrycruuru oaeopasosateneuou u rpoeccuouaneuou aron,
ux +ucno ye s 1996 r. rpesMcuno ronnunnuoua +enoser.
partu+ecru paspyaeuM rpeuue cssu rpoeccuouaneuou aronM u tpyqosou cepM: qo 50% sMrycruuros
sysos, onee 60% sMrycruuros cpequeu u qo 80% sMrycruuros ua+aneuou rpoeccuouaneuou aron octaktc
uetpyqoyctpoeuuMnu.
pu eeroquou rpoeccuouaneuou nurpauu us 15 nnu +en. nuae rpunepuo 4 nnu +en. opaaaetc s cnyM
sautoctu, oquaro tpyqoyctpouctso espaotuMx rpaqau qae rocne ux repeoy+euu octaetc uepeaeuuou
rponenou.
Ctpyrtypa poccuucroro pMura pao+eu cunM pesro ucraeua: qon espaotuMx creuanuctos sMcorou
rsanuurauu s pqe peruouos qocturaet 60%.
3tu usneueuu couaneuMx octotenects cyaectseuuMn opason snukt ua rcuxonoru+ecryk cepy oeuru,
otuoaeuue r xoqy peopn, y+actue s uux rourpetuMx nkqeu. laau uccneqosauu rorasMsakt, +to s uosMx ycnosux
cuneuo usneuunace rcuxonoru rar nonoqeu, tar u sspocnMx. peqe scero usneuunace cuctena nu+uoctuMx
euuocteu u oeuor: pesro yrano +ysctso coctseuuoro qoctouuctsa, ysepeuuocte s sastpaauen que (onee 60%
sMrycruuros rpoeccuouaneuou aronM ue unekt usueuuMx rnauos, a qo 80% us uux ue ysepeuM s ton, +to cnoryt
uautu roqxoqayk paoty). Pesro yneueaunace sua+unocte tpyqa, raqaet rpectu rpoeccuouaneuoro
opasosauu u uayroenroro rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa.
0tne+euuMe euoneuM uaxoqt csoe rpoqoneuue s ton, +to c,(ecmee++o eospacmaem cno+ocme u m+ecme
us+e++ex cum,a(uu nuv+ocmu. 0cneqosauu ouapyusakt rcuxu+ecroe uarpeuue u ctpecc onee +en y 50%
rpaqau, oneauuctso us uux uyqaetc s creuaneuou rcuxonoru+ecrou ronoau.
0quaro s ycnosux mpa+copva(uo++oco nepuoda npe+ue co(uane+a+ u ncuxonocuvec|a+ meopuu +e
cpaameeasm, rocronery ctpoeuue, yuruu u passutue rcuxuru unu paccnatpusaktc sue cssu c passutuen tou
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
128
peaneuou couaneuou cutyauu, tex rourpetuMx ycnosuu, s rotopMx uset u qeuctsyet qauuMu uuqusuq. K
coaneuuk, ceroqu poccuucra rpartu+ecra rcuxonoru passusaetc s ronuon otpMse ot teopetu+ecrux
paspaotor ote+ectseuuMx uccneqosateneu, saunctsy u aqartupy, +acto ue sronue neraneuMn opason,
paspaotauuMe sa pyeon netoqM u texuuru rcuxonoru+ecroro auanusa, oeuru u rcuxonoru+ecroro sosqeuctsu.
8auo ot+etnuso cosuasate, +to peaeuue rpuseqeuuoro sMae repe+u rponen neut s pycne paaeumu u
nepevenm akqenmoe eyvanumapno kynsmypm: tonero uay+ua rcuxonoru u couonoru, ux rpartu+ecrue
rpunoeuu crocouM oecre+ute pauouaneuoe yrpasneuue u canoyrpasneuue yctou+usMn passutuen +enosera
rar rpaqauuua u rpoeccuouana.
Pacaupkaac couaneua u rcuxonoru+ecra rpartura suose u suose sMsnkt orpauu+euuocte sqpasoro
cnMcna, rotopMu ue rossonet rporuosuposate couaneuMe u rcuxonoru+ecrue rocneqctsu rpuuunasnMx peaeuuu,
oeuusate ux couaneuMe u rcuxonoru+ecrue rocneqctsu. otep usueuuMx opueutupos u repcrertus cuuaet
yctou+usocte +enosera, cosqaet yrposy ero nu+uou u rpoeccuouaneuou esoracuoctu. 8 atou cutyauu
ueoxoqunMn ctauosutc cosqauue oaeuauouaneuMx cucten corposoqeuu rpaqaucrou u rpoeccuouaneuou
rapeepM, rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru +enosera ua usueuuon rytu.
8aueuaun aneneuton yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon ua cospeneuuon atare ctauosutc auanus u
pauouanusau csseu neqy ve++s(uvuc+ e xode peopv cucmevavu opasoea+u+ u sa++mocmu. Auanus
poccuucrou cutyauu rorasMsaet, +to rcuxonoru+ecru uauonee tpyquMnu ctauostc uneuuo noneutM repexoqa
neqy pasnu+uMnu sseuenu oaeopasosateneuou, rpoeccuouaneuou aron u cepou rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa.
Artusua couaneua ronutura, ocuosauua ua roueruu yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon, rar pas u
rpeqronaraet uccneqosauue u rpartu+ecroe paspeaeuue pqa uacyauMx qn Poccuu rponen, s +actuoctu,
sorpocos opnuposauu, passutu u corposoqeuu rpaqaucrou u rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM +enosera*, t.e.
cosqauu, socrpoussoqctsa u pauouaneuoro ucronesosauu upasctseuuoro, uutennertyaneuoro u
rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana ctpauM.
* 3apodu+ |.V., locoe l./. /rpasneuue +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu: rcuxonoru+ecrue rponenM. V., 1994; 3apodu+ |.V. /rpasneuue
+enose+ecrunu pecypcanu rar rcuxonoru+ecra rponena // purnaqua rcuxonoru. 1997. 8. C. 3-9.

Tara paota, rar nM ye rosopunu, rpeqronaraet artusuyk oropy ua eyvanumapnm s ronuon cnMcne atoro
cnosa kovnnekc nayk o venoeeke. 8Mxoq us tpyquocteu, sarouonepuo sosuuraux s xoqe tpaucopnauu
poccuucroro oaectsa u s rpoecce roctpoeuu pMuo+uou arouonuru, rar nM ronaraen, sosnoeu nuae rpu
cneqykaux tpex ycnosux:
roctpoeuue yuqaneutaneuMx pasqenos couaneuou uayru (rpeqe scero rcuxonoruu) s uosou rapaqurne;
paspaotra artusuou couaneuou ronuturu u cootsetctsykaux couaneuMx nexauusnos ee peanusauu s
panrax oaeuauouaneuMx uuctutytos (cucten u cny);
couaneuoe u rcuxonoru+ecroe rpocseaeuue u roucynetuposauue uaceneuu (s repsyk o+epeqe, qn tar
uasMsaenMx rpusucuMx rpyrr uaceneuu).
Peaeuue repe+ucneuuMx sMae saqa+ tpeyet paspaotru uosMx uarpasneuuu u s passutuu couaneuou teopuu, u
s cosqauuu uosMx netoqos uccneqosauu, oeuru, corposoqeuu u roqqepru rpoeccos opasosauu u
rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa, tarux, rar:
auanus rpoeccos usuu cyerta; tarou auanus qoneu, ronuno usy+euu qeteneuoctu, srnk+ate s ce
uccneqosauue rpoeccos passutu +enosera; rosneuu u yqosnetsopeuu rotpeuocteu; socrpoussoqctsa u
passutu +enose+ecrux otuoaeuuu;
usy+euue uuterpauu nuuuu usuu u cyqe rourpetuMx cyertos s couaneuMx rpoeccax oprauusauu u
qsueuu oneaux rpyrr, t.e. uccneqosauue naccosuquMx rpoeccos u sneuuu; ssaunocssu uuqusuqyaneuoro u
oaectseuuoro cosuauu; roseqeuu nkqeu s oprauusaux;
uccneqosauue rcuxonoru+ecrux ocuosauuu tar uasMsaenMx pMuo+uMx rpoeccos; uccneqosauue roseqeuu
+enosera s cutyaux repeneuM coctseuuoctu, pectpyrtypuposauu arouonuru u rousepcuu rpeqrputuu, usy+euue
uuqusuqyaneuMx ocoeuuocteu rpoussoqctsa u rotpeneuu; rcuxonoru rpoeccos oneua u qp.
8aqa+a yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon s otnu+ue ot saqa+ y+eta +enose+ecroro artopa rpeqronaraet
pacrpMtue sosnouocteu u sarouonepuocteu passutu cyerta rar enoctuoro cyaectsa, uaxoqaeroc s
uerpepMsuon ssaunoqeuctsuu c nupon s csoen nuauaen orpyeuuu, s orpeqeneuuou couaneuou cpeqe.
0tnetun, +to passutue teopetu+ecrou u rpurnaquou uayr ua ase rpeqMqyaeu rapaqurnM y+eta +enose+ecroro
artopa s 60-e-80-e roqM artu+ecru sanouno ocnoem eyvanumapno u ncuxonoeuvecko kynsmypm
orpeqeneuuoro cno rpaqau Poccuu. o uaaeny nueuuk, repexoq ua rapaqurny ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uv
pec,pcov noet ctate tarun e noauMn ocuosauuen rar uosoro sutra passutu ote+ectseuuou couaneuou uayru,
tar u paquraneuoro uavenenu ocnoe eyvanumapno kynsmypm poccuucroro oaectsa. 8 +actuoctu, cosqauue
129
uosMx otpacneu rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru raysaneuou u rouctpyrtusuou rcuxonoruu s panrax rapaqurnM
yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu rossonut onee to+uo opnynuposate teopetu+ecrue u rpurnaquMe
rponenM, cosqasate onee noauMe usneputeneuMe rpoeqypM rpu peaeuuu saqa+ quaruocturu nu+uoctu, oeuru
yposu rpaqaucrou spenoctu u rpoeccuouaneuou ronreteutuoctu, repcrertus nu+uoctuoro passutu +enosera,
yrpasneuu roseqeuuen u qp.
C rpartu+ecrou to+ru speuu repexoq r ,npaene+us venoeevec|uv pec,pcov rpeqronaraet tare cosqauue u
passutue rpuuuruaneuo uosMx qn Poccuu uauouaneuMx couaneuMx cucten, passutu pMura rurux
repcouuuuposauuMx opasosateneuMx ycnyr, cornacosauu peruouaneuMx pMuros opasosauu u tpyqa u t.q. pu
aton rotpeyetc creuaneua paspaotra u sueqpeuue uosMx netoqos:
auanusa, rporuosa u yrpasneuu pMuron tpyqa u rpoeccuu;
auanusa, rporuosa u yrpasneuu pMuron y+euMx ycnyr;
paspaotru u peanusauu peruouaneuMx (runotuMx) rporpann yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu.
8 panrax yrasauuMx couaneuMx cucten yqyt artusuo passusatec cneqykaue suqM rpartu+ecrou
qeteneuoctu:
rcuxonoru+ecroe corposoqeuue rpaqaucrou u rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM +enosera, srnk+akaue s ce
sorpocM opueutauu, roucynetauu u ronoau rpu rnauuposauuu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, rpu sMope
usueuuoro rytu, rpu sxoqeuuu s pMuor tpyqa, rpu peaeuuu sosuurakaux repcouaneuMx rponen;
passutue repcouana rpeqrputuu, srnk+a ckqa sMop pauouaneuMx couaneuMx rnauos u oprauusauouuMx
ctpyrtyp, cornacosauue rporpann passutu rpoussoqcts u texuonoruu c rporpannanu u rnauanu roqrotosru,
reperoqrotosru u rosMaeuu rsanuurauu paotuuros scex yposueu;
ceptuurau repcouana s cootsetctsuu c neqyuapoquMnu rpasunanu, rpoeccuouaneua roucynetau u
oeura rpoeccuouaneuou ronreteutuoctu paotuuros (y+actuuros couaneuoro u arouonu+ecroro rpoecca).
VM ye otne+anu, +to raqposMu roteuuan poccuucrou arouonuru snetc saueuaun ctpateru+ecrun
artopon, orpeqenkaun ycrex rposoqunou arouonu+ecrou peopnM*. Cornacuo uaaeu teopetu+ecrou noqenu
coctouue rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouuou ctpyrtypM +enose+ecrux pecypcos u ra+ectseuuMe xapartepucturu
ronoeuu qen ua pMure tpyqa oycnosneuM:
qenorpau+ecrun u rpoeccuouaneuMn roteuuanon arouonuru;
ctpyrtypuMnu rpeopasosauunu uapoquoxosuctseuuoro ronrnerca;
ra+ectson u quuanurou usneueuu +enose+ecrux pecypcos.
* 3apodu+ |.V. ponenM yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu (poccuucrue peopnM u repcrertusM passutu rcuxonoruu) //
/rpasneuue +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu. V., 1994. C. 7-37.

11.2. 0uepk qeuorpaquecko cya. 3kououueck aksuoe uaceneue s Pocc

+ucneuuocte uaceneuu Poccuu ua ua+ano 1997 r. coctasuna +yte onee 147 nnu +enoser. Ectectseuua yMne
uaceneuu s 1997 r. ro cpasueuuk c 1996 r., uecronero cuusunace u coctasuna 787 tMc. +enoser rpu 840 tMc.
+enoser s 1995 r. (cn. tan. 11.1).

Tanua 11.1
euorpaquecka cya s Pocc ua uauano 1997 r.

orasatenu Konu+ectso +enoser (tMc.) la 1000 uaceneuu Crpasra
1996 1995 pupoct 1996 1995 1994
Poqusauec
/nepaue s ton +ucne s sospacte qo 1 roqa (ua 1000
poqusauxc)
Ectectseuua yMne
6paru
PassoqM
1306,1
2092,4
22,9 786,3
866,4
562,1
1363,8
2203,8
24,8 840,0
1075,2
665,9
-55,7
-111,4
-1,9
-53,7
-208,8
-103,8
8,8
14,3
17,0
-5,5
5,9
3,8
9,3
15,0
18,1
-5,7
7,3
4,5
9,5
15,7
18,6
-6,1
7,4
4,6

8necte c ten oeuru repcrertus ectectseuuou yMnu poccuucroro uaceneuu secena reccunuctu+uM. C y+eton
rpeqronaraenMx usneueuuu s ectectseuuon u nurpauouuon qsueuuu uaceneuu oaa +ucneuuocte uaceneuu
Poccuu sa 1999-2005 rr. noet corpatutec c 147,8 nnu +enoser (+ucneuuocte uaceneuu s 1995 r.) qo 145,7 nnu
+enoser s 2000 r. u qo 143,2 nnu +enoser s 2005 r.
Tarun opason, corpaaeuue oaeu +ucneuuoctu uaceneuu sa repuoq 1996-2000 rr. coctasut ro+tu 2,1 nnu
+enoser, a sa repuoq c 2001 ro 2000 rr. 2,5 nnu +enoser. o ycpequeuuMn oeuran s 1998 r. ouqaena
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130
rpoqonuteneuocte usuu coctasnna y ny+uu 59,6 net, y euauu 72,7 roqa. | xot uenarorputuMe
couaneuo-arouonu+ecrue ycnosu usuu uaceneuu Poccuu rpoqonakt orasMsate otpuateneuoe sosqeuctsue ua
rorasatene ouqaenou rpoqonuteneuoctu usuu, ou qo 2005 r. rpartu+ecru ue usneuutc u coctasut rpunepuo 65
net (ny+uuM 58,2 net, euauuM 72,8 roqa).
8 enon qenorpau+ecra cutyau s 90-e roqM s Poccuu octasanace qoctato+uo cnouou u ueoquosua+uou, +to
oycnosneuo, c oquou ctopouM, rpoqonakaunc cuueuuen yposu poqaenoctu, c qpyrou corpaaeuuen +ucna
ynepaux. 0quaro s otnu+ue ot qpyrux rorasateneu couaneuo-arouonu+ecroro passutu, qenorpau+ecrue
rpoeccM cyaectseuuo onee uuepuouuM, u roatony ux passutue s te+euue 2000-2005 rr. nouo rporuosuposate
onee unu neuee ysepeuuo.
C y+eton atoro sane+auu, s te+euue 2000-2005 rr. ouqaetc rpesMaeuue +ucna ynepaux uaq poqusaunuc, a
ectectseuuMu rpupoct uaceneuu coctasut otpuateneuyk senu+uuy, pasuyk ro+tu 3,7 nnu +enoser r 2001 r. u
ro+tu 7,0 nnu +enoser r 2006 r.
Ectectseuua yMne uaceneuu Poccuu +actu+uo ronreucupyetc nurpauouuMnu rpoeccanu. VurpauouuMu
rpupoct uaceneuu, sa 1992-1994 rr. ysenu+usakauuc s cpequen sa roq ua 470 tMc. +enoser, c 1995 r. ua+an
corpaaatec u s 2000 r. cuusunc qo 180 tMc. +enoser, a r 2005 r. ro rporuosuMn oeuran ue yqet rpesMaate
115 tMc. +enoser. Ten ue neuee, s repcrertuse Poccu yqet ro-rpeueny uectu sua+uteneuMe usqepru ro rpueny
u oyctpouctsy eeues u sMuyqeuuMx repeceneues.
C to+ru speuu uaaero auanusa sauo, +to rpoeccM, rpoucxoqaue s ectectseuuon qsueuuu uaceneuu
Poccuu, s nuauaee spen qonuM rpusectu r ueoM+uony usneueuuk ero sospactuou ctpyrtypM. Tar,
+ucneuuocte qeteu u roqpoctros s sospacte qo 16 net sa repuoq 1999-2005 rr. noet yneueautc ua 7,8 nnu
+enoser, a +ucneuuocte uaceneuu s sospacte ctapae tpyqocrocouoro yneueautc scero ua 1,7 nnu +enoser; rpu
aton ouqaetc cyaectseuuMu rpupoct +ucneuuoctu nu( e mp,docnoco+ov eospacme, rotopMu noet coctasute
4,9 nnu +enoser. auuoe octotenectso snetc secena narorputuMn s rporuose uapoqouaceneuu Poccuu,
rocronery cosqaktc peaneuMe rpeqrocMnru pocma mp,doeoco nome+(uana ctpauM, ua +to cneqyet opueutuposate
sce otpacnu xosuctsa, u ocoeuuo cepy rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu (cn. tan. 11.2)*.
* Ctatuctu+ecrue natepuanM u quarpannM auanusa u rporuosa poccuucrou cutyauu s 1991-2016 rr. nkesuo rpeqoctasneuM uan
pyrosoqutenen eraptaneuta auanusa u rporuosuposauu Vuutpyqa Poccuu 8.1. KonauosMn. {puvev. aem.)
Tanua 11.2
6soqua qeuorpaquecka xapakepcka Pocc s 1991-2016 rr.

loqM 8 tpyqocro-
ouon
sospacte
(cpequero-
qosa)
EeroquMu
rpupoct
(yneueae-
uue)
uaceneuu s
tpyqocro-
couon
sospacte
+ucneu-uocte
arouonu+ec-
ru artusuoro
uaceneuu,
nnu +en.
EeroquMu
rpupoct
arouonu-+ecru
artusuoro
uaceneuu
8autMe

EeroqMu
rpupoct
(yneueae-
uue) sautMx
6espaot-
uMe
/poseue
espaotu-
M, %
131
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
83,9
83,8
83,8
83,9
84,1
84,3
84,6
85,2
85,9
86,7
87,3
87,9
88,7
89,3
89,6
89,65
89,3
88,7
87,8
86,8
85,9
84,7
83,5
82,3
81,1

-0,1
0
0,1
0,2
0,2
0,3
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,6
0,6
0,8
0,6
0,3
0,05
-0,35
-0,6
-0,9
-1
-0,9
-1,2
-1,2
-1,2
-1,2

76
75,4
74,2
73
73,2
72,8
72,6
73,3
72,3
73,2
73,8
74,5
75,3
76,2
75,5
74,8
74,1
73,4
72,7
71,6
70,5
69,3
68,1
66,9










0,9
0,6
0,7
0,8
0,9
-0,7
-0,7
-0,7
-0,7
-0,7
-1,1
-1,1
-1,2
-1,2
-1,2
-66,9
73,8
72,1
70,9
68,5
66,4
66
64,6
63,6
64
64,7
65,4
65,9
66,4
67,1
67,8
67,4
67
66,6
66,2
65,8
65
64,2
63,3
62,4
61,5

-1,7
-1,2
-2,4
-2,1
-0,4
-1,4
-1
0,4
0,7
0,7
0,5
0,5
0,7
0,7
-0,4
-0,4
-0,4
-0,4
-0,4
-0,8
-0,8
-0,9
-0,9
-0,9
3,9
4,5
5,7
6,6
7,2
8,2
9
9,3
7,6
7,8
7,9
8,1
8,2
8,4
8,1
7,8
7,5
7,2
6,9
6,6
6,3
6
5,7
5,4

5,1
6,0
7,7
9,0
9,8
11,3
12,4
12,7
10,5
10,7
10,7
10,9
10,9
11,0
10,7
10,4
10,1
9,8
9,5
9,2
8,9
8,7
8,4
8,1

/rasauuMe sMae octotenectsa rpuseqyt r tony, +to, uecnotp ua otpuateneuMe qenorpau+ecrue
teuqeuuu, Poccu qo 2005 r. yqet pacronarate sua+uteneuMn ro oeny tpyqosMn roteuuanon s cssu c
ysenu+euuen +ucna nu tpyqocrocouoro sospacta u corpaaeuuen oaeu +ucneuuoctu uaceneuu (cn. quarpanny
11.1).
0aa +ucneuuocte tpyqosMx pecypcos s 2000 r. coctasut 85,7 nnu +enoser, a s 2005 r. 87,6 nnu +enoser
rpotus 86,1 nnu +enoser s 1991 r. u 84,3 nnu +enoser s 1995 r.
8 atou cssu ocoeuuo sauo paccnotpete coctouue arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu (3Al) u ero sepotuoe
pacrpeqeneuue s uapoquon xosuctse (cn. quarpanny 11.2 u tan. 11.3).
Tanua 11.3
Tpyqosse pecypcs Pocc s 1995-2005 rr.

orasatenu Eq.
usnepeuu
1995 ot+et 1996 ot+et 1997
ot+et
2000
oeura
2005
rporuos
TpyqosMe pecypcM
8auto s arouonure
natepuaneuoe rpoussoqctso
uerpoussoqctseuua cepa
/+aauec s rpoarone
8auto s qonaauen xosuctse u qp.
8 ton +ucne espaotuMe
s % r 3Al
nnu
+en
-*-
- * -
-* -
-* -
-* -
-*-
84,3
66,5
45,1
21,4
5,5
6,7
2,0
2,8
84,1
65,4
43,7
21,7
5,6
7,0
2,6
3,6
84,0 64,7
42,1
22,0
5,6
7,3
3,6
5,1
85,7
65,1
42,4
22,7
5,7
7,8
4,6
6,4
87.6
67.1
43.1
24
5.9
7.7
5.6
7.9

outue arouonu+ecru artusuoe uaceneuue otuocuteneuo uosoe qn couaneuou cepM Poccuu. 8necte c
ten ouo uneet sronue cuMe, usnepunMe u rouctpyrtusuMe xapartepucturu. K arouonu+ecru artusuony uaceneuuk
otuoctc te rpaqaue rocyqapctsa, rotopMe:
noryt paotate;
xott paotate;
uayt paoty.

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132


arpauua 11.1. uuanura ysenu+euu crpoca ua pao+yk cuny



arpauua 11.2. 8auto s arouonure s 1991-2015 rr.

Ecnu pacauposate yrasauuMe sMae rputepuu onee roqpouo, to routue voeym paomams* oxsatMsaet
uaceneuue, uaxoqaeec s tpyqocrocouon sospacte. 3to osua+aet, s +actuoctu, +to osev a|o+ovuvec|u
a|mue+oco +acene+u+, neaauu suytpu yrasauuMx rpauu, roteuuaneuo voem ve++mec+ npu usve+e+uu
peane+oco s+ave+u+ amux cpa+u(.
erro ysuqete, +to ua oen tpyqocrocouoro uaceneuu cyaectseuuo snuet usneueuue rpauu
tpyqocrocouoro sospacta, u ato ctauosutc oquun us rnk+esMx noneutos couaneuou ronuturu rocyqapctsa.* Tar,
uarpunep, cqsur rpauuM tpyqocrocouoro sospacta s ctopouy ee cuueuu (rouueuu noneuta sctyrneuu s
tpyqocrocouMu sospact, t.e. sospacta ua+ana paotM qn roqpoctros) ua oquu tonero roq s cpequen ysenu+usaet
roteuuaneuMu oen 3Al onee +en ua 2 nnu +enoser qn Poccuu. Auanoru+uMu aert nouo rony+ute sa c+et
cqsura sepxueu rpauuM (s ctopouy ysenu+euu cpora uactyrneuu reucuouuoro sospacta). outuo tare, +to
auanoru+uMn opason ua oen 3Al snuet usneueuue rputepues uetpyqocrocouoctu: uarpunep, nerutunuoe
pacaupeuue tpyqosMx otuoaeuuu c +actu+uo tpyqocrocouMn uaceneuuen tare ysenu+usaet roteuuaneuMu
oen 3Al.
* 8 uactoaee spen s esporeucrux ctpauax uqet cepeesua qucryccu ro qauuony sorpocy. {puvev. aem.)
8topou rputepuu xomm paomams tare ue neuee uutepeceu (u tare rouctpyrtuseu) s routercte
133
rouunauu sauoctu rateropuu arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu qn paspaotru nexauusnos yrpasneuu
+enose+ecrunu pecypcanu. Kouctutyuouua nuepanusau rpasa ua tpyq, otqenkaa ato rpaso ot osauuoctu
tpyqutec, nruoseuuo ropoquna s Poccuu orponuMu routuureut nkqeu, rotopMe ue xott paotate, qae yqy+u
crocouMnu ua ato. pocta oeura cyaectsykaero s Poccuu ronoeuu qen c atou to+ru speuu rorasMsaet, +to c
1991 r. opasosanace rponaqua pasuua neqy tpyqosMn pecypcon Poccuu u oenon uaceneuu, peaneuo
sautoro s ee arouonure (cn. tan. 11.2, 11.3). 3tot uenMcnunMu s rpeuue roqM routuureut coctasnet, ro canMn
crponuMn roqc+etan, ropqra 20 nnu +enoser, t.e. onee +en +etsepte scex tpyqosMx pecypcos Poccuu. 8necte c
ten atot rputepuu tar e rpospa+uo pacrpMsaet sosnouMe nexauusnM yrpasneuu roteuuaneuMn oenon 3Al,
rar u rpeqMqyauu. eno s ton, +to atot rputepuu uneet +ucto rcuxonoru+ecryk rpupoqy enauue paotate u
srnk+aet s ce euuocte (sua+unocte) tpyqa u tpyqosyk notusauk. 8auo, oquaro, +to u atot rputepuu
rouctpyrtuseu rcuxonoru qasuo yneet paotate c euuoctnu u notusanu nu+uoctu, usneu u roppertupy ux,
uarpunep, s xoqe rpoecca socrutauu +enosera rar rpaqauuua u rpoeccuouana. 0+esuquo, +to poct tpyqosou
notusauu u rosMaeuue sua+unoctu tpyqa ueneqneuuo crasMsaktc ua roteuuaneuon oene 3Al.
le neuee rouctpyrtuseu u tpetuu rputepuu uym paomy. 8orpoc, ro cytu, ctasutc s cosepaeuuo cuou
couaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrou (roseqeu+ecrou) rnocroctu: oaectso qonuo cosqate creuaneuMu couaneuMu
nexauusn noddep|u u conpoeode+u+ venoee|a e nouc|e paome, t.e. +a paspeeax eco npoeccuo+ane+ou
|apeepe. 3to osua+aet, s +actuoctu, +to +enosera uaqo y+ute +oeev dn+ poccu++u+a noeede+vec|uv voden+v
noqenn roseqeuu ua pMure tpyqa, s rourypeutuou couaneuou cpeqe, s ctpoutenectse qorosopuMx otuoaeuuu
neqy paotuuron u paotoqatenen.
Tarun opason, qae aneneutapuMu auanus oaeu roueruu 3Al rossonet ouapyute |o+cmp,|mue+ee
(enu a|mue+ou co(uane+ou nonumu|u:
yrpasneuue oenon 3Al;
yrpasneuue ctpyrtypou (rpeqe scero rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouuou ctpyrtypou) 3Al;
cornacosauue ctpyrtypM u quuanuru 3Al co ctpyrtypou u quuanurou pMura tpyqa (s ton +ucne s ee
rpoeccuouaneuon paspese).
Ecnu rpu aton y+utMsate, +to cosqasaenMe qn yrasauuMx eneu couaneuMe nexauusnM unekt csoun
repcouaneuMn aerton rotosuocte uuqusuqa rpoeccuouaneuo tpyqutec u s xoqe rpoeccuouaneuou sautoctu
rosMaate csoe rpoeccuouaneuoe nactepctso, ero nouo route, uacronero nusro cnMraktc s yrpasneuuu
+enose+ecrun pecypcon arouonura, rcuxonoru u couaneuMe uayru.
Vouo, s repson rpunueuuu, ytsepqate, +to yrpasneuue +enose+ecrun pecypcon (rar uuqusuqyaneuMn, tar u
ronnertusuMn) s uarpasneuuu rosMaeuu couanusauu u rpoeccuouanusna +enosera rpusoqut r uauny+aeu ero
couaneuou saaute s ycnosux arouonu+ecrux u couaneuMx rotpceuuu. 1opnuposauue rotosuoctu tpyqutec,
ctauosneuue u corposoqeuue rpaqaucrou u rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM rpusoqt r tony, +to tarou +enoser
ctauosutc onee cavocmo+mene+ev u co(uane+o ,cmouvueev e a|o+ovuvec|ov npocmpa+cmee.

11.3. 6pykypuse npeo6paiosau s uapoquoxoicseuuou kounnekce. Psuok pyqa psuok
o6paiosaensusx ycnyr

8 pesynetate rpuuuruaneuoro usneueuu s ronuture sautoctu - ot sceoaeu u osateneuou sautoctu (onee
95% sautoro uaceneuu s oaeu +ucneuuoctu tpyqosMx pecypcos) r csooquony pacropeuuk csounu
crocouoctnu r tpyqy - ye r 1994 r. sanetuMn opason usneuunoce cootuoaeuue tpyqosMx pecypcos Poccuu u
3Al: npo+eunace me+de+(u+ | c+ue+us donu sa++moco +acene+u+ (85%). 8 ctpyrtype tpyqosMx pecypcos
rosunuce pautee, nua, sautMe qonaauun xosuctson, canosautMe u qp. /rasauua teuqeuu rpoqonanace u
s rocneqykaue roqM.
Ctatuctu+ecruu auanus, ro qauuMn Vuuarouonuru Poccuu, rorasMsaet, +to ye s 1996 r. +ucneuuocte sautMx s
arouonure coctasuna tonero 65,4 nnu +enoser rpu oaen oene tpyqosMx pecypcos Poccuu - 84,1 nnu +enoser
(unu tonero 77,8% ot oenuoro roteuuana tpyqosMx pecypcos). 8 ropqre cpasueuu nouo crasate, +to s
ctpauax c pMuo+uou arouonurou qon sautMx qocturaet rpunepuo 65%, roatony ecte sce ocuosauu rpeqronarate,
+to yrasauuMu rpoecc s poccuucrou arouonure s 2000-2005 rr. yqet rpoqonatec.
|ssectuo, +to oquou us xapartepuctur ctereuu pMuo+uoctu arouonu+ecrou cuctenM cnyut rorasatene donu
sa++mex e +ecoc,dapcmee++ov ce|mope arouonuru. Cpasueuue tarux rorasateneu qn Poccuu u CLA rorasMsaet
to, uacronero pasnu+uM y uux ctpyrtypM tpyqosMx pecypcos (cn. tan. 11.4).

Tanua 11.4
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
134
Pacnpeqeneue iausx s Pocc 6UA no qopuau co6cseuuoc, %

Certop arouonuru Poccu CLA
1990 1995 1990
locyqapctseuuMu
lerocyqapctseuuMu
82,4
17,6
38,5
61,5
15,9
84,1

Ecnu qoryctute, +to cropocte repenusa pao+eu cunM us rocyqapctseuuMx rpeqrputuu s uerocyqapctseuuMu
certop arouonuru Poccuu s rocneqykaue roqM octauetc tarou e, rar s uutepsane 1993-1995 rr., u rpu aton s
ra+ectse opueutupa ucronesosate cnousaeec cootuoaeuue sautoctu s ocuosuMx certopax CLA, to nouo
rporuosuposate, +to ye +epes 10-15 net Poccu yqet unete nusryk r anepuraucrou ctpyrtypy tpyqosMx pecypcos
(une s suqy ux pacrpeqeneuue ro opnan coctseuuoctu).
apanneneuo c rpeopasosauuen ctpyrtypM sautoctu ro opnan coctseuuoctu u certopan arouonuru
rpoucxoqt cdeucu e npoeccuo+ane+ov cocmaee paoveu cune. auuMe, rpuseqeuuMe s tan. 11.5, oxsatMsakaue
47 u 48% sautoro uaceneuu cootsetctseuuo s Poccuu u CLA, qakt rpeqctasneuue o ton, uacronero pasnu+aktc
rpoeccuouaneuMe ctpyrtypM sautoctu ctpau c passutou pMuo+uou arouonurou u ctpau c uepassutMnu pMuo+uMnu
otuoaeuunu. (pu aton uaqo unete s suqy, +to peaneuoe coqepauue paot ro cxoquMn ro uassauuk rpoeccun
s qeuctsuteneuoctu secena cuneuo otnu+aetc.)
Tanua 11.5
Yqensus sec npoqeccouansusx rpynn iauoro uaceneu Pocc 6UA s o6me ucneuuoc iausx, %

Creuaneuocte Poccu CLA
1. |ueuepM
2. Texuuru
3. Vactepa
4. lnasuMe yxrantepM u ayqutopM
5. C+etosoqM, yxrantepM u paotuuru y+eta
6. Cerpetapu
7. Vaauuuctru
8. lay+uMe paotuuru
9. peroqasatenu sysos, ronneqeu u aron
10. 8ocrutatenu
11. Ctonatonoru
12. 1eneqaepM u aryaepM
13. Vequuucrue cectpM u nequuucrue pate
14. TosaposeqM
15. poqasM, apneuM, yet+uru
16. KaccupM
17. osapa, rynuuapM
18. 0uuautM
19. 1epnepM
20. 8oqutenu astotpaucropta
21. Vexauuru u penoutuuru tpaucroptuMx cpeqcts
22. Cnecapu, copauru
23. Kaneuauru, onuosauru
24. Kposeneauru
25. VanpM
26. 3nertpuru
27. etouauru
28. lpys+uru, roquoc+uru
29. Vycopauru, yopauru
30. Pasuopao+ue
5,20
1,43
1,66
0,34
1,90
0,74
0,22
0,46
2,61
1,63
0,07
0,41
1,53
0,31
1,99
0,56
1,31
0,12
0,17
6,78
1,05
6,78
0,67
0,05
1,02
1,88
0,13
1,04
2,22
2,71
1,58
3,26
1,88
1,21
1,62
3,35
0,54
1,35
4,03
1,41
0,14
1,42
1,23
1,39
3,44
2,11
1,54
3,95
1,05
3,04
1,45
0,96
0,35
0,18
0,46
0,59
0,06
1,45
1,86
1,14

poqsueuue Poccuu ro rytu pMuo+uMx rpeopasosauuu yqet corposoqatec npu+(unuane+ou
mpa+copva(ueu npoeccuo+ane+o-|eanuu|a(uo++ex cmp,|m,p |adpoe.
Ceu+ac ye sronue oocuosauuo nouo rosopute o rpoeccuouaneuou ctpatuurauu oaectsa, rotopa
rposnetc s opnuposauuu qsyx pasnu+uMx raqposMx cnoes: paotuuros tpaquuouuMx creuaneuocteu,
cyaectsosasaux pauee, u paotuuros tar uasMsaenMx pMuo+uMx rpoeccuu. PMuo+uMe rpoeccuu rosunuce s
135
Poccuu s rocnequee spen s cssu c passutuen pMuo+uou arouonuru u sosuuruoseuuen sua+uteneuoro certopa
orepauu c coctseuuoctek u orasauu pMuo+uMx ycnyr (porepM, narnepM, neueqepM, ayqutopM, creuanuctM ro
orepaun c ueqsuunoctek u t.r.). Cano pasqeneuue tpyqosMx pecypcos ua tpaquuouuMe u pMuo+uMe raqpM
snetc, roue+uo, ycnosuMn, uo ten ue neuee sauMn: qn repsMx s Poccuu uneetc yctosaac cuctena
roqrotosru u reperoqrotosru creuanuctos, rotopyk uaqo nuae cosepaeuctsosate u aqartuposate r cospeneuuMn
ycnosun, a qn stopMx oua uaxoqutc s rpoecce cosqauu.
Ctatuctu+ecrue qauuMe rorasMsakt, +to eae s 1992-1993 rr. uanetunoce, a s rocneqykaue roqM cosepaeuuo
ot+etnuso sMsunoce vece|mopane+oe nepepacnpedene+ue paoveu cune s ronesy tpetu+uoro certopa. 8 1996-
1999 rr. ro rpeqsaputeneuMn oeuran (ro cpasueuuk c 1995 r.) sautocte uaceneuu s rpoussoqctseuuou cepe
corpatunace rpunepuo ua 12%, s oprauusaux uay+uMx u uay+uoro ocnyusauu ua 13%, uo rpu aton sospocna
+ucneuuocte paotakaux s y+peqeuux sqpasooxpaueuu u couaneuou saautM uaceneuu (1,5%), opasosauu
(6,6%), rynetypM u ucrycctsa (3,2%). 8ua+uteneuMu poct +ucneuuoctu otne+aetc s auroscrux u ctpaxosMx
y+peqeuux, uanorosMx oprauax, kpuqu+ecrux cnyax. 8anetuo sMpocno vucno cavosa++mex u rpeqctasuteneu
tar uasMsaenMx ceood+ex rpoeccuu.
Dse|mue+eu npupocm mpemuv+oco ce|mopa a|o+ovu|u ye ceu+ac cosqan sosnouocte arrynynuposate
sua+uteneuMu roteuuan paotuuros c ueronuou sautoctek sa c+et canosautoctu e cepe ,nuv+ou mopcoenu u
pasnuv+ex npovecnoe. Vouo ysepeuuo rporuosuposate, +to atot rpupoct tpetu+uoro certopa arouonuru yqet
rpoqonatec u s rocneqykaue roqM.
8necte c ten uaqo roq+epruyte, +to roqasnkaa qon sautMx s arouonure Poccuu (onee 56%) srnote qo
1996 r. Mna cocpeqoto+eua s cepe tar uasMsaenoro emopuv+oco ce|mopa arouonuru (qn cpasueuu ata qon s
CLA s 1986 r. coctasnna 28,3%). 3to osua+aet, +to oneaa +acte uaenuMx paotuuros sauta rpeunyaectseuuo
s opaatMsakaux otpacnx natepuaneuoro rpoussoqctsa, u, r coaneuuk, oneaeu +actek s ra+ectse pao+ux
naccosMx rpoeccuu (ro+tu 70% sautMx s atou cepe qeteneuoctu).
uuanura +ucneuuoctu sautMx s rponManeuuoctu, rar u cneqosano ouqate, orasanace c,(ecmee++o
saeuc+(eu om ,poe++ onname mp,da; ua ocuose rpunueuuMx oeuor sqece nouo sMqenute tpu rpyrrM
otpacneu. 8 repsou rpyrre - otpacnu tornusuo-auepretu+ecroro ronrnerca, ctpouteneuou uuqyctpuu (c sapaotuou
rnatou, sua+uteneuo rpesMaakaeu cpequkk ro Poccuu) rpousoaen poct sautoctu ot 1 qo 7%. 8o stopou rpyrre
otpacneu tenon naauuoctpoeuuu, nerrou, necuou, qepesoopaatMsakaeu rponManeuuoctu (ornata tpyqa s
rotopMx uanuoro neueae cpequero yposu) - rpousoano cyaectseuuoe corpaaeuue +ucneuuoctu sautMx, ua 8-10%.
8 tpeteeu rpyrre otpacneu setuou netannypruu, ruaesou u qp. +ucneuuocte paotakaux octanace rpartu+ecru
es usneueuuu unu corpatunace uesua+uteneuo.
0tnetun, +to qo cux rop oneauuctsy poccuucrux rponManeuuMx rpeqrputuu rpucyau nanouoneurnatypuoe
rpoussoqctso c qnuteneuMnu cporanu ouosneuu usqenuu, opueutau ua rponenM rpoussoqctsa rpoqyruu, a ue
ua sarpocM rotpeuteneu. ostopkauuc xapartep orepauu u rpatra ux rpoqonuteneuocte, uesMcoruu yposeue
cnouoctu, saqauuMu tenr u putn, oquoopasue tpyqa saqasanu uesMcorue tpeosauu r rsanuurauu
paotakaero repcouana. 8ce ato qenano rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouuyk ctpyrtypy poccuucroro pMura
pao+eu cunM ectrou, a ocuosuyk naccy paotuuros (c y+eton sMpaotauuMx tpyqosMx yctauosor)
nanosocrpuun+usou r usneueuun, ue sauutepecosauuou s rosMaeuuu rpoeccuouaneuou rsanuurauu, pocte
rpoqyrtusuoctu csoero tpyqa.
+pessM+auuo uusra tpyqosa notusau uaenuMx paotuuros. o qauuMn uaaux rpeqsaputeneuMx
ocneqosauuu orono 30% paotuuros rponManeuuMx rpeqrputuu s uutepsane 1992-1995 rr. ue uneno uurarux
enauuu rosMaate csoe rpoeccuouaneuoe nactepctso. +yte onee 20% xoteno M rony+ute rarue-nuo suauu s
onactu pMuo+uou arouonuru, uo sa c+et rpeqrputu. lecnotp ua to +to r 1995 r. sqece uanetunuce rosutusuMe
cqsuru, cutyau s enon octasnet enate ny+aero. Cneqosateneuo, vomuea(u+ paseumu+ cma+oeumc+ od+uv us
vo(+ex a|mopoe e ,npaene+uu venoeevec|uv nome+(uanov a|o+ovu|u u opca+usa(uu npednpu+mu+ (tan. 11.6).
Tanua 11.6
0uomeue pa6oukos k npoqeccouansuouy o6yueu

N r/r /tsepqeuu 0tsetM s %
1993 1995
1
2
3
4
5
le xott y+utec sooae
Xott rony+ute qoronuuteneuMe suauu s onactu pMuo+uou arouonuru
Xott rosMcute rpoeccuouaneuyk rsanuurauk
Xott oy+utec uosMn rpoeccun (sa c+et rpeqrputu)
8 ton +ucne rpoeccuu rpeqrpuuunaten
38,7
14,2
10,5
20,4
5,0
9,0
23,7
46,9
30,4
12,1

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
136
8Mopo+uMe ocneqosauu ctauneuo rorasMsakt, +to rsanuurau oneauuctsa pyrosoquteneu u
creuanuctos rpeqrputuu u oprauusauu ue otse+aet tpeosauun pMuo+uou arouonuru. Tar, uarpunep, ro
oeuran |uctutyta arouonuru PAl us 9 tMc. rpeqrputuu rauquqatos s aurpotM roqasnkaee oneauuctso
roteprenu ueyqa+y us-sa oauor s yrpasneuuu, ueyneuu oprauusosate qeno s pMuo+uMx ycnosux. Crasauuoe
tpeyet naccosoro passeptMsauu npocpavv, ce+sa++ex c nepenodcomoe|ou nepco+ana, nodcomoe|ou eco | paome
e ,cnoeu+x pe+|a, s +actuoctu, rporpann oy+euu u roucantuura s onactu cospeneuuMx netoqos oprauusauu
tpyqa, rpoussoqctsa u yrpasneuu.
laqo otnetute, oquaro, +to rpoucxoqaue s cospeneuuou Poccuu usneueuu ua+uuakt ronouteneuo rposnte
ce s sospactakaux mpeoea+u+x | |avecme, nepco+ana. /e ceroqu sMcororsanuuuposauuMe paotuuru c
+etro sMpaeuuMnu yctauosranu r rpoqyrtusuony tpyqy snktc uauonee rourypeutocrocouMnu u nouneuMnu
ua pMure tpyqa, tpyqoyctpausaktc Mctpo u canoctoteneuo, es opaaeuu s cnyM sautoctu, u coctasnkt
sua+uteneuyk +acte s routuureute rpoeccuouaneuou nurpauu. o qauuMn uaaux sMopo+uMx ocneqosauuu, ato
onee 25% nu, roneusaux necto paotM s 1995-1999 rr., a +ucno tarux nu ronenetc s rpeqenax 12-15 nnu
+enoser eeroquo.
8 nuauaue roqM c enek ctaunusauu arouonuru u rosopota rponManeuuoctu ua rpuuuruaneuo uosMe
rpoussoqctso u texuonoruu (srnk+a s uux couaneuMe texuonoruu) ueoxoquno narcunaneuo rosMcute ra+ectso
yrpasneuu rpeqrputunu, ra+ectso rpoeccuouaneuMx opasosateneuMx ycnyr.
/+anus pe+|a npoeccuo+ane+ex opasoeamene+ex ,cn,c rorasMsaet, +to s ctpyrtype opasosateneuMx
y+peqeuuu s repuoq peopn poccuucroro oaectsa u poccuucrou arouonuru rpoucxoqunu orpeqeneuuMe
usneueuu sa c+et rpeopasosauu rpotexy+unua s texuu+ecrue nueu, cpequux creuaneuMx y+peqeuuu s
ronnequ, a pqa sMcaux opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu s yuusepcutetM u araqenuu. poeccuouaneua arona s
atot repuoq sanetuo ycununa rpoecc suytpeuueu peoprauusauu: paspaatMsaktc uosMe opasosateneuMe
ctauqaptM, usneuetc ctpyrtypa u crertp creuaneuocteu, rosunuce anetepuatusuMe opasosateneuMe
y+peqeuu, uqyt arcrepuneutM s cepe penecneuuou roqrotosru.
0quaro rpu aton, rar u pauee, qosoneuo nuoro suunauu yqenetc osnaqeuuk saracon araqenu+ecrux suauuu u
ropasqo neueae osnaqeuuk rpartu+ecrunu uasMranu paotM s ycnosux usneukaeuc arouonuru. Tar,
uarpunep (ro qauuMn peruouaneuMx oprauos ro tpyqy, coctasusaux rpunepuMu repe+eue qeuutuMx rpoeccuu,
ua ua+ano 1996 r.), s +ucne repsMx qectu rpuoputetuMx rpoeccuu orasanuce, s ocuosuon, rpoeccuu
rsanuuuposauuMx penecneuuuros u paotuuros cepM ycnyr (re+uuru, penoutuuru, rnotuuru, yxrantepM u t.r.).
8 uactoaee spen crnaqMsaetc tpesoua cutyau s oaeopasosateneuou arone corpaaaetc qon
nonoqeu, rony+akaeu ronuoe cpequee opasosauue. Ecnu s 1987 r. oua coctasnna onee 80% ot +ucna nonoqMx
nkqeu s sospacte 18 net, to s 1995 r. atot rorasatene coctasun neuee 70%, a s 2000 r. tonero 62-65% nonoqeu
rony+uno ronuoe cpequee opasosauue. pu aton nonoqMe nkqu roraqakt ua pMuor tpyqa rpartu+ecru es scrou
sosnouoctu tpyqoyctpouctsa. Tar, s 1993 r. +ucneuuocte sMrycruuros qestMx rnaccos, orasasauxc ua csooquon
pMure tpyqa, coctasuna onee 200 tMc. +enoser, s 1994 r. rpunepuo 700 tMc. +enoser, u, ecnu ue rpuute
creuaneuMx nep, oua noet eeroquo yqsausatec.
8Mrycruuru oaeopasosateneuou u rpoeccuouaneuou aron ue unekt cronero-uuyqe cuou usueuuou
repcrertusM u ctpaqakt ot ueorpeqeneuuoctu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM. o uaaun oeuran, eeroquo onee 2,5
nnu us uux uyqaetc s creuaneuon rpoeccuouaneuon roucynetuposauuu u rcuxonoru+ecrou ronoau.
lapactaet s+avuvocme mp,do,cmpoucmea een,c|+u|oe scex sseuees rpoeccuouaneuou aronM. 8a rocnequue
roqM ctauneuo orono 50% sMrycruuros sysos, onee 60% sMrycruuros cpequux creuaneuMx y+euMx saseqeuuu u
70% sMrycruuros rpotexy+unua orasanuce ue soctpeosauuMnu rpeqrputunu u oprauusaunu. poecc atot s
nuauaee spen yqet unete rynyntusuMu xapartep, rocronery rpuen s y+euMe saseqeuu octanc rpartu+ecru
ua rpeuen yposue: sa repuoq c 1991 r. ro 1996 r. ronu+ectso sMrycruuros us rpotexy+unua u cpequux
creuaneuMx opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu uesua+uteneuo cuusunoce (s rpeqenax 10%), a sMrycr creuanuctos us
sMcaux y+euMx saseqeuuu ysenu+unc ua 4%.
pu coxpaueuuu yrasauuMx teuqeuuu s nuauaeu repcrertuse raqoe uosoe roroneuue yqet neuee
oy+euuMn (neuee oxsa+euuMn scenu suqanu oy+euu), +en rpeqMqyaee. A ato rpu uankqaenou teuqeuuu
cuueuu ronu+ectsa u ra+ectsa scex suqos rony+aenoro opasosauu yxyqaut ra+ectseuuyk ctpyrtypy poccuucrou
pao+eu cunM.
Paoma cn, sa++mocmu +e peaaem amou nponeve: s Poccuu sMrycr ctyqeutos quesuMx otqeneuuu scex
opn rpoeccuouaneuou aronM coctasnet +yte onee 1,340 tMc. +enoser, us uux s cnyM sautoctu s 1998 r.
opatunoce nuae uenuorun onee 150 tMc. +enoser, t.e. rpunepuo 12% ot scero sMrycra atoro roqa. 8a repuoq c
1991 ro 1998 rr. ronu+ectso sMrycruuros us rpotexy+unua u cpequux creuaneuMx opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu
(eeroquoe), sapeructpuposauuMx s ra+ectse espaotuMx, ronenetc s rpeqenax 30-50 tMc. +en., a oauu sec
137
sMrycruuros s ouuaneuo sapeructpuposauuon espaotuon uaceneuuu eqsa rpesMaaet 2%.
Cnoua cutyau, crnaqMsakaac ua poccuucrux pMurax tpyqa u opasosateneuMx ycnyr, qenaet
enecoopasuMn s nuauaue roqM rpoqonute paoty no cmp,|m,p+ou peopca+usa(uu eceu cucmeve
npoeccuo+ane+oco opasoea+u+; ueoxoquno roqrotosute c atou enek opueutuposauuyk ua sautocte cucteny
uopnatusuMx artos, rpeqycnotpes uaspesaue usneueuu s sarouax o opasosauuu u sautoctu. pu aton nM
ronaraen, +to cneqyet ue corpaaate, a narcunaneuo ysenu+ute cpor oy+euu s oaeopasosateneuMx aronax, s
ton +ucne sa c+et ysenu+euu seca rpoeccuouaneuo-opueutuposauuMx qucurnuu, a tare oecre+ute onee
tecuyk csse atux aron ue ctonero c sysanu, cronero c y+peqeuunu ua+aneuoro rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu
u c y+euMnu eutpanu rpeqrputuu.
8 Poccuu s nuauaue roqM rotpeyetc rpuneuute npu+(unuane+o +oeeu eud opasoeamene+ex ,cn,c
rpeqoctasneuue y+euMx nect qn otqeneuMx uuqusuqos e +,+oe epev+, e +,+ov vecme u e +eoxoduvov dn+
|o+|pem+oco u+dueuda oseve, cosqasa rpu aton rpeqrocMnru qn passutu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM ua
pao+ux nectax (c rapautuposauuMn tpyqoyctpouctson oy+akauxc).
Peaeuue yrasauuMx sMae rponen suqutc s oc+oeamene+ou peopve eceu npoeccuo+ane+ou a|one, ua+uua
c ee ua+aneuMx sseuees. pu aton tara peopna rpuuuruaneuo qonua y+utMsate perynupyenoe passutue pe+|a
nepco+uu(upoea++ex opasoeamene+ex ,cn,c, t.e. pe+|a +e|naccuvec|oco npoeccuo+ane+oco opasoea+u+.
outuo, +to tarou pMuor uyqaetc s yronuytMx pauee uauouaneuMx cuctenax yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu
pecypcanu rar ua uuqusuqyaneuon yposue, tar u ua yposue rpyrr, oprauusauu u cooaects. Pe+e uqet o
cyaectseuuon passutuu uauouaneuou cuctenM rpoeccuouaneuou opueutauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru
uaceneuu, cosqakaeu csse pMura y+euMx nect c pMuron pao+ux nect, o cosqauuu uesasucunou cuctenM
ceptuurauu ra+ectsa repcouana rpeqrputuu, oecre+usakaeu oertusuyk oeury yposu rpoeccuouaneuoro
nactepctsa paotuura s cuctene neqyuapoquoro ctauqapta, a tare o paspaotre rporpann passutu repcouana
rpeqrputuu, oecre+usakaux poct rpoeccuouanusna ro nepe passutu repcouaneuou rpoeccuouaneuou
rapeepM.
Kar rorasMsaet orMt (rora eae ueoneaou), atu ronroueutM coctasnkt asy qn cosqauu u peanusauu
pecuo+ane+ex npocpavv ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu. Paota ro cosqauuk tarux rporpann ye ua+anace
s ropqre arcrepuneuta, u s nuauaue roqM oua yqet rpoqoneua s pqe peruouos cyertos Poccuucrou
1eqepauu (s Kpacuopcron, Antaucron u Kpacuoqapcron rpax, s Fpocnascrou, 6pucrou, Vocroscrou, Canapcrou,
+enuucrou, 0peuyprcrou onactx u s qpyrux peruouax).

11.4. Kauecso npoqeccouansuoro noeuana npeqnp ny ero nossmeu

Auanus qeteneuoctu rpeqrputuu ro roqrotosre, reperoqrotosre u rosMaeuuk rsanuurauu raqpos
rorasMsaet pesroe cuueuue oenos yrasauuMx neporputuu ro cpasueuuk c 1991 r. larpunep, r 1994 r. oenM
rposeqeuuMx ua rpeqrputux opasosateneuMx ycnyr (ro cpasueuuk c 1991 r.) cuusunuce ro pao+un s enon ua
60,5%, a ro pyrosoqutenn u creuanuctan ua 63,6%. Teuqeuu tarosa, +to s rocneqykauu repuoq (s 1995-1999
rr.) otne+euuoe cuueuue oenos opasosateneuMx neporputuu ua rpeqrputux coxpauunoce.
pu qosoneuo auporou cetu y+peqeuuu qoronuuteneuoro rocnesysoscroro rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu
rpartu+ecru paspyaunace cuctena arouonu+ecrou y+eM, usy+euu u repeqa+u repeqosoro orMta. lecnotp ua
secena sMcoryk rotpeuocte s rosMaeuuu rsanuurauu u reperoqrotosre repcouana, peaneua repuoqu+uocte
rosMaeuu rsanuurauu pyrosoquteneu u creuanuctos ueyrnouuo yneueaaetc, u s 1998 r. oua coctasuna 7-8
net (ro cpasueuuk c 3-5 roqanu s 8araquou Espore u Frouuu). |utepsanM rosMaeuu rsanuurauu pao+ux s
otqeneuMx otpacnx rponManeuuoctu eae onee sospocnu, s uactoaee spen ouu coctasnkt 13-15 net, s to
spen rar ua rpeqrputux ctpau c passutou pMuo+uou arouonurou atu uutepsanM ue rpesMaakt 3-5 net (ue c+uta
roctouuoro u uuteucusuoro suytpuupneuuoro tpeuuura).
Cneqyet creuaneuo roq+epruyte, +to, uecnotp ua sua+uteneuMe rotepu, rpoeccuouaneuoe oy+euue raqpos
ua rpoussoqctse qo cux rop octaetc uauonee naccosMn suqon roqrotosru rsanuuuposauuou pao+eu cunM.
Tar, uarpunep, s 1993-1996 rr. +ucneuuocte oy+euuMx ua rpoussoqctse pao+ux onee +en s rte pas rpesMcuna
sMrycr y+aauxc us rpoeccuouaneuo-texuu+ecrux y+unua scex turos. |adpoea+ nonumu|a npednpu+muu u
opca+usa(uu cma+oeumc+ od+uv us npuopumem+ex a|mopoe e onpedene+uu nepcne|mue paseumu+ u
ae|mue+ocmu de+mene+ocmu ecex opv npoeccuo+ane+oco opasoea+u+. lapactakaa ueoxoqunocte s
rosMaeuuu ra+ectsa rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana rpeqrputuu, s rpuuure, noet Mte yqosnetsopeua c
ronoaek narcunaneuoro cnueuu pao+ux u y+euMx nect, s ton +ucne ryten cosqauu creuaneuou cuctenM
suytpurpoussoqctseuuou (suytpuupneuuou) roqrotosru raqpos.
8 1994 r. s onactu peanusauu uccneqosatenecrux rporpann Vuuuctepctsa tpyqa u couaneuoro passutu rpu
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
138
y+actuu 8cepoccuucrou accouauu passutu repcouana Mn ua+at nouutopuur rpoussoqctseuuou cepM, s panrax
rotoporo otpaatMsanc nexauusn orpeqeneuu rotpeuocteu rpeqrputuu s raqpax s ycnosux pMuo+uou
arouonuru; paccnatpusanuce sosnouoctu passutu repcouana rpeqrputuu c rpuneueuuen cospeneuuMx
reqaroru+ecrux texuonoruu, orpeqennace sosnouocte snuuu ua opnupykauuc pMuor rpoeccuu; ooaanc
orMt yrpasneu+ecroro roucynetuposauu u t.r. ony+euuMe pesynetatM Mnu ronoeuM s ocuosy paspaotru
arcrepuneutaneuMx rporpann passutu repcouana rpeqrputuu, rotopMe Mnu arpouposauM s pqe
rponManeuuMx peruouos Poccuu.
0auu auanus tex teuqeuuu, rotopMe cnounuce ua poccuucron pMure tpyqa u pMure uernaccu+ecroro
rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu, rossonet orpeqenute uauonee sua+unMe u artyaneuMe rponenM, rotopMe
saqakt ocuosuMe uarpasneuu passutu repcouana rpeqrputuu u oprauusauu. 3tu rponenM ctauostc
rpuoputetuMnu rpu paspaotre a|mue+ou co(uane+ou nonumu|u ua qauuon atare passutu poccuucrux peopn.
C to+ru speuu sa|penne+u+ npu+(unoe a|mue+ou co(uane+ou nonumu|u oquunu us saueuaux aaros
socrpoussoqctsa aertusuoro raqposoro roteuuana arouonuru noryt ctate paspaotra u peanusau s 2000-2005
rr. oaeuauouaneuou rporpannM passutu raqposoro roteuuana rpeqrputuu. 8 uactoaee spen paspaotaua u
oqopeua ronnerueu Vuutpyqa Poccuu roueru tarou rporpannM. 0rpeqeneuM ocuosuMe uarpasneuu passutu
cuctenM yrpasneuu ra+ectson repcouana rpeqrputuu u oprauusauu c y+eton cutyauu, crnaqMsakaeuc ua
pMurax rpoeccuu u opasosateneuMx ycnyr; paspaatMsaktc roueru u ocuosuMe uarpasneuu passutu
nexauusna oeuru rpoeccuouaneuou ronreteutuoctu u roctpoeuu uauouaneuou cuctenM ceptuurauu
repcouana (c oropou ua neqyuapoquMe uopnM).
8ce ato rossonet rosopute o uaspesaeu ueoxoqunoctu paspaotru +a,v+ex oc+oe a|mue+ou co(uane+ou
nonumu|u u cosda+u+ cne(uanusupoea++ex co(uane+ex u+cmum,moe, oecnevueas(ux peanusa(us uspa++ou
nonumu|u e poccuuc|ux ,cnoeu+x. 0cuosuMn oerton qeuctsu terepe ctauosutc venoeevec|uu pec,pc
o(ecmea, paccvampueaeveu |a| npoeccuo+ane+eu nome+(uan poccuuc|ou a|o+ovu|u: quuanura, oen u
ra+ectso arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu; rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouua ctpyrtypa pao+eu cunM.
la aton oerte peanusyktc a|mue+ee co(uane+ee mex+onocuu: opnuposauue rotosuoctu r paote s
ycnosux pMura, rosMaeuue notusauu u sua+unoctu tpyqa; passutue u corposoqeuue rpoeccuouaneuou
rapeepM; oeura rpoeccuouaneuou ronreteutuoctu u repcrertus passutu raqoro roteuuaneuoro paotuura u
t.q. Cootsetctseuuo ueoxoqunMnu ctauostc creuaneuMe uccneqosauu tex rponen u tex nexauusnos,
rotopMe noryt neate s ocuose pauouaneuoro u aertusuoro ucronesosauu +enose+ecroro pecypca Poccuu,
paspaotru u rpuneueuu aertusuMx couaneuMx texuonoruu uosoro rnacca texuonoruu yrpasneuu
+enose+ecrun pecypcon ctpauM, rar cosoryruMn, tar u uuqusuqyaneuMn. o uaaeny nueuuk, rpuuuruaneuo
sauMnu c to+ru speuu passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos arouonuru snktc cneqykaue +etMpe rpyrrM rponen.
1. 0eura coctouu, peaneuocte u repcrertusM arouonu+ecrux tpaucopnauu s poccuucron oaectse s
cpasueuuu c nuposMn arouonu+ecrun rpoeccon. |sy+euue toro, rar uosMe couaneuMe artopM usneukt
repcouaneuMe ycnosu u octotenectsa usuu +enosera ua pasuMx atarax ero rpaqaucrou u rpoeccuouaneuou
rapeepM; rar arouonu+ecrue rpeopasosauu u ux rocneqctsu socrpuuunaktc uaceneuuen s enon, s repsyk
o+epeqe, paom+u|avu, paomodamen+vu u ,npaene+(avu.
2. |ccneqosauue ctpyrtypM u quuanuru poccuucroro pMura tpyqa s cospeneuuMx arouonu+ecrux roopquuatax
(oen, ctpyrtypa u quuanura arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu): pacrpeqeneuue u nurpau 3Al ro pasnu+uMn
certopan arouonuru; rpoeccuouaneua nurpau neqy otpacnnu (suytpu certopos) u tepputopuaneua
nurpau; repcrertusM uaronueuu pMura pao+eu cunM; oeura yposu rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu u
rpoeccuouaneuou rsanuurauu paotuuros u t.r.
3. |ccneqosauue nu+uoctuMx, uuqusuqyaneuMx aertos ronutu+ecrux, couaneuMx u xosuctseuuMx peopn.
3to rpeqronaraet usy+euue ocoeuuocteu socrputu rpoucxoqaux s oaectse usneueuuu; uccneqosauue
anououaneuMx, oeuo+uMx u roseqeu+ecrux pearuu nkqeu ua te unu uuMe coMtu, peaeuu u qeuctsu
ronutu+ecrux u xosuctseuuMx pyrosoquteneu; auanus repcouaneuMx rpoeccos opnuposauu, socrputu u
rpuutu usneueuuu s uopnatusuou ase couaneuMx otuoaeuuu.
4. 0eura u coqepateneuMu auanus rcuxonoru+ecrou cutyauu, crnaqMsakaeuc s oaectse, oeura u
ropperu usneueuuu s uuqusuqyaneuou u oaectseuuou rcuxonoruu. pu aton ueoxoquno orpeqeneuue uosMx
saqa+, necta u ponu uay+uou u rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu s usuu poccuucroro oaectsa c y+eton cyaectseuuo
sospocaeu u ra+ectseuuo usneuusaeuc rotpeuoctu uaceneuu s rcuxonoru+ecrux suauux u ycnyrax.
0euusa cutyauk ua poccuucron pMure tpyqa u ua pMure opasosateneuMx ycnyr s enon, cneqyet crasate,
+to rpuseqeuuMe sMae pesynetatM auanusa* ronoeuu qen s onactu coxpaueuu u passutu rpoeccuouaneuoro
(raqposoro) roteuuana poccuucrou arouonuru u oeuru ra+ectsa +enose+ecrux pecypcos sMsnkt pq cepeesuMx
rponen:
139
ra+ectseuuMu yposeue paotuuros poccuucrux rpeqrputuu cyaectseuuo yctyraet yposuk paotuuros
rpeqrputuu passutMx ctpau 8araqa u rpoqonaet cuuatec;
raqposa u oprauusauouua ronutura oneauuctsa rpeqrputuu ue cootsetctsyet tpeosauun pMuo+uou
arouonuru u, uapqy c atun, ue yqosnetsopet uutepecM paotoqateneu rar rotpeuteneu rsanuuuposauuou
pao+eu cunM;
rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouua ctpyrtypa poccuucroro pMura pao+eu cunM snetc ectrou u
nanosocrpuun+usou r usneueuun, uesaauaeuuMnu orasanuce uaenuMe paotuuru rpu ux rpoeccuouaneuou
nurpauu;
ocuosua nacca paotoqateneu u paotuuros (c y+eton sMpaotauuMx tpyqosMx yctauosor) ue sauutepecosaua
s rosMaeuuu rpoeccuouaneuou rsanuurauu, pocte rpoqyrtusuoctu tpyqa. /rnynetc notusauouuMu rpusuc,
sMssauuMu pocton ueyqosnetsopeuuoctu paotuuros rpeqrputuu csoun tpyqon.
* 8 auanuse ucronesosauM natepuanM Vuutpyqa, Vuuarouonuru, locronctata u Vuuopasosauu Poccuu. {puvev. aem.)

Peaeuue rponen coxpaueuu u socrpoussoqctsa rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana poccuucrou arouonuru
tpeyet paspaotru qauuoro uarpasneuu a|mue+ou coc,dapcmee++ou nonumu|u s onactu yrpasneuu
+enose+ecrunu pecypcanu (ux pauouaneuoro ucronesosauu u passutu) c enek:
oecre+ute rourypeutocrocouocte poccuucrou pao+eu cunM ua uauouaneuon u neqyuapoquon pMure tpyqa
vepes paseumue cucmeve e+,mpuupve++oco o,ve+u+;
peanusosate rocyqapctseuuyk cucteny saautM rpoeccuouanusna rsanuuuposauuMx paotuuros u
uutepecos paotoqateneu rar rotpeuteneu pao+eu cunM vepes paspaom|, coc,dapcmee++ex npoeccuo+ane+ex
cma+dapmoe u cosda+ue vexa+usva cepmuu|a(uu paom+u|oe;
oecre+ute rocyqapctseuuoe perynuposauue pMura pao+eu cunM u pMura opasosateneuMx ycnyr +epes
paspaom|,, peanusa(us u |oopdu+a(us +a(uo+ane+ex, pecuo+ane+ex u ompacneeex npocpavv paseumu+
venoeevec|ux pec,pcoe;
coqeuctsosate rpoeccuouaneuony canoorpeqeneuuk paotuuros, passutuk ux rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM
ryten cosda+u+ u paseumu+ cucmeve conpoeode+u+ npoeccuo+ane+ou |apeepe paom+u|oe |a| +a amanax
exode+u+ e mp,doe,s de+mene+ocme, ma| u +a amane peanusa(uu npoeccuo+ane+ou de+mene+ocmu.
/+utMsa sospactakayk rotpeuocte s artusuon passutuu otpacnesMx u peruouaneuMx rporpann yrpasneuu u
passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos, enecoopasuee rpoqonute tarue paotM s suqe a|cnepuve+mane+ex
co(uane+ex npoe|moe.
pu aton ueoxoquno oprauusosate u oecre+ute:
paspaotry uopnatusuou asM rpoeccuouaneuoro oy+euu paotuuros, uopnanu rotopou orpeqeneuM
ropqor ero oprauusauu u rpoeccuouaneuoro roucynetuposauu repcouana; rapautuu u nerotM qn paotuuros,
cosneaakaux paoty c oy+euuen, qn rpeqrputuu, oecre+usakaux rpoeccuouaneuoe opasosauue s
cootsetctsuu c couaneuMnu rnauanu, u qp.;
cosqauue cuctenM roopquuauu scex opn rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu c aertusuou opatuou cssek
ua eqepaneuon u peruouaneuMx yposux, rossonkaeu coxpauute ra+ectseuuMu tpyqosou roteuuan rpeqrputuu
u oprauusauu Poccuu;
rocyqapctseuuyk roqqepry roqrotosru repcouana ua rpoussoqctse, paspaotry cuctenM coqeuctsu
rpeqrputun s roqrotosre repcouana ua rpoussoqctse;
paspaotry arcrepuneutaneuMx rporpann yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu ua yposue otqeneuMx
peruouos;
passutue uauouaneuou cuctenM corposoqeuu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM rpoeccuouaneuou
opueutauu, roucynetauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru uaceneuu c y+eton cutyauu, crnaqMsakaeuc ua
pMurax rpoeccuu u opasosateneuMx ycnyr.

|nasa 12. Ynpasneue uenoseuecku pecypcau s npoeccax cauosneu conposoqeu
npoqeccouansuo kapseps

12.1. 6onposoqeue npoqeccouansuo kapseps kak sneueu ynpasneu uenoseuecku pecypcau

VM ye otne+anu, +to poccuucrue peopnM ctonruynuce c nuoectson tpyquocteu rar arouonu+ecroro, tar u
couaneuoro ropqra. pu+uuM atux tpyquocteu, ro uaaeny nueuuk, so nuoron cssauM c ten, +to otcytctsyet
peaneuMu orMt u ueqoctato+uo paspaotauM uay+uoe rouunauue rponen u oocuosauue peaeuuu s uosou qn
Poccuu onactu pauouaneuoro ucronesosauu rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana ctpauM. 3tu peaeuu qonuM
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rpusectu r aertusuou u rpoqyrtusuou sautoctu creuanuctos s pasnu+uMx cepax rpoeccuouaneuou
qeteneuoctu, opnuposauuk ropryca rsanuuuposauuMx raqpos qn pasnu+uMx certopos opnupykaeuc
pMuo+uou arouonuru, cosqauuk nexauusnos cssu pMura rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu u pMura tpyqa.
/tpata rpeuux rocyqapctseuuo-aqnuuuctpatusuMx csseu rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu c
rpoeccuouaneuMn tpyqon rpusena r pesrou qectaunusauu oenos, ctpyrtypM u quuanuru +enose+ecrux
pecypcos ua poccuucron pMure tpyqa. laronuun, +to s te+euue nuorux qectunetuu s ycnosux roctpoeuu
couanusna opnuposanace u qeuctsosana creuaneua cuctena rocyqapctseuuoro pacrpeqeneuu u sarperneuu
creuanuctos ua pao+ux nectax, cyaectsosanu y+peqeuu rosMaeuu rsanuurauu paotuuros, yuusepcutetM
arouonu+ecrux suauuu, uapoquMe yuusepcutetM u t.r. C rperpaaeuuen qeuctsu atou cuctenM paspyaunuce cssu
neqy y+euMnu u pao+unu nectanu, sosuurno cyaectseuuoe paccornacosauue pMuros rpoeccuu u pMuros
opasosateneuMx ycnyr, +to rpuseno r ctuxuuuony qsueuuk +enose+ecrux pecypcos s couaneuo-tpyqosou cepe,
cuueuuk rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana ctpauM u raqeuuk rpectua rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu.
Cnousaac cutyau u oaa ctpateru peopn tpeykt cosqauu rpuuuruaneuo uosMx nexauusnos
oaectseuuo-rocyqapctseuuoro perynuposauu rpoeccos cssu rpoeccuouaneuou aronM u rpoeccuouaneuoro
tpyqa, asupykauxc ua oaeu roueruu ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uv pec,pcov, rpuaeqaeu ua cneuy rpeueu
roueruu ,vema venoeevec|oco a|mopa (cn. rn. 1).
o uaaeny nueuuk, saueuaunu aneneutanu taroro nexauusna qonuM ctate uosMe, opnupykauec s
Poccuu, couaneuMe uuctutytM, rnasuMnu couaneuMnu yurunu rotopMx ctauosutc conposoqeue
npoqeccouansuo kapseps paotuura: opnuposauue rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM qn tex, rto sxoqut s
tpyqosyk usue, coqeuctsue sautoctu qn tex, rto uaxoqutc ua csooquon pMure tpyqa u passutue
rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM qn repcouana rpeqrputuu. 3tu uuctutytM qonuM cosqate uosMu, pMuo+uMu, a ue
aqnuuuctpatusuMu peryntop cssu opasosauu u tpyqa. |x oprauusauouuMe ctpyrtypM noryt rpeqctasnte coou
creuanusuposauuMe y+peqeuu qoronuuteneuoro rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu rar rocyqapctseuuou, tar u
uerocyqapctseuuou opn coctseuuoctu.
C y+eton sospocaeu roqsuuoctu repcouana s cepax opasosauu, tpyqa u s cssu co ctpyrtypuMnu
usneueuunu s arouonure (repepacrpeqeneuue sautMx neqy repsu+uMn, stopu+uMn u tpetu+uMn certopanu,
rocyqapctseuuMn u uerocyqapctseuuMn certopanu, neotpacnesa u neperuouaneua rpoeccuouaneua
nurpau u qp.) ua necto oeuru cootsetctsu ra+ects paotuura tpeosauun pao+ero necta (ra+ects y+aaeroc
tpeosauun y+euoro necta) roctereuuo rpuxoqut rpoecc perynuposauu passutu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM,
rotopMu srnk+aet s ce rnauuposauue rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, roucynetatusuoe corposoqeuue u ronoae s
rpoeccuouaneuon ctauosneuuu u passutuu paotuura, a tare uesasucunyk oeury yposu ero
rpoeccuouanusna.
lyuo unete s suqy, +to ata qeteneuocte neut s uerpusM+uou qn arouonuru Poccuu cepe: yrasauuMe
y+peqeuu rpeqoctasnkt (repsMe rpeunyaectseuuo uaceneuuk, stopMe rpeunyaectseuuo rpeqrputun)
opasosateneuMe u roucynetauouuMe ycnyru, srnk+a s uux sorpocM rosMaeuu rsanuurauu u
rpoeccuouaneuoro repeoy+euu, oeuru u passutu repcouana, uuqusuqyaneuou u rpyrrosou rcuxoquaruocturu,
rcuxonoru+ecroro u couaneuoro tpeuuura, ropperuu roseqeuu u qp.
PeaneuMnu rotpeutennu atou cepM ycnyr, rar rorasMsaet uararnusakauuc orMt, ctauostc rpaqaue
rocyqapctsa pasnu+uMx sospactuMx u couaneuMx rpyrr, rpeqrputu u y+peqeuu pasnu+uMx opn
coctseuuoctu, eqepaneua u peruouaneua aqnuuuctpau. osneuue qauuou couaneuou rotpeuoctu
orpeqenet rosneuue +oeou cepe npoeccuo+ane+ou de+mene+ocmu. 3to, s csok o+epeqe, rpeqronaraet
rosneuue uosMx pMuo+uMx rpoeccuu e cepe nepco+ane+ex ,cn,c: rpartu+ecroro rcuxonora, creuanucta ro
oeure repcouana, nu+uoctuoro u rpoeccuouaneuoro roucynetauta, couaneuoro ayqutopa, tpeuepa nu+uoctuoro u
rpoeccuouaneuoro passutu, couaneuoro neueqepa, qupertopa ro repcouany, sasoqcroro rperoqasaten u
pqa qpyrux creuanuctos s onactu yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon.
0quospeneuuo ato osua+aet rosneuue nuoectsa +oeex co(uane+ex mex+onocuu s qauuou onactu, s ton
+ucne rnauuposauue rapeepM, couaneuMe u rcuxonoru+ecrue tpeuuuru, netoqM oeuru repcouana, netoqM
paspaotru raqposMx u couaneuMx rnauos rpeqrputuu, cosqauue u peanusauk peruouaneuMx rporpann
yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon.
Pone coc,dapcmea s perynuposauuu atou cepM sarnk+aetc, ua uaa ssrnq, s cosqauuu sarouoqateneuou
ocuosM cootsetctsykaux suqos qeteneuoctu. epsoo+epequMn sorpocon sqece snetc paspaotra
rocyqapctseuuMx ctauqaptos, nueusuposauue pasnu+uMx suqos rpoeccuouaneuMx paot u qoryctunMx
couaneuMx texuonoruu (netoqos u cpeqcts rcuxoquaruocturu, texuur oeuru repcouana, opn tpeuuura, netoqos
passutu repcouana, texuonoruu yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon u qp.). n aertusuoro yuruouuposauu
yronuytMx sMae couaneuMx uuctutytos (cucten u y+peqeuuu) qonuM Mte paspaotauM u sseqeuM s qeuctsue
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cootsetctsykaue rpasosMe, aqnuuuctpatusuMe u arouonu+ecrue uopnatusM, orpeqenkaue ux ctatyc, rpasa u
ropqor ux qeteneuoctu.
pyrun sauMn sorpocon ctauosutc ceptuurau ycnyr u creuanuctos, s ton +ucne paspaotra crertpa ycnyr
u ux arouonu+ecrux uopnatusos, orpeqeneuue rapautuposauuoro nuuunyna u ra+ectsa ycnyr, pernaneutuposauue
nuuunaneuMx tpeosauuu r creuanuctan qauuou cepM, cosqauue ycnosuu qn ux rpoeccuouaneuoro
ctauosneuu u pocta.
Tpetuu noneut srnk+aet s ce cosqauue u passutue rocyqapctseuuoro (kqetuoro) certopa s qauuou cepe,
rotopMu coctasun M uay+uo-netoqu+ecroe u oprauusauouuo-rpasosoe qpo so nuoectse pasnu+uMx uuMx
y+peqeuuu, oprauusauu u uuqusuqyaneuMx creuanuctos, peanusy +epes csok qeteneuocte ocuosuMe
uarpasneuu couaneuou u arouonu+ecrou ronuturu rpasutenectsa s atou onactu, Kar rorasMsaet orMt, s
oprauusauu paotM tarux y+peqeuuu enecoopaseu rporpannuo-rpoertuMu roqxoq, rpeqronarakauu paspaotry
repcrertusuMx rporpann passutu ua eqepaneuon u peruouaneuon yposux u rourypcuMu otop rourpetuMx
rpoertos, s ton +ucne runotuoro u noqeneuoro ropqra. 8ce ato, pasyneetc, rpeqronaraet usy+euue u ocsoeuue
nuposoro orMta paotM ro yrpasneuuk +enose+ecrun pecypcon, paspaotry uay+uou u netoqu+ecrou asM,
oprauusauk u rposeqeuue yuqaneutaneuMx uccneqosauuu s onactu oeuru +enose+ecrux xapartepuctur u
yrpasneuu roseqeuuen +enosera.

12.2. 6ceua conposoqeu npoqeccouansuo kapseps ncxonoruecko noqqepk uaceneu

VM ucxoqun us toro, +to cyauocte rpoecca rpaqaucroro u rpoeccuouaneuoro passutu +enosera coctout s
uarorneuuu coctseuuoro orMta peaeuu usueuuMx rponen (c rosuuu canoro +enosera), a tare s aertusuou
repeqa+e u ocsoeuuu orMta peaeuu auanoru+uMx rponen qpyrunu (c rosuuu sueauero arcrepta). pu aton
uankqaenMn rputepuen yposu ronreteuuu ctauosutc croco roseqeuu +enosera s rponenuon rpoctpauctse.
3tot yposeue cneqyet paccnatpusate rar rosMaakauuc s qsyx cny+ax:
a) ecnu rpeuue rponenM paspeaaktc onee aertusuo c to+ru speuu oM+uMx oeuor aertusuoctu,
uarpunep sa onee ropotroe spen u c neueaunu satpatanu;
) ecnu +ucno paspeaaenMx rponen ctauosutc oneae u srnk+aet s ce uosMe, s ton +ucne pauee
ueqoctyruMe +enosery.
epsMu cny+au cneqyet paccnatpusate rar pacaupeuue rnaccu+ecroro roqxoqa l. 3uuraysa r rponenan
uay+euu u rantu, stopou rar pacaupeuue uqeu rpoeccuouaneuoro passutu u rpoeccuouaneuoro nactepctsa.
8 cootsetctsuu c atun nuposa rpartura roctpoeuu cucten oaero u rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu
rpeqronaraet paoty uaq passutuen +enosera rar rpoeccuouana s de,x co(uane+o-nuv+ocm+ex nna+ax. epeeu
nna+ peanusyetc s pesynetate cootsetctsykaeu peopnM rpusM+uMx rnaccu+ecrux opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu:
y+euMx saseqeuuu pasnu+uMx sseuees oaeopasosateneuou u rpoeccuouaneuou aron. 3mopou s suqe
creuaneuMx rporpann ronoau, corposoqeuu u roqqepru rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, peanusyenMx secena
pasnu+uMnu ro opne coctseuuoctu u suqan qeteneuoctu rpeqrputunu, y+peqeuunu u oprauusaunu rar
rocyqapctseuuoro, tar u uerocyqapctseuuoro certopa opasosateneuMx ycnyr.
pu aton, c oquou ctopouM, ocyaectsnetc opnuposauue ueoxoqunMx rpoeccuouaneuMx suauuu,
crocouocteu u yneuuu, t.e. cuctenM tar uasMsaenMx rpoeccuouaneuMx uasMros (skill). C qpyrou ctopouM,
oaectso perynupyet rpoecc rpaqaucroro u rpoeccuouaneuoro ctauosneuu nu+uoctu, srnk+akauu s ce
opnuposauue usueuuMx rnauos, passutue rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, a tare rotosuoctu tpyqutec. ocnequee
rpeqronaraet, ronuno uanu+u y +enosera cootsetctsykaero uaopa oaux u creuaneuMx uasMros,
opnuposauue couaneuo-opueutuposauuMx uutepecos nu+uoctu u notusos r tpyqy sooae u r qauuony suqy
rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, s +actuoctu.
lyuo unete s suqy, +to opnuposauue u passutue rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM roqpasynesaet uanu+ue
creuanusuposauuMx couaneuMx uuctutytos, opueutuposauuMx ua pasnu+uMe sospactuMe routuureuta uaceneuu u
pasuMe couaneuMe rpyrrM: ua nonoqee, sctyrakayk s pMuor tpyqa, ua sspocnoe uaceneuue, sautoe s
pasnu+uMx suqax rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, ua espaotuMx creuanuctos u uecreuanuctos. 8aqa+a atux
uuctutytos oecre+ute ocosuauuMu nu+uoctuMu sMop yqyaeu qeteneuoctu, rono+e s rnauuposauuu
uuqusuqyaneuou rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM u cosqate sosnouoctu aertusuou ee peanusauu, uesasucuno ot
rourpetuoro pao+ero necta (atu ycnyru ocyaectsnktc s suqe rpoeccuouaneuMx roucynetauu, oertusuou
oeuru rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana +enosera, rcuxonoru+ecrou ronoau, roqqepru, tpeuuura, ropperuu
usueuuMx cutyauu u t.r.).
Tarun opason, corposoqeuue rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM u rcuxonoru+ecra roqqepra +enosera cyaectsykt
s ra+ectse ocooro suqa opasosateneuMx ycnyr, +to u orpeqenet ctatyc qauuoro tura uuctutytos rar y+peqeuuu
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(oprauusauu) qoronuuteneuoro rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu, qeuctsykaux s opne roucynetatusuo-
opasosateneuMx u uay+uo-netoqu+ecrux ryurtos u eutpos. 8 pqe cny+aes atu eutpM sMronukt yuruk
oeuru ra+ectsa (attectauu u ceptuurauu), roqrotosru u rosMaeuu rsanuurauu creuanuctos qauuoro
rpoeccuouaneuoro rpoun rar M suytpu canou cuctenM.
8 csete crasauuoro ctauosutc cuMn, +to ycrex couaneuo-arouonu+ecrux u ronutu+ecrux peopn s Poccuucrou
1eqepauu s sua+uteneuou ctereuu sasucut ot passutu tsop+ecrux crocouocteu nkqeu, nu+uou uuuuatusM
raqoro u peanusauu roteuuana nu+uoctu, t.e. ot aertusuoctu ctauosneuu +enosera rar rpaqauuua u
rpoeccuouana.
8 rpoeccax yctou+usoro u esoracuoro passutu oaectsa sce onee sauyk pone ua+uuakt urpate yposeue
rcuxonoru+ecroro ronopta nu+uoctu u ctereue couaneuou saautM uaceneuu. 0quaro cutyau repexoqa Poccuu
r pMury, uapqy c o+esuquMnu ronouteneuMnu noneutanu peopn, ouapyuna nuoectso ueratusuMx sneuuu, s
ton +ucne u s rcuxonoru+ecrou cepe oeure otuoaeuu r xoqy peopn, y+actuu s uux rourpetuMx nkqeu. 3tu
ueratusuMe artopM cosqakt narorputuyk ro+sy qn otpuateneuoro co(uane+oco +anp+e+u+, ooctpeuu
oaectseuuMx rpotusope+uu: passusaetc pasuoqyaue r eqctseuuony ronoeuuk nanounyaux cnoes, raqaet
repcouaneua +ysctsuteneuocte r rponene couaneuou crpaseqnusoctu. ora can xoq u pesynetatM
xosuctseuuMx peopn, rar M uu Mnu ouu rporpeccusuM ro sanMcny, crococtsykt opnuposauuk
rounurtoreuuou couaneuou ctpyrtypM oaectsa.
epexoq Poccuu r pMuo+uMn otuoaeuun s arouonure, ctunynupy uuteucuurauk rpoussoqctsa u usneueuu
s ero ctpyrtype, conpoeodaemc+ ose|mue+ev u +euse+ev oocmpe+uev cum,a(uu +a pe+|e mp,da u pe+|e
npoeccuu. 8o scen nupe ctpauM, cneqosasaue rypcon pMuo+uMx peopn, ctanrusanuce c pocton sMuyqeuuou
uesautoctu uaceneuu, cepeesuMnu cqsuranu s ctpyrtype rpoeccuu, cuueuuen euuoctu u rpectuuoctu
rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu.
Cutue atux uarpeuuu rpeqronaraet paspaotry cootsetctsykaux pasqenos artusuou couaneuou ronuturu. 8
cootsetctsuu co scen crasauuMn sMae paspaotra tarou ronuturu qonua orupatec ua roueruk yrpasneuu
+enose+ecrunu pecypcanu.
laronuun, +to, rpuneuuteneuo r raqposou ronuture, rpeuue roueruu raqposou paotM (ocuosauuMe ua y+ete
+enose+ecroro artopa s otnu+ue ot roueruu yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu) rpusoqunu r tony, +to
paota creuanuctos ro raqposou ronuture orpauu+usanace canMnu rpoctMnu rponenanu:
yrpasneuuen uuqusuqyaneuMnu uutepecanu ryten cootsetctsykaeu roqa+u uuopnauu +epes
teuqeuuosuyk rporarauqy, to+uee, pernany uyuMx qn rocyqapctsa rpoeccuu, s ocuosuon, rpoeccuu
naccosMx, pao+ux, tpeykaux cnaou rpoeccuouaneuou roqrotosru;
yrpasneuuen crocouoctnu +enosera +epes cucteny otopa u roqrotosru c ronoaek netoqos, uaeneuuMx ua
oeury uerpuroquoctu qauuoro uuqusuqa r ocoo tpyquMn u sMcororpectuuMn rpoeccun, unu ua anutuMu otop
oqapeuuMx.
8 pesynetate, naccosoe cosuauue Mno copueutuposauo ua sapauee saqauuMe suqM tpyqa u, cneqosateneuo,
seno r uecanoctoteneuoctu +enosera s orpeqeneuuu csoux repcrertus, r otcytctsuk passepuytMx usueuuMx
rnauos, raqeuuk euuoctu u sua+unoctu tpyqa. eertM tarou ronuturu rpu repexoqe r uosMn ycnosun usuu u
qeteneuoctu sMpaaktc s uerotosuoctu r tpyqy s ycnosux pMura, ueyqosnetsopeuuoctu tpyqon, ctpeccax u
rpeonaqauuu nu+uoctuMx (suytpeuuux) rounurtos.
/ronuytoe pauee paccornacosauue pMura y+euMx ycnyr u pMura tpyqa rpusoqut r ytpate sua+uteneuou +actek
uaceneuu csoeu rpoeccuouanusauu: s uactoaee spen qo 50% creuanuctos, t.e. raqMu stopou +enoser,
paotakt ue ro tou creuaneuoctu, ro rotopou ouu rony+unu csoe asosoe rpoeccuouaneuoe opasosauue, a us
+ucna nu, opatusauxc s tepputopuaneuMe oprauM tpyqa u cny sautoctu, qo 75% cnyaaue u nuae +yte
onee 2% sMrycruuru aron. Cneqyet tare y+ecte, +to ua peaneuon pMure pao+eu cunM uaxoqutc onee 2 nnu
nonoqMx nkqeu, sarou+usaux csoe opasosauue s oaeopasosateneuou unu rpoeccuouaneuou arone u ue
rony+usaux rocyqapctseuuoro pacrpeqeneuu.
Cneqctsuen otne+euuoro ronoeuu qen ctauosutc, ronuno rpo+ero, rotep uutepeca u cuueuue
rpectuuoctu sMcaux yposueu rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu, raqeuue euuoctu rpoeccuouaneuoro
nactepctsa y y+aaeuc nonoqeu. /e s nuauaeu repcrertuse ato rpuseqet r cuueuuk oaero yposu
rpoeccuouanusna ua pMure tpyqa: yqet ysenu+usatec qon nonoqMx, ueqoctato+uo opasosauuMx u ue
ctpenauxc rony+ute creuaneuoe rpoeccuouaneuoe opasosauue nkqeu. 8o scex cny+ax u rpu nkon
passutuu pMuo+uMx peopn tara cutyau ctauosutc nonev dn+ pocma co(uane+ou +anp+e++ocmu u
|puvu+oce++ou ocma+oe|u.
8 otnu+ue ot rpeuux roueruu rpu peaeuuu rpartu+ecrux saqa+ ua ocuose roueruu yrpasneuu
+enose+ecrun pecypcon ocyaectsnetc sosqeuctsue ua tpu ocuosuMx coctasnkaux rpoeccuouaneuou usuu
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+enosera:
ycnosu usuu u qeteneuoctu uuqusuqos u couaneuMx rpyrr;
nenu+uoctuMe otuoaeuu s pasnu+uMx cepax qeteneuoctu;
rpoecc passutu canoro cyerta, opnuposauu nu+uoctu.
3ta tpuaqa rposnetc, ouapyusa csok creuury, s pasnu+uMx cepax s opasosauuu, tpyqe u otqMxe; s
pacrpeqeneuuu sautoro u csooquoro speneuu +enosera u t.q.
losMe teopetu+ecrue roqxoqM r rponene opnuposauu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu, opnuposauu
raqposoro roteuuana arouonuru tpeykt u uosMx oprauusauouuMx opn, uosou cuctenM conpoeode+u+
npoeccuo+ane+oco cma+oene+u+ +enosera: opueutauu, otopa, roqrotosru u reperoqrotosru raqpos, ronoau s ux
qsueuuu ua pMure tpyqa, orepeakaen ocsoeuue cospeneuuMx u repcrertusuMx rpoeccuu.
Peaute atu rponenM so nuoron crocoua cosqasaena s uaaeu ctpaue cucmeva npoeccuo+ane+ou
opue+ma(uu u ncuxonocuvec|ou noddep|u +acene+u+.
0ertusuou ocuosou sosuuruoseuu u passutu cuctenM rpoopueutauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru ctana
qorasauua orMton sosnouocte sa c+et eneuarpasneuuou roqrotosru nkqeu r sMopy rpoeccuu, pauouaneuoro
ucronesosauu unekauxc raqpos rosMcute aertusuocte rpoussoqctsa, yny+aute yrpasneuue +enose+ecrun
roteuuanon, useate nu+uoctuMx rotepe u ueaertusuMx couaneuo-arouonu+ecrux satpat.
8 co(uane+ov nna+e rpoopueutau rpussaua, c oquou ctopouM, yqosnetsopute teryaue u repcrertusuMe
rotpeuoctu oaectsa s creuanuctax canoro pasnu+uoro rpoun, a c qpyrou sMctyraet rar oquu us artopos
couaneuou saautM uaceneuu, uarpunep sa c+et cnr+euu nu+uoctuMx rpusucos rpu tpyqoyctpouctse u repeneue
necta paotM.
8 ncuxonocuvec|ov nna+e cuctena rpoopueutauu asupyetc ua sosnouoctu sMsneuu u y+eta
rpuuuruaneuMx pasnu+uu neqy nkqenu, ux uuqusuqyaneuo-rcuxonoru+ecrux csoucts, crocouocteu r tony unu
uuony suqy tpyqosou qeteneuoctu, rotosuoctu r canoctoteneuony sMopy: opnuposauuk, rnauuposauuk u
peanusauu rpaqaucrou u rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM.
Tarun opason, cucmeva npoeccuo+ane+ou opue+ma(uu u ncuxonocuvec|ou noddep|u paccvampueaemc+ |a|
cn,a conpoeode+u+ npoeccuo+ane+ou |apeepe. 0ua sMctyraet s suqe cuctenM couaneuo-arouonu+ecrux,
rcuxonoro-reqaroru+ecrux, nequuucrux u oprauusauouuMx neporputuu, uarpasneuuMx ua opnuposauue y
+enosera rotosuoctu r cosuateneuony u oocuosauuony sMopy rpoeccuu, qaneueuaeny rpoeccuouaneuony
pocty s cootsetctsuu co csounu crnouuoctnu, crocouoctnu, c y+eton oaeuauouaneuMx u peruouaneuMx
ocoeuuocteu pMura tpyqa u pMura rpoeccuu. Cneqosateneuo, qauua cuctena qeuctsyet rar opca+usa(uo++eu
u+cmp,ve+m ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu u co(uane+o-ncuxonocuvec|ou saaume +acene+u+.
Passutue u uopnaneua qeteneuocte cuctenM rpoopueutauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru, rar rorasMsaet
orMt pqa passutMx ctpau, rossonut rony+ute cneqykauu a|o+ovuvec|uu, co(uane+eu u ncuxonocuvec|uu ae|m.
coxpauute u oecre+ute ua cospeneuuon yposue socrpoussoqctso uutennertyaneuoro u rpoeccuouaneuoro
roteuuana oaectsa, ero arouonuru; rony+ute orpeqeneuuMu poct rpoussoquteneuoctu tpyqa, rosMcute
aertusuocte rpoussoqctsa, ocoeuuo s ycnosux usneueuuu ctpyrtypuoro, texuonoru+ecroro u uuuosauouuoro
ropqra;
corpatute natepuaneuMe rotepu sa c+et corpaaeuu ronu+ectsa nu, sMuyqeuuo neukaux csok rpoeccuk;
qoutec sanarospeneuuoro raqposoro oecre+euu uuuosauouuMx rpoeccos ua rpeqrputux, sospoqeuu
penecen;
cnr+ute rocneqctsu naccosoro sMcsooqeuu paotuuros, oner+ute sautocte espaotuMx, nurpautos,
uusanuqos u qpyrux rpusucuMx rpyrr uaceneuu; saautute nonoqee ua pMure tpyqa.
8 enon ato rossonut cuusute couaneuoe uarpeuue s oaectse u cosqate cucteny couaneuMx rapautuu,
ronorakaux yqosnetsopute rotpeuoctu nkqeu s peanusauu csoux crocouocteu, qaposauuu, orMta, tpyqosMx
uasMros.

12.3. 0 npoqopeua k ss6opy npoqeccouansuo kapseps: roosuocs pocccko uonoqe k
ss6opy npoqeccouansuo kapseps

Peaeuue rpartu+ecrou saqa+u yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu s cospeneuuou Poccuu, rar otne+anoce
sMae, osua+aet ocosuauuoe opnuposauue routuureuta a|o+ovuvec|u a|mue+oco +acene+u+ ctpauM ero oena,
ctpyrtypM u ra+ectsa*. pu aton peanusyktc cneqykaue couaneuMe yuruu:
eneuarpasneuua roqrotosra r tpyqy (s repsyk o+epeqe, nonoqoro roroneuu), s ton +ucne osnaqeuue oaun
u rpoeccuouaneuMn opasosauuen;
aertusuoe opnuposauue rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM (srnk+a s ato routue ee rnauuposauue, sMop
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144
rpoeccuu u rourpetuoro pao+ero necta);
yctou+usa u esoracua peanusau rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM (srnk+a ckqa tpyqosyk u couaneuyk
aqartauk, perpeauk u couaneuo-esoracuMu sMxoq us cepM tpyqa).
* Cyaectsyet nuoectso ocoMx mex+onocuu ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu, rotopMe Poccuu eae rpeqctout ocsausate. K
+ucny tarux texuonoruu otuoctc: couaneuMe, arouonu+ecrue, rcuxonoru+ecrue u reqaroru+ecrue texuonoruu, rpeqronarakaue
rporpannuoe yrpasneuue ua eqepaneuon u peruouaneuon yposux. {puvev. aem.)

3nrupu+ecrue ocneqosauu, rposeqeuuMe s 1991-1998 rr., rorasMsakt, +to y poccuucrou nonoqeu ue
copnuposaua rotosuocte canoctoteneuo peaate csok cyqey, sMupate u peanusosMsate rpoeccuouaneuyk
rapeepy; cuuaktc couaneua artusuocte, notusau qoctueuu, pactet esMuuuatusuocte. 8Mrycruuru aronM
roraqakt s rateropuk rosMaeuuoro pucra: y uux uet tpyqosoro orMta, uusra unu otcytctsyet rpoeccuouaneua
rsanuurau, ue copnuposaua rotosuocte r tpyqy u r canoctoteneuou oeure octauosru ua pMure tpyqa,
peaneua rotpeuocte pasnu+uMx certopos u otpacneu arouonuru (cn. tan. 12.1).
Tanua 12.1
peqnouensuse opacn qeensuoc, cekop skououk
(otsetM sMrycruuros rpoeccuouaneuou aronM)

Nr/r 0tpacne, certop arouonuru 0tsetM s %
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
ponManeuuocte, ctpoutenectso, tpaucropt, csse, auepretura
Cenecroe, necuoe, oxotuu+ee xosuctsa
Toprosn, cuaeuue, cepa oaectseuuoro rutauu, Mtosoro ocnyusauu
0pasosauue, socrutauue, uayra, rynetypa, cropt
/rpasneuue
0aectseuuMe oprauusauu
Kpequtuo-uuaucosa cepa
Apnu, V8
pyroe
8atpyqukce otsetute
20,5
4,0
21,5
11,8
2,5
0,1
2,0
4,0
0
29,6

Vonoqee secena uusro oeuusaet pone opasosauu s rpoeccuouaneuou roqrotosre, repernaqMsaet ua
poquteneu otsetctseuuocte sa csou usueuuMu sMop, ue rposnet rotosuoctu u enauu orpeqenute
coctseuuyk cyqey.
|ccneqosauu rorasMsakt tare, +to rpu aton ueyqosnetsopeuuocte natepuaneuMn ronoeuuen rounurtyet c
uusrun yposuen rotpeuoctu s tpyqe u uepassutou tpyqosou notusaueu. peqctasneuue o tpyqe u o tpeosauux
rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa r +enose+ecrun ra+ectsan paotuura orasMsaktc secena rosepxuoctuMnu, ouu
rpartu+ecru uurar ue cssauM c peaneuMn coqepauuen tpyqa (tan. 12.2).

Tanua 12.2
Kauecsa, ueo6xoquse qn nonyueu xopome pa6os
(ro nueuuk sMrycruuros rpoeccuouaneuou aronM)

Nr/r launeuosauue ra+ectsa, suauu, uasMra 0tsetM s %
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
|nete sMcaee opasosauue
/nete paotate ua ronrektepe
8uate uuoctpauuMu sMr
0naqate uasMranu usueca
/nete yrpasnte astonounen
|nete xopoaue nauepM, oateneuyk sueauocte
|nete xopoayk croptusuyk (cunosyk) roqrotosry
53,2
30,0
27,0
16,0
7,5
7,2
5,8

To+uo tar e opnupyetc rpeqctasneuue o ctpyrtypuMx ocoeuuoctx peaneuou arouonuru: cospeneuua
poccuucra nonoqee ue uneet rpartu+ecru uuraroro rpeqctasneuu o pasuoopasuu certopos arouonuru, o
pacrpeqeneuuu suqos sautuu u o pasuoopasuu opn qeteneuoctu. |ccneqosauu rorasMsakt, +to rpunepuo
tpete us oaero +ucna orpoaeuuMx sMrycruuros oaeopasosateneuou u rpoeccuouaneuou aron rpeqro+utaet
paotate ua rocyqapctseuuon rpeqrputuu, u rpunepuo ctonero e ua +actuon; oquaro rpu aton ro+tu tpete us
uux ue noet cqenate orpeqeneuuoro sMopa (tan. 12.3).
145
Tanua 12.3
peqnouensus ss6op 6yqymero ueca pa6os
(ro nueuuk sMrycruuros rpoeccuouaneuou aronM)

N r/r 0prauusau, rpeqrputue, y+peqeuue 0tsetM s %
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
+actuoe rpeqrputue
Cosnectuoe rpeqrputue
locyqapctseuuoe rpeqrputue, kqetua oprauusau
locyqapctseuuoe aruouepuoe oaectso
peqrputue, sMryrneuuoe tpyqosMn ronnertuson
0aectseuua oprauusau (ouq, raptu, rpocoks)
Aruouepuoe oaectso ua ase ronxosa, cosxosa, necxosa
pyroe
8atpyqukce otsetute
20,8
19,7
15,2
11,3
3,9
0,1
0
2,6
26,0

0tne+aetc tare ctpenneuue sapaatMsate rar nouo oneae qeuer nkMnu cpeqctsanu (ro qauuMn uaaux
orpocos u pesynetatan auanoru+uMx ocneqosauuu orono 15% orpoaeuuMx rposnet rotosuocte so un
peanusauu csoux uutepecos rpueruyte r uacunuk).
lecnotp ua to +to s uactoaee spen e pas+ex see+e+x npoeccuo+ane+ou a|one roq qasneuuen ycnosuu ua
pMure tpyqa u rpoeccuu qeuctsuteneuo rpoucxoqt cyaectseuuMe usneueuu, sce e secena vano e+uva+u+
,den+emc+ oenade+us ,va(uvuc+ npa|muvec|uvu +aee|avu paome e ,cnoeu+x a|o+ovuvec|ux npeopasoea+uu.
Peopna rpoeccuouaneuou aronM, rar rorasMsakt pesynetatM rposeqeuuMx uanu orpocos sMrycruuros
rpoeccuouaneuou aronM, artu+ecru uqet es y+eta peaneuMx rotpeuocteu u ctpyrtypM poccuucroro pMura
tpyqa, s +actuoctu es y+eta neukaeroc s xoqe arouonu+ecrou peopnM pMura rpoeccuu u es snuuu aronM
ua opnuposauue rpoeccuouaneuMx rnauos u uanepeuuu sMrycruuros. 6oneauuctso sMrycruuros
oaeopasosateneuou u rpoeccuouaneuou aron ue suqt qn ce cuoro usueuuoro rytu, ue rpeqctasnkt
csoeu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM u ueaqersatuo oeuusakt csok rpoeccuouaneuyk repcrertusy. pu aton
uankqaetc suytpeuu uecornacosauuocte, rotopyk, s rpuuure, nouo tpartosate rar rcuxonoru+ecruu rounurt
nu+uoctu - rounurt ouqauuu, uanepeuuu u peaneuoro sMopa. 3tot suytpeuuuu rounurt, orpeqen yqyaee
roseqeuue uuqusuqa ua pMure tpyqa, ctauosutc qeuctsykaun artopon ero rpoeccuouaneuoro
canoorpeqeneuu.
8 1998-2000 rr. uanu u uaaunu ronneranu Mnu rposeqeuM creuaneuMe uccneqosauu rpoeccuouaneuMx
rnauos u rpoeccuouaneuMx uanepeuuu ctapaernaccuuros u sMrycruuros poccuucrux aron, rotopMe, s repson
rpunueuuu, rossonkt oeuute nu+uoctuMe ocuosauu ux rpoeccuouaneuoro sMopa. 8 xoqe atoro
uccneqosauu ctapaernaccuuran, s +actuoctu, rpeqnaranoce sMpate us rpeqnaraenoro repe+u rpoeccuu
uauonee rpeqro+tuteneuMe (s repe+eue Mnu srnk+euM rteqect uauonee ussectuMx rpoeccuu, suaronMx
y+euuran). peqnaranoce qsa ycnosu taroro sMopa. 8 repson cny+ae uyuo Mno sMpate rpeqro+utaenyk
rpoeccuk, orupace tonero ua uuqusuqyaneuMu uutepec (rpectuuMu sMop): lasosute ty rpoeccuk us
rpeqnaraenoro repe+u, rotopyk sM M sMpanu, ecnu M unenu qn atoro sce sosnouoctu u uurto u uu+to M san
ue neaano. 8o stopon cny+ae uyuo Mno sMpate rpoeccuk c y+eton peaneuou cutyauu s cenee u s peruoue
(peaneuMu sMop): Ecnu M san sastpa uyuo Mno sMupate paoty, to ryqa M sM roanu u ren M sM ctanu
paotate.
8Mopo+uMe pesynetatM uccneqosauu rpeqctasneuM s tan. 12.4, s ctonax rotopou rpuseqeuM sua+euu
ycpequeuuMx pauros, rony+euuMx yrasauuMnu rpoeccunu s xoqe sMopa, ua+uua c uausMcaero repsoro (1)
qo rocnequero us rtuqectu (50). 8 repson ctone tanuM uaxoqtc uauneuosauu qseuaqatu rpoeccuu,
rotopMe rony+unu yctou+usMu uausMcauu paur ro sceu sMopre ocneqosauuMx rpu repson ycnosuu (cn. ctone
rpectuuMu sMop, scero). Kar cneqyet us tan. 12.4, pauru peane+oco eeopa (ctone peaneuMu sMop,
scero) cyaectseuuo otnu+aktc ot pauros npecmu+oco eeopa. Kpone toro, suquo, +to pauru sMopa, rar
rpectuuoro, tar u peaneuoro, sua+uteneuo pasnu+aktc y kuoaeu u qesyaer, y sMrycruuros 9 u 11 rnaccos.

Tanua 12.4
Peur npecusx peansuo ss6paeusx npoqecc y poccckx capmeknaccukos (i nepeuu s 50 npoqecc)

poeccu pectuuMu sMop PeaneuMu sMop
8cero kuoau esyaru 9rn. 11 rn. 8cero kuoau esyaru 9rn. 11 rn.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
146
kpuct
3rouonuct
8pa+ porpannuct
6yxrantep
epesoq+ur
cuxonor Veueqep
eqaror
Vunuuouep
8oeuuocnyaauu
8oqutene
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
1
3
4
2
20
32
39
13
-
6
7
5
1
2
3
16
4
5
6
8
7
27
24
-
1
3
2
4
5
8
9
6
10
8
11
7
1
2
3
6
8
4
5
11
7
13
10
21
2
1
3
4
6
10
12
9
5
8
11
7
3
5
9
1
21
39
-
6
19
4
7
-
4
1
2
11
5
6
7
13
3
30
31
-
1
2
3
5
6
11
16
15
7
8
9
4
4
1
3
5
7
8
9
6
2
11
14
23

puseqeuuMe sMae pesynetatM rorasMsakt, +to qn nonoqeuoro routuureuta ueoxoquna paspaotra ocoMx
uarpasneuuu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu, cosqauue couaneuMx uuctutytos corposoqeuu rpoeccuouaneuou
rapeepM, rotopMe qonuM roqrotosute nonoqee r paote u usuu s uosMx ycnosux u passute uapqy co
cne(uane+evu npoeccuo+ane+evu s+a+u+vu u ,ve+u+vu ocuosuMe {asoeee) co(uane+o-npoeccuo+ane+ee
+aee|u, rpeqronarakaue suauue arouonu+ecrou cutyauu s peruoue, aqersatuoe rpeqctasneuue o peruouaneuon
pMure tpyqa u rpoeccuu, yneuue rnauuposate csok rpoeccuouaneuyk rapeepy, uaxoqute aertusuMe opnM
roseqeuu ua csooquon pMure pao+eu cunM u qp.
Tarun opason, rnaccu+ecroe rpoeccuouaneuoe opasosauue, yposeue rotoporo s Poccuu, eccropuo,
+pessM+auuo sMcor, repectaet yqosnetsopte uosMe tpeosauu poccuucrou qeuctsuteneuoctu, ueoxoquno uautu
uosMe rytu u rpuuurM perynuposauu crnaqMsakaeroc pe+|a opasoeamene+ex ,cn,c, oecre+ute qn nonoqMx
roroneuuu repcouaneuyk ronoae u roqqepry ua atare rpoeccuouaneuoro ctauosneuu nu+uoctu, opnuposauu
usueuuMx u rpoeccuouaneuMx rnauos. epeneuM s usuu poccuucroro uaceneuu ocnouktc rosneuuen tar
uasMsaenMx mpa+copva(uo++ex co(uane+ex e+ove+oe, rpeqronarakaux peaneuoe pacaupeuue
uuqusuqyaneuMx csooq, ysenu+euue otsetctseuuoctu +enosera s orpeqeneuuu coctseuuou cyqeM, pactyayk
uarpysry ua canoctoteneuocte +enose+ecrou nu+uoctu, s repsyk o+epeqe nonoqoro roroneuu.
o uaaun qauuMn, qn sua+uteneuMx routuureutos uaceneuu, ocoeuuo cnao couaneuo saauaeuuMx,
aertM peopn u cootsetctseuuo otuoaeuue r uun orpeqenktc pesro sospocaeu uectauneuoctek couaneuo-
tpyqosMx otuoaeuuu, rotepeu ysepeuuoctu s sastpaauen que. 8 ra+ectse rocseuuoro rorasaten atoro nouo
paccnatpusate cyaectseuuo sospocauu yposeue tar uasMsaenou rpoeccuouaneuou nurpauu: sa rocnequee
rtunetue s Poccuu eeroquo qectru nunnuouos +enoser ro ten unu uuMn rpu+uuan neukt necto csoeu paotM.
3tot artop ctauosutc sauMn rapanetpon quuanuru poccuucroro pMura tpyqa, s sua+uteneuou nepe
orpeqenkaun ocoeuuoctu opnuposauu peruouaneuMx pMuros opasosateneuMx ycnyr, cyaectseuuMn opason
snukaun ua rpoecc rpaqaucroro u rpoeccuouaneuoro canoorpeqeneuu nonoqeu ua pMure tpyqa (tan. 12.5).
Tanua 12.5
Hosa ss6opa (nepeueus) ueca pa6os uonoqsu pa6oukau*
* o qauuMn locronnonoqeu, 1998 r.

N r/r VotusM repeneuM necta paotM 0tsetM s %
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
lusra saprnata
leuutepecua paota, uet uaqeqM ua rpoqsueuue
let couaneuou roqqepru rpeqrputu (unee, otqMx, qetcaqM u rp.)
TenMu tpyq
noxue ycnosu tpyqa
Corpaaeuue atatos
6osue sarpMtu rpeqrputu
Xenauue otrpMte csoe qeno
0rou+auue cpora uauna
noxue otuoaeuu s ronnertuse, c aqnuuuctpaueu
u+uMe octotenectsa
pyroe
8atpyqukce otsetute
41,5
16,4
14,0
10,5
9,3
5,3
5,0
4,8
2,2
0,6
0,8
8,8
22,2

pu aton uutepec rpeqctasnkt rpeqro+teuu nonoqeu rpu sMope uosoro necta paotM ue tonero ro
vomueav nepeve+e paoveco vecma, uo u no opvav sa++mocmu, sMsn orpeqeneuuyk sasucunocte otsetos ot
147
turonoruu euuoctuMx opueutauu.
8 ctpyrtype tpyqosou notusauu nonoqMx paotuuros u sMrycruuros pasnu+uMx sseuees rpoeccuouaneuou
aronM sMqenktc qsa ocuosuMx artopa. C repsMn tecuo roppenupykt tar uasMsaenMe co(uane+ee
nepco+ane+ee nepeve++ee oayaeuue ronesuoctu qn orpyakaux, sosnouocte sauunatec uutepecuMn qenon
u ute s xopoaen ronnertuse. Co stopMn cssauM u+cmp,ve+mane+ee nepco+ane+ee nepeve++ee sosnouocte
rpoqsuuytec ro cnye u yctou+usocte csoero cnyeuoro ronoeuu.
3ta creuu+ecra qn nonoqeu turonoru srepsMe Mna ouapyeua s uccneqosauux uaaux ronner 8.|.
+yrposa u V.1. +epuMaa, rotopMe u sMsunu otne+euuMe sMae qsa ocuosuMx artopa (tura) nonoqeuMx
opueutauu ro otuoaeuuk r tpyqy*.
* ,npoe 3.n., ep+ea V.1. Votusauouua cepa cosuauu nonoqeu: coctouue u teuqeuuu passutu. V., 1993.

epsMu tur opueutauu, rar suquo, roqpasynesaet sMcoryk ctereue sauutepecosauuoctu +enosera s
sMronuenou paote (atot tur opueutauu uankqaetc rpeunyaectseuuo y tex, rto qenouctpupyet a|cnpeccue+oe
om+oae+ue | mp,d, cp,nna a), stopou roqpasynesaet, +to +enoser osao+eu nuae ten, rar narcunaneuo
rpoqsuuytec ro couaneuou nectuue (atot tur uankqaetc y tex, rony csouctseuuo u+cmp,ve+mane+oe
om+oae+ue | paome cp,nna u). 3 cp,nne a oaytuno oneae tex, rto rpeqro+utaet paotate +a
coc,dapcmee++ov npednpu+muu; e cp,nne u oneae don+ eeupas(ux paom, e vacm+ov ce|mope (tan. 12.6).
8 atou e rpyrre oneae, xot u ueuanuoro, tex, rto comoe nodpaameeame +a dov, unu paomame no docoeop,.
Tanua 12.6
peqnoueu uonoqe np ss6ope qopu iauoc

N r/r 1opnM sautoctu Turonoru euuoctuMx opueutauu
lpyrra a lpyrra u
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
locrpeqrputue
|uqusuqyaneua tpyqosa qeteneuocte
Koorepatusuoe (+actuoe) rpeqrputue
Ceneuua upna
Paota ro qorosopy (uauny)
8eposra ua paoty s tpyquoqoctyruMe pauouM
oqpaotra ua qony
0tesq ua oneayk ctpoury
31,1
8,6
21,2
7,2
7,8
7,4
3,7
12,9
25,1
6,7
30,2
5,8
10,7
7,2
6,5
7,8

Kar suquo, rpyrra u ny+ae roqrotosneua r tenony repuoqy repexoqa r pMury. 8xoqaue s uee pecrouqeutM
neuee onesueuuo, +en pecrouqeutM rpyrrM a, socrpunyt rotepk paotM s rocyqapctseuuon certope, c oneaeu
rotosuoctek srnk+atc s pMuo+uMe opnM xosuctsosauu, ocoeuuo s te uectourue, ctuxuuuMe opnM pMura,
rotopMe sosuurakt ua atarax poccuucroro repexoquoro repuoqa.
Ecnu rpuute so suunauue sce rpuseqeuuMe sMae qauuMe, to cneqyet rpusuate, +to ouu ronuoctek
roqqepusakt sMsoq, rotopMu ctan ocuosuMn apryneutos s ronesy cosqauu uauouaneuou cuctenM
rpoopueutauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru uaceneuu. 8 uutepsane 1993-1999 rr. s Poccuu Mnu rpartu+ecru
paspyaeuM rpeuue, aqnuuuctpatusuo sarperneuuMe, cssu neqy y+euMnu nectanu rpoeccuonuaneuou aronM
u pao+unu nectanu s tpyqosou cepe; rpu aton uosa cuctena couaneuMx uuctutytos, roqqepusakaux atu
cssu s routercte pMuo+uMx nexauusnos, artu+ecru otcytctsyet.
/rasauuoe uapyaeuue csseu neqy rpoeccuouaneuou aronou u rpoeccuouaneuMn tpyqon uneet qanero
uqyaue ue tonero rpunuuaneuMe, uo u arouonu+ecrue rocneqctsu. CreuaneuMe uccneqosauu, rposeqeuuMe
uanu s 1993-1997 rr., rorasMsakt, +to s ycnosux repexoquoro r pMury repuoqa cuneuo usneuunoce rcuxonoru+ecroe
otuoaeuue r tpyqy, r tpyqosou qeteneuoctu (cn. tan. 12.7) u s enon r rpoeccuouaneuony opasosauuk (cn.
tan. 12.8), rar y nonoqeu, tar u y sspocnoro uaceneuu.

Tanua 12.7
Hosa ss6opa npoqecc

N r/r launeuosauue artopa 0tsetM s %
1993 1997
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148
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
8aprnata
8osnouocte ucronesosate csou suauu u orMt
8epa s crpaseqnusyk oeury csoero tpyqa
Ctauneuocte u roctouctso paotM
Csooqa sMopa coctseuuMx netoqos paotM
Konneru ronreteutuMe u rpuennenMe equuonManeuuuru
8osnouocte rpoqsueuu ro cnye
8osnouocte rony+ute rsanuuuposauuyk ronoae
0tcytctsue qasneuu co ctopouM ua+anectsa
ouunauue toro, +to xo+et pyrosoqutene ot roq+uueuuoro
66
53
43
38
26
20
18
13
11
10
56,3
55,1
48
53,3
16,2
12,0
19,8
22,8
15,0
6,0

Tanua 12.8
0uomeue cyqeuos k csoe npoqecc

N r/r Xapartep otuoaeuuu 0euru s %
1993 1995
1
2
3
4
5
onouteneuoe
Cropee ronouteneuoe, +en otpuateneuoe
leutpaneuoe (espasnu+uoe)
Cropee otpuateneuoe
0tpuateneuoe
8,33
16,67
53,57
17,86
3,57
66,7
12,6
14,5
6,1
0,1

peqe scero ctanu qpyrunu cuctenM nu+uoctuMx euuocteu u oeuor, sua+uteneuo sospocno oayaeuue
nu+uoctuou u cutyatusuou ueorpeqeneuuoctu. Kar pas ua aton oue otne+euo yronuytoe pauee raqeuue +ysctsa
coctseuuoro qoctouuctsa, cuueuue ysepeuuoctu s sastpaauen que, oayaeuue ytpatM rpoeccuouaneuou u
nu+uoctuou repcrertusM.
auuMe uaaux coctseuuMx uccneqosauuu cpequ pasnu+uMx routuureutos ctyqeutos rpoeccuouaneuou aronM
roqtsepqakt: s ycnosux repexoquoro repuoqa sua+uteneuMe usneueuu rpetepresaet otuoaeuue y+aauxc
pasnu+uMx sseuees rpoeccuouaneuou aronM r repcrertusan paotM ro creuaneuoctu, r csoeu yqyaeu
rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu (tan. 12.8).
Tarun opason, suquo, +to sMop rpoeccuu qeuctsuteneuo rpuopen xapartep nu+uoctuoro rpusuca ua
orpeqeneuuon atare usueuuoro rytu nonoqoro +enosera, ctan repcouaneuou rponenou qn oneauuctsa
y+aauxc rar oaeopasosateneuou, tar u +to ocoeuuo sauo rpoeccuouaneuou aronM. 8 atou cssu
ucrnk+uteneuo sauMnu ctauostc rpasuneua oeura u rcuxonoru+ecruu auanus cutyauu, crnaqMsakaeuc s
oaectse, oeura usneueuuu s uuqusuqyaneuou u oaectseuuou rcuxonoruu roteuuaneuMx paotuuros. VM ye
rosopunu, +to rotep usueuuMx opueutupos u repcrertus cuuaet yctou+usocte +enosera, cosqaet yrposy ero
nu+uou u rpoeccuouaneuou esoracuoctu. 3to, s repsyk o+epeqe, otuocutc r nonoqony roroneuuk, rotopoe ue
uneet qoctato+uoro usueuuoro orMta, uasMros roseqeuu ua pMure tpyqa.
8 qauuon routercte ocooro suunauu sacnyusakt poccuucro-putaucruu u poccuucro-repnaucruu rpoertM,
roqqepauuMe Esporeucrun ouqon opasosauu, ro cosqauuk s peruouax Poccuu (s +actuoctu, s Vocrse u Caurt-
etepypre) uosMx turos opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu* ronneqeu u eutpos rpoeccuouaneuou roqrotosru
penecneuuMx paotuuros qn cepM ycnyr. |x sMrycruuru opueutuposauM ua canoctoteneuoe y+actue s peopne
poccuucrou arouonuru, s +actuoctu ua paoty s paquraneuo usneukauxc cepax typusna u roctuuu+uoro
xosuctsa, penoutuMx u ctpouteneuMx ycnyr, passutu nanoro u nenroro cepsucuoro usueca, t.e. rpoussoqctsa ue
tonero tosapos, uo u ycnyr canoro pasuoro rpoun.
* Peopnuposauue coqepauu ua+aneuoro rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu: VatepuanM neqyuapoquou rouepeuuu. C., 1999.

larorneuuMu orMt oprauusauu taroro poqa y+peqeuuu rossonet ye s repson rpunueuuu ysuqete, +to
rpoecc roqrotosru nonoqeu qn paotM s ycnosux pMuo+uou arouonuru noet aertusuo yrpasntec
rocyqapctseuuMnu ctpyrtypanu, a rcuxonoru+ecrue aertM oy+euu s tar oprauusosauuou rpoarone
rpesocxoqt scrue ouqauu. cuxonoru+ecroe corposoqeuue u auanus uosMx qn Poccuu opn
rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu rossonet ny+ae route rpu+uuM, rotopMe orpeqenkt usneueuu s
uuqusuqyaneuou rcuxonoruu u oecre+usakt aertusuoe uuqusuqyaneuoe roseqeuue ua pMure tpyqa, passutue s
nonoqeu tarux ra+ects, rar canoctoteneuocte u rurocte arouonu+ecroro nManeuu, opueutau ua rotpeuten,
ua ero uutepecM u sosnouoctu.

149
12.4. Paise ncxonoruecko npoqeccouansuo koucynsa kak cekopa nepcouansusx, nuusx
ycnyr

ectunetuuu xoq poccuucrux peopn ot+etnuso sMsun pactyayk rotpeuocte poccuucroro uaceneuu s
rcuxonoru+ecrux ycnyrax: nu+uoctuou u rpoeccuouaneuou quaruocture, roucynetuposauuu, roqqepre, ronoau s
paspeaeuuu usueuuMx rponen, rpaqaucron u rpoeccuouaneuon passutuu nu+uoctu, s rcuxonoru+ecron
tpeuuure u ropperuu u t.r. (k. 8apoquu, 1993-1997; |. Kouorosa, 1998; V. Pytresu+, 8. otaros, 1995; 8. +yrpos,
A. +epuMa, 1993, u qp.).
la aton oue ctuxuuuo u rpartu+ecru ueyrpasneno +avan opvupoeamec+ cne(uuvec|uu dn+ Poccuu pe+o|
ncuxonocuvec|ux ,cn,c |a| ,cn,c nuv+oco, nepco+ane+oco xapa|mepa. 0cuosuMnu rotpeutennu atux ycnyr
ctauostc otqeneuMe rpaqaue (usu+ecrue nua), a tare +actuMe rpeqrpuuunatenu u aqnuuuctpau +actuMx
y+peqeuuu u rpeqrputuu. 8 aton rposnetc cyaectseuuoe otnu+ue ot ueqasuux net, rorqa rotpeutennu
rpurnaquoro u rpartu+ecroro rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu Mnu, rnasuMn opason, rocyqapctseuuMe y+peqeuu,
rpeqrputu u oprauusauu.
leorpauu+euuMu rotor rcuxonoru+ecrou u oronorcuxonoru+ecrou nutepatypM, ueoospunoe rpeqnoeuue
rcuxonoru+ecrux ycnyr +acto secena conuuteneuoro, a uuorqa u otrposeuuo aapnataucroro csouctsa rpusnernu
suunauue oaectseuuoctu u oprauos rocyqapctseuuoro yrpasneuu r atou Mctpo pactyaeu otpacnu uuteucusuo
passusakaeroc s Poccuu tpetu+uoro certopa arouonuru. 8a rocnequue roqM Mnu rposeqeuM uecronero
coseaauuu c y+actuen creuanuctos, rpeqctasuteneu oaectseuuoctu u rocyqapctseuuMx oprauos, rotopMe
rpusenu r orpeqeneuuk +oeex npu+(unoe co(uane+ou nonumu|u, s rotopou tar unu uua+e y+teua ueoxoqunocte
orpeqenute pone u yuruu rocyqapctsa ua opnupykaenc pMure couaneuMx, opasosateneuMx,
rcuxonoru+ecrux u uuMx nu+uMx ycnyr. la atux coseaauux nM otne+anu opnuposauue ueoM+uoro
rcuxonoru+ecroro euoneua, sMctyrakaero rar rosutusuMu pesynetat poccuucrux peopn. 8 rocyqapctseuuMx
uuctutytax u s oaectseuuon cosuauuu Poccuu opnupyetc roueru ueoxoqunoctu ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uvu
pec,pcavu, s +actuoctu ,npaene+u+ paseumuev venoeevec|ux pec,pcoe, conpoeode+u+ cpada+c|ou u
npoeccuo+ane+ou |apeepe u+dueuda, paseumu+ nepco+ana npednpu+muu u ,vpede+uu, ,npaene+u+
pecuo+ane+evu pe+|avu opasoeamene+ex ,cn,c, mp,da u npoeccuu.
8auMn ronutu+ecrun artopon ctano ycuneuue rocyqapctseuuoro suunauu r cepe rcuxonoru+ecrux ycnyr u
rcuxonoru+ecrou ronoau: s aton uarpasneuuu sa rocnequue roqM rpousoanu rapquuaneuMe repeneuM.
8ua+uteneuoe snuuue ua xoq coMtuu s couaneuo-tpyqosou cepe orasanu sarouoqateneuMe artM, rpuutMe s
1992-1999 rr. pesuqeuton u pasutenectson Poccuucrou 1eqepauu, qpyrue peaeuu, roqrotosneuuMe u rpuutMe
cosnectuo rpyrrou eqepaneuMx oprauos ucronuuteneuou snactu: Vuuuctepctson tpyqa, Vuuuctepctson
opasosauu, 1eqepaneuou rocyqapctseuuou cnyou sautoctu, Pocronnonoqeu u qp. octato+uo yrasate ua
rpuutMu s 1992 r. u qoronueuuMu s 1995 r. 1eqepaneuMu sarou o opasosauuu Poccuucrou 1eqepauu,
1eqepaneuMu sarou o sautoctu u qp.
0quunu us saueuaux cneqctsuu rpuutMx peaeuuu ctanu:
rocyqapctseuuoe rpusuauue ueoxoqunoctu passutu oaeuauouaneuou cuctenM rpoeccuouaneuou
opueutauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru uaceneuu Poccuu;
ouuaneuoe sarperneuue ctatyca u opn rpoeccuouaneuou u roucynetatusuou ronoau uaceneuuk Poccuu,
ytsepqeuuoe roctauosneuuen Vuuuctepctsa tpyqa u couaneuoro passutu P1 ot 27 ceutp 1996 r. N 1;
paspaotra oaux rpuuuros oprauusauu taroro poqa paot, orpeqeneuuMx repsu+uMnu uopnatusuMnu
qoryneutanu, paspaotauuMnu s Vuuuctepctse tpyqa u couaneuoro passutu P1.
K +ucny ocuosoronarakaux uopnatusuMx qoryneutos otuoctc rpeqe scero rpuutMe s Vuuuctepctse tpyqa u
couaneuoro passutu P1 onoeuue o rpoeccuouaneuou opueutauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepre uaceneuu s
Poccuucrou 1eqepauu, s Vuuuctepctse opasosauu P1 onoeuue o cnye rpartu+ecrou rcuxonoruu
opasosauu, s 1eqepaneuou cnye sautoctu - onoeuue o rpoeccuouaneuou opueutauu u rporoucynetauu
u qp. 8 atux qoryneutax srepsMe kpuqu+ecru orpeqeneuM suqM u opnM qeteneuoctu s onactu rpoopueutauu
u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru uaceneuu, orpeqeneuM cyertM atou qeteneuoctu, saurcuposauM nuuunaneuMe
rapautuu rocyqapctsa rpaqauan Poccuu s atou cepe opasosateneuMx u creuaneuMx ycnyr.
lyuo ocoo otnetute, +to sce yrasauuMe peaeuu s qeuctsuteneuoctu unekt uctopu+ecroe sua+euue: enepeme
c 1936 e. coeemckoe npaeumenscmeo koncmumyupyem neeansnym ocnoey u onpedenem donm u opvm
eocydapcmeennoeo yvacmu e paaeumuu npakmuvecko ncuxonoeuu e Poccuu.
8necte c ten yctauosneuuMe o(ue npu+(une artusuou couaneuou ronuturu rocyqapctsa, noraneuMe artM,
rpuutMe oprauanu rocyqapctseuuoro yrpasneuu, otqeneuMe seqonctseuuMe uopnatusuMe artM, uuctpyruu u
roctauosneuu, sce ouu eae ue cosqakt qoctato+uou rpasosou ocuosM qn passutu pasuoopasuMx
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rcuxonoru+ecrux ycnyr. puutMe uopnatusM artu+ecru ue satparusakt nanoe rpeqrpuuunatenectso u
uuqusuqyaneuyk qeteneuocte rpartu+ecroro rcuxonora rar uosyk oaupuyk cepy +actuoro
rpeqrpuuunatenectsa, srnk+akayk s ce auporuu crertp repcouaneuMx quaruoctu+ecrux, roucynetatusuMx u
roucynetatusuo-oy+akaux (tpeuuurosMx) ycnyr rcuxonoru+ecroro xapartepa. 0uu ue oecre+usakt qoctato+uyk
saauty rpas rpaqau ua qopora+ectseuuMe u esoracuMe repcouaneuMe ycnyru, ue orpeqenkt xapartep u
ropqor otsetctseuuoctu sa orasauue ueqopocosectuMx ycnyr, pasuo rar u sa ueneraneuoe ux rpoussoqctso u
pacrpoctpaueuue. pu aton roctouuou rparturou ctauosutc uesarouuoe saunctsosauue u rpuneueuue
sapyeuMx netoqos, roscenectuoe uapyaeuue astopcrux rpas, otcytctsue arcreptusM u oeuru ra+ectsa
rpoussoqunMx s qauuou cepe tosapos u ycnyr, kpuqu+ecra esotsetctseuuocte nu, ocyaectsnkaux taroro
poqa qeteneuocte, u t.r. Vuoatc cny+au, rorqa roq suqon rcuxonoru+ecrux orasMsaktc ycnyru cosepaeuuo
uuoro xapartepa, ue unekaue c uay+uou rcuxonorueu uu+ero oaero.
Ten ue neuee poccuucra qeuctsuteneuocte roqtsepqaet, +to cyaectseuuMe usneueuu s otuoaeuux
rocyqapctsa r rpartu+ecrony rpuneueuuk rcuxonoru+ecroro suauu ato peaneua ronutura, a ue rorynuctcrue
qernapauu, u ceu+ac s repcrertuse 2000-2005 rr. pe+e uqet:
o cuctenatu+ecron passutuu oaeuauouaneuou cuctenM rpoeccuouaneuou opueutauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou
roqqepru uaceneuu c y+actuen scex yposueu u cyertos rocyqapctseuuoro u nyuuuraneuoro yrpasneuu;
o cosqauuu uay+uMx, texuonoru+ecrux u oprauusauouuMx ocuos yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon; o
paspaotre qeuctsykaux peruouaneuMx rporpann corposoqeuu rpaqaucrou u rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM
+enosera.
Ecnu cneqosate qauuou ctpateru+ecrou nuuuu, to sa nuauaee n+munemue don+a eme sanoe+a asa
coeepae++o +oeou ompacnu ma| +aseeaevex nuv+ex, a mov+ee nepco+ane+ex ,cn,c e cepe npa|muvec|oco
venoee|oeede+u+.
Ectectseuuo, +to ata otpacne qonua Mte oecre+eua cootsetctsykaunu pecypcanu:
qonuM Mte cosqauM qoctato+uo noauMe uay+uMe ocuosM paotM atou uosou qn Poccuu otpacnu ycnyr: a
sua+ut, ueoxoquno creuaneuo paccnotpete peaneuoe coctouue u repcrertusM passutu poccuucrou uay+uou
rcuxonoruu, ee yuqaneutaneuMx, rpurnaquMx u rpartu+ecrux pasqenos;
ueoxoquno paspaotate neraneuyk, uay+uo oocuosauuyk u atu+ecru esoracuyk cucteny uosoro tura
couaneuMx texuonoruu rcuxonoru+ecrux texuonoruu paotM rpartu+ecroro rcuxonora, srnk+akaux s ce
creuanusuposauuyk, rateutuo-+uctyk texuury, netoqM u rpoeqypM, crocoM oprauusauu ero pao+ero necta.
8saneu rupatcroro u ecroutponeuoro pacrpoctpaueuu pasuoopasuMx u uecornacosauuMx netoqos u rpoeqyp
rpartu+ecrou paotM rcuxonoros ueoxoqun arrypatuMu tpaucep ua poccuucryk ro+sy sapyeuMx texuur u
texuonoruu c y+eton uauouaneuMx, reorpau+ecrux u arouonu+ecrux ocoeuuocteu poccuucrux tepputopuu. lo,
noet Mte, qae onee sauo passepuyte eneuarpasneuuyk paoty ro rpoussoqctsy rourypeutocrocouMx
ote+ectseuuMx rcuxotexuur u rcuxotexuonoruu, ro roqrotosre natepuaneuou u rpasosou ocuosM ux rosneuu ua
poccuucron u neqyuapoquon pMure.
8 nuauaue roqM s Poccuu rpartu+ecru ua csooquon rpoctpauctse qoneu sosuuruyte sua+uteneuMu, qo
uecronerux coteu tMc+ +enoser, raqposMu routuureut, opasykauu rpoeccuouaneuMu pecypc qauuou otpacnu
ycnyr. pu aton cneqyet unete s suqy, +to qn oecre+euu uopnaneuoro couaneuoro aerta atou otpacnu s ueu
s coroctasunMx qonx qonuM oequuutec qn cornacosauuou qeteneuoctu creuanuctM cosepaeuuo pasuoro
rpoun: arouonuctM, reqaroru, couonoru, kpuctM u, roue+uo, rcuxonoru.
8necte c ten, rar u so scron qpyron qene, oprauusauu u rpeqrputu qauuou otpacnu noryt u qonuM unete
repcouan pasuoro rsanuurauouuoro yposu nnaqauu (ocnyusakauu) repcouan cootsetctsykaeu
rsanuurauu, creuanuctos co cpequun opasosauuen u creuanuctos sMcaeu rsanuurauu. 8 atou cssu
rpuqetc ocosuauuo u pasynuo rpeoqonesate rpoeccuouaneuMu cuousn araqenu+ecroro rcuxonora: uyuo route,
+to paota rpartu+ecroro rcuxonora sMcaeu rsanuurauu s cospeneuuou Poccuu uneet, noet Mte, ropasqo
oneaee couaneuoe ssy+auue, a roctouuo pactyaa rotpeuocte s rpartu+ecron rcuxonore cpequeu
rsanuurauu sooae uurar ue yqosnetsopetc.
8 cnousauxc octotenectsax ctauosutc enecoopasuMn sauoso oeuute nepcne|muee paseumu+ +a,v+o-
,+dave+mane+ou, npu|nad+ou u npa|muvec|ou ncuxonocuu s Poccuu u cqenate ato c y+eton tou couaneuou u
arouonu+ecrou cutyauu, rotopa crnaqMsaetc s Poccuu s cssu c peopnou ee ronutu+ecrou, rocyqapctseuuou,
couaneuou u arouonu+ecrou cep, t.e. s Poccuu repexoquoro repuoqa.
8a roqM, rpoaeqaue c ua+ana peopn, uarorunoce qoctato+uoe ronu+ectso uuopnauu rar o creuure
rpoeccos tpaucopnauu poccuucroro oaectsa, tar u o ocoeuuoctx pearuu rpaqau ua rpoucxoqaue s uen
usneueuu. osunace peaneua sosnouocte onee to+uo ssrnuyte ua rpoeccM poccuucroro repexoquoro
repuoqa c rcuxonoru+ecrou, cyertuou to+ru speuu, ronuee sMsute +enose+ecruu roteuuan u pecypc
151
poccuucrux peopn. onesuo paccnotpete atu rpoeccM s ux +enose+ecron sMpaeuuu qn toro, +toM ro
sosnouoctu sMsute rputu+ecrue to+ru passutu couaneuMx uarpeuuu u oeuute sepotuocte sosuuruoseuu
rputu+ecrux cutyauu, saqakaux orpeqeneuuMe repcrertusM couaneuMx u uuqusuqyaneuMx ctpeccos.
Cyaectseuuo uosMu qn Poccuu tepnuu yrpasneuue +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu ceroqu ue sMsMsaet
ueqoyneuu uneuuo rotony, +to sot ye rpartu+ecru qecte net nM uerpepMsuo yrotpenen ero so scex
ayqutopux u ua scex yposux: ot oprauos u cny nyuuuraneuoro yrpasneuu qo yrpasneues eqepaneuoro
yposu; ot tpaquuouuMx rynauutapuMx creuanuctos, rotopMe paotakt s pasuMx cepax couaneuou rparturu, qo
araqenu+ecrux creuanuctos, sauunakaux qoctato+uo sMcoroe ronoeuue s ote+ectseuuou uayre.
8eqe uneuuo tar s 60-e roqM rpousana qopory roueru y+eta +enose+ecroro artopa roueru, rotopa
orasanace s qeuctsuteneuoctu ucto+uuron sospoqeuu u socctauosneuu ote+ectseuuou rcuxonoruu. 8 ua+ane XXI
s. tarun reuepatusuMn artopon ouosneuu u passutu pyccrou rcuxonoru+ecrou uayru noet ctate roueru
,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu.

|nasa 13. Ynpasneue uenoseuecku pecypcau ua sane peania npoqeccouansuo kapseps

Kar nM yctauosunu sMae, coctouue rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouuou ctpyrtypM +enose+ecrux pecypcos u
ra+ectseuuMe xapartepucturu peruouaneuMx pMuros tpyqa s sua+uteneuou nepe orpeqenktc cmp,|m,p+evu
npeopasoea+u+vu +apod+oxos+ucmee++oco |ovnne|ca; nonumu|ou sa++mocmu u cocmo++uev espaomu(e;
|avecmeov u du+avu|ou usve+e+u+ venoeevec|ux pec,pcoe, npoeccuo+ane+oco nome+(uana a|o+ovu|u. 8 qauuou
rnase nM qaqun onee qetaneuoe orucauue rponen u euoneuos yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu ua atare
peanusauu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM +enosera. pu aton ocuosuMe sorpocM, pasyneetc, yqyt satparusate
coctouue u rponenM arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu ua poccuucron pMure tpyqa rar csooquon, tar u
cssauuon. CreuaneuMu uutepec s routercte uaaero auanusa rpeqctasnkt orucauue cutyauu u roseqeuue
paotuuros s rpoeccax repexoqa ot coctouu uesautoctu r sautoctu u s rpoecce rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa ua
pao+en necte. Ectectseuuo, +to rpu aton uauoneaee suunauue nM yqen yqente sorpocan yrpasneuu
+enose+ecrunu pecypcanu ua aton atare usueuuoro rytu +enosera.

13.1. 3auocs 6eipa6oa

lyuo rpusuate, +to qeuctsykauu s Poccuu arouonu+ecruu nexauusn ue royqaet r artusuony cosqauuk uosMx
pao+ux nect, secena satpyquet csooquMu repenus pao+eu cunM, rpusoqut r uararnusauuk ueronuou sautoctu
u roteuuaneuony pocty espaotuM. la+uua c 1994 r. nacataM +enon+ou sa++mocmu uapactakt. 8 terctuneuou
u anertpotexuu+ecrou rponManeuuoctu, s tpartopuon u cenecroxosuctseuuon naauuoctpoeuuu ot 40 qo 60%
paotuuros Mnu repeseqeuM ua ueronuyk pao+yk ueqenk unu otrpasneuM s aqnuuuctpatusuMe otrycra.
pu oaen ueratusuon xapartepe atoro rpoecca uneuuo +enon+a+ sa++mocme eo v+ocov cnococmeoeana
coxpa+e+us +es+avumene+oco ,poe++ ou(uane+ou espaomu(e (tan.13.1).

Tanua 13.1
Tpyqoycpocso rpaqau, mymx pa6oy*
* Ctatuctu+ecrue qauuMe 1eqepaneuou cnyM sautoctu.

N r/r

Xapartepuctura routuureuta espaotuMx 0patunoce ro tpyqoyctpouctsy Tpyqoyctpoeuo
8cero 8t. +. euauu 8cero 8t. +. euauu
1 2 3 4 5 6
01 +ucneuuocte rpaqau
scero (ctporu 04+06+07)

2 437 575

1 490 053

724 659

351 692
02 us uux: paotasaue (paotakaue) ro rpoeccun
pao+ux

1 426 099

780 589

486 897

225 466
03 ro rpoeccun cnyaaux 768149 564 568 177010 127373
04 |s ctporu 01
sautMe tpyqosou qeteneuoctek

95918

54364

14562

6675
05 us uux: enakaue paotate s csooquoe ot
ocuosuou paotM spen

13496

6950

3567

1466
06 y+aauec, enakaue paotate s csooquoe ot
y+eM spen

63483

28583

40412

16715
07 uesautMe tpyqosou qeteneuoctek 2278174 1 407106 669 685 358 302
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
152

Crpasra.
ns vucna +esa++mex mp,doeou de+mene+ocmes (ctpora 07, rp.5):
tpyqoyctpoeuo s repuoq qo rpusuauu ux espaotuMnu 375 423 +en.;
uarpasneuo ua rpoeccuouaneuoe oy+euue 60 441 +en.
ucno cpada+, non,vueaux |o+c,nema(us:
ro sMopy rpoeccuu 291 113 +en.;
ro rpoeccuouaneuony oy+euuk 122 510 +en.;
ro repeneue necta paotM 511 356 +en.;
ro sarouoqatenectsy o tpyqe u sautoctu 258 547 +en.;
ro qpyrun sorpocan 217 542 +en.

nsve+e+u+ e cmp,|m,pe espaom+ex xapartepusyktc cneqykaunu ocoeuuoctnu:
sospactauuen +ucneuuoctu espaotuMx, rpousakaux s cenecrou nectuoctu, u usneueuuen ux yqeneuoro seca
s oaeu +ucneuuoctu espaotuMx c 25 qo 27%;
ysenu+euuen qonu qonrospeneuuMx espaotuMx s oaeu +ucneuuoctu espaotuMx (ro rpeqsaputeneuMn
qauuMn r rouy repsoro ronyroqu 2000 r. ro+tu raqMu tpetuu espaotuMu yqet unete atot ctatyc onee 8
neces, s to spen rar sa auanoru+uMu 1995 r. ro+tu raqMu rtMu);
rpeonaqauuen +ucneuuoctu ysonusauxc paotuuros uaq +ucneuuoctek rpuutMx ua paoty (tar, ro
rpeqsaputeneuMn qauuMn sa repsMu rsaptan 1999 r. Mno rpuuto ua paoty csMae 2,5 nnu +enoser, a ysonunoce
onee 3,4 nnu +enoser);
ycuneuuen couaneuou uarpeuuoctu ua ouuaneuo routponupyenon pMure tpyqa (r rouy repsoro
ronyroqu 1999 r. tonero raqMu rtMu, unekauu ctatyc espaotuoro, nor pacc+utMsate ua csooquoe pao+ee
necto unu saraucuk, s to spen rar s roue repsoro ronyroqu 1993 r. raqMu stopou);
ysenu+euuen +ucna ropoqos u rocenros c nouoarouonu+ecrou ctpyrtypou, s rotopMx otne+aetc rpusucua
cutyau c sautoctek (ato rpeqe scero ropoqa u rocenru, rqe rpaqoopasykaunu snktc rpeqrputu
terctuneuou, nerrou, yroneuou rponManeuuoctu, oopouuoro ronrnerca, naauuoctpoeuu);
yctou+uso sMcorun yposuen espaotuM s pqe tepputopuu |sauoscrou, croscrou, Koctponcrou,
Kuposcrou, Fpocnascrou onactx, pecrynurax arectau u |uryaetu, rqe yposeue espaotuM s tpu u onee pas
rpesMaaet cpequepoccuucruu rorasatene.
CoroctasuteneuMu auanus rpuseqeuuMx sMae qauuMx (a tare qoronuuteneuou uuopnauu ro coctouuk u
qsueuuk +enose+ecroro pecypca Poccuu, uarpunep cseqeuuu o rpoeccuouaneuou nurpauu, qauuMx o sMrycre u
tpyqoyctpouctse creuanuctos u t.q.) roqtsepqaet sMsoq o ton, +to ye s roue 1993 r. rpartu+ecru paspyaunuce
rpeuue, aqnuuuctpatusuo sarperneuuMe cssu neqy ,ve+evu vecmavu rpoeccuouaneuou aronM u paovuvu
vecmavu s tpyqosou cepe. 8 aton routercte rpeqctasnet creuaneuMu uutepec ctatuctura sautoctu u qsueuu
pao+eu cunM ua csooquon pMure tpyqa Poccuu (tan. 13.2).
Tanua 13.2
Ycpequeuua cpykypua xapakepcka kouureua poccckx 6eipa6ousx ua psuke cso6oquo pa6oue cns
(sa II rsaptan, s ton +ucne sMrycruuru aronM)*
* /cpequeuo ro qauuMn 1C8 Poccuu sa 1993-1999 rr.

N r/r Xapartepuctura routuureuta espaotuMx 8apeructpuposauo espaotuMx ua roue rsaptana
8cero |s uux s cenecrou
nectuoctu
XeuauuM |s uux s cenecrou
nectuoctu
1 2 3 4 5 6
01 +ucneuuocte espaotuMx scero 577725 101 694 417605 73566
02 |s ctporu 01 ro rpu+uuan ysoneueuu
(ot+ucneuu): o coctseuuony enauuk 217930 37940 143875 25630
03 8a uapyaeuue tpyqosou qucurnuuM 20512 4392 7635 1992
04 8McsooqeuuMe paotuuru: 238 749 38833 182823 32163
05 s cssu c pectpyrtypusaueu 10454 632 8634 532
06 s cssu c aurpotctson unu rperpaaeuuen
qeteneuoctu rpeqrputu 3068 803 2285 717
07 ysoneuuMe us pqos 8oopyeuuMx cun 5080 1455 259 40
08 pauee sauunasauec uuqusuqyaneuou tpyqosou
qeteneuoctek 800 172 561 110
09 rpaqaue, ocsooqusauec us |T/ unu T 5433 939 701 111
153
10 sMrycruuru oaeopasosateneuMx aron 22515 4764 16851 3427
11 sMrycruuru cpequux cre. u sMcaux y+euMx
saseqeuuu 23171 3586 18577 2925
12 sMrycruuru rpoeccuouaneuo-texuu+ecrux
saseqeuuu 21 137 4578 16091 3499

pu aton uaqo unete s suqy, +to s cpequen eeroquo oprauM rocyqapctseuuoro yrpasneuu u cnyM nectuoro
canoyrpasneuu tepkt us-roq routpon ropqra 1 nnu sMrycruuros us pasnu+uMx sseuees oaeopasosateneuou u
rpoeccuouaneuou aron. +ucneuuocte uetpyqoyctpoeuuou nonoqeu sospactaet roq ot roqa, suoc csou
ueratusuMu srnaq s ocnaneuue peaneuoro rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana poccuucrou arouonuru u roqqepusa
teuqeuuk cuueuu ra+ectsa usuu poccuucroro oaectsa. laronuun qn cpasueuu, +to, uarpunep, s Frouuu
tpyqoyctpausaetc cpasy rocne sMrycra qo 92% nonoqMx nkqeu. 8 CLA rony+akt paoty s te+euue neca rocne
orou+auu yuusepcuteta onee 84% sMrycruuros ectectseuuouay+uoro u texuu+ecroro rpoun u 38% rynauutapues
(+epes 6 nec. 94 u 78% cootsetctseuuo, a +epes 9 nec. 96 u 94%).
C y+eton passutu peaneuou cutyauu u s enx peanusauu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu, ycuneuu
rocyqapctseuuoro perynuposauu cutyauu ua pMure tpyqa s rocnequue roqM Mn paspaotau u peanusosau pq
oprauusauouuMx u rpartu+ecrux nep.
0rasMsaetc ronoae paotuuran, uaxoqaunc roq pucron ysoneueuu. 0prauusosaua paota ro
usupateneuou roqqepre rpeqrputuu, ocyaectsnkaux sMuyqeuuMu repesoq csoux paotuuros ua ycnosu
ueronuoro pao+ero qu (ueqenu) unu uarpasnkaux paotuuros s sMuyqeuuMe otrycra es coxpaueuu
sapaotuou rnatM.
Paspaotaua rporpanna qeuctsuu s ycnosux naccosoro sMcsooqeuu u passutu rputu+ecrux cutyauu ua
peruouaneuMx pMurax tpyqa, orpeqeneuM rputepuu qn otueceuu tepputopuu r rputu+ecrun peruouan ro
coctouuk ua pMure tpyqa, orpeqenetc nexauusn qeuctsuu ucronuuteneuou snactu rpu sosuuruoseuuu
rputu+ecrou cutyauu ua pMure tpyqa.
8 peruouax paspaatMsaktc creuaneuMe rporpannM, uarpasneuuMe ua cosqauue ycnosuu, crococtsykaux
tpyqoyctpouctsy ocoo uyqakauxc s couaneuou saaute rpaqau. 0cyaectsnetc rsotuposauue pao+ux nect,
orasMsaetc uuaucosa ronoae paotoqatenn qn ronreucauu satpat, cssauuMx c sMrnatou rpaqauan
sapaotuou rnatM, rposoqutc paota ro cosqauuk eutpos rpoeccuouaneuou peaunutauu uusanuqos,
roqpoctros u qpyrux rateropuu rpaqau.
n coqeuctsu speneuuou sa++mocmu s peruouax paspaotauM creuaneuMe rporpannM, s cootsetctsuu c
rotopMnu rpeqycnatpusaetc oxsatute eeroquo s oaeu cnouoctu onee 700 tMc+ +enoser, s ton +ucne csMae
580 tMc+ +enoser ua speneuuMx u oaectseuuMx paotax u onee 60 tMc+ y+aauxc oaeopasosateneuMx aron
ua speneuuMx paotax s csooquoe ot y+eM spen.
n pacaupeuu sosnouocteu tpyqoyctpouctsa nonoqeu, s ton +ucne uecosepaeuuonetuux, s peruouax
rposoqtc pnapru saraucuu; oprauusosMsaktc nonoqeuMe upu tpyqa; ocyaectsnetc arcrepuneut
Vonoqeua rpartura, rpeqycnatpusakauu sarnk+euue qorosopos cnyM sautoctu c paotoqatennu o
speneuuon tpyqoyctpouctse qauuou rateropuu rpaqau (cporon ue onee 6 neces) c enek rony+euu
rpoeccuouaneuMx u tpyqosMx uasMros uerocpeqctseuuo ua pao+en necte. 8 enx rosMaeuu tpyqosou
nouneuoctu nonoqeu, srepsMe sMxoqaeu ua pMuor tpyqa, oprauusosaua rpoeccuouaneua uuopnau u
roucynetuposauue uerocpeqctseuuo s y+peqeuux opasosauu qn sMrycruuros aron u rpoeccuouaneuMx
y+euMx saseqeuuu.
0cyaectsnetc roqqepra canosautoctu uaceneuu u qpyrue nepM ro roqqepre espaotuMx. 8 1999 r.
csMae 380 tMc+ espaotuMx rpaqau rpoanu rpoeccuouaneuoe oy+euue tonero sa c+et cpeqcts 1ouqa
sautoctu, a onee +en 2,5 nnu +enoser Mnu orasauM rporoucyntauouuMe u rpoopueutauouuMe ycnyru.
0quaro auanus rorasMsaet, +to s nuauaee spen cutyau ua pMure tpyqa ue yqet yny+aatec. 6onee toro, s
pqe peruouos oua noet ooctputec roq snuuuen ctpyrtypuoro rpusuca, craqa rpoussoqctsa u cuueuu yposu
rpeqnoeuu uosMx pao+ux nect; ato cssauo, rnasuMn opason, c raqeuuen uusectuuouuou artusuoctu.
onoeuue noet yxyqautec tare us-sa ycropeuu sMsoqa us arcrnyatauu ueaertusuMx rpoussoqcts,
rpeqctoaeu cauauu pqa rpaqoopasykaux rpeqrputuu, aurpotctsa rpunepuo 1500 uecoctoteneuMx
rpeqrputuu. pu taron sapuaute passutu nacataM ouuaneuou espaotuM noryt sospactu u coctasute s
2000-2005 rr. ropqra 3,5 nnu +enoser.
C y+eton npoc+osup,evex npo(eccoe +a pe+|e mp,da Poccuu, +apacma+u+ vucna pecuo+oe c |pumuvec|uv
nonoe+uev e cepe sa++mocmu s panrax artusuou couaneuou ronuturu ueoxoquno rpeqycnotpete creuaneuMe
nepM, uarpasneuuMe ua artusuyk nounusauk csooquoro pMura tpyqa, oecre+ute yxoq c atoro pMura
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sua+uteneuou +actu arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu sa c+et onee aertusuou rpoeccuouaneuou
uuopnauu u rporoucynetauu, sa c+et repeoy+euu c rocneqykaun tpyqoyctpouctson espaotuoro u
uesautoro uaceneuu. 8 cootsetctsuu c oaeu rouerueu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu repe+eue rpartu+ecrux
qeuctsuu s aton uarpasneuuu qoneu rpeqycnatpusate:
sseqeuue nep ro uuaucoso-arouonu+ecrou u couaneuou roqqepre tepputopuu c rputu+ecrou cutyaueu ua
pMure tpyqa, peanusauk uusectuuouuMx rporpann u rpoertos, crococtsykaux ctaunusauu u passutuk
sautoctu;
sseqeuue cuctenM rapautuu sautoctu u couaneuou saautM repcouana rpeqrputuu u oprauusauu s ycnosux
rpuneueuu cauauouuMx rpoeqyp unu naccosoro sMcsooqeuu paotakaux;
cosepaeuctsosauue sarouoqatenectsa o sautoctu uaceneuu, u rpeqe scero c enek ycuneuu saautM ua
pMure tpyqa otqeneuMx couaneuMx rpyrr uaceneuu, ctunynuposauu uesautoro uaceneuu r artusuony roucry
paotM;
oprauusauk u rposeqeuue aertusuoro nouutopuura s cepe sautoctu c enek sMsneuu rpusucuMx
sneuuu u orepatusuoro rpuutu yrpeqakaux nep.
laronuun, +to c 1997 r. srepsMe ua+anu cornacosauuo opnuposatec oe setsu couaneuou ronuturu
rocyqapctsa: couaneua saauta rpusucuMx rpyrr uaceneuu u artusuoe yrpasneuue pMuron tpyqa u sautoctek,
opnuposauue rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana arouonuru.
/|mue+a+ co(uane+a+ nonumu|a rpeqronaraet ycuneuue rocyqapctseuuoro snuuu ua csse neqy
rpoeccuouaneuMn opasosauuen u rpoeccuouaneuMn tpyqon rpu seqyaeu ponu tpyqa. 0rMt poccuucrux
peopn rorasMsaet, +to rpeqnaraena s uerotopMx couaneuMx rpoertax qaneueuaa nuepanusau arouonuru
artu+ecru noet rpusectu r qaneueuaeny pasequueuuk tpyqa u rpoopasosauu u ten canMn nuae yrnyut
ye cyaectsykauu paspMs neqy pMuron tpyqa u pMuron opasosateneuMx ycnyr.
Passutue raqposoro roteuuana arouonuru, pauouaneuoe ucronesosauue +enose+ecrux pecypcos snetc, rar
nM orpeqenunu, oquun us ocuosuMx uarpasneuuu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu rocyqapctsa. 8 uaaen routercte
ato osua+aet, +to cyaectsosauue csooquoro pMura tpyqa uneet ue tonero ronouteneuMe (ctunynupykaue
rourypeuuk paotuuros) rocneqctsu: rpoeccuouaneuMu u rpaqaucruu roteuuan arouonu+ecru artusuoro
uaceneuu ucronesyetc uepauouaneuo. 8actouuMe sneuu ua pMure tpyqa ueneqneuuo crasMsaktc ua oaen
yposue rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana uaceneuu.
8seqeuue artusuou couaneuou ronuturu sqece osua+aet rocyqapctseuuoe perynuposauue quuanuru csooquoro
u cssauuoro pMuros tpyqa: ueoxoquna uarpasneuua pasrpysra pMura, yrpasneuue rpoeccanu tpyqoyctpouctsa u
ronoae paotuuran s rpeoqoneuuu rpusucuMx uutepsanos usuu rar to+er paspMsa rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM. 8
+actuoctu, rpoeccuouaneuoe repeoy+euue uesautMx rpaqau (enakaux paotate u uayaux paoty) roq
rourpetuMe pao+ue necta osua+aet, c to+ru speuu uaaeu teopetu+ecrou noqenu, eoccma+oene+ue
+enpepee+ocmu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, ctpyrtypuoe cornacosauue roteuuana arouonu+ecru artusuoro
uaceneuu c tpeosauunu peruouaneuoro pMura tpyqa.
Kar rorasMsaet orMt, ata ronutura noet u qonua ocyaectsntec +epes paspaotry u peanusauk
ronrnercuMx eqepaneuMx, neotpacnesMx u peruouaneuMx rporpann passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos. 8 panrax
atux rporpann rpeqycnatpusaetc cosqauue aertusuou cuctenM rpoeccuouaneuou opueutauu u roucynetauu
uesautoro uaceneuu, cosepaeuctsosauue cuctenM rpoeccuouaneuou roqrotosru u reperoqrotosru espaotuMx,
cornacosauuou c rporpannanu passutu repcouana rpeqrputuu.
Vexauusn rocyqapctseuuoro snuuu ua opnuposauue u pauouaneuoe ucronesosauue aertusuoro raqposoro
roteuuana arouonuru s ycnosux uanu+u csooquoro pMura tpyqa snetc ronrnercuMn: ou oxsatMsaet sce
yposuu septuranu yrpasneuu eqepaneuMu, cyertos eqepauu u nyuuuraneuMu.

13.2. oqrooska nepcouana npeqnp qn pa6os s ycnosx nepexoqa k psuky

|sy+euue qeteneuoctu rpeqrputuu ro roqrotosre, reperoqrotosre u rosMaeuuk rsanuurauu raqpos tare
ouapyusaet ueratusuMe teuqeuuu s ucronesosauuu +enose+ecroro pecypca: uankqaetc pesroe cuueuue
oenos yrasauuMx paot.
CpasuuteneuMu auanus rossonet ysuqete, +to r 1998 r. (ro cpasueuuk c 1991 r.) oenM rpeqoctasneuuMx ua
rpeqrputux opasosateneuMx ycnyr cuusunuce ro pao+un qonuoctn ro+tu ua 60%, a ro qonuoctn
pyrosoquteneu u creuanuctos ua 65%. auuMe roqtsepqakt, +to rpu uanu+uu qosoneuo auporou cetu
y+peqeuuu qoronuuteneuoro rocnesysoscroro rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu rpartu+ecru paspyaunace cuctena
arouonu+ecrou y+eM, rperpatunoce usy+euue u repeqa+a repeqosoro orMta.
leoxoqunocte s rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouuou u ra+ectseuuou repectpoure tpyqosoro roteuuana
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poccuucrux rpeqrputuu tpeyet cosqauu uauouaneuou cuctenM suytpurpoussoqctseuuou (suytpuupneuuou)
roqrotosru raqpos. 8 cospeneuuMx ycnosux uneuuo |adpoea+ nonumu|a npednpu+muu u opca+usa(uu cma+oeumc+
od+uv us npuopumem+ex a|mopoe e onpedene+uu +anpaene+uu u eudoe de+mene+ocmu ecex ,vpede+uu
npoeccuo+ane+oco opasoea+u+.
8rnote qo uactoaero speneuu npoeccuo+ane+oe o,ve+ue |adpoe +a npouseodcmee ocmaemc+ +auonee
vaccoeev eudov nodcomoe|u |eanuu(upoea++ou paoveu cune. Tar, uarpunep, s 1998 r. +ucneuuocte oy+euuMx
ua rpoussoqctse pao+ux rpunepuo s rte pas rpesMcuna +ucneuuocte sMrycruuros rpoeccuouaneuo-texuu+ecrux
y+unua scex turos.
leoxoqunocte paspaotru qauuoro uarpasneuu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu ua+uuaet ocosuasatec
pyrosoqutennu rpeqrputuu u peruouaneuou aqnuuuctpaueu. 8 uactoaee spen so nuorux peruouax Poccuu
(Antaucruu u punopcruu rpa, Vocroscra, Capatoscra, Tynecra, 8opouecra, losocuupcra onactu u qp.) s
arcrepuneutaneuon ropqre rposoqutc sMopo+uMu nouutopuur rpoussoqctseuuou cepM; otpaatMsaetc
nexauusn orpeqeneuu rotpeuocteu rpeqrputuu s raqpax s ycnosux pMuo+uou arouonuru; orpeqenktc
sosnouoctu oeuru u opnuposauu pMura rpoeccuu u t.r. C 1995 r. s orMtuon ropqre sseqeuo yrpasneu+ecroe
roucynetuposauue; ua+ata orMtua paspaotra rporpann passutu repcouana rpeqrputuu u qp.
lankqaenoe cuueuue ronu+ectsa u ra+ectsa scex suqos rony+aenoro opasosauu s nuauaen yqyaen
cyaectseuuo yxyqaut ra+ectseuuyk ctpyrtypy pao+eu cunM. 8 cssu c atun, a tare s cssu co cnouoctek
cutyauu, crnaqMsakaeuc ua poccuucron pMure tpyqa, enecoopasuo:
rpoqonute paoty ro rpoeccuouaneuou reperoqrotosre (c rocneqykaun tpyqoyctpouctson) arouonu+ecru
artusuoro uaceneuu ua csooquon pMure tpyqa;
cosqate rpeqrocMnru qn passutu rpoeccuouaneuou roqrotosru paotuuros ua pao+ux nectax rpeqrputuu
u oprauusauu (es rperpaaeuu c uunu tpyqosMx otuoaeuuu, t.e. c rapautuposauuMn tpyqoyctpouctson).
/+utMsa sospactakayk rotpeuocte s artusuon passutuu peruouaneuMx rporpann yrpasneuu u passutu
+enose+ecrux pecypcos, enecoopasuo rpoqonute peanusauk uassauuMx sMae paot rar a|cnepuve+mane+ex
co(uane+ex npoe|moe. pu aton ueoxoquno oprauusosate u oecre+ute:
paspaotry uopnatusuou asM rpoeccuouaneuoro oy+euu paotuuros, uopnanu rotopou orpeqeneuM
ropqor ero oprauusauu u rpoeccuouaneuoro roucynetuposauu repcouana; rapautuu u nerotM qn paotuuros,
cosneaakaux paoty c oy+euuen (qn rpeqrputuu, oecre+usakaux rpoeccuouaneuoe opasosauue s
cootsetctsuu c couaneuMnu rnauanu) u qp.;
cosqauue cuctenM roopquuauu scex opn rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu, c aertusuou opatuou cssek
ua eqepaneuon u peruouaneuon yposux, rossonkaeu coxpauute ra+ectseuuMu tpyqosou roteuuan rpeqrputuu
u oprauusauu Poccuu;
paspaotry cuctenM coqeuctsu rpeqrputun s roqrotosre repcouana ua rpoussoqctse; oecre+ute ee
rocyqapctseuuyk roqqepry;
passutue uauouaneuou cuctenM corposoqeuu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM rpoeccuouaneuou
opueutauu, roucynetauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru uaceneuu c y+eton cutyauu, crnaqMsakaeuc ua
pMurax rpoeccuu u opasosateneuMx ycnyr;
paspaotry arcrepuneutaneuMx rporpann yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu ua yposue otqeneuMx
peruouos.
0cuosuMnu saqa+anu s onactu passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos rar ronrnercuoro neseqonctseuuoro
uarpasneuu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu rocyqapctsa (ua peaneuMx pao+ux nectax) ctauostc:
rosMaeuue rpoeccuouaneuoro yposu raqposoro roteuuana arouonuru;
ycuneuue tpyqosou notusauu ryten sosqeuctsu ua ctpyrtypy u rpoeccuouaneuMe ra+ectsa repcouana;
cosepaeuctsosauue oprauusauu rpoeccuouaneuoro oy+euu u reperoqrotosru sautoro, espaotuoro u
uesautoro uaceneuu, s ton +ucne soeuuocnyaaux, ysoneuuMx s sarac, a tare rpoeccuouaneuoro passutu
raqpos rocyqapctseuuMx cnyaaux.
Tarun opason, paota s cepe yrpasneuu u passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos s panrax arouonu+ecru artusuoro
uaceneuu uneet csoeu enek ueyMsakauu poct aertusuou sautoctu, rosMaeuue rpoeccuouaneuou
nouneuoctu paotuuros u yny+aeuue rpoeccuouaneuoro yposu u ra+ectsa repcouana rpeqrputuu. 0+esuquo,
+to s roue+uon utore atu nepM uerocpeqctseuuo snukt ua yposeue espaotuM (to+uee, ua qsueuue paotuuros
ua csooquon pMure tpyqa) u rourpetuo orpeqenkt rpoeccuouaneuMu roteuuan rpeqrputuu peruoua.
Peopnuposauue arouonuru Poccuu s repcrertuse qonuo oecre+ute sMcoryk rourypeutocrocouocte
ote+ectseuuou rpoqyruu u ycnyr, sMrycraenMx poccuucrunu rpeqrputunu u oprauusaunu, rar ocuosy ux
yctou+usoro arouonu+ecroro passutu. 0rMt passutMx ctpau c aertusuou pMuo+uou arouonurou rorasMsaet, +to
uauonee yctou+usou asou rourypeutocrocouoctu snetc cosqauue ua rpeqrputux cucten yrpasneuu
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ra+ectson rpoussoqctsa, ocuosauuMx ua sMcorou rpoeccuouaneuou rsanuurauu paotuuros, notusauu u
sosne+euuoctu ux s peaeuue rponen cosepaeuctsosauu rpoussoqctsa, ua +ysctse otsetctseuuoctu u
rpeqauuoctu qauuou oprauusauu, opueutauu ua yqosnetsopeuue sarpocos rotpeuten.
8auyk pone urpaet rpu aton rposeqeuue s usue ronuturu uerpepMsuoro passutu +enose+ecroro roteuuana,
rotopa royqaet paotuuros roqqepusate, cosepaeuctsosate u noquuuposate csou suauu u uasMru s
te+euue sceu tpyqosou usuu, s ton +ucne rocpeqctson rpoeccuouaneuoro oy+euu u rosMaeuu rsanuurauu.
Tara ronutura, srnk+akaa s ce yrpasneuue ra+ectson pao+eu cunM, ctauosutc rnk+esMn uuctpyneuton
qoctueuu ctauneuoctu arouonu+ecroro ronoeuu rpeqrputuu, rosMaeuu couaneuoro yposu raqoro
otqeneuoro paotuura u ctpauM s enon.
8 uactoaee spen rpartu+ecru so scex passutMx ctpauax nupa, unekaux uausMcauu peutuur
rourypeutocrocouoctu, paspaotauM u peanusyktc cuctenM yrpasneuu ra+ectson pao+eu cunM. /poseue
tpeosauuu r paotuuran, sanoeuuMu s yrasauuMx cuctenax, rpeqronaraet:
uanu+ue ronuoro cpequero opasosauu u rony+euue ua+aneuou creuaneuoctu (rpoeccuu) eae s y+euMx
saseqeuux;
rony+euue opnaneuo rpusuauuou rpoeccuouaneuou rsanuurauu, ocuosauuou ua uanu+uu ronreteuuu ro
auporony rpyry suauuu, texuu+ecrux uasMros u uasMros roseqeuu, a tare socrutauue nu+uMx ra+ects,
ueoxoqunMx qn paotM s ycnosux cospeneuuoro rpoussoqctsa;
oprauusauk cucten uerpepMsuoro rpoeccuouaneuoro passutu repcouana, rossonkaux oecre+usate
rsanuuuposauuMnu raqpanu Mctpoe u aertusuoe sueqpeuue sMcorux texuonoruu, cpeqcts astonatusauu u
uuopnatusauu;
uanu+ue sMcororo yposu ucronuuteneuoctu, rpoeccuouaneuou ruroctu u nouneuoctu, ocuosauuMx ua
aertusuou raqposou ronuture, sMcorou oprauusauu u notusauu tpyqa, sueqpeuuu rpuuuros rynauusauu
tpyqa u saotM o ra+ectse tpyqosou usuu.
Auanus ronoeuu qen, cnousaeroc s cepe passutu raqposoro roteuuana poccuucrux rpeqrputuu u
oprauusauu s routercte peaeuu saqa+ oecre+euu ux rourypeutocrocouoctu ua neqyuapoquon u
uauouaneuon pMure, rossonet sMqenute ocuosuMe rponenM, peaeuue rotopMx tpeyet ocyaectsneuu
cneqykaux nep rocyqapctseuuoro perynuposauu u roqqepru.
oeeae+ue ,poe++ npoeccuo+anusva paom+u|oe. Ka+ectseuuMu yposeue paotuuros rpeqrputuu u
oprauusauu cyaectseuuo yctyraet tpeosauun, rpeqsnenMn ua neqyuapoquon pMure tpyqa. Kar nM ye
otne+anu, s Poccuu rpeonaqaet ysra rsanuurau paotuuros roq rourpetuoe pao+ee necto rpu ectron
pasqeneuuu tpyqa. onuuupykaun octaetc uuqyctpuaneuMu tur sautoctu (onee 51% paotuuros). 6onee
ronosuuM sautMx s uapoquon xosuctse snktc paotuuranu uersanuuuposauuoro tpyqa unu tpaquuouuoro
tpyqa cpequeu cnouoctu.
0osda+ue +oeex npoeccuo+ane+ex cma+dapmoe u cucmeve cepmuu|a(uu nepco+ana. euctsykaue s Poccuu
EquuMu tapuuo-rsanuurauouuMu crpaso+uur paot u rpoeccuu pao+ux u KsanuurauouuMu crpaso+uur
qonuocteu pyrosoquteneu, creuanuctos u cnyaaux otpaakt cyaectsosasaue onee 20 net uasaq
rpoeccuouaneuoe u qonuoctuoe pasqeneuu tpyqa paotuuros. la oneauuctse rpeqrputuu rpoune
rpoeccuu u rsanuurauu rpucsausaktc cornacuo ETKC u suoctc s tpyqosMe ruuru paotuuran es
arsaneuos unu rocne yrpoaeuuMx opnaneuMx rpoeqyp.
Peopva |adpoeou nonumu|u npednpu+muu u opca+usa(uu. posoquna ua oneauuctse poccuucrux
rpeqrputuu raqposa ronutura ue cootsetctsyet ctpateruu pMuo+uMx peopn, ocuosua nacca paotoqateneu u
paotuuros ue sauutepecosaua s rosMaeuuu rpoeccuouaneuou rsanuurauu u pocte pesynetatusuoctu tpyqa.
epuoqu+uocte rosMaeuu rsanuurauu rpartu+ecru scex rateropuu repcouana rpoqonaet pactu, +to rpno
otpaaetc ua ra+ectse u yposue rpoeccuouanusna paotuuros.
Paseumue coepeve++ou cucmeve e+,mpuupve++oco o,ve+u+. porpannM oy+euu paotuuros ua
rpeqrputux opueutuposauM, s ocuosuon, ua rony+euue repsu+uou rsanuurauu s suqe yrpoaeuuMx tpeosauuu.
le cootsetctsykt tpeosauun u ocoeuuoctn tpaucopnauouuoro repuoqa Poccuu rporpannM, cssauuMe c
roqrotosrou paotuuros sMcaux rsanuurauu, peanusaueu rporpann ra+ectsa, rpoqyrtusuoctu, rosMaeuu
notusauu tpyqa paotuuros u qp. partu+ecru ua scex ocneqosauuMx rpeqrputux u oprauusaux otcytctsykt
creuanuctM oprauusatopM suytpuupneuuoro oy+euu, rpoaeqaue creuaneuyk roqrotosry.
ponenM c ra+ectson roqrotosru paotuuros uarnquo rposunuce s rpoecce ceptuurauu rpoqyruu u
rpoussoqcts, rposoqunou ua pqe rpeqrputuu s cootsetctsuu c rpuutMnu neqyuapoquMnu uopnanu, +to
snetc osateneuMn rpu sMxoqe usrotosuten ua neqyuapoquMu pMuor. Pao+ue u creuanuctM yrasauuMx
rpeqrputuu orasanuce, s oneauuctse csoen, ue rotosMnu s rpoeccuouaneuon otuoaeuuu r rpoxoqeuuk
osateneuMx (s panrax neqyuapoquMx ctauqaptos) rpoeccuouaneuMx tectos, rar s +actu teopuu, tar u rparturu,
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es qoronuuteneuou u yrnyneuuou reperoqrotosru.
orMtru perynuposate ra+ectso rporoqrotosru paotuuros ua rpoussoqctse s panrax rpoeqyp,
yctauosneuuMx 8arouon Poccuucrou 1eqepauu 0 opasosauuu qn opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu,
ronouteneuoro aerta ue qanu. 1yuruouaneuMe cnyM oprauusauu, otsetctseuuMe sa rpoeccuouaneuoe
passutue repcouana, ro csoun saqa+an u coqepauuk paotM ue snktc opasosateneuMnu y+peqeuunu.
oatony ssaunoqeuctsue c uunu oprauos rocyqapctseuuoro yrpasneuu qonuo ctpoutec ue ro nuuuu
nueusuposauu reqaroru+ecrou qeteneuoctu, a ro nuuuu uopn, orpeqenkaun roue+uyk aertusuocte ux
raqposou u rpoussoqctseuuou paotM.
Auanus qeteneuoctu uauouaneuMx cucten rpoeccuouaneuoro passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos s ctpauax c
passutou pMuo+uou arouonurou, ooaeuue orMta peopnM raqposou paotM ua poccuucrux rpeqrputux,
ctpenneuue oecre+ute cootsetctsue ra+ectseuuoro yposu repcouana tpeosauun, rpeqsnenMn ua
neqyuapoquon pMure tpyqa, sce ato rpno yrasMsaet ua ueoxoqunocte peoprauusauu qeuctsykaeu cuctenM
oy+euu raqpos ua rpoussoqctse, rpespaaeuu ee s cucteny yrpasneuu ra+ectson pao+eu cunM ua rpuuurax
neqyuapoquMx ctauqaptos cepuu |C0-9000 CuctenM yrpasneuu ra+ectson.
Cosqauue cuctenM yrpasneuu ra+ectson pao+eu cunM ua rpeqrputux rossonut peaate cneqykaue saqa+u:
roqqepra uuuosauouuMx rpeopasosauuu pao+ux nect oprauusauu c enek oecre+euu uausMcaero
yposu ra+ectsa, rpoussoquteneuoctu u esoracuoctu tpyqa;
repectpoura cuctenM yrpasneuu raqpanu u roqrotosra repcouana ua rpoussoqctse ua rpuuurax
neqyuapoquMx ctauqaptos cepuu |C0-9000 c enek oecre+ute uauny+aee cornacosauue uutepecos paotuura u
paotoqaten, cosqate ycnosu qn neqyuapoquou rpospa+uoctu oeuor rpoeccuouanusna repcouana;
ysenu+euue sosnouocteu qn rpoeccuouaneuoro pocta paotuuros, pacaupeuue crertpa rpoeccuouaneuMx
uasMros, oner+euue repexoqa paotuuros ot oquoro suqa rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu r qpyrony ua ocuose
ucronesosauu uoseuaux poccuucrux u sapyeuMx rporpann, texuonoruu u cpeqcts oy+euu, rosMaeuue
notusauu r pocty rpoeccuouaneuou rsanuurauu;
cosqauue cuctenM uesasucunou rpoeccuouaneuou ceptuurauu u attectauu paotuuros ua cootsetctsue
oaepoccuucrun rsanuurauouuMn tpeosauun (rpoeccuouaneuMn ctauqaptan).
epsoo+epequMe nepM ro cosqauuk cuctenM yrpasneuu ra+ectson pao+eu cunM rpeqycnatpusakt:
cosqauue uopnatusuo-rpasosou asM cuctenM yrpasneuu ra+ectson pao+eu cunM, ee uay+uo-netoqu+ecroro u
uuopnauouuoro oecre+euu; paspaotry uosoro rnaccuuratopa suqos sautuu u rpoeccuu paotuuros
cootsetctseuuo passutuk ctpyrtypM poccuucroro pMura tpyqa;
cosqauue oaepoccuucrux rsanuurauouuMx tpeosauuu (rpoeccuouaneuMx ctauqaptos) s pasnu+uMx
onactx rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, srnk+akaux s ce rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouuMe tpeosauu,
cosnectunMe c tenu, rotopMe rpeqsnktc r roqouMn paotuuran ua neqyuapoquMx pMurax tpyqa;
reperoqrotosry u rosMaeuue rsanuurauu pyrosoquteneu cny rpeqrputuu u uuctpyrtopcroro
(rperoqasatenecroro) repcouana, ocyaectsnkaero rpoeccuouaneuoe oy+euue raqpos uerocpeqctseuuo ua
rpoussoqctse;
passutue cuctenM roucynetauouuMx ycnyr ro opueutauu oprauusauu scex suqos coctseuuoctu ua
sueqpeuue uauonee aertusuMx opn oprauusauu tpyqa, netoqos yrpasneuu u rpoussoqctsa, ocyaectsneuue
ueoxoqunMx uuuosauouuMx rpeopasosauuu.
8eqyaa pone s oecre+euuu aertusuoro yuruouuposauu cuctenM yrpasneuu ra+ectson pao+eu cunM
otsoqutc rpeqrputun u oprauusaun tex otpacneu arouonuru u cyertos Poccuucrou 1eqepauu, s rotopMx
ocyaectsnetc couaneuoe raptuepctso u rpoucxoqut qeuctsuteneua uuterpau uutepecos canux rpeqrputuu,
oequueuuu paotoqateneu u tpyqauxc, opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu u oprauos rocyqapctseuuoro yrpasneuu
s uarpasneuuu pocta ra+ectsa paotakaero repcouana.

13.3. popeuse uanpasneu rocyqapcseuuo nonk s o6nac pais uenoseueckx pecypcos
npeqnp oprauia

0aa ctpateru paspaotru repsoo+epequMx nep sarnk+aetc s paspaotre u arpoauu tarux nexauusnos
yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun pecypcon s panrax arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu, rotopa oequuuna M uutepecM
u pecypcM scex sauutepecosauuMx s passutuu ra+ectsa pao+eu cunM cyertos paotoqateneu, paotuuros u
oprauos rocyqapctseuuoro yrpasneuu. Pe+e uqet o peanuctu+ecrux rytx uuterpauu cucten yrpasneuu ra+ectson
pao+eu cunM (cosqasaenMx ua poccuucrux rpeqrputux) s uauouaneuyk u neqyuapoquyk cuctenM yrpasneuu
ra+ectson, o rpeqoctasneuuu repcouany rpeqrputuu auporux sosnouocteu qn rosMaeuu rpoeccuouaneuou
rsanuurauu.
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pu aton rpeqycnatpusaetc paspaotra (ua scex yposux yrpasneuu rpeqrputu, peruoua, otpacnu)
cornacosauuo qeuctsykaux nexauusnos:
rporuosuposauu u rnauuposauu ra+ectsa pao+eu cunM;
rpoeccuouaneuoro oy+euu u passutu paotuuros;
oprauusauu routpon u cuctenatu+ecroro roqtsepqeuu yposu ux rpoeccuouaneuou rsanuurauu
uesasucuno ot necta paotM u opn coctseuuoctu rpeqrputu.
la yposue oprauusauu cyertos xosuctseuuou qeteneuoctu ueoxoquno sseqeuue cucten yrpasneuu
ra+ectson pao+eu cunM rar osateneuoro ronroueuta yrpasneuu rpeqrputuen: uapqy c usuec-rnauon,
rnauanu texuonoru+ecrux rpeopasosauuu u uuuosauu qoneu paspaatMsatec rnau rpopassutu repcouana,
rotopMu qosoqutc qo cseqeuu raqoro paotuura u s rotopon orpeqeneuM:
enu u repcrertusM passutu oprauusauu, a tare saqa+u paotuuros ro ux qoctueuuk;
rpuoputetuMe rpoeccuu (qonuoctu) paotuuros ua scex yposux yrpasneuu, oecre+usakaue
rourypeutocrocouocte oprauusauu;
rotpeuoctu s rpoeccuouaneuon passutuu paotuuros ro rpoeccun (qonuoctn), yposun rsanuurauu u
otsetctseuuoctu;
rporpannM oy+euu u oeuru pesynetatos oy+euu, cporu u netoqM oeuru aertusuoctu paotM, ropqor
ux ceptuurauu u qp.;
ucto+uuru u oenM uuaucuposauu rpoeccuouaneuoro oy+euu u rpopassutu paotuuros.
pu ceptuurauu rpeqrputu ro pasnu+uMn suqan rpoqyruu unu ycnyr, rpoussoqunMx atun rpeqrputuen,
rpu attectauu pao+ux nect ro ycnosun tpyqa rnau rpopassutu repcouana (snecte c utoranu ceptuurauu u
attectauu repcouana), uanu+ue cucten suytpurpoussoqctseuuou roqrotosru raqpos qonuM c+utatec
osateneuMnu.
launeuosauu rpoeccuu (qonuocteu) paotuuros u yposuu ux rsanuurauu, yctauosneuuMe rpeqrputunu
u oprauusaunu, uesasucuno ot opn ux coctseuuoctu, noryt rpusuasatec cootsetctsykaunu qeuctsykaeny
0aepoccuucrony rnaccuuratopy rpoeccuu pao+ux, qonuocteu cnyaaux u tapuuMx paspqos (0K 016-94)
tonero rocne attectauu cuctenM suytpurpoussoqctseuuou (suytpuupneuuou) roqrotosru raqpos. pu aton
ropqor yrasauuou attectauu qoneu yctauasnusatec pasutenectson Poccuu.
la yposue cyertos Poccuucrou 1eqepauu s panrax peruouaneuMx rporpann yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu
pecypcanu rpeqronaraetc cosqasate peruouaneuo-otpacnesMe cuctenM yrpasneuu ra+ectson pao+eu cunM. n
oprauusauu atou paotM s ctpyrtype oprauos ucronuuteneuou snactu cyertos Poccuucrou 1eqepauu
enecoopasuo rpeqycnotpete cosqauue cootsetctsykaux roopquuauouuMx oprauos, s yuruu rotopMx sxoqunu
M:
rporuosuposauue ueoxoqunMx oenos u ra+ectsa pao+eu cunM c y+eton repcrertus passutu arouonuru u
rpeqrputuu peruoua; roopquuau ycunuu oprauusauu peruoua ro passutuk repcouana ua rpoussoqctse;
oprauusau attectauu suytpurpoussoqctseuuMx cucten roqrotosru raqpos; cosqauue peruouaneuou cuctenM
ceptuurauu u attectauu repcouana;
oprauusau cetu noqeneuMx rpeqrputuu s otpacnx arouonuru; passutue cuctenM roucynetauouuMx ycnyr
qn oprauusauu ro sorpocan sueqpeuu aertusuMx cucten yrpasneuu, suytpurpoussoqctseuuou roqrotosru
raqpos;
sseqeuue cuctenM ctunynos qn paotuuros u paotoqateneu ro rosMaeuuk rpoeccuouaneuoro nactepctsa,
oecre+euu saautM rpoeccuouanusna (uarpunep oprauusau rourypcos ny+aux rpoussoqctseuuMx cucten
ra+ectsa pao+eu cunM, ny+aux ro rpoeccuu u qp.).
onoeuue o paote yrasauuMx ronuccuu qonuo paspaatMsatec ua ase orMta peruouos u ytsepqatec
pasutenectson Poccuu ro cornacosauuk c aqnuuuctpaueu cyertos Poccuucrou 1eqepauu.
la eqepaneuon yposue pasutenectso Poccuu s panrax oaeu ronuturu passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos:
orpeqenet uopnatusuyk rpasosyk asy cuctenM yrpasneuu ra+ectson pao+eu cunM, rporuosupyet passutue
ra+ectsa pao+eu cunM;
paspaatMsaet oaepoccuucruu rnaccuuratop rpoeccuu, ytsepqaet rsanuurauouuMe tpeosauu r
paotuuran c y+eton ux yuuurauu co ctauqaptanu s ctpauax EC u AT3C;
cosqaet cucteny ceptuurauu repcouana, oecre+usaet ra+ectso yuruouuposauu canou cuctenM
rocpeqctson ceptuurauu u attectauu otqeneuMx ee aneneutos;
oprauusyet usy+euue u pacrpoctpaueuue repeqosoro orMta s yrpasneuuu passutuen repcouana u oecre+euuu
ra+ectsa pao+eu cunM.
epuoq ctaunusauu s arouonure Poccuu qoneu, ro uaaeny nueuuk, ctate repuoqon ra+ectseuuoro
uarorneuu u repectpouru raqposoro roteuuana rpeqrputuu u oprauusauu. laronuun, +to enu artusuou
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couaneuou ronuturu s couaneuo-tpyqosou cepe coctot s ton, +toM oecre+ute ysenu+euue oena 3Al u
rpoqyrtusuyk sautocte qn uero.
Peanusau cuctenM nep ro rosMaeuuk ra+ectsa pao+eu cunM u yrpasneuu repcouanon rpeqrputuu
snetc uauonee peaneuou sosnouoctek aertusuoro peaeuu saqa+ couaneuo-arouonu+ecrou peopnM. 8
ycnosux coxpaueuu qeuuta uusectuuouuMx pecypcos oua noet oecre+ute qo 30% oena pocta
rpoussoqctsa u qo 50% rosMaeuu rpoussoquteneuoctu tpyqa, oquospeneuuo sMctyra rar qeuctseuuoe ycnosue
cnr+euu onesueuuMx rpoeccos repeneuM pao+ero necta (s ton +ucne sMuyqeuuou), qsueuu pao+eu cunM
u sosnouoro usneueuu couaneuo-rpoeccuouaneuoro ctatyca paotuura.
VacataM paotM s onactu passutu repcouana poccuucrux rpeqrputuu u oprauusauu senuru tpeyetc
qoctato+uo orepatusuo roqrotosute, reperoqrotosute, rosMcute rsanuurauk u rposectu pasnu+uMe opnM
aqartauouuoro oy+euu qn 18-20 nnu paotuuros rpeqrputuu u rocyqapctseuuMx y+peqeuuu. n paotuuros
essosspatuo yMto+uMx rpeqrputuu rpeqctout cosqate cucteny sMsoqa ux ua qpyrue rpeqrputu es
rperpaaeuu tpyqosMx otuoaeuuu, c rpeqsaputeneuMn oy+euuen.
n peaeuu atux saqa+ ueoxoquna croopquuuposauua u canaucuposauua ro enn, netoqan, cporan u
uusectuun artusua rocyqapctseuua ronutura, rpeqycnatpusakaa enMu crertp paot s onactu passutu
+enose+ecrux pecypcos, srnk+akauu s ce taroe sauoe uarpasneuue, rar npopaseumue nepco+ana
npednpu+muu u opca+usa(uu. 0cuosua saqa+a rocyqapctsa s aton uarpasneuuu cosqate cootsetctsykauu
couaneuMu nexauusn, paspaotate u ocyaectsute cucteny nep coqeuctsu rpeqrputun s rpopassutuu
repcouana es rperpaaeuu tpyqosMx otuoaeuuu c paotuuron.
lnasuou enek rpeqrputu qonuo ctate pauouaneuoe ucronesosauue rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana
raqoro paotuura, oecre+euue aertusuou ero qeteneuoctu ua ocuose pacrpoctpaueuu suauuu u orMta
rpuneueuu cospeneuuMx texuonoruu, aertusuMx netoqos oprauusauu tpyqa u yrpasneuu rpoussoqctson.
8 ra+ectse nuauaux rpuoputetuMx eneu rpeqrputu qn rpoqsueuu s yrasauuon uarpasneuuu nouo
uassate cneqykaue:
roqqepra uuuosauouuMx rpeopasosauuu qn oecre+euu pocta rpoussoquteneuoctu tpyqa,
rourypeutocrocouoctu tosapos u ycnyr, qoctueuu cospeneuuoro yposu aronoru+ecrou esoracuoctu;
cosqauue sosnouocteu qn rpoeccuouaneuoro pocta, canopeanusauu paotuuros ua ocuose rosMaeuu
notusauu r tpyqy u oy+euuk ucronesosauu uoseuaux rporpann cpeqcts u texuonoruu;
rosMaeuue rpoeccuouanusna u ronreteutuoctu repcouana ua rpeqrputux u s oprauusaux, aertusuoro
ero ucronesosauu s cootsetctsuu c sarpocanu rotpeuteneu;
oprauusau cuctenM rpopassutu repcouana, otse+akaero tpeosauun rpeqrputuu, paotakaux s
pMuo+uMx ycnosux.
n qoctueuu atux eneu rocyqapctseuua ronutura qonua coqepate cootsetctsykaue ronroueutM,
rpeqycnatpusakaue:
cosqauue uopnatusuo-rpasosou asM, uay+uo-netoqu+ecroro u uuopnauouuoro oecre+euu rporpann
rpopassutu repcouana;
oprauusauk roqqepru rpeqrputuu, ocyaectsnkaux repeoy+euue paotuuros es rperpaaeuu c uunu
tpyqosMx otuoaeuuu, roq yqyaee passutue (noqepuusauk, reperpounuposauue);
passutue cepM oprauusauouuoro roucynetuposauu qn oprauusauu u rpeqrputuu scex suqos qeteneuoctu
u opn coctseuuoctu;
orpeqeneuue u sarperneuue ctatyca opasosateneuMx roqpasqeneuuu u ctpyrtyp suytpuupneuuoro oy+euu,
yctauosneuue equuoro ropqra ux nueusuposauu, attectauu u rocyqapctseuuou arrpequtauu;
yrperneuue u repeocuaaeuue y+euo-rpoussoqctseuuou asM opasosateneuMx roqpasqeneuuu rpeqrputuu s
cootsetctsuu c sarpocanu rpoussoqctsa tosapos u ycnyr;
roqrotosry u rosMaeuue rsanuurauu uuctpyrtopcro-rperoqasatenecroro repcouana, ocyaectsnkaero
rpoeccuouaneuoe oy+euue raqpos uerocpeqctseuuo ua rpeqrputux;
sseqeuue cuctenM ctunynos qn paotoqateneu u paotuuros ro rosMaeuuk rpoeccuouaneuoro nactepctsa,
oecre+euu saautM rpoeccuouanusna.
oqsoq rpeqsaputeneuMe utoru acrusuony auanusy rponen u repcrertus artusuou couaneuou ronuturu s
otuoaeuuu arouonu+ecru artusuoro, sautoro u uesautoro uaceneuu, cneqyet roq+epruyte, +to s qauuon cny+ae
nM uneen qeno co sspocnMnu nkqenu, unekaunu sa rne+anu usueuuMu orMt u orMt rpoeccuouaneuou
qeteneuoctu. Paota c yrasauuMn routuureuton otnu+aetc ot rnaccu+ecrux opn opasosauu u rpeqronaraet
ra+ectseuuoe usneueuue xapartepa rpuneuenMx opasosateneuMx texuonoruu. 0coeuuoctu routuureuta
orpeqenkt tare creuury roucynetauouuMx ycnyr u ueoxoqunocte rpuneueuu uosMx opn corposoqeuu
rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM paotuuros. 3ta creuura orpeqenet texuonoruu u anroputnM passeptMsauu paot
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s onactu cosepaeuctsosauu roqrotosru u reperoqrotosru paotakaero repcouana:
paspaotra netoqos u texuuru rporuosa rotpeuoctu peruouos, otpacneu, rpeqrputuu u oprauusauu s
opasosateneuMx ycnyrax qn rpo-passutu paotakaero s uux repcouana;
ortunusau cetu opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu, ocyaectsnkaux roqrotosry u reperoqrotosry paotuuros,
oeura peaneuMx sosnouocteu opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu s ocyaectsneuuu saqa+ oy+euu roq rotpeuoctu
oy+akaeroc;
cosepaeuctsosauue coqepauu u opn oy+euu sspocnMx, passutue texuonoru+ecrou u y+euo-
natepuaneuou asM opasosateneuMx y+peqeuuu c y+eton peaneuMx pao+ux nect: creuuru qonuoctuou
ctpyrtypM rpeqrputuu, ocoeuuocteu pasnu+uMx suqos rpoeccuouaneuou qeteneuoctu, otpacnesou u
peruouaneuou creuuru u qp.
Kar nM otne+anu sMae, s atux enx ronesua ctpyrtypua peoprauusau cuctenM rpoeccuouaneuoro
opasosauu c enek cosqauu creuanusuposauuoro u repcouuuuposauuoro pMura rurux opasosateneuMx
ycnyr, peopna cepM rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu ua uernaccu+ecrou ocuose c y+eton uuqusuqyaneuo-
rcuxonoru+ecrux ocoeuuocteu sspocnMx (c (enes nocned,s(eco cosda+u+ cne(uane+ex opasoeamene+ex u
|ovv,+u|amue+ex mex+onocuu) qn toro, +toM oecre+ute:
rosMaeuue ra+ectsa ucronesosauu rpoeccuouaneuoro, uutennertyaneuoro u tsop+ecroro roteuuana
oaectsa;
coqeuctsue couanusauu u rpoeccuouaneuony ctauosneuuk rpaqau;
oxpauy tpyqa u sqopose rpaqau, rcuxonoru+ecryk u rpoeccuouaneuyk peaunutauk paotuuros, s ton
+ucne nu c orpauu+euuou tpyqocrocouoctek;
coqeuctsue rpaqauan s rpoeccuouaneuon pocte, roucynetauouuoe u rcuxonoru+ecroe corposoqeuue
rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM;
orasauue ronoau nonoqeu, espaotuMn rpaqauan, uusanuqan, qpyrun couaneuo ue saauaeuuMn
rateropun uaceneuu s sMope pao+ero necta u/unu repeneue rpoeccuu c y+eton repcrertus arouonu+ecroro
passutu peruoua u ero rpeqrputuu.
8 roue+uon c+ete pe+e uqet o cosqauuu u rpuneueuuu tarux rpuuuruaneuo uosMx qn Poccuu opasosateneuMx
u ronnyuuratusuMx texuonoruu, rotopMe rpeqronarakt pasuorpasuMu couaneuMu routart neqy qsyn (u onee)
cyertanu, rotopMe qonuM oecre+ute rpuutue cornacosauuMx opn roseqeuu s pesynetate qenosou eceqM,
reperosopM u ua ocuosauuu qorosopeuuoctu ctopou.

|nasa 14. epcnekss aksuo coansuo nonk Pocc s o6nac pais uenoseueckx
pecypcos ua py6ee XXI seka

14.1. Aksua coansua nonka (A6): npakuecke npo6neus ynpasneu uenoseuecku pecypcau

oqsoq oaue utoru usnoeuuony, roq+epruen, +to sorpocM rpoeccuouaneuoro ctauosneuu u passutu
rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, opnuposauu rpoeccuouaneuoro roteuuana rpeqrputuu u oprauusauu s
cospeneuuou nuposou uayre u rparture otuoctc r uosou ronrnercuou cepe couaneuou ronuturu ynpaenenu
venoeeveckuvu pecypcavu. 0cuosua rpartu+ecra saqa+a yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu coctout, rar
Mno crasauo sMae, s aertusuon coxpaueuuu u socrpoussoqctse, uarpasneuuon opnuposauuu u pauouaneuon
ucronesosauuu rpoeccuouaneuo roqrotosneuuoro, otse+akaero rotpeuoctn uauouaneuou arouonuru,
repcouana rpeqrputuu u oprauusauu.
Cnousaac s Poccuu ua ua+aneuon atare peopn rocyqapctseuua couaneua ronutura s cepe
+enose+ecroro (rpoeccuouaneuoro) pecypca orasanace ueaertusuou: cyaectseuuo ocnaneua
rpoeccuouaneua arona, rpartu+ecru esqeuctsyet cuctena passutu repcouana rpeqrputuu, paspyaeuM
rpeuue cssu neqy rpoeccuouaneuMn opasosauuen u rpoeccuouaneuMn tpyqon.
0oaa pesynetatM auanusa u nuoro+ucneuuMx ocneqosauuu, nouo orpeqenute ocuosuMe rpu+uuM, ro
rotopMn ueoxoquna paquraneua peopna roqxoqos u netoqos paotM c +enose+ecrun roteuuanon poccuucroro
oaectsa.
8 Poccuu otcytctsyet cuctena corposoqeuu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, cootsetctsykaa ycnosun
pMuo+uMx peopn, ue cnounuce couaneuMe uuctutytM, oecre+usakaue pauouaneuoe ucronesosauue
+enose+ecroro pecypca s cootsetctsuu c tpeosauunu peopnupyenou arouonuru.
partu+ecru stpoe yneueaunace ro oeny u ue cootsetctsyet rotpeuoctn arouonu+ecrux peopn cuctena
rosMaeuu rsanuurauu paotuuros ua pao+ux nectax. Poccuucroe rpoussoqctso u poccuucrue paotuuru ro-
rpeueny opueutuposauM ua ronu+ectso u ra+ectso rpoqyrta, a ue ua peaneuMe uyqM u sosnouoctu rotpeuten.
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Peopna rpoeccuouaneuou aronM rpoqonaetc es y+eta peaneuMx rotpeuocteu u ctpyrtypM poccuucroro
pMura tpyqa, s +actuoctu es y+eta neukaeroc s xoqe couaneuou u arouonu+ecrou peopnM pMura rpoeccuu.
8 ra+ectse rpuennenMx nexauusnos onee aertusuou cssu cep rpoeccuouaneuoro opasosauu u
rpoeccuouaneuoro tpyqa s passutMx ctpauax paspaatMsaktc creuaneuMe cpeqctsa reqaroru+ecrou u
rcuxonoru+ecrou ronreucauu paccornacosauuu neqy sosnouoctnu rpoeccuouaneuou aronM (texuonorueu u
texuurou oprauusauu y+euoro rpoecca u rourpetuMx y+euMx nect) u tpeosauunu passusakaeroc
rpoussoqctsa (texuonorunu, texuurou, oprauusaueu tpyqosoro rpoecca u rourpetuMx pao+ux nect).
C ronoaek atux cpeqcts s panrax yronuytMx sMae couaneuMx uuctutytos unu uauouaneuMx cucten
cosqaktc arcrepuneutaneuMe oaeuauouaneuMe u peruouaneuMe rporpannM (rpoertM) yrpasneuu
+enose+ecrunu pecypcanu. partu+ecra paota uassauuMx sMae cucten u peanusau arcrepuneutaneuMx
rporpann oecre+usakt uarorneuue uauouaneuoro orMta s socrpoussoqctse u pauouaneuon ucronesosauuu
+enose+ecroro pecypca.
Kputepunu aertusuoctu atux cucten snktc:
oeura ycreauoctu opnuposauu raqposoro roteuuana uauouaneuou arouonuru;
oeura ra+ectsa (rpoeccuouaneuou ronreteutuoctu) repcouana u otqeneuoro paotuura.
Kar rorasMsaet orMt passutMx ctpau, s ycnosux ectrou rourypeuuu ua nuposon pMure rpoussoqctso
rourypeutocrocouou rpoqyruu rpeqycnatpusaet cepmuu|a(us npouseede++ou npod,|(uu s uopnax
neqyuapoquMx ctauqaptos. 0quospeneuuo ato rpeqronaraet cepmuu|a(us nepco+ana npednpu+mu+,
sMrycrakaero qauuyk rpoqyruk, tare s panrax neqyuapoquMx ctauqaptos. 6es cootsetctsykaeu
ceptuurauu repcouana rpoqyru rpocto ue sMrycraetc ua ouuaneuMu nuposou pMuor tosapos u ycnyr, u c
atun ye ctonruynuce poccuucrue rpoussoqutenu.
outuo, +to, qn toro +toM aertusuo sapaotan ronuMu urn yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu,
ueoxoquno cosqate ueqoctakaue sseue opatuou cssu (oeuru pesynetatos yrpasneuu +enose+ecrun
pecypcon), t.e. cosqate cpedcmea u vexa+usv o(e+|u peane+oco |avecmea omdene+oco npoeccuo+ane+oco
paom+u|a u nepco+ana npednpu+mu+ (opca+usa(uu). n atoro ueoxoquno paspaotate cornacosauuMe neqy
coou:
rnaccuuratopM creuaneuocteu (co creuanusaunu) u y+euMx nect;
rnaccuuratopM rpoeccuu (c qonuoctnu) u pao+ux nect.
pu paspaotre atux rnaccuuratopos ueoxoquno y+ecte ue tonero unekauuc nuposou orMt, uo u
ocoeuuoctu crnaqMsakauxc s Poccuu pMura tpyqa, pMura opasosateneuMx ycnyr u pMura pao+eu cunM.
Cneqosateneuo, paspaotra nkMx rporpann u rpoertos s onactu yrpasneuu +enose+ecrunu pecypcanu
rpeqronaraet, +to yqyt rposeqeuM:
auanus peruouaneuou cutyauu s couaneuo-tpyqosou cepe ro suqan qeteneuoctu, opnan sautoctu,
otpacnn arouonuru u s enon;
uay+uMe uccneqosauu ctpyrtypM poccuucroro pMura rpoeccuu u pMura opasosateneuMx ycnyr, s ton +ucne
usy+euue sapyeuoro orMta u ero ooaeuue qn rocneqykaero repeuoca ua poccuucrue ycnosu.
lyuo otnetute, +to auanoru+uMe tpyquoctu sosuurnu s esporeucrux ctpauax, rorqa rocne roqrucauu
Vaactpuxtcroro u Leureucroro cornaaeuuu pacrpMnuce rpauuM uauouaneuMx pMuros tpyqa u rpoeccuouaneua
nurpau neqy ctpauanu EC ctonruynace c rponenanu cornacosauu uauouaneuMx opasosateneuMx
ctauqaptos u uauouaneuMx rnaccuuratopos rpoeccuu. EsporeuM ueneqneuuo ua+anu uay+uMe uccnedoea+u+ u
npucm,nunu | paspaom|e +oeex ve+a(uo+ane+ex vexa+usvoe cocnacoea+u+ pasnuvuu +a(uo+ane+ex
opasoeamene+ex cucmev u cma+dapmoe u +a(uo+ane+ex |naccuu|amopoe npoeccuu c enek sMxoqa ua
oequueuuyk cucteny ceptuurauu u oeuru ra+ectsa rpoeccuouaneuMx paotuuros.
Pauee nM ye rosopunu, +to usy+euue ronoeuu qen s onactu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu, unekaeu enek
coxpaueuue u passutue rpoeccuouaneuoro (raqposoro) roteuuana poccuucrou arouonuru, oeuru ra+ectsa
+enose+ecrux pecypcos, sMsuno pq cepeesuMx rponen:
ra+ectseuuMu yposeue paotuuros poccuucrux rpeqrputuu cyaectseuuo yctyraet yposuk paotuuros
rpeqrputuu passutMx ctpau 8araqa u rpoqonaet cuuatec;
raqposa u oprauusauouua ronutura oneauuctsa rpeqrputuu ue cootsetctsyet tpeosauun pMuo+uou
arouonuru u uapqy c atun ue yqosnetsopktc uutepecM paotoqateneu rar rotpeuteneu rsanuuuposauuou
pao+eu cunM;
rpoeccuouaneuo-rsanuurauouua ctpyrtypa poccuucroro pMura pao+eu cunM qo cux rop nano
socrpuun+usa r usneueuun, u paotuuru orasanuce rpartu+ecru uesaauaeuuMnu s ycnosux pacaupkaeuc
rpoeccuouaneuou nurpauu;
yrnynetc notusauouuMu rpusuc, sMssauuMu pocton ueyqosnetsopeuuoctu paotuuros rpeqrputuu csoun
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tpyqon, raqaet sua+unocte tpyqa rar couaneuo ronesuoro suqa +enose+ecrou qeteneuoctu.
Peaeuue atux rponen, coxpaueuue u aertusua peanusau uutennertyaneuoro u rpoeccuouaneuoro
roteuuana poccuucrou arouonuru tpeyet ocosuauuoro repexoqa r uosou a|mue+ou coc,dapcmee++ou nonumu|e e
onacmu ,npaene+u+ venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu qn toro, +toM:
oecre+ute rourypeutocrocouocte poccuucrou pao+eu cunM ua uauouaneuon u neqyuapoquon pMure tpyqa
+epes paseumue cucmeve e+,mpuupve++oco o,ve+u+;
peanusosate rocyqapctseuuyk cucteny saautM rpoeccuouanusna rsanuuuposauuMx paotuuros u
uutepecos paotoqateneu rar rotpeuteneu pao+eu cunM vepes paspaom|, coc,dapcmee++ex npoeccuo+ane+ex
cma+dapmoe u cosda+ue vexa+usva cepmuu|a(uu paom+u|oe;
oecre+ute rocyqapctseuuoe perynuposauue pMura pao+eu cunM u pMura opasosateneuMx ycnyr +epes
paspaom|,, peanusa(us u |oopdu+a(us +a(uo+ane+ex, pecuo+ane+ex u ompacneeex npocpavv paseumu+
venoeevec|ux pec,pcoe;
coqeuctsosate rpoeccuouaneuony canoorpeqeneuuk paotuuros, oecre+ute aertusuoe corposoqeuue
ux rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM ryten cosda+u+ u paseumu+ +a(uo+ane+ou cucmeve npoopue+ma(uu u
ncuxonocuvec|ou noddep|u +acene+u+.
8 cootsetctsuu c oaeu rouerueu ocuosuMnu saqa+anu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu snktc:
paspaotra u peanusau nep ro passutuk +enose+ecrux pecypcos Poccuu rar ronrnercuoro uarpasneuu
artusuou couaneuou ronuturu rocyqapctsa;
coqeuctsue opnuposauuk pMura rurux repcouuuuposauuMx opasosateneuMx ycnyr qn aertusuoro
passutu raqposoro roteuuana poccuucrou arouonuru;
ycuneuue tpyqosou notusauu u ra+ectsa +enose+ecrux pecypcos ryten sosqeuctsu ua oen u ctpyrtypy
arouonu+ecru artusuoro uaceneuu ctpauM (3Al);
pauouaneuoe ucronesosauue +enose+ecroro pecypca poccuucrou arouonuru s cootsetctsuu c ocoeuuoctnu
peruouaneuMx pMuros tpyqa u opasosateneuMx ycnyr, passutue uauouaneuou cuctenM rpoeccuouaneuou
opueutauu u rcuxonoru+ecrou roqqepru uaceneuu;
oprauusau rpoeccuouaneuoro oy+euu u reperoqrotosru sspocnoro sautoro, espaotuoro u uesautoro
uaceneuu c rocneqykaun ero tpyqoyctpouctson s suqe rsanuuuposauuoro u rpoqyrtusuo sautoro repcouana
poccuucrux rpeqrputuu.
epsoo+epequMe saqa+u sqece roqrotosra, rpuutue u sseqeuue s qeuctsue sarouoqateneuMx u uopnatusuMx
rpasosMx artos, paspaotra u peanusau uopnatusuo-netoqu+ecrux, uuopnauouuo-auanutu+ecrux natepuanos u
qoryneutos, oecre+usakaux yrasauuyk a|mue+,s co(uane+,s nonumu|, coc,dapcmea e cepe ,npaene+u+
venoeevec|uvu pec,pcavu. pu aton ueoxoqunM rar opnuposauue rpuoputetos, eneu u paspaotra cuctenM
qeuctsuu, tar u rouctpyuposauue nexauusnos ux qoctueuu, orpeqeneuue ucto+uuros u oenos uuaucuposauu
ocuosuMx neporputuu ro peanusauu yrasauuou ronuturu.
8 Poccuu oerton uerocpeqctseuuoro snuuu artusuou couaneuou ronuturu snktc cneqykaue rateropuu
uaceneuu:
een,c|+u|u o(eopasoeamene+ou u npoeccuo+ane+ou a|on +epes cucteny rpoeccuouaneuou
uuopnauu u opueutauu c enek peanusauu ux rpoeccuouaneuMx uanepeuuu u rnauos. 0en atoro
routuureuta coctasnet onee 4 unu uenosek eeroquo;
espaom+oe u +esa++moe +acene+ue, e mov vucne eoe++ocn,a(ue, ,eone++ee us 3oop,e++ex cun, u +neuM
ux ceneu +epes oecre+euue rpoeccuouaneuou roucynetauu, reperoqrotosry u oy+euue c enek rocneqykaero
aertusuoro tpyqoyctpouctsa. EeroquMu oen atoro routuureuta orono 3 unu uenosek;
paom+u|u npednpu+muu u ,vpede+uu ecex opv cocmee++ocmu, e|nsva+ e +ux eeceoodaevex
paom+u|oe +epes cosqauue ycnosuu aertusuou peanusauu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM, s ton +ucne c
ronoaek orepeakaero repeoy+euu u oy+euu ua rpoussoqctse. EeroquMu oen atoro routuureuta orono
14 unu uenosek.
locyqapctseuuoe yrpasneuue atunu rpoeccanu orpeqenetc ueoxoqunoctek paspaotru equuou roueruu,
cornacosauuou sarouoqateneuou u uopnatusuou asM passutu +enose+ecrux pecypcos s oaen routercte tpyqosMx
otuoaeuuu ua pasnu+uMx atarax usueuuoro rytu c y+eton ocoeuuocteu sxoqeuu s tpyq, saautM
rpoeccuouanusna u aertusuou peanusauu rpoeccuouaneuou rapeepM raqoro paotuura. 8 ycnosux
passutu s Poccuu pMuo+uou arouonuru, opnuposauu ote+ectseuuoro pMura pao+eu cunM rotpeosanoce
cosqauue uosMx nexauusnos rocyqapctseuuoro perynuposauu couaneuo-tpyqosou cepM s yrasauuon routercte,
creuanusuposauuMx qn raqoro us yrasauuMx sMae routuureutos.

163
14.2. 0cuosuse uanpasneu iaqau aksuo coansuo nonk

o6nac nossmeu kauecsa pa6oue cns npeqnp oprauia qeteneuocte oprauos
ucronuuteneuou snactu qonua Mte uarpasneua ua oprauusauk paotM ro peopnuposauuk cucmeve
|naccuu|a(uu eudoe sa++muu u npoeccuu paom+u|oe, sueqpeuuk cuctenM npoeccuo+ane+ex cma+dapmoe,
cosnectunMx c neqyuapoquMnu tpeosauunu.
8aqa+a cosqauu uosou poccuucrou cucmeve |naccuu|a(uu npoeccuu ocoeuuo artyaneua s cssu c
rpoucxoqaeu peopnou couaneuo-tpyqosou cepM.
Cyaectsykaa Equua cuctena rnaccuurauu u roquposauu uuopnauu Poccuucrou 1eqepauu u, s
+actuoctu, 0aepoccuucruu rnaccuuratop rpoeccuu pao+ux, rnaccuuratop qonuocteu cnyaaux
copnuposauM rar aneneutM qupertusuoro yrpasneuu pao+eu cunou s ycnosux rnauosou arouonuru. 3tu
qoryneutM ue otpaakt sosuuraux s rocnequee spen uosMx opn u netoqos oprauusauu rpoussoqctsa u tpyqa,
uosMx texuonoruu, ue y+utMsakt tpaucopnauouuMx rpoeccos ua pMure pao+eu cunM. laspena ueoxoqunocte
ux rpyruonacatauou peopnM.
8a rocnequue roqM pq rocyqapctseuuMx opasosateneuMx, uay+uo-uccneqosatenecrux oprauusauu rposen
uccneqosauu ro usy+euuk u auanusy orMta rnaccuurauu rpoeccuu s ctpauax c passutou arouonurou. o
pesynetatan paotM paspaotau npoe|m +oeoco |naccuu|amopa npoeccuu c y+eton neqyuapoquoro orMta
perynuposauu pMura tpyqa. losMu rnaccuuratop rpoeccuu paotuuros qoneu ctate oquun us rnk+esMx
aneneutos perynuposauu pMura pao+eu cunM, rossonkaux cuctenatusuposate suqM tpyqosou qeteneuoctu u
orepatusuo pearuposate ua ux usneueuu, ocyaectsnte rporuosuMe oeuru pMura tpyqa, coqeuctsosate
rpoeccuouaneuou nouneuoctu paotuuros, rnauuposate oprauusauk rpoeccuouaneuoro oy+euu u
reperoqrotosru raqpos, passutue tpyqosou rapeepM, rpuneueuue uuopnauouuMx texuonoruu.
8 uactoaee spen s Poccuu otcytctsykt npoeccuo+ane+ee cma+dapme, rotopMe rpussauM oecre+ute
aertusuocte cuctenM yrpasneuu repcouanon, pasuo rar u sMcoroe ra+ectso tpyqa paotuuros pasnu+uMx
oprauusauu, uesasucuno ot opnM coctseuuoctu. n opnuposauu rpoeccuouaneuMx ctauqaptos qn
pasnu+uMx otpacneu arouonuru ueoxoquno paspaotate roueruk u nexauusn ux peanusauu, ropqor sseqeuu
qoronueuuu u usneueuuu; paspaotate netoqury u netoqonoruk ux opnuposauu. K coaneuuk, rora auanoros
netoqu+ecrux peroneuqauu ro paspaotre rpoeccuouaneuMx ctauqaptos uet. poeccuouaneuMe ctauqaptM
qonuM otpaate nuuunaneuo ueoxoqunMe tpeosauu